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Coordinates: 22°01′51″N 74°53′53″E / 22.03085°N 74.89805°E / 22.03085; 74.89805

Madhya Pradesh
Location of Madhya Pradesh
Coordinates 23°10′N 77°13′E / 23.17°N 77.21°E / 23.17; 77.21
Country  India
District(s) 50
Established 1956-11-01
Capital Bhopal
Largest city Indore
Governor Rameshwar Thakur
Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan
Chief Secretary Shri Avani Vaishya..
Legislature (seats) Unicameral (230)
Population
Density
60385118 (7th)
196 /km2 (508 /sq mi)
Official languages Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area 308252 km2 (119017 sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 IN-MP
Website www.mp.gov.in
Seal of Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh (Hindī: मध्य प्रदेश, pronounced [ˈmədʱjə prəˈdeːʃ]  ( listen) "Middle Province"; abbreviated MP), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal.

Madhya Pradesh was the largest state in India until November 1, 2000, when the state of Chhattisgarh was carved out. It borders the states Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan. The state has an area of 308,252 km2 (119,017 sq mi). The largest city and the commercial capital of the state is Indore.

Contents

History

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Ancient

The Sanchi stupa in Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh built by Emperor Ashoka the Great in the third century BC.

Legend has it that Lord Rama bequeathed the fort to his brother Laxmana, hence the name Bandhavgarh (Bandhavgarh National Park) which means "brother's fort". The Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh exhibit the earliest traces of human life in India; its Stone Age rock paintings are approximately 9,000 years old.

The city of Ujjain (also known as Avanti) arose as a major center in the second wave of Indian urbanization in the sixth century BC, and served as the chief city of the kingdom of Malwa or Avanti. Further east, the kingdom of Chedi lie in Bundelkhand. Chandragupta Maurya united northern India c. 320 BCE, establishing the Maurya empire (321 to 185 BCE), which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. King Ashoka's wife was said to come from Vidisha- a town north of today's Bhopal. The Maurya empire went into decline after the death of Asoka the Great, and Central India was contested among the Sakas, Kushanas, and local dynasties during the 3rd to 1st centuries BCE. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial center of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports. It was also an important Hindu and Buddhist center.

The Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. Northern India was conquered by the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, which became known as India's "classical age". The Vakataka dynasty were the southern neighbors of the Guptas, ruling the northern Deccan plateau from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal. These empires collapsed towards the end of the 5th century.

Medieval

Khajuraho the cultural capital of Chandela Rajputs.

The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, and India broke up into smaller states. A king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528, ending their expansion. King Harsha of Thanesar reunited northern India for a few decades before his death in 647. The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand. The Paramara king Bhoj (c. 1010-1060) was a brilliant polymath and prolific writer. The Chandelas created the temple city of Khajuraho between c. 950 and c. 1050. Gond kingdoms emerged in Gondwana and Mahakoshal. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Muslim Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms reemerged, including the Tomara Rajput kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim Sultanate of Malwa, with its capital at Mandu. The Malwa Sultanate was conquered by the Sultanate of Gujarat in 1531.

Modern

Most of Madhya Pradesh came under Mughal rule during the reign of the emperor Akbar (1556–1605). Gondwana and Mahakoshal remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in 1707 Mughal control began to weaken, and the Marathas began to expand from their base in central Maharashtra. Between 1720 and 1760 the Marathas took control of most of Madhya Pradesh, and Maratha clans were established semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of the Maratha Peshwa. The Holkars of Indore ruled much of Malwa, and the Bhonsles of Nagpur dominated Mahakoshal and Gondwana as well as Vidarbha in Maharashtra. Jhansi was founded by a Maratha general. Bhopal was ruled by a Muslim dynasty descended from Dost Mohammed Khan, an Afghan General in the Mughal army. Maratha expansion was checked at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761.

