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.The Mafia (also known as "Cosa Nostra") is a Sicilian criminal society which is believed to have emerged in late 19th century Sicily, and the first such society to be referred to as a mafia (although it is not the first organized criminal society to appear in Italy).^ The Hennessey killing and the subsequent murders created perhaps the first significant public awareness of the La Cosa Nostra (LCN).
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ In Sicily a father and son could not belong to the same Mafia "family" (although brothers could), but some "families" of American mafiosi no longer recognize this rule.
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^ The only acquittal in this case was for Vito Badalamenti, the son of Gaetano Badalamenti, who was the former chief of the Sicilian Mafia and known in Italy as the boss of all bosses.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

.It is a loose association of criminal groups that share a common organizational structure and code of conduct.^ The most promising group conducting resistance activity within the Soviet Union itself was the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN).
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.Each group, known as a "family", "clan" or "cosca", claims sovereignty over a territory in which it operates its rackets – usually a town or village or a part of a larger city.^ Individual groups became known as families .
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ January 23, 1981: Frank "Funzie" Tieri, boss of the Genovese Family, was convicted of operating a criminal group through a pattern of racketeering which included murder and extortion.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ Most of the larger towns and cities contain public libraries , that of Toronto being especially well-equipped.

.Offshoots of the Mafia emerged in the United States, Canada, and in Australia[1] during the late 19th century following waves of Italian emigration (see Italian-American Mafia).^ By May 1973 the United States was dropping nearly as many bombs per month on Cambodia as had been dropped during the whole of 1972.
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^ The provinces in Canada were conceded less power than have the states in the American union; the federal government retaining the residuum of power not conceded.

^ Because the United States was at war with Italy, it was feared that Italians working on the docks might try to help the enemy.
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.However, outside Italy the term "Mafia" is also employed to name any organization operating under a similar structure, whether Sicilian or not; such as the Camorra, the 'Ndrangheta or the Sacra Corona Unita, as well as foreign organized groups such as the Russian Mafia.^ Gives the structured name of the person or organization.
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^ Code-named "Project Jennifer", the operation entailed constructing a huge vessel specifically designed to retrieve a Russian submarine from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean.
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^ Each such group is a unit of related similar-origin browsing contexts .
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Contents

Etymology

.There are several theories about the origin of the term "Mafia" (sometimes spelled "Maffia" in early texts).^ Tradition dates the origin of the Mafia to several centuries ago when Sicily was occupied by the French.
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.The Sicilian adjective mafiusu may derive from the slang Arabic mahyas (مهياص), meaning "aggressive boasting, bragging", or marfud مرفوض meaning "rejected". Roughly translated, it means "swagger", but can also be translated as "boldness, bravado". In reference to a man, mafiusu in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but also fearless, enterprising, and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta.^ During the 19th and early 20th century more than a million Sicilians immigrated to the United States.
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[2] In reference to a woman, however, the adjective "mafiusa" means beautiful and attractive.
.The public's association of the word with the criminal secret society was perhaps inspired by the 1863 play "I mafiusi di la Vicaria" ("The Mafiosi of the Vicaria") by Giuseppe Rizzotto and Gaetano Mosca.^ Dalitz, perhaps more than any other mafiosi, had pioneered Mafia gambling in Las Vegas.
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^ A1S8AJIUIO6M9K?ie=UTF8&display=public&page=5 The John Birch Society ‘ P2 ’ (Propaganda 2) are perhaps the most visible + are named after the propaganda ...
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.The words Mafia and mafiusi are never mentioned in the play; they were probably put in the title to add a local flair.^ Either way, it is probably another coincidence that this eleventh hedge fund that bought large numbers of put options was the above-mentioned Magnetar Capital.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Either way, it is probably another coincidence that this eleventh hedge fund that bought large numbers of put options in Dendreon was the above-mentioned Magnetar Capital.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The play is about a Palermo prison gang with traits similar to the Mafia: a boss, an initiation ritual, and talk of "umirtà" (omertà or code of silence) and "pizzu" (a codeword for extortion money).^ Then Genovese and Gambino went to Mafia boss Joe Profaci, an ally of Lansky and Trafficante, about obtaining assassins.
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^ In the initiation ritual — common to the Sicilian and American Mafia — the initiate's middle finger would be pierced by a needle.
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^ Frank had made friends with New Jersey Mafia boss Willie Moretti shortly after leaving his native Hoboken to play the roadhouses.
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[3] The play had great success throughout Italy. .Soon after, the use of the term "mafia" began appearing in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon.^ Italians, who invented the term fascism, also called it the estato corporativo: the corporatist state.
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The word made its first official appearance in 1865 in a report by the prefect of Palermo, Filippo Antonio Gualterio.[4]
Leopoldo Franchetti, an Italian deputy who travelled to Sicily and who wrote one of the first authoritative reports on the mafia in 1876, saw the Mafia as an "industry of violence" and described the designation of the term "mafia":
."the term mafia found a class of violent criminals ready and waiting for a name to define them, and, given their special character and importance in Sicilian society, they had the right to a different name from that defining vulgar criminals in other countries."^ The society took its name from the slogan of the enraged Sicilians: "Morte Alla Francia Italia Anela!"
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^ If both attributes are present, and if the parent element of the param is an object element, then the element defines a parameter with the given name/value pair.
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^ If the form element has an accept-charset attribute, then, taking into account the characters found in the form data set 's names and values, and the character encodings supported by the user agent, select a character encoding from the list given in the form 's accept-charset attribute that is an ASCII-compatible character encoding .
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[5]
.Franchetti saw the Mafia as deeply rooted in Sicilian society and impossible to quench unless the very structure of the island's social institutions were to undergo a fundamental change.^ The "Maxi-trial" is called the most intense crackdown of the Sicilian Mafia since the "Mori Operation" was instituted in the 1920s by Mussolini.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

[6]
Some observers have seen "mafia" as a set of attributes deeply rooted in popular culture, as a "way of being", as illustrated in the definition by the Sicilian ethnographer, Giuseppe Pitrè, at the end of the 19th century:
"Mafia is the consciousness of one's own worth, the exaggerated concept of individual force as the sole arbiter of every conflict, of every clash of interests or ideas."[7]
.According to urban legend, the word Mafia was first used in the Sicilian revolt – the Sicilian Vespers – against rule of the Capetian House of Anjou on 30 March 1282. In this legend, Mafia is the acronym for "Morte alla Francia, Italia anela" (Italian for "Death to France, Italy cries!").^ The society took its name from the slogan of the enraged Sicilians: "Morte Alla Francia Italia Anela!"
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^ According to the sources, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because of White House policy against discussing personnel matters, Bush aides discovered that: .
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^ Sicilian Mafia leaders exiled by Italian dictator ...
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[8] .However, this version is now discarded by most serious historians.^ The most serious "dirty trick" against Muskie, however, came from an unidentified source.
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"Cosa Nostra" and other names

.The Sicilian Mafia has no formal name, as members see no need for one.^ An end tag whose tag name is one of: "head", "body", "html", "br" Act as if a start tag token with the tag name "head" and no attributes had been seen, then reprocess the current token.
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^ It is the basis of this action that led to the worldwide arrest in 1984 of over 460 members and associates of the Sicilian Mafia.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

