Madan Mohan Malaviya: Wikis


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Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya

Portrait of Madan Mohan Malaviya unveiled by Dr. Rajendra Prasad on December 19, 1957.

In office
1909-10; 1918-19; 1932-33
Incumbent Sonia Gandhi

Born December 25, 1861(1861-12-25)
Allahabad, India
Died November 12, 1946 (aged 84)
Political party Indian National Congress
Alma mater Allahabad University
Calcutta University

Madan Mohan Malaviya (1861–1946) was an Indian politician, educationist, freedom fighter notable for his role in the Indian freedom struggle and his espousal of Hindu nationalism. Later in life, we was also addressed as 'Mahamana' [1].

He remained the President of the Indian National Congress on three occasions and today is most remembered as the founder of largest residential university in Asia, with over 12,000 students living on its campus, Banaras Hindu University (BHU) at Varanasi in 1916, of which he also remained the Vice Chancellor, 1919–1938 [2][3] He was one of the founders of Scouting in India[4].


Early life and education

Malaviya was born at Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh on December 25, 1861, to an orthodox Hindu family of Brijnath and Moona Devi. The fifth child in a family of five brothers and two sisters. His ancestors, known for their Sanskrit scholarship, originally hailed from Malwa, hence came to be known as 'Malaviyas'. His father Pandit Brijnath was also a learned man in Sanskrit scriptures, and used to recite the Bhagvat Katha to earn a living [5][6].

Madan Mohan's education began at the age of five in Sanskrit, when he was sent to Pandit Hardeva's Dharma Gyanopadesh Pathshala, where he completed his primary education and later another school run by Vidha Vardini Sabha. Mohan soon joined a Hindi medium, Allahabad Zila School (Allahabad District School), now a diligent boy, started writing writing poems under the pen name Makarand which were published in journals and magazines, eventually he matriculated in 1879 from and joined the Muir Central College, now known as Allahabad University. With his family facing tough financial condition, Harrison college's Principal started giving a monthly scholarship, and finally he passed his B.A. from the Calcutta University in 1884, as Allahabad University was formed only in 1887 [6].


Though he wanted to pursue an M.A. in Sanskrit his family conditions didn't allowed it and his father wanted him to take his family profession of Bhagavat recital, thus in July 1884 Madan Mohan Malaviya started his career as teacher in Allahabad District School. In December 1886, he attended the IInd Congress session in Calcutta under chairmanship of Dadabhai Naoroji, where he spoke on the issue of representation in Councils. His address not only impress Dadabhai but also Raja Rampal Singh, ruler of Kalakankar estate near Allahabad, who has started a Hindi weekly Hindustan but was looking for a suitable editor to turn it into a daily. Thus in July 1887, he left his school job and joined as the editor of the nationalist weekly, he remained her for two and a half years, and left for Allahabad to joined L.L.B., it was here that it was offered co-editorship of The Indian Union, an English daily. After finishing his law degree, he started practicing law at Allahabad District Court in 1891, and moved to Allahabad High Court by December 1893[7][6]

Malaviya became the president of the Indian National Congress in 1909 and in 1918. Like many of the contemporary leaders of Indian National Congress he was a Moderate.

Though, Scouting in India was officially founded in British India in 1909, at the Bishop Cotton's Boys School in Bangalore, Scouting for native Indians was started by Justice Vivian Bose, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Pandit Hridayanath Kunzru, Girija Shankar Bajpai, Annie Besant and George Arundale, in 1913, he also started a Scouting inspired organisation called Seva Samithi [8].

In April 1911, Annie Besant met him and they decided to unite their forces and work for a common Hindu University at Varanasi. Annie and fellow trustees of the Central Hindu College, which she has founded in 1898 also agreed to Government of India's precondition that the college should become a part of the new University. Thus Banaras Hindu University (BHU) was established in 1916, through under the Parliamentary legislation, 'B.H.U. Act 1915', today it remains a prominent institution of learning in India [2][9].

He remained a member of the Imperial Legislative Council from 1912 and when in 1919 it was converted to the Central Legislative Assembly it remained its member as well, till 1926 [10].

In early 1920s, he became one of the important figures in the Non-cooperation movement of Mahatma Gandhi [11], and was subsequently arrested on April 25, 1932, along with 450 other Congress volunteers in Delhi, only a few days after he was appointed the President of Congress after the arrest of Sarojini Naidu[12]. Then in 1928 he joined Lala Lajpat Rai, Jawaharlal Nehru and many others in protesting against the Simon Commission, which had been set up by the British to consider India's future. Just as the "Buy British" campaign was sweeping England, he issued, on May 30, 1932, a manifesto urging concentration on the "Buy Indian" movement in India [13].

He also represented India at the First Round Table Conference in 1931. In 1939, he left the Vice chancellorship of BHU and was succeeded by none other than S. Radhakrishnan, who went on to become the President of India [14].

Malaviya popularised the famous slogan "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone will triumph).[15] He was a great educationist and a follower of The Bhagavad Gita - A great Karmayogi.