The British were expanding their Indian dominions from bases in Bengal, Bombay, and Madras, and the three Anglo-Maratha Wars were fought between 1775 and 1818. The Third Anglo-Maratha War left the British supreme in India. Most of Madhya Pradesh, including the large states of Indore, Bhopal, Nagpur, Rewa, and dozens of smaller states, became princely states of British India, and the Mahakoshal region became a British province, the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. In 1853 the British annexed the state of Nagpur, which included southeastern Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra and most of Chhattisgarh, which were combined with the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories to form the Central Provinces in 1861. The princely states of northern Madhya Pradesh were governed by the Central India Agency.

After Indian independence

Madhya Pradesh was created in 1950 from the former British Central Provinces and Berar and the princely states of Makrai and Chhattisgarh, with Nagpur as the capital of the state. The new states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were formed out of the Central India Agency. In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha, which included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state. Bhopal became the new capital of the state. Madhya Pradesh, in its present form, came into existence on 1 November 2000, following its bifurcation to create a new state of Chhattisgarh. The undivided Madhya Pradesh was founded on 1 November 1956. Madhya Pradesh, because of its central location in India, has remained a crucible of historical currents from North, South, East and West.

Government and politics

The Vidhan Sabha is the seat of Madhya Pradesh's Legislative assembly


The constitutional head of the state is the governor, appointed by the President of India. The current governor is Dr. Rameshwar Thakur.

Madhya Pradesh has a 230-seat state Legislative Assembly. The state also sends 40 members to the Parliament of India: 29 are elected to the Lok Sabha (Lower House) and 11 to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House).

The dominant political parties in the state are the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress. Unlike many of its neighbours, Madhya Pradesh has largely a two-party system with small or regional parties not having had much success in recent elections.

In the November 2008 state elections, the BJP won an absolute majority of 143 seats, defeating Congress who won just 71 seats. Other parties in the state legislature include the Bahujan Samaj Party with seven seats.

The current chief minister is Shivraj Singh Chouhan, who succeeded Babulal Gaur and Uma Bharti. Before the BJP won in 2003, the longtime Congress Chief Minister was Digvijay Singh. In the 2004 General Election the BJP swept the state by winning 25 of the 29 seats, while the Congress won the remaining four.

For a historical list of previous chief ministers see List of Chief Ministers of Madhya Pradesh

Geography

Madhya Pradesh in Hindi can be translated to Central Province, and it is located in the geographic heart of India. The state straddles the Narmada River, which runs east and west between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges; these ranges and the Narmada are the traditional boundary between the north and south of India. The state is bordered on the west by Gujarat, on the northwest by Rajasthan, on the northeast by Uttar Pradesh, on the east by Chhattisgarh, and on the south by Maharashtra.

Madhya Pradesh comprises several linguistically and culturally distinct regions, including:

  • Malwa: a plateau region in the northwest of the state, north of the Vindhya Range, with its distinct language and culture. Indore is the major city of the region, while Bhopal lies on the edge of Bundelkhand region. Ujjain is a town of historical importance.
  • Nimar (Nemar): the western portion of the Narmada River valley, lying south of the Vindhyas in the southwest portion of the state.
  • Bundelkhand: a region of rolling hills and fertile valleys in the northern part of the state, which slopes down toward the Indo-Gangetic plain to the north. Gwalior is a historic center of the region.
  • Chambal: the north-western region. A mountainous region rich in red, soft, and fragile sandstone. The climate is harsh, and the area is known for bandits who were active until the 1980s (see Phoolan Devi).
  • Baghelkhand: a hilly region in the northeast of the state, which includes the eastern end of the Vindhya Range.
  • Mahakoshal (Mahakaushal): the southeastern portion of the state, which includes the eastern end of the Narmada river valley and the eastern Satpuras. Jabalpur is the most important city in the region.
  • Central Vindhya and Satpura region. Which has most of the central Narmada river valley and watershed, and has the highest point in the state - Dhupgarh in Pachmarhi.