.Nonetheless, in many Italian publications the term "Cosa Nostra" is used to distinguish the Sicilian Mafia from other criminal networks that are also sometimes referred to as "mafias" (such as the Camorra, the "Neapolitan Mafia").^ The term MIME type is used to refer to what is sometimes called an Internet media type in protocol literature.
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^ Ten percent of the population of Marseille is composed of Corsicans, many of whom demonstrate the kind of criminal clannishness for which Sicilian mafiosi are notorious.
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^ The term "HTML5 validator" can be used to refer to a conformance checker that itself conforms to the applicable requirements of this specification.
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.When the American mafioso Joseph Valachi testified before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the U.S. Senate Committee on Government Operations in 1962, he revealed that American mafiosi referred to their organization by the term cosa nostra ("our thing" or "this thing of ours").^ Senate permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (McClellan Committee) 27 .
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ September 25, 1963: The Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (popularly known as the McClellan Committee) opened hearings in Washington, D.C., regarding "Organized Crime and Illicit Traffic in Narcotics."
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ Then father Joseph tried to use his influence with the up-and-coming Joe McCarthy (an Irishman and recent "friend" of the family) to get Bobby a job with the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate Government Operations Committee.
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[9][10][11] At the time, it was understood as a proper name, fostered by the FBI and disseminated by the media. The designation gained wide popularity and almost replaced the term Mafia. .The FBI even added the article to the term, calling it La Cosa Nostra (in Italy this article is not used when referring to the Sicilian Mafia).^ The term MIME type is used to refer to what is sometimes called an Internet media type in protocol literature.
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^ Readers familiar with that RFC will find it easier to read this specification if they pretend the term "URL" as used herein is really called something else altogether.
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^ The term "HTML5 validator" can be used to refer to a conformance checker that itself conforms to the applicable requirements of this specification.
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.Italian investigators did not take the term seriously, believing it was only used by the American Mafia.^ Weiss has reported extensively on the Mafia’s infiltration of Wall Street, but he has, for years, insisted that only conspiracy theorists believe naked short selling is problem.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American advisers discovered that their subjects sometimes did not regard themselves as inferior pupils — and were not always ready to take "advice".
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^ The Italian-American right is not the only story shoved down the memory hole.
  • GIULIANI AT LARGE: News items about Rudy Giuliani 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC prorev.com [Source type: News]

.In 1984, the Mafia turncoat Tommaso Buscetta revealed to the anti-mafia magistrate Giovanni Falcone that the term was used by the Sicilian Mafia as well.^ It is the basis of this action that led to the worldwide arrest in 1984 of over 460 members and associates of the Sicilian Mafia.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

[12] Buscetta dismissed the word "mafia" as a mere literary creation. .Other defectors, such as Antonio Calderone and Salvatore Contorno, confirmed the use of Cosa Nostra to describe the Mafia.^ The Communication APIs This section describes some mechanisms that applications written in HTML can use to communicate with other applications from different domains running on the same client.
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^ Things that you can't do with this specification because they are better handled using other technologies that are further described herein .
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^ This section describes this mechanism and some algorithms that can be used to convert HTML documents into other formats .
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[13] .Mafiosi introduce known members to each other as belonging to cosa nostra ("our thing") or la stessa cosa ("the same thing"), e.g.^ The Hennessey killing and the subsequent murders created perhaps the first significant public awareness of the La Cosa Nostra (LCN).
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ September 8, 1962: Joseph Valachi, while being questioned by the FBI, first acknowledged "La Cosa Nostra" as the name used by members of his organization.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ Can be set to a value that removes subdomains, to allow pages on other subdomains of the same domain (if they do the same thing) to access each other.
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"he is the same thing, a mafioso, as you".
The Sicilian Mafia has used other names to describe itself throughout its history, such as "The Honoured Society". Mafiosi are known among themselves as "men of honour" or "men of respect".

Structure and composition

.Cosa Nostra is not a monolithic organization, but rather a loose association of groups known alternately as "families", "coscas", "borgatas" or "clans". Today, Cosa Nostra is estimated to have about 100 clans, with a total of at least 3,500 to 4,000 full members.^ Individual groups became known as families .
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ About 500,000 sq.

^ Of the total population (estimated in 1907 at 6,440,000) over 50% are directly engaged in practical agriculture .

[14] Most are based in western Sicily, almost half of them in the province of Palermo,[12]

Clan hierarchy

Hierarchy of a Cosa Nostra clan.
In 1984, the mafioso informant Tommaso Buscetta explained to prosecutors the pyramidal command structure of a typical clan.[12] .A clan is led by a "boss" (capofamiglia), who is aided by a second-in-command (a sotto capo or "underboss") and one or more advisers (consigliere).^ One or more digits , representing the fractional part of second The second component cannot be 60 or 61; leap seconds cannot be represented.
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^ The other, more muted response was one of consternation and anger at a mayor who had judged so many others so harshly.
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^ Colby was one of those CIA men who discounted counterintelligence as being little more than childish spy games.
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Under his command are crews of about 10 "soldiers", each led by a capodecina (or sometimes caporegime).
.Other than its members, Cosa Nostra makes extensive use of "associates". These are people who work for or aid a clan (or even multiple clans) but are not treated as true members.^ I know people who used to work at Gruntal.
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^ I think I speak for a lot of people when I say that KRS, LL, Fat Joe and any other rapper who's been doing this for 10+ yrs.
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^ A New Way to Die Lethal gas is used for the first time to execute a condemned man, in the belief that it is more humane than other methods.
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These include corrupt officials and prospective mafiosi. .An associate is considered nothing more than a tool; "nothing mixed with nil."^ More than forty years later, in 1950, the Hughes Tool Company would still control about 85 percent of the drill-bit market.
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^ This investigation seemed to have involved nothing more than asking Dr. Scher if he had any conflicts of interest.
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^ There is no more "romantic" a Mafia story to be told than that associated with Chicago and the roaring twenties.
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[12]
.The most powerful boss is often referred to in the media as the capo di tutti capi ("boss of all bosses"), who allegedly commands all the clans of Cosa Nostra.^ The most powerful Teamster-mafioso was Anthony Provenzano ("Tony Pro"), of New Jersey Local 560, who was also a capo in the Vito Genovese family.
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^ The only acquittal in this case was for Vito Badalamenti, the son of Gaetano Badalamenti, who was the former chief of the Sicilian Mafia and known in Italy as the boss of all bosses.
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^ Marshal Ky, who held most of the power, was Premier.
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.Calogero Vizzini, Salvatore Riina, and Bernardo Provenzano were especially influential bosses who have each been described by the media and law enforcement as being the "boss of bosses" of their times.^ The possible values are as follows; the ready state of a media element at any particular time is the greatest value describing the state of the element: .
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^ Balistrieri succeeded his father-in-law John Alioto, who had served as boss since November or December, 1952.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

However, such a position does not formally exist, according to Mafia turncoats such as Buscetta.[15][16]

Membership

.Traditionally, only Sicilian men can become mafiosi, though in recent times there have been reports of women assuming the responsibilities of imprisoned mafioso relatives.^ There was also the fact that Lazard Capital had only recently been spun off from Lazard Ltd.
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^ In response, the SEC told the GAO that there is nothing to worry about, and the GAO duly issued a report that concluded that the SEC had told the GAO there is nothing to worry about.
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^ By this time there was more than a million people in Canada, and the country was becoming important.

[17][18][19]
Membership and rank in the Mafia are not hereditary. Most new bosses are not related to their predecessor. .The Commission forbids relatives from holding positions in inter-clan bodies at the same time.^ Thus, a time position included within a range of the objects return by the buffered attribute at one time can end up being not included in the range(s) of objects returned by the same attribute at later times.
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[20]
A mafioso's legitimate occupation, if he has any, generally does not affect his prestige within Cosa Nostra.[21] .Historically, most mafiosi were employed in menial jobs, and many bosses did not work at all,[21] but in recent times professionals such as doctors and lawyers have been found among them.^ Writes Rubenstein: "The British government was by no means adverse to the 'final solution' as long as the Germans did most of the work."
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^ He was never able to say that Provenge did not work, but when talking to the press at the time of the FDA advisory panel meeting in 2007, he was dismissive, or at least confused.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is all the more remarkable considering that this “BEAR RAID” was most likely the work of naked short selling criminals.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]
A prospective mafioso is carefully tested for obedience, discretion and ruthlessness. He is almost always required to commit murder as his ultimate trial.[12]

Commission

.For many years, the power apparatuses of the individual clans were the sole ruling bodies within the association, and they have remained the real centers of power even after superordinate bodies were created in Cosa Nostra beginning in the late 1950s (the Sicilian Mafia Commission also known as Commissione or Cupola).^ Since they are not all spaces, they are handled as per the "anything else" rules in the " in table " insertion mode, which defer to the " in body " insertion mode but with foster parenting .
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^ Even more serious was the awareness that Allen Dulles, who knew of the plots, had served as a Commission member without making the information known.
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^ They make many very nice art pieces, year after year.
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[23]
.The Commission is a body of leading Cosa Nostra members who decide on important questions concerning the actions of, and settling disputes within the organization.^ Even more serious was the awareness that Allen Dulles, who knew of the plots, had served as a Commission member without making the information known.
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^ The highly organized school system of Ontario is directed by a minister of education, who is a member of the provincial cabinet.