Social Work

He worked for the eradication of caste barrier in temples and other social barriers. He is believed to have undergone a Kayakalpa. Also, he organized a mass of 200 Dalit peoples, including the Hindu Dalit (Harijan) leader P. N. Rajbhoj to demand entry at the Kalaram Temple on a Rath Yatra day. All those who participated in this event took a dip in the Godavari River and chanted Hindu mantras.[16] Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya made massive efforts for the entry into any Hindu temple.[16]

Personal life

As was the tradition in those days, he was married in 1878, when he was about sixteen years of age to Kundan Devi of Mirzapur. The couple had five sons and five daughters, out of which four sons, Ramakant, Radhakant, Mukund, Govind and two daughters Rama and Malati survived [6]


Statue of Madan Mohan Malaviya at the entrance of Banaras Hindu University

Malviya Nagar in Allahabad, Lucknow, Delhi, Bhopal and Jaipur are named after him. A postage stamp has been printed in India in his honour.[17] Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) at Jaipur is named after him, as is Madan Mohan Malaviya Engineering College in Gorakhpur, UP. He started the tradition of Arati at Har ki Pauri Haridwar to sacred Ganga river which is performed till date, the Malviya Dwipa, a small island across the ghat, named after him. This was inline with the Ganesha Festival started by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in maharashtra to organize the masses.

In front of the main Gate leading to the Assembly Hall and outside the porch, there exists a bust of Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya, which was inaugurated by the former Lt. Governor of Delhi, Dr. A.N. Jha on 25 December, 1971 [10]. Today, the great grand-daughter of Pt Madan Mohan Malviya, Sushila Rohtagi aged 88, lives in Kanpur in a house that hosted Mahatma Gandhi on several occasions [18]. On 25 December 2008, on his birth anniversary, the national memorial of Mahamana Madan Mohan Malaviya was inaugurated by former president A P J Abdul Kalam at 53, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Marg, in Delhi [19].


  • A criticism of Montagu-Chelmsford proposals of Indian constitutional reform. Printed by C. Y. Chintamani, 1918.
  • Speeches and writings of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. Publisher G.A. Natesan, 1919.


  • Malaviyaji, a brief life sketch of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, by B. J. Akkad. Pub. Vora, 1948.
  • Malaviyana: a bibliography of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya by Sayaji Rao Gaekwad Library. Ed. Prithvi Nath Kaula. 1962.
  • Role of Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya in our national life, by Chandra Prakash Jha. Modern Publications, 1977.
  • Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya: a socio-political study, by Sundar Lal Gupta. Pub. Chugh Publications, 1978.
  • Mahāmanā Madan Mohan Malaviya: An Historical Biography, by Parmanand. Malaviya Adhyayan Sansthan, Banaras Hindu University, 1985.
  • Struggle for Independence: Madan Mohan Malaviya by Shri Ram Bakshi. Anmol Publications, 1989. ISBN 8170411424.
  • Madan Mohan Malaviya: the man and his ideology, by S. R. Bakshi. Anmol Publications, 1991. ISBN 8170414296.
  • Madan Mohan Malaviya, by Sitaram Chaturvedi. Publ. Division, Ministry of I & B, Govt. of India, 1996. ISBN 8123004869.
  • Visionary of Modern India- Madan Mohan Malaviya, by S K Maini, K Chandramouli and Vishwanath Pandey. Mahamana MalaviyaJi Trust. 2009.


  1. ^ "Mahamana's life as exemplary as Mahatma's: BHU V-C". The Times of India. 27 December 2009.  
  2. ^ a b "History of BHU". Banaras Hindu University website.  
  3. ^ "University at Buffalo, BHU sign exchange programme". Rediff News. October 04, 2007.  
  4. ^ Our Leaders (Volume 9 of Remembering Our Leaders). Children's Book Trust. 1989. p. 61. ISBN 8170118425.  
  5. ^ Rao, P. Rajeswar (1991). The Great Indian patriots, Volume 1. Mittal Publications. p. 10–13. ISBN 817099280X.  
  6. ^ a b c d Our Leaders (Volume 9 of Remembering Our Leaders): Madan Mohan Malaviya. Children's Book Trust. 1989. p. 53–73. ISBN 8170118425.  
  7. ^ A brief summary of Indian Warriors
  8. ^ "Honouring the oath: The beginning". The Hindu. Aug 17, 2007.  
  9. ^ "BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY" (PDF). Indian Academy of Sciences. 2005-07-26. Retrieved 2007-04-19.  
  10. ^ a b "Old Secetariat:Important Members of Imperial Legislative Council". Legislative Assembly of Delhi website.  
  11. ^ "Gandhi is Urged to Delay Break". New York Times. February 11, 1922.  
  12. ^ "450 Seized at Delhi for Defiance of Ban on Indian Congress". New York Times. April 25, 1932.  
  13. ^ ""Buy Indian" Move Gains". The New York Times. May 30, 1932.  
  14. ^ Murty, K. Satchidananda; Ashok Vohra (1990). Radhakrishnan: his life and ideas. SUNY Press. p. 90. ISBN 0791403432.  
  15. ^ "India's Freedom Struggle: Madan Mohan Malaviya" (PDF). Kamat's Potpourri. 2007-12-22. Retrieved 2008-03-09.  
  16. ^ a b Political Mobilization and Identity in Western India, 1934-47 By Shri Krishan
  17. ^ Indian stamp bearing Madan Mohan Malaviya's picture
  18. ^ "Bapu lives on with Rohatgi family". The Times of India. 3 October 2009.  
  19. ^ "Former President Kalam inaugurates BHU founder’s memorial". The Indian Express. Dec 26, 2008.  

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