Rivers

The Bansagar Dam on Sone River
View from Sharda Temple Maihar

Madhya Pradesh represents great river basins and the watershed of a number of rivers. Catchments of many rivers of India lie in Madhya Pradesh. The Narmada (originating from Amarkantak) and Tapti (originating from Multai of Betul District) rivers and their basins divide the state in two, with the northern part draining largely into the Ganga basin and the southern part into the Godavari and Mahanadi systems. The Vindhyas form the southern boundary of the Ganga basin, with the western part of the Ganga basin draining into the Yamuna and the eastern part directly into the Ganga itself. All the rivers, which drain into the Ganga, flow from south to north, with the Chambal, Sipra, Kali Sind, Parbati, Kuno, Sind, Betwa, Dhasan and Ken rivers being the main tributaries of the Yamuna. The land drained by these rivers is agriculturally rich, with the natural vegetation largely consisting of grass and dry deciduous forest types, largely thorny. The eastern part of the Ganga basin consists of the Son, the Tons and the Rihand Rivers, with the Son being the major tributary. This is also the junction point of the Satpura and the Vindhya ranges, with the Maikal and Kaimur Hills being the fulcrum. The forests here are much richer than the thorn forests of the northwestern part of Madhya Pradesh. The Son is of great significance in that it is the largest tributary going into the Ganga on the south bank and arising out of the hills of Madhya Pradesh rather than from the Himalayas. This river and its tributaries contribute the bulk of the monsoon flow into Ganga, because the north bank tributaries are all snow fed.

The major tributary of the Ganga, the Son, arises in one of the most important watersheds in India, the Maikal hills around Amarkantak. Three of the great rivers of India, Narmada, Mahanadi and Son, are given birth to by these hills. This is also one of the few ranges in the State having a north south configuration. The Mahanadi itself, together with its tributaries such as Hasdeo, Mand and Kharun flows southeast into Orissa and converts that State into a green rice bowl. The upper Mahanadi catchment contains some of the finest forests in the State, ranging from mixed deciduous to teak, bamboo and sal. Just as the Mahanadi flows east from the Maikal hills and the Son flows north, the mighty Narmada charts a westerly course from these very hills. The Narmada flows through a rift valley, with the Vindhyas marching along its northern bank and the Satpuras along the southern. Its tributaries include the Banjar, the Tawa, the Machna, the Denwa and the Sonbhardra rivers. Taken in combination with its parallel sister river, the Tapi, which also flows through a rift valley, the Narmada - Tapi systems carry and enormous volume of water and provide drainage for almost a quarter of the land area of Madhya Pradesh.

The Satpuras, in the Gawilgarh and Mahadeo Hills, also contain a watershed, which is south facing. The Indrawati, the Wainganga, the Wardha, the Pench, the Kanhan and Penganga rivers, discharge an enormous volume of water into the Godavari system. The Godavari is the lifeline of Andhra Pradesh, but the water which feeds it is a gift of the Central India watershed. Some of the finest sub-tropical, semi moist forests in India are to be found in the Godavari basin, mainly in the valley of the Indrawati. There are very few virgin forests left in the country, but very fine examples of these are to be found in Bastar area along the Indrawati and in the Kanger valley in Chhattisgarh.

The importance of Central India watershed was first noted by Captain Forsyth and remarked upon in his book, "The Highlands of Central India", first published in 1889. This is what he has to state in the introductory chapter to his book, "Yet in the very center of India there exists a considerable region to which the term highlands — is strictly applicable; and in which are enormous peaks and ranges, for which the term mountain would, in any other country, be used. Several of the great rivers of India have their first source in this elevated region. And pour their water into the sea on either side of the peninsula – to the north the Son commingling with the Ganges, to the east the Mahanadi, flowing independently to the Bay of Bengal, to the south some of the principal feeders of the Godavari, and to the west the Narmada and the Tapi taking parallel courses to the Arabian Sea.

There are many important multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects.

Climate

Madhya Pradesh has a subtropical climate. Like most of north India it has a hot dry summer(April-June) followed by monsoon rains (July-September) and a cool and relatively dry winter. The average rainfall is about 1,370 mm (53.9 in). It decreases from east to west. The south-eastern districts have the heaviest rainfall, some places receiving as much as 2,150 mm (84.6 in), while the western and north-western districts receive 1,000 mm (39.4 in) or less.