^ Because of concern that the CIA had mistreated its defector, Nosenko was granted US citizenship and a yearly allowance of $30,000 from the CIA. The Soviet Bloc Division and CIA Counterintelligence were purged of many members who questioned Nosenko's authenticity.
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.It is composed of representatives of a mandamento (a "district" of three geographically contiguous Mafia families) that are called capo mandamento or rappresentante.^ Gruntal’s senior vice president, Maurice B. Gross, was found to be running money for Thomas Gambino, a capo in the Gambino Mafia family.
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.The Commission is not a central government of the Mafia, but a representative mechanism for consultation of independent families who decide by consensus.^ It has been reported that Israel ran his Ponzi scheme with help from “feeders” who had ties to the Genovese Mafia family.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hunt was to ensure that the exile government represented all elements of Cuban society except "reactionaries" who supported Batista.
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^ For example, Icahn once employed a man named Allen Barry Witz , who was later implicated by the U.S. government in a Mafia-run stock manipulation fraud.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"Contrary to the wide-spread image presented by the media, these superordinate bodies of coordination cannot be compared with the executive boards of major legal firms. Their power is intentionally limited. .And it would be entirely wrong to see in the Cosa Nostra a centrally managed, internationally active Mafia holding company," according to criminologist Letizia Paoli.^ The Hughes Tool Company would supply Howard with nearly three-quarters of a billion dollars during the course of his lifetime, though its management was left almost entirely to others.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Investors in those companies did not need FDA approval to make money, but as we will see, their money-making plans would have been foiled if Dendreon had received approval.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Huge numbers of US troops would seemingly be required to hold the entire country.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
The jurisdiction extends over a province; each province of Sicily has some kind of a Commission, except Messina, Siracusa and Ragusa. Beyond the provincial level, details are vague. .According to Buscetta, a commissione interprovinciale – interprovincial commission – was set up in the 1970s, while Calderone claims that there had been a rappresentante regionale in the 1950s even before the Commissions and the capi mandamento were created.^ Even earlier, Aldous Huxley set up a similar non-discriminatory dystopia in Brave New World.
  • GIULIANI AT LARGE: News items about Rudy Giuliani 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC prorev.com [Source type: News]

^ Remember,obama is also a member of the council of forien relations,its not as powerful as the trilateral commission but its up there.
  • KRS DROPS A "CRIMINAL MINDED" VIDEO, CORY GUNZ RESURFACES! D | SOHH NYC | SOHH BLOG 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC blogs.sohh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After creating the Document object, but potentially before the page has been completely set up, the user agent must update the session history with the new page .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[25]

Rituals and codes of conduct

Initiation ceremony

.After his arrest, the mafioso Giovanni Brusca described the ceremony in which he was formally made a full member of Cosa Nostra.^ September 8, 1962: Joseph Valachi, while being questioned by the FBI, first acknowledged "La Cosa Nostra" as the name used by members of his organization.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

In 1976 he was invited to a "banquet" at a country house. .He was brought into a room where several mafiosi were sitting around a table upon which sat a pistol, a dagger and an image of a saint.^ Sixty buses were placed in a ring around the White House to protect the President — and troops were secretly brought into the basement.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They questioned his commitment and his feelings regarding criminality and murder (despite his already having a history of such acts).^ They also questioned that such a flight path was possible without the bullet stopping twice in mid-air to make a right-hand turn.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When he affirmed himself, Salvatore Riina, then the most powerful boss of Cosa Nostra, took a needle and pricked Brusca's finger.^ August 22, 1935: Vincenzo Troia, formerly a close associate of "boss of all bosses" Salvatore Maranzano and himself a nominee for the position .
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ The new regime of communists, headed by a man who called himself "Pol Pot", proved to be among the most radical ever to assume power.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Brusca smeared his blood on the image of the saint, which he held in his cupped hands as Riina set it alight.^ Blood was drawn to soak a small paper image of a saint.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As Brusca juggled the burning image in his hands, Riina said to him: "If you betray Cosa Nostra, your flesh will burn like this saint."^ Just say YOU like him.
  • KRS DROPS A "CRIMINAL MINDED" VIDEO, CORY GUNZ RESURFACES! D | SOHH NYC | SOHH BLOG 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC blogs.sohh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The image would be burned after which the initiate would swear his loyalty holding the ashes in the palm of his hand.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "You have your own boat, I trust," Lafitte said.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

[12]

Introductions

A mafioso is not supposed to introduce himself to another mafioso. .If he wants to establish a relationship, he must ask a third, mutually-known mafioso, to introduce them to each other.^ He certainly should not have been lobbying the FDA. He should not have trashed Dendreon’s treatment, for as he must have known, due to these other relationships, he could no longer claim to be an objective observer.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But we must ask: How many other small biotech companies have been victimized in less obvious ways?
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This intermediary can vouch that neither of the two is an impostor. .This tradition is upheld very scrupulously: when the mafioso Indelicato Amedeo returned to Sicily following his initiation in America, he could not introduce himself to his own mafioso father, but had to wait for an intermediary from America who knew of his induction to come to Sicily.^ It was Williams who introduced Maheu to the Las Vegas mafioso John Roselli.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plan was to find someone who could be manipulated and who would not be identified with his own people.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In mid-March of 1957 Castro received fifty recruits in trucks owned by a rice planter, who himself later joined the guerrillas.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]

Ten Commandments

.In November 2007 Sicilian police reported to have found a list of "Ten Commandments" in the hideout of mafia boss Salvatore Lo Piccolo.^ November 20, 1978: Salvatore Piere, the boss of the Buffalo Family, pled guilty to illegal gambling charges.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ The only acquittal in this case was for Vito Badalamenti, the son of Gaetano Badalamenti, who was the former chief of the Sicilian Mafia and known in Italy as the boss of all bosses.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ February 23, 1956: Jack Dragna, boss of the Los Angeles Family, was found dead in a motel room reportedly of natural causes.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

They are thought to be guidelines on how to be a good, respectful and honourable mafioso.[27]
.
  1. No one can present himself directly to another of our friends.^ In our society one cannot buy life insurance on another person, but one can buy “life insurance” on a company: that is, one can make a bet that a company will fail, and collect on that bet when the company dies.
    • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When these two codes are combined, the result is a unique code that is not reproduced within any one denomination; no one banknote exactly resembles another.
    • The Euro- FAQ 28 January 2010 0:51 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And after that, there was another strange occurrence – then still more strange occurrences, one after the other until it seemed that Dendreon and its treatment for prostate cancer would no longer exist.
    • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    There must be a third person to do it.
  2. Never look at the wives of friends.
  3. Never be seen with cops.
  4. Don't go to pubs and clubs.
  5. Always being available for Cosa Nostra is a duty - even if your wife is about to give birth.
  6. Appointments must absolutely be respected.
  7. Wives must be treated with respect.
  8. When asked for any information, the answer must be the truth.
  9. Money cannot be appropriated if it belongs to others or to other families.
  10. People who can't be part of Cosa Nostra: anyone who has a close relative in the police, anyone with a two-timing relative in the family, anyone who behaves badly and doesn't hold to moral values.

Omertà: the code of silence

Omertà is a code of silence that forbids mafiosi from betraying their comrades to the authorities. The penalty for transgression is death, and relatives of the turncoat may also be murdered. To a degree, Cosa Nostra also imposes this code on the general population, persecuting any citizen who aids the authorities.