Flora and fauna

Forest

Mixed forests at Amarkantak

Madhya Pradesh is endowed with rich and diverse forest resources. Lying between lat. 21°04'N and long. 74°02' and 82°49' E, it is a reservoir of biodiversity. The geographical area of the state is 308,144 km2 (118,975 sq mi) which constitutes 9.38% of the land area of the country. The forest area of the state is 95,221 km2 (36,765 sq mi) constituting 31% of the geographical area of the state and 12.44% of the forest area of the country. Legally this area has been classified into "Reserved Forest, Protected Forest and Unclassified Forest", which constitute 61.7%, 37.4% and 0.9% of the forest area respectively. Per capita forest area is 2,400 m2 (0.59 acres) as against the national average of 700 m2 (0.17 acres).

Central, eastern and southern parts of the state are rich, whereas northern and western parts are deficient in forest. Variability in climatic and edaphic conditions brings about significant difference in the forest types of the state. There are four important forest types viz. Tropical Moist, Tropical Dry, Tropical Thorn , Subtropical broadleaved Hill forests. The forest area can also be classified based on the composition of forest and terrain of the area. Based on composition, there are three important forest formations namely teak, sal and miscellaneous forests. Bamboo bearing areas are widely distributed in the state. To obviate pressure on the natural forests , plantations have been undertaken in forest and non forest areas to supplement the availability of fuel wood , small timber, fodder, etc. MP lost a good amount of forest recently when Chattisgarh was carved out of it, as that region was the richest reserve of forests in MP.

The total growing stock (volume of timber wood) is 50,000,000 m3 valued worth Rs 2.5 lakh Crores.

Natural areas

Madhya Pradesh is home to several National Parks, including Bandhavgarh National Park, Kanha National Park, Satpura National Park, Sanjay National Park, Madhav National Park, Van Vihar National Park, Mandla Plant Fossils National Park, Panna National Park, and Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh.

There are also a number of natural preserves, including Amarkantak, Bagh Caves, Bhedaghat, Bori Natural Reserve, Ken Gharial, Ghatigaon, Kuno Palpur, Narwar, Chambal, Kukdeshwar, Narsinghgarh, Nora Dehi, Pachmarhi, Panpatha, Shikarganj, Patalkot and Tamia.

Economy

Between 1999 and 2008, the annualized growth rate was very low 3.5%.[1] According to the India State Hunger Index compiled by the International Food Policy Research Institute, the malnutrition situation in Madhya Pradesh is "extremely alarming", receiving a severity rating between Ethiopia and Chad.[2]

Madhya Pradesh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $32 billion in current prices. After partition, the new Madhya Pradesh state produces about 70% of the output of the old Madhya Pradesh state — the rest is produced by Chattisgarh.[citation needed] Between 1980 and 2000 the gross domestic product grew from 77,880 million rupees to 737,150 million rupees.

MFP from the forests, such as Tendu leaves used to roll bidi, Sal seed, teak seed, and lak are major contributors to the rural economy of the state.[citation needed]

Only one S&P CNX 500 conglomerate has its corporate office in Madhya Pradesh viz. Ruchi Soya Industries (2005 gross income Rs.49,661 million).[citation needed]

Divisions

Major cities

The cities mentioned are the largest and economically important cities of Madhya Pradesh:

Districts

Madhya Pradesh state is made up of 50 districts, which are grouped into 10 divisions: Bhopal, Jabalpur, Indore, Chambal, Gwalior, Rewa, Sagar, Ujjain, Shahdol and Narmadapuram.

Districts: Anuppur, Alirajpur, Ashoknagar, Balaghat, Barwani, Betul, Bhind, Bhopal, Burhanpur, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Damoh, Datia, Dewas, Dhar, Dindori, Guna, Gwalior, Harda, Hoshangabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Katni, Khandwa, Khargone, Mandla, Mandsaur, Morena, Narsinghpur, Neemuch, Panna, Raisen, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Rewa, Sagar, Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Shajapur, Sheopur, Shivpuri, Sidhi, Singrauli, Tikamgarh, Ujjain, Umaria, Vidisha.