Criminal activities

Protection rackets

.It is estimated that the Sicilian Mafia costs the Sicilian economy more than €10 billion a year through protection rackets.^ I tell you he looks no more than forty years old."
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than forty years later, in 1950, the Hughes Tool Company would still control about 85 percent of the drill-bit market.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dalitz, perhaps more than any other mafiosi, had pioneered Mafia gambling in Las Vegas.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .Roughly 80% of Sicilian businesses pay protection money to Cosa Nostra.^ One Republican Senator conducted investigations revealing that American oil companies were paying protection money to the NLF for the privilege of getting their oil safely to the US military.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hoffa also collected protection money from businesses in exchange for assurance that the workers would not be unionized.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Monthly payments can range from €200 for a small shop or bar to €5,000 for a supermarket.^ Of the $800,000 profit earned in the first year, a $20,000 monthly payment was allotted for Huey Long's personal strongbox.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29][30][31] .Targets who refuse to buy protection are usually harassed, often through property damage; physical assault is rare.^ American compensation money intended for Vietnamese whose property was damaged or destroyed was usually retained by South Vietnamese officials.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .In Sicily, protection money is known as pizzo; the anti-extortion support group Addiopizzo derives its name from this.^ The microdata model consists of groups of name-value pairs known as items .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Protection from theft is one service that the Mafia provides to paying "clients". Mafiosi are generally forbidden from comitting theft.^ One Republican Senator conducted investigations revealing that American oil companies were paying protection money to the NLF for the privilege of getting their oil safely to the US military.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was a few years after Chanos left his position at Gilford Securities, which had a few key clients, one of whom was Michael Steinhardt, son of “the biggest Mafia fence in America.” .
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .Instead, mafiosi make it their business to know all the thieves and fences operating within their territory.^ It is reasonable to speculate that Madoff’s market making operation derived business from executing manipulative naked short sales for unscrupulous hedge funds.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If a protected business is robbed, the clan will use these contacts to track down and return the stolen goods and punish the thieves.^ We just don't know about these things, because we're...not criminals and not used to dealing in that business..."
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are then returned to the script when the user (or script) goes back in the history, thus enabling authors to use the "navigation" metaphor even in one-page applications.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Survival of Businesses Using Collaborative Relationships to Commercialize Complex Goods.
  • Organizational Studies - All Articles 18 September 2009 9:10 UTC www.orgstudies.org [Source type: Academic]

Thieves are usually not forced to give a cut of their takings, as the money involved in small thefts is not worth the trouble.[34]

Drug trafficking

.Sicily is a major hub in the international drugs trade.^ These high-level LCN meetings established Sicily as a major base in United States drug trade.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

[35] .In 2003, the Sicilian Mafia is estimated to have made over €8 billion through drug trafficking.^ This law has had a significant impact on Sicilian Mafia heroin traffickers.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

[citation needed]

Arms trafficking

.In 2003, the Sicilian Mafia is estimated to have made a turnover of €1.5 billion through weapons trafficking.^ This law has had a significant impact on Sicilian Mafia heroin traffickers.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

[36]

Loan sharking

.In a 2007 publication, the Italian small-business association Confesercenti reported that about 25.2% of Sicilian businesses are indebted to loan sharks, who collect around €1.4 billion a year in payments.^ DiPascali identified one particularly “special” client: Jeffry Picower, who seems to have netted around $5 billion from the Madoff scam.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mafioso Frank Costello claimed to have been a business associate of Joseph Kennedy's during the first years of Prohibition.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feb.2007 Pot Prisoners Cost Americans $1 Billion a Year 1 out of 8 U.S. drug prisoners are locked up for pot.
  • 20070211 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC alfatomega.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]

Control of contracting

.The Sicilian Mafia in Italy is believed to have a turnover of €6.5 billion through control of public and private contracts.^ For example, Icahn was the man behind Ladenburg Thalmann, an investment bank that financed many companies through so-called PIPEs – private investments in public equities.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the control's form is submitted, the private key is stored in the local keystore, and the public key is packaged and sent to the server.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The only acquittal in this case was for Vito Badalamenti, the son of Gaetano Badalamenti, who was the former chief of the Sicilian Mafia and known in Italy as the boss of all bosses.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

[38] .Mafiosi use threats of violence and vandalism to muscle out competitors and win contracts for the companies they control.^ It is used to persist names of controls even when they change names.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For Hughes Aircraft, this arrangement constituted an increased cost of doing business which the company could use to offset its profits and add to its bills for military contracts.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .They rarely manage the businesses they control themselves, but take a cut of their profits, usually through payoffs (pizzo).^ Whether they be journalists tied to Cramer, financial analysts, or hedge fund managers, they are unusual among financial professionals in that they take overt pride in their thuggish manner.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's not usual for people in the PR game to make the news when they take a new job.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 13:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[39]

Forbidden crimes

.Certain types of crimes are forbidden by Cosa Nostra, either by members or freelance criminals within their domains.^ September 8, 1962: Joseph Valachi, while being questioned by the FBI, first acknowledged "La Cosa Nostra" as the name used by members of his organization.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

Mafiosi are generally forbidden from committing theft (burglary, mugging, etc). Kidnapping is also generally forbidden, even by non-members, as it attracts a great deal of public hostility and police attention. .These rules have been violated from time to time, both with and without the permission of senior mafiosi.^ These rules make errors for resources listed in the manifest fatal, while making it possible for other resources to be removed from caches when they are removed from the server, without errors, and making non-manifest resources survive server-side errors.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, in an HTML document with nodes in multiple namespaces, these methods will effectively be both case-sensitive and case-insensitive at the same time.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These requirements are a willful violation of the JavaScript specification current at the time of writing (ECMAScript edition 3).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[40]

History

Post-feudal Sicily

The genesis of Cosa Nostra is hard to trace because of its secretive nature and lack of historical record-keeping. It is widely believed that its seeds were planted in the upheaval of Sicily's transition from feudalism to capitalism in 1812 and its later annexation by mainland Italy in 1860. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies couldn't fully enforce law and order, and many groups, from bandits to artisan guilds, used violence to plunder or settle disputes.
In 1864, Niccolò Turrisi Colonna, leader of the Palermo National Guard, wrote of a "sect of thieves" that operated across Sicily. .This "sect" had special signals to recognize each other, had political protection in many regions, and a code of loyalty and non-interaction with the police known as umirtà ("humility").^ The French, in their losing battle against the Vietminh, sought to utilize the sects by granting them political automony over their regions and by financing their military units.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That effort led to other operations and many more cases that collectively came to be known at the FBI as the “Mob on Wall Street” campaign.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copper and asbestos are the principal mineral products of that part of Quebec included in the region now under description, although many other minerals are known and already worked to some extent.

[41] The sect was mostly rural, comprising plantation wardens and smugglers, among others.[42] .Colonna warned in his report that the Italian government's brutal attempts to crush unlawfulness only made the problem worse by alienating the populace.^ Remember, Gary Weiss is the Portfolio magazine reporter who just who just told Portfolio magazine that only “conspiracy theorists” believe that abusive short selling is a problem.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But once an attempt was made to monitor the taps from a nearby listening post, it became evident that only the tap on the director was functional.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Weiss has reported extensively on the Mafia’s infiltration of Wall Street, but he has, for years, insisted that only conspiracy theorists believe naked short selling is problem.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An 1865 dispatch from the prefect of Palermo to Rome first officially described the phenomenon as a "Mafia".[4][43]
.Much of the Mafia's early activity centered around the lucrative citrus export industry around Palermo, whose fragile production system made it quite vulnerable to extortion.^ Farm products are the most important export, and with the extension of this industry in the north-west provinces and in northern Ontario will probably continue to be so.

^ The factories of the United States, unduly developed by an extreme system of protection, sought in Canada a slaughter market for their surplus products, to the detriment or destruction of Canadian industries.