Agro-climatic zones

Madhya Pradesh is divided into following agro-climatic zones:

Transport

Madhya Pradesh, being surrounded by land, has both Land and Air transport facilities.

Extensive rail network criss sross the state, with Jabalpur serving as headquarter for West Central Railway Zone of Indian Railways.The state has a total of 20 major railway junctions.

Buses and trains cover most of Madhya Pradesh. Extensive road network is also being developed. Madhya Pradesh leads in nation in implementing Gramin Sadak Nirman Pariyojna, a central government aided programme to provide road networks to villages.

The state has five domestic airports located at Indore, Bhopal, Jabalpur, Gwalior and Khajuraho. Air strips are located at Ujjain, Khandwa and Satna. Flights are operated by Indian Airlines and Air Deccan among others.

Demographics

Madhya Pradesh is a medley of ethnic groups and tribes, castes and communities. The population of Madhya Pradesh includes indigenous people and migrants from other states. According to census of 2000, 91.1% followed Hindu religion while others are Muslim (6.40%), Jain (0.9%), Christians (0.30%), Buddhists (0.30%), and Sikhs (0.20%).[4] The scheduled castes and scheduled tribes constitute a significant portion of the population of the State. The scheduled castes are 13.14% while scheduled tribes were 20.63%.[5]

Tribals in Madhya Pradesh include Baiga, Bhariya, Bhils, Gondi people, Halba, Kaul, Korku, Malto people, Mariya, and Sahariya.

Languages

The predominant language of the region is Hindi.

In addition to standard Hindi, several regional variants are spoken, which are considered by some to be dialects of Hindi, and by others to be distinct but related languages. Among these languages are Malvi in Malwa, Nimadi in Nimar, Bundeli in Bundelkhand, and Bagheli and Avadhi in Bagelkhand and the southeast. Each of these languages or dialects has dialects of its own. Other languages include Bhilodi (Bhili), Gondi, Korku, Kalto (Nahali), and Nihali (Nahali), all spoken by tribal groups. Due to rule of Marathas, Marathi is spoken by a substantial number of people.

In addition, Saraiki and Pashto are spoken by the large number of immigrants from Afghanistan and North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

In an attempt to "reduce Western influence" on children, Madhya Pradesh government has forbidden the teaching of English nursery rhymes in primary schools.[6]

Tribals

Bhil tribal girls in Jhabua
A family from Baiga tribal, the third largest tribal in the state.

Madhya Pradesh is dominated by the Tribal population. The differences in the tribal community, spread over in various parts of the state, is clearly seen not only on the basis of their heredity, lifestyle and cultural traditions, but also from their social, economic structure, religious beliefs and their language and speech. Due to the different linguistic, cultural and geographical environment, and its peculiar complications, the diverse tribal world of Madhya Pradesh has not only been largely cut-off from the mainstream of development.

The population of Tribals in Madhya Pradesh is 122.33 lakh constituting 20.27% of the total population of Madhya Pradesh (603.85 Lakh), according to the 2001 census. There were 46 recognized Scheduled Tribes and three of them have been identified as "Special Primitive Tribal Groups" in the State.[7]

The main tribal groups in Madhya Pradesh are Gond, Bhil, Baiga, Korku, Bhadia, Halba, Kaul, Mariya, and Sahariya. Dhar, Jhabua and Mandla districts have more than 50 percent tribal population. In Khargone, Chhindwara, Seoni, Sidhi and Shahdol districts 30 to 50 percent population is of tribes. Maximum population is that of Gond tribes.

Culture

A man playing flute.

Heritage and architecture

Several cities in Madhya Pradesh are extraordinary for their architecture and or scenic beauty. Three sites in Madhya Pradesh have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO: the Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986) including Devi Jagadambi temple, Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989) and the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003). Other architecturally significant or scenic sites include Ajaigarh, Amarkantak, Asirgarh, Bandhavgarh, Bawangaja, Bhopal, Chanderi, Chitrakuta, Dhar, Gwalior, Indore, Burhanpur, Maheshwar, Mandleshwar, Mandu, Omkareshwar, Orchha, Pachmarhi, Shivpuri, Sonagiri and Ujjain. MP being very large geographically, and the history being spread over several millennia, a developing a comprehensive picture of heritage and architecture is a monumental task.