What is probably the earliest detailed account of Mafia activity comes from the memoirs of a citrus plantation owner named Gaspare Galati in the 1870s. .After firing his warden for stealing coal and produce, Galati received threatening letters demanding that he rehire this "man of honour". Two successive replacements he hired were shot by hitmen, but the police failed to find any evidence implicating the "man of honour". Galati's own inquiries led him to believe the "man of honour" was part of a group known as a cosca, based in a nearby village and led by a local landowner and former revolutionary.^ When replacing a component in the URL, if the component is part of an optional group in the URL syntax consisting of a character followed by the component, the component (including its prefix character) must be included even if the new value is the empty string.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ One of Mr. Hauer's first tasks was to find a home for an emergency command center to replace the inadequate facilities at police headquarters.
  • GIULIANI AT LARGE: News items about Rudy Giuliani 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC prorev.com [Source type: News]

^ When Icahn left Gruntal, he was replaced by Milken crony Ron Aizer, who proceeded to hire two traders who are cronies of Michael Milken.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many such groups existed that disrupted citrus plantations to either extort money or buy them at low prices.^ It is possible that Balyasny and his associate, the mysterious Jacob Gottleib, were implementing a split-strike pricing strategy – selling out of the money calls and buying out of the money puts.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Worse still, these groups appeared to have allies in the police and local government.^ Most of these were released or deported, but in October a government spokesman stated that 4,000 political prisoners were still being held.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Howard appeared before the government investigators, the spectators still regarded him as the heroic pilot who had kept America in the forefront of aviation.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Galati gave up and fled home to Naples.[44]
The accounts of Galati and others alarmed politicians in Rome. .One described the Mafia as "an instrument of local government", given its level of collusion with Sicilian officials.^ If the given browsing context name is _top , then the chosen browsing context must be the most top-level browsing context of the current one.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To secure the Argentine government's support for the project, the consortium has employed high-level officials of the Bush administration, according to Argentine press reports.
  • 20070211 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC alfatomega.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You're on one level and what you say may be just how you describe it but what I love about NY Niggas, real NY niggas is we take our show on the road.
  • KRS DROPS A "CRIMINAL MINDED" VIDEO, CORY GUNZ RESURFACES! D | SOHH NYC | SOHH BLOG 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC blogs.sohh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] Throughout the late 1870s, the government ordered numerous authoritarian crackdowns in which entire towns were encircled and suspects deported en masse. The crackdowns failed, however, to deal with the political corruption, and many well-connected mafiosi escaped the dragnet.[12]
Mafiosi meddled in politics early on, bullying voters into voting for candidates they favoured. .At this period in history, only a small fraction of the Sicilian population could vote, so a single mafia boss could control a sizeable chunk of the electorate and thus wield considerable political leverage.^ The loss of shipping rights could therefore undermine American leverage in Arabian politics.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The jury could only conclude that there was a conspiracy of silence and that the existence of "the Mafia has been established beyond doubt".
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When it was pointed out to her that the erasure could only have occurred if the recorder's foot pedal (which controlled stop, reverse and restart) had been continuously pressed, she said she "must have" done so.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .Mafiosi used their allies in government to avoid prosecution as well as persecute less well-connected rivals.^ The extra data could include the certificate of the site when using encrypted connections, to ensure that if the site's secure certificate changes, the origin is considered to change as well.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

The highly fragmented and shaky Italian political system allow cliques of Mafia-friendly politicians to exert a lot of influence.[12]
.In an 1898 report to prosecutors, the police chief of Palermo identified eight Mafia clans operating in the suburbs and villages near the city.^ The police chief covering the area including Chappaquiddick island told reporters, "when you have a U.S. Senator, you have to give him some credibility."
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also identified a man called "Lupo the Wolf" as chief Mafia boss, but was unable to bring him to court.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The report mentioned initiation rituals and codes of conduct, as well as criminal activities that included counterfeiting, ransom kidnappings, robbery, murder and witness intimidation.^ The committee was able to identify from Federal and local intelligence reports the organized crime families that dominated various areas and various illicit activities, including the identity of their .
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

.The Mafia also maintained funds to support the families of imprisoned members and pay defense lawyers.^ The key limited partners in Steinhardt Jr.’s first hedge fund, Steinhardt Partners, were the Genovese Mafia family, Ivan Boesky, Marc Rich, and Marty Peretz.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dio, a member of a prominent Mafia "family", was an experienced labor racketeer in New York's garment industry.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]

Fascist suppression

.In the 1920s, Benito Mussolini initiated a campaign to destroy the Mafia and its political allies.^ The "Maxi-trial" is called the most intense crackdown of the Sicilian Mafia since the "Mori Operation" was instituted in the 1920s by Mussolini.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

In doing so, he would suppress many political opponents on the island and score a great propaganda coup for Fascism. In October 1925, he appointed Cesare Mori prefect of Palermo and gave him special powers to attack the Mafia. Like previous crackdowns, it involved massive round-ups of suspected criminals; over 11,000 arrests were made over the course of the campaign.[12] Wives and children of mafiosi were sometimes taken hostage to force their surrender. Many were tried en masse.[47][48] .More than 1,200 were convicted and imprisoned,[49] and many others were internally exiled without trial.^ And he was imprisoned without ever being brought to trial.
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^ A New Way to Die Lethal gas is used for the first time to execute a condemned man, in the belief that it is more humane than other methods.
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^ NY rappers do more stunting in other cities than they ever do at home and that's because in NY it ain't never really been about cash alone in the street.
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[50]
Mori's campaign ended in June 1929 when Mussolini recalled him to Rome. .Although he did not totally crush the Mafia as the Fascist press proclaimed, his campaign was nonetheless very successful.^ Although the CIA did not accept ITT money, arrangements were made to facilitate the ITT making campaign contributions on its own — behind the back of the American Ambassador.
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In 1986, the mafioso defector Antonino Calderone said of the period:
The music changed. Mafiosi had a hard life. [...] After the war the mafia hardly existed anymore. The Sicilian Families had all been broken up.[50]
.Many mafiosi fled to the United States.^ By May 1973 the United States was dropping nearly as many bombs per month on Cambodia as had been dropped during the whole of 1972.
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^ To many in South Vietnam it was a sign that the United States was abandoning them.
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^ Many of the students, especially in the departments of medicine and theology , complete their education in the United States, Britain or Europe.

.Among these were Carlo Gambino and Joseph Bonanno, who would go on to become powerful Mafia bosses in New York City.^ New Orleans Mafia boss Carlos Marcello was well looked-after.
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^ I asked H. Robert Holmes, who was Chanos’s boss at Gilford, whether he had any comment on the Mafia’s infiltration of his firm.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the 1920 imprisonment of "Lupo the Wolf" for counterfeiting, no supreme Mafia boss would emerge in New York City until the 1930s.
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Post-Fascist Revival

.In 1943, nearly half a million Allied troops invaded Sicily; the crime rate soared in the upheaval and chaos.^ Thousands of mafiosi were in jail and others, hiding in the mountains of western Sicily, were only too ready to support the invading Allies.
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.Many inmates escaped from their prisons, banditry returned and the black market thrived.^ Huge quantities of merchandise were stolen, much of it being sold in South Vietnam's thriving black market.
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[12] .During the first six months of Allied occupation, party politics in Sicily was banned.^ Political parties were banned from Iran.
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^ The first of a planned three-month series of occupations of U.S. legislators’ offices was designed to demand specific action to quickly end the U.S. war in and occupation of Iraq.
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^ Standing at six foot two and weighing two hundred pounds, Teddy showed potential on the Harvard gridiron during his first year.
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[51] As Fascist mayors were deposed, the Allies simply appointed replacements. Many turned out to be mafiosi, such as Calogero Vizzini and Giuseppe Genco Russo.[52][53] .They could easily present themselves as political dissidents,[54] and their anti-communist position made them further desirable.^ Even in the Armenian emigre community the CIA could not win the battle between the pro-communists and the anti-communists.
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^ These could have been shares that they bought to cover short positions.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brought before a judge, the men identified themselves as "anti-communists".
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.The changing economic landscape of Sicily would shift the Mafia's power base from the rural to the urban.^ By 1930 an out-and-out war had erupted between the most powerful Mafia chieftains: Masseria and Maranzano, representing Sicilians from eastern and western regions of Sicily, respectively.
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.The Minister of Agriculture – a communist – pushed for reforms in which peasants were to get larger shares of produce, be allowed to form cooperatives and take over badly used land, and remove the system by which leaseholders (known as "gabelloti") could rent land from landowners for their own short-term use.^ His engineers produced the H-1 ("H" for "Hughes"), a plane which minimized drag by the use of rivets placed flush in the fuselage, by shortened wings and by retractable landing gear.
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^ This could be an actual variable in a mathematical expression or programming context, or it could just be a term used as a placeholder in prose.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Meanwhile, the DTCC maintains something called the “Stock Borrow Program,” whereby it purportedly borrows a bundle of shares from cooperating brokers and uses the shares to settle failed trades.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55] Owners of especially large estates were to be forced to sell off their excess land. The Mafia, which had connections to many landowners, murdered many socialist reformers. .In the end, though, they couldn't stop the process, and many landowners chose to sell their land to mafiosi, who offered more money than the government.^ The study from the University of New South Wales, showed that people in a negative mood were more critical of, and paid more attention to, their surroundings than happier people, who were more likely to believe anything they were told.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 13:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In all the provinces they are under the control of the federal government which acts as their trustee, investing the money which they derive chiefly from the sale of lands and timber, and making a large annual appropriation for the payment of their annuities, schools and other expenses.

^ These foreign elements have been assimilated more slowly than in the United States, but the process is being hastened by the growth of a national consciousness.

[56]
.After the war, the Italian government poured public money into rebuilding Sicily, leading to a big construction boom.^ Hughes unquestionably poured a great deal of effort and money into building the aircraft.
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^ The control of the public lands is retained by the general government on the ground that it has been responsible for the development of the country by railway construction and emigration.

.In 1956, two Mafia-connected officials, Vito Ciancimino and Salvatore Lima, took control of Palermo's Office of Public Works.^ O'Connell had been Maheu's case worker in connection with other work Maheu had done for the CIA. He was hopeful that Maheu could orchestrate the assassination plan without letting the Mafia know of the CIA's involvement.
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^ It has orchestrated this vicious public relations campaign in cahoots with a crooked Portfolio magazine reporter named Gary Weiss , who has worked closely with a motley cast of Mafia-connected hedge fund managers and convicted criminals.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1962 the company opened an office in Stockholm staffed by two CIA agents pretending to be doing work for General Foods, a Mullen client.
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.Between 1959 and 1963, about 80% of building permits were given to just five people, none of whom represented major construction firms and were probably Mafia frontmen.^ But given the subsequent revelations about his firm, it is not surprising that some people now call him the “king of stock fraud.” D.H. Blair was eventually indicted on 173 counts of securities fraud.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feb.2007 Occupation Protest Project Rolls Into McCains Office: The arrests started just five minutes after people entered Senator John McCain’s (R-AZ) office in the Senate Office Building.
  • 20070211 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC alfatomega.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 80,000 persons find more or less permanent employment in the fishing industry, including the majority of the Indians of British Columbia.

[57] .Construction companies unconnected with the Mafia were forced to pay protection money.^ One Republican Senator conducted investigations revealing that American oil companies were paying protection money to the NLF for the privilege of getting their oil safely to the US military.
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^ Specifically, Palimeri was collecting protection money from home builders in New York and New Jersey and funneling the receipts through his plumbing company.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ It can broker swap contracts that oblige counterparties to pay the hedge funds a certain amount of money in the event that the company’s stock price decreases in value.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many buildings were illegally constructed before the city's planning was finalized. In 1982, the antimafia prosecutor Giovanni Falcone noted:
.
Mafia organizations entirely control the building sector in Palermo – the quarries where aggregates are mined, site clearance firms, cement plants, metal depots for the construction industry, wholesalers for sanitary fixtures, and so on.^ The consortium partners are New Orleans-based Avondale Industries, which would construct prefabricated steel modules for the plant; Houston-based Brown and Root, which would build roads, bridges, levees and infrastructure for the dam; and Baton Rouge-based Forte and Tablade, an engineering firm which would provide engineering design and project coordination.
  • 20070211 11 September 2009 11:23 UTC alfatomega.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Social Construction of Reputation: Certification Contests, Legitimation, and the Survival of Organizations in the American Automobile Industry: 1895-1912.
  • Organizational Studies - All Articles 18 September 2009 9:10 UTC www.orgstudies.org [Source type: Academic]

[58]
.In the 1950s, a crackdown in the United States on drug trafficking led to the imprisonment of many American mafiosi.^ By May 1973 the United States was dropping nearly as many bombs per month on Cambodia as had been dropped during the whole of 1972.
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^ To many in South Vietnam it was a sign that the United States was abandoning them.
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^ Many of the students, especially in the departments of medicine and theology , complete their education in the United States, Britain or Europe.

.Furthermore, Cuba, a major hub for drug smuggling, fell to Fidel Castro.^ Fidel Castro Ruz was the son of a Spanish soldier who first came to Cuba to fight in the Spanish-American War.
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^ Cuba, a major distributor in the smuggling of narcotics into the United States, had fallen into political turmoil.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ When Fidel Castro nationalized the telephone company in Cuba, the effect on ITT President Harold Geneen was traumatic.
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.This prompted the American mafia boss Joseph Bonanno to return to Sicily in 1957 to franchise out his heroin operations to the Sicilian clans.^ This law has had a significant impact on Sicilian Mafia heroin traffickers.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ He had moved to Miami in 1937 to set up gambling operations in conjunction with Florida Mafia boss Santos Trafficante, Sr.
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^ The third meeting took place at the Apalachin mountain estate of mob boss Joseph M. Barbara on November 14, 1957.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

.Anticipating rivalries for the lucrative American drug market, he negotiated the establishment of a Sicilian Mafia Commission to mediate disputes.^ The Office of Strategic Services (forerunner of the CIA) sought Luciano's influence with the Sicilian Mafia to lessen the resistance to an American invasion.
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^ In the initiation ritual — common to the Sicilian and American Mafia — the initiate's middle finger would be pierced by a needle.
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^ A member of the Florida Mafia established himself as an agent for American companies wishing to sell supplies to Army service clubs.
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[59]

First Mafia War

.The First Mafia War was the first high-profile conflict between Mafia clans in post-war Italy (the Sicilian Mafia has a long history of violent rivalries).^ World War II conflicts between the communist and non-communist resistance forces were rampant throughout Europe and Asia — considerably undermining the war effort.
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^ It was the beginning of an eight-year conflict which has been called "the First Indochinese War".
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^ The only acquittal in this case was for Vito Badalamenti, the son of Gaetano Badalamenti, who was the former chief of the Sicilian Mafia and known in Italy as the boss of all bosses.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

In December 1962 some heroin went missing from a shipment to America. .When the Sicilian Mafia Commission could not decide who was to blame, one of the clans involved – the La Barbera clan – took matters into its own hands.^ Kissinger discussed the matter with President Gerald Ford, leading the President announce the formation of the Rockefeller Commission through which the Vice-President could investigate the charges against the Agency.
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^ These charges were investigated by a royal commission, which was appointed after it had been decided that the parliamentary committee named for that purpose could not legally take evidence under oath.

^ When Adonis decided to go into the cigarette vending machine business, his high-pressure salesmen found thousands of potential customers who were eager to place his machines.
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.They murdered a mafioso from the Greco clan whom they suspected of stealing the heroin, triggering a war in which many non-mafiosi would be killed in the crossfire.^ Ten percent of the population of Marseille is composed of Corsicans, many of whom demonstrate the kind of criminal clannishness for which Sicilian mafiosi are notorious.
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^ They would be like four blocks away from the building where the guy was killed.
  • GIULIANI AT LARGE: News items about Rudy Giuliani 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC prorev.com [Source type: News]

^ Although Hoover was well aware of the criminal stature of many mafiosi, he would not admit that they possessed any national organization which would bring them more under FBI jurisdiction.
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[60] In April 1963, several bystanders were wounded during a shootout in Palermo.[61] In May, Angelo La Barbera survived a murder attempt in Milan. In June, six military officers and a policeman in Ciaculli were killed while trying to dispose of a car bomb.
.The fact that the conflict spread outside Sicily and claimed innocent lives provoked national outrage and a crackdown in which nearly 2,000 arrests were made.^ The Dominion government makes in turn to one of the chief local agricultural exhibition societies a grant of $50,000 for the purposes of the national representation of agriculture and live-stock.

^ Nearly 100,000 demonstrators converged on Washington, DC for a national day of protest.
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.Mafia activity fell as clans disbanded and mafiosi went into hiding.^ Schultz went into hiding and asked the Syndicate to have Dewey killed.
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^ In 1936 Lepke Buchalter went into hiding after he became aware that the law was hot on his tail.
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^ The oath of secrecy prohibits mafiosi from divulging Mafia activities to non-mafiosi.
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The Commission was dissolved; it would not reform until 1969.[62] 117 suspects were put on trial in 1968, but most were acquitted or received light sentences.[63]

Heroin Boom

.When heroin refineries operated by the Corsican Mafia in Marseilles were shut down by French authorities, morphine traffickers looked to Sicily.^ Gaining political power in the city, control of the waterfront and additional money to work with, the Corsican syndicates were able to make Marseille the heroin manufacturing and smuggling capitol of Europe.
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^ Under the strain of those investigations, Sturza shut his operation down.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Starting in 1975, Cosa Nostra set up heroin refineries across the island.^ During a 1958 crisis involving the shelling of the islands of Quemoy and Matsu by the Chinese Communists, Oswald was sent to Taiwan to assist in setting up a radar base.
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^ Otherwise, it is the first element, going up the ancestor chain, starting at the node that the user tried to drag, that has the IDL attribute draggable set to true.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[64] As well as refining heroin, Cosa Nostra also sought to control its distribution. .Sicilian mafiosi moved to the United States to personally control distribution networks there, often at the expense of their U.S. counterparts.^ Justice is well administered throughout the country, and even in the remotest mining camps there has been little of the lawlessness seen in similar districts of Australia and the United States.

^ Two days later the State Gaming Control Board waived the usual requirements for photographs, financial information and a personal appearance in granting Hughes a gaming license.
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^ (Between 1922 and 1929, at least 500 Sicilian Mafiosi fled to the United States.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

.Heroin addiction in Europe and North America surged, and seizures by police increased dramatically.^ Resource Redeployment Following Horizontal Acquisitions In Europe and North America, 1988-1992.
  • Organizational Studies - All Articles 18 September 2009 9:10 UTC www.orgstudies.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Learning From Competing Partners: Outcomes and Durations of Scale and Link Alliances In Europe, North America and Asia.
  • Organizational Studies - All Articles 18 September 2009 9:10 UTC www.orgstudies.org [Source type: Academic]

.By 1982, the Sicilian Mafia controlled about 80% of the heroin trade in the north-eastern United States.^ This law has had a significant impact on Sicilian Mafia heroin traffickers.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ Though the chief foreign commerce is with Great Britain and the United States, the Dominion has trade relations with all the chief countries of the world and maintains commercial agents among them.

^ These high-level LCN meetings established Sicily as a major base in United States drug trade.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

[65] .Heroin was often distributed to street dealers from Mafia-owned pizzerias, and the revenues could be passed off as restaurant profits (the so-called Pizza Connection).^ It called for a restoration of the Constitution of 1940, for the ownership of small farms by sharecroppers and squatters, and for the distribution to the workers of a portion of the profits from industries and sugar plantations.
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.Through the heroin trade, Cosa Nostra became wealthier and more powerful than ever.^ When Dendreon became a “battleground stock,” Dendreon had no more than three “serious” competitors.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The case became known as the "Pizza Connection" because the ring allegedly used pizza parlors in the Midwest and Northeast as fronts to market more than $3.6 billion in heroin imported over a 10- year period.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ Despite his enquires, however, he was unable to secure a loan which would not give more power to his debtors than he was willing to relinquish.
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Second Mafia War

.In the early 1970s, Luciano Leggio, boss of the Corleone clan and member of the Sicilian Mafia Commission, forged a coalition of mafia clans known as the Corleonesi, with himself as its leader.^ Officers of the Mafia and many of its members were not known.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ January 26, 1962: Salvatore Lucania (Lucky Luciano), former Commission member, died in Italy, apparently of natural causes.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ Even more serious was the awareness that Allen Dulles, who knew of the plots, had served as a Commission member without making the information known.
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He initiated a campaign to dominate Cosa Nostra and its narcotics trade. .Because Leggio was imprisoned in 1974, he acted through his deputy, Salvatore Riina, to whom he would eventually hand over control.^ While incarcerated, he maintained control of the Philadelphia LCN Family through Salvatore Merlino, underboss, and Nicholas Piccolo, the consigliere.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ Caravans of opium, mostly from Burma, would make their way through the mountains to Bangkok under the control and supervision of the Koumintang.
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^ Both were reportedly murdered in the continuing dispute as to who would eventually gain control of the Family.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

.The Corleonesi bribed cash-strapped Palermo clans into the fold, subverted members of other clans and secretly recruited new members.^ It also barred specific Bonanno Family members from engaging in unlawful activities, from making new family members, and from associating with each other for business purposes.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ In other words, the ranges in such an object are ordered, don't overlap, aren't empty, and don't touch (adjacent ranges are folded into one bigger range).
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

[66] In 1977, the Corleonesi had Gaetano Badalamenti expelled from the Commission on trumped-up charges of hiding drug revenues.[67] .In April 1981, the Corleonesi murdered another member of the Commission, Stefano Bontate, and the Second Mafia War began in earnest.^ July 19, 1974: Stefano Magaddino, Commission member from Buffalo, New York, died of natural causes.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ April 11, 1959: Vito Genovese, Commission member from New York City, was convicted of violating Federal narcotics laws.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ Commission on the earlier charges that he had planned to murder 2 or 3 of his fellow Commission members.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

[68] Hundreds of enemy mafiosi and their relatives were murdered,[69] sometimes by traitors in their own clans. .In the end, the Corleonesi faction won and Riina effectively became the "boss of bosses" of the Sicilian Mafia.^ The only acquittal in this case was for Vito Badalamenti, the son of Gaetano Badalamenti, who was the former chief of the Sicilian Mafia and known in Italy as the boss of all bosses.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

.At the same time the Corleonesi waged their campaign to dominate Cosa Nostra, they also waged a campaign of murder against journalists, officials and policemen who dared cross them.^ He was also a defendant in a civil lawsuit accusing him of retaliation against a corrections official who had disciplined a female prison guard with whom Kerik was having a relationship.
  • GIULIANI AT LARGE: News items about Rudy Giuliani 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC prorev.com [Source type: News]

^ At the same time, the Intelligence Division of the Internal Revenue Service went to work on building a case against Costello.
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^ The Hennessey killing and the subsequent murders created perhaps the first significant public awareness of the La Cosa Nostra (LCN).
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

The police were frustrated with the lack of help they were receiving from witnesses and politicians. .At the funeral of a policeman murdered by mafiosi in 1985, policemen insulted and spat at two attending statesmen, and a fight broke out between them and military police.^ But before this issue matured war broke out between Great Britain and the United States in 1812 from causes due chiefly to Napoleon's continental policy.

[70]

Maxi trial and war against the government

In the early 1980s, the magistrates Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino began a campaign against Cosa Nostra. .Their big break came with the arrest of Tommaso Buscetta, a mafioso who chose to turn informant in exchange for protection from the Corleonesi, who had already murdered many of his friends and relatives.^ Because many Vietnamese already resented Catholics as being descendants of those who had curried favor with the French, the Catholic privilage and power served to aggrevate the resentment.
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^ Compare his rhymes to Rakim, Big Daddy Kane, Kool G Rap and many more who were dropping heat at the same time.
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^ Anyone who has a child in school already knows that fundraisers are a big part of the school experience.
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Other mafiosi followed his example. .Falcone and Borsellino compiled their testimonies and organized the Maxi Trial, which lasted from February 1986 to December 1987. It was held in a fortified courthouse specially built for the occasion.^ The trial of these defendants, called the "Maxi-trial," began in February, 1986, in Palermo, Sicily.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

474 mafiosi were put on trial, of which 342 were convicted. .In January 1992 the Italian Supreme Court confirmed these convictions.^ In January the Supreme Court postponed another anti-banking suit, and Williams' lawyers fought delaying actions through the spring and summer.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though Hoffa fought his jury-tampering conviction all the way to the Supreme Court, he was ultimately defeated, with only Chief Justice Warren dissenting.
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The Mafia retaliated violently. .In 1988, they murdered a Palermo judge and his son; three years later a prosecutor and an anti-mafia businessman were also murdered.^ Three years later, Sinatra was one of the swingingest bachelors on the continent.
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^ In August 1972, after three years of stalemate, the North Vietnamese gave evidence that they were ready for serious negotiations.
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^ Three years later Kennedy was made American Ambassador to England.
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Salvatore Lima, a close political ally of the Mafia, was murdered for failing to reverse the convictions as promised. .Falcone and Borsellino were killed by bombs in 1992. This led to a public outcry and a massive government crackdown, resulting in the arrest of Cosa Nostra's "boss of bosses", Salvatore Riina, in January 1993. More and more defectors emerged.^ January 1, 1959: The Cuban Government under President Fulgencio Batista collapsed, resulting in widespread riots and the burning of homes, stores, and gambling casinos.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ Nixon admits that part of the reason he kept the bombing a secret was to prevent "public outcry" by domestic antiwar groups.
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^ The Hennessey killing and the subsequent murders created perhaps the first significant public awareness of the La Cosa Nostra (LCN).
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

.Many would pay a high price for their cooperation, usually through the murder of relatives.^ At a press conference, Nixon made the statement, "I would remind all concerned that the way we got into Vietnam was through overthrowing Diem, and the complicity in the murder of Diem."
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For example, Francesco Marino Mannoia's mother, aunt and sister were murdered.[71]
After Riina's arrest, the Mafia began a campaign of terrorism on the Italian mainland. Tourist spots such as the Via dei Georgofili in Florence, Via Palestro in Milan, and the Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano and Via San Teodoro in Rome were attacked, leaving 10 dead and 93 injured and causing severe damage to cultural heritage such as the Uffizi Gallery. .When the Catholic Church openly condemned the Mafia, two churches were bombed and an antimafia priest shot dead in Rome.^ When one of the pilots was shot down over Indonesia after accidently bombing a church (killing most of the congregation), Allen Dulles decided to withdraw from the fight.
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[72]
After Riina's capture, leadership of the Mafia was briefly held by Leoluca Bagarella, then passed to Bernardo Provenzano when the former was himself captured in 1995.[73] Provenzano halted the campaign of violence and replaced it with a campaign of quietness known as pax mafiosi.

The Provenzano years

Under Bernardo Provenzano's leadership, murders of state officials were halted. .He also halted the policy of murdering informants and their families, with a view instead to getting them to retract their testimonies and return to the fold.^ When there is no body element or if it is a frameset element, the attributes must instead return the empty string on getting and do nothing on setting.
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[74] He also restored the common support fund for imprisoned mafiosi.
The tide of defectors was greatly stemmed. The Mafia preferred to initiate relatives of existing mafiosi, believing them to be less prone to defection.
Provenzano was arrested in 2006, after 43 years on the run.

The modern Mafia in Italy

.The incarcerated bosses are currently subjected to harsh controls on their contact with the outside world, limiting their ability to run their operations from behind bars under the article 41-bis prison regime.^ Shapes are painted without affecting the current path, and are subject to the clipping region , and, with the exception of clearRect() , also shadow effects , global alpha , and global composition operators .
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^ Text is painted without affecting the current path, and is subject to shadow effects , global alpha , the clipping region , and global composition operators .
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^ Paths, when filled or stroked, must be painted without affecting the current path, and must be subject to shadow effects , global alpha , the clipping region , and global composition operators .
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.Antonino Giuffrè – a close confidant of Provenzano, turned pentito shortly after his capture in 2002 – alleges that in 1993 Cosa Nostra had direct contact with representatives of Silvio Berlusconi who was then planning the birth of Forza Italia.^ Roddy Boyd is a key figure among the small coterie of journalists who turn up repeatedly in Deep Capture ’s analyses.
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^ The aviator was captured in Spain by American agents who had learned of the plan from British Intelligence.
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[75][76][77]
.The alleged deal included a repeal of 41 bis, among other anti-Mafia laws in return for electoral support in Sicily.^ Anti-Mafia Law 49 .
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^ One of the main features of the Anti-Mafia Law is that association with known Mafia types is illegal, whether or not a crime is committed.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ The businessman had told federal authorities that Kerik received gifts, including $165,000 in apartment renovations, from a New Jersey family with alleged Mafia ties.
  • GIULIANI AT LARGE: News items about Rudy Giuliani 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC prorev.com [Source type: News]

Nevertheless, Giuffrè's declarations have not yet been confirmed. .The Italian Parliament, with the full support of Forza Italia reinforced the provisions of the 41 bis, which was to expire in 2002 but has been prolonged for another four years and extended to other crimes such as terrorism.^ They did not want to face a Nixon armed with another four-year mandate.
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^ Some UAs might opt to support a plugin mechanism such as the Netscape Plugin API; others might use remote content converters or have built-in support for certain types.
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^ Notice, too, the underlining, which stressed that this treatment (as opposed to others, such as Dendreon’s) was endorsed and supported by the Prostate Cancer Foundation.
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.However, according to one of Italy’s leading magazines, L'Espresso, 119 mafiosi – one-fifth of those incarcerated under the 41 bis regime – have been released on an individual basis.^ According to a reliable source, one of those traders was investigated for trading on inside information provided by Milken’s operation at Drexel Burnham Lambert.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (According to certain press releases, the CIA secretly paid Lloyd's of London one million dollars to cover insurance claims.
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[78] .The human rights group Amnesty International has expressed concern that the 41-bis regime could in some circumstances amount to "cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment" for prisoners.^ Some critics have suggested that underworld figures who visited Luciano in his cell to converse in Italian were a means through which he could continue to control his empire while in prison.
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^ Allegations concerning the use of torture were widespread, but the government refused to allow an investigation by the UN Human Rights Commission.
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^ That same year, the Secretary General of Amnesty International proclaimed that Iran's human rights record was worse than that of any other country in the world.
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[citation needed]
In addition to Salvatore Lima, mentioned above, the politician Giulio Andreotti and the High Court judge Corrado Carnevale have long been suspected of having ties to the Mafia.
.By the late 1990s, the weakened Cosa Nostra had to yield most of the illegal drug trade to the 'Ndrangheta crime organization from Calabria.^ Most disturbing, according to people close to the process, was Kerik's friendship with a businessman who was linked to organized crime.
  • GIULIANI AT LARGE: News items about Rudy Giuliani 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC prorev.com [Source type: News]

^ In the late 1990s, the FBI launched Operation Uptick , which resulted in the arrest of more than 120 Wall Street stock manipulators linked to organized crime – the biggest Mafia bust in FBI history.
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^ Soon Valachi was detailing his experiences about the organization he called La Cosa Nostra ("our thing") to Bobby Kennedy.
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[citation needed] In 2006, the latter was estimated to control 80% of the cocaine import to Europe.[79]

Prominent Sicilian mafiosi

.
  • Vito Cascio Ferro Prominent early Don, imprisoned by Cesare Mori.
  • Calogero Vizzini (1877 – 1954), boss of Villalba, was considered to be one of the most influential Mafia bosses of Sicily after World War II until his death in 1954.
  • Giuseppe Genco Russo (1893 – 1976), boss of Mussomeli, considered to be the heir of Calogero Vizzini.
  • Michele Navarra (1905 – 1958), boss of the Mafia Family in Corleone from 1940s to 1958
  • Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco (1923 – 1978), boss of the Mafia Family in Ciaculli, he was the first "secretary" of the first Sicilian Mafia Commission that was formed somewhere in 1958.
  • Gaetano Badalamenti (1923 – 2004), boss of the Mafia Family in Cinisi
  • Angelo La Barbera (1924 – 1975) boss of the Mafia Family in Palermo Centro
  • Michele Greco (1924 – 2008), boss of the Mafia Family in Croceverde
  • Luciano Leggio (1925 – 1993), boss of the Corleone clan and instigator of the Second Mafia War
  • Tommaso Buscetta (1928 – 2000), a mafioso who turned informant in 1984. Buscetta's evidence was used to great effect during the Maxi-Trials.
  • Salvatore Riina (born 1930), also known as Totò Riina, emerged from the Second Mafia War as the "boss of bosses" until his arrest in 1993.
  • Bernardo Provenzano (born 1933), successor of Riina as head of the Corleonesi faction and as such was considered one of the most powerful bosses of the Sicilian Mafia.^ The only acquittal in this case was for Vito Badalamenti, the son of Gaetano Badalamenti, who was the former chief of the Sicilian Mafia and known in Italy as the boss of all bosses.
    • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Use the first matching item from this list: .
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    ^ World War II presented Lucky Luciano with an unexpected opportunity.
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    Provenzano was a fugitive from justice since 1963. He was captured on 11 April 2006 in Sicily.[80] .Before capture, authorities had reportedly been "close" to capturing him for 10 years.
  • Stefano Bontade