Media

Raj Express, Nai Duniya, Patrika (Rajsthan Patrika), Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, Nav Bharat and the Hindi weekly Akbar Times are prominent Hindi newspapers. Various other local newspapers are also published in various cities.

In English, Times of India, Hindustan Times, Central Chronicle, Pioneer and Free Press have editions from Bhopal. Urdu journals is common in Bhopal. Nadeem, the oldest Urdu newspaper of the state, is published from Bhopal. Urdu Action and Haq-o-Insaf are also published. Farz, a Sindhi daily is published from Bhopal is the only Sindhi newspaper in State.

Games

Cricket is commonly played game. Football (Soccer), Basket-Ball, Volley-Ball, Cycling, Swimming, Tracking, Badminton, Table-Tennis, Lawn Tennis are common games.

Also some traditional games are played in rural areas:

1. Kho kho 2. Gulli Danda 3. Pittu

Various awards in MP to honour the sportspersons are: 1.Vikram Award 2.Vishwamitra Award 3.Eklavya Award

References

Further reading

  • Chishti, R̥ta Kapur, Martand Singh, and Amba Sanyal. Saris of India: Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern & Amr Vastra Kosh, 1989. ISBN 8122401872
  • Gyanendra Singh. Farm Mechanization in Madhya Pradesh. Bhopal: Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, 2000.
  • Madhya Pradesh (India). The Madhya Pradesh Human Development Report 2002: Using the Power of Democracy for Development. [Bhopal: Govt. of Madhya Pradesh, 2002.
  • Parmar, Shyam. Folk Tales of Madhya Pradesh. Folk tales of India series, 12". New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1973.
  • Rag, Pankaj, and O. P. Misra. Masterpieces of Madhya Pradesh. Bhopal: Directorate of Archaeology, Archives & Museums, Government of Madhya Pradesh, 2005.
  • Rag, Pankaj. Vintage, Madhya Pradesh: A Collection of Old Photographs. Bhopal: Madhya Pradesh Madhyam jointly with the Directorate of Archaeology, Archives, and Museums, 2005. ISBN 8190270273
  • Sampath, M. D., H. V. Trivedi, and Mandan Trivedi. Epigraphs of Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, 2001.
  • Sati, Vishwambhar Prasad. Madhya Pradesh, a Geo-Economic Appraisal. Delhi: Abhijeet, 2004. ISBN 8188683434
  • Shah, Shampa, and Aashi Manohar. Tribal Arts and Crafts of Madhya Pradesh. Living traditions of India. Ahmedabad: Mapin Pub./in Association with Vanya Prakashan, Bhopal, 1996. ISBN 0944142710
  • Shrivastava, Divya. The Development of Scheduled Tribes in Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi: Gyan Pub. House, 2000. ISBN 8121206987
  • Singh, R. V. Dairy Co-Operatives and Development: A Study of Tribal Dairy Co-Operatives in Madhya Pradesh. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications, 2006. ISBN 8178353318

External links

See also


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Madhya Pradesh [1] (commonly abbreviated as MP) is a state in the plains of India. The name "Madhya Pradesh" means "central region", and derives from its geographical position. It is one of the few states of India that is completely surrounded by other states, having neither a border with another country nor a coastline. To its north is Uttar Pradesh. To its west lie Rajasthan and Gujarat, to its south is Maharashtra and to its east is Chhattisgarh, a state that used to be a part of MP till 2000.

MP has been rather neglected as a travel destination, but in reality, it has a rich feast for those who seek prehistoric paintings, historic forts, religious erotica, or tribal culture. On the flip side, the tourist infrastructure is not very well-developed.

Understand

Madhya Pradesh is the central part of India. It was divided in two parts in 2000, one remained Madhya Pradesh and the other became Chhattisgarh. The undivided Madhya Pradesh was formed on November, 1,1965. The capital of MP is Bhopal. It has five major cities, Indore, Bhopal the capital, Gwalior, Jabalpur and Ujjain and is divided into many divisions, fourty five district, two hundred Block. Each Block has fifty village and each division has twelve districts. Madhya Pradesh is the richest state in India. Before the Madhya Pradesh was divided the population was 60,385,118(India census 2001) with about fifty percent being men. The geographical area is 4434459 Km.( 1 Mile = 1.6 KM)

One of the oldest district is Dhar, which is the ancient city of Madhya Pradesh and king Bhoj was the ruler there, so the name of the district had been Bhoj. In ancient times Vairisimha II was the king and the capital was Ujjain. When King Bhoj again became king the he moved the capital the Dhar, during the independence war fort Dhar became important part in the freedom fight and has produced many freedom fighters. Many tribes played an important role like the Bhils, Rajpurohit, and Rajptut. The authority of the state was in opposition to the British who took revenge on the local people. They dragged civilians from their houses, fields and killed them. They looted their properties. The ladies were dishonored after the revolt. The Dhar district was the main target of British during the freedom fight.

Madhya Pradesh has many large tribes and casts like the Bhill, Gonda, Chamar, Kalal, Rajpurohit, Khols ,and many more tribes are in Madhya Pradesh. The rest population of Hindu, including, Rajput (land lord) and many more mixture in Hindu. The cast system is prejudice in this state. With fixed places for tribes and schedule cast are there. Every cast has its own festivals, custom and food. There is one important festival of Bhils, they cut the animal in front of their God. They believe that if they sacrifice animal to God will be happy and their wishes will come true.

Madhya Pradesh is the heart of India. Since many kinds of crops and vegetables grow here. Therefore the second name for Madhya Pradesh is Green Malaw. Eighty percent of population depends on agriculture. Wheat, corn, peas, grain, Cotton and soybeans are the most important crops. Many dense forests are important resource of timber providing, Bambo, Teak, Sal. Million hectors of land is under the forest Department which is the active here. The state government implements many policies for the forest. The district is full of natural resources. Coal and iron are two important resources. There are many cement factories and one region name is “Panna” is world famous for diamonds. The handicraft items of Madhya Pradesh are famous. Many government organization and individual organization are working for the handicraft industry and promoting the work of craftsmen.

Madhya Pradesh has beautiful cities and historical places are here. One temple is in Indore famous which made of glass. Indore is a commercial center of the agriculture region. The main industries of cotton and Jewelry are in Bhopal. India’s largest Mosque is there. Modern Bhopal was founded in 1970. A king Mohammad in earliest eighteen century ruled there,also Bhopal was the capital of the former princely state of Bhopal. Jain cliff carving is in Gwalior Mansingh was ones the king and a Sikh temple is here.

Ujjain is a famous place in the world as it is the one of sacred city for the Hindus. In the eight century AD it was the center of Sanskrit learning and many famous temples are here. Every twenty year a big fair, Kumb, is organized. The city Raipur was founded in fourteen century by Rai Brahma Deo of the Ratnapura dynsty and many major foods processing industries are here. Sanchi is world famous place. It is known for Sputa, Monasteries, Temples and pillars.The Sachi sputa one was originally built by the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka.

  • Bandhavgarh National Park - Madhya Pradesh has the highest density of tigers in the world, and it's one of few places where you are almost certain of seeing a tiger in its natural habitat.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

Hindi मध्य प्रदेश (madhya pradeś) "middle province", from Sanskrit मध्य (madhya) "middle, central", प्रदेश (pradeśa) "region, country".

Proper noun

Singular
Madhya Pradesh

Plural
-

Madhya Pradesh

  1. State in central India which has Bhopal as its capital.

Translations

  • Chinese: 中央邦 (zhōngyāngbāng)
  • Dutch: Madhya Pradesh
  • Estonian: Madhya Pradesh
  • French: Madhya Pradesh
  • German: Madhya Pradesh
  • Hindi: मध्य प्रदेश (madhya pradeśa)
  • Japanese: マディヤ・プラデーシュ州 (madhiya puradēshu-shuu)
  • Swedish: Madhya Pradesh

See also

Wikipedia article on Madhya Pradesh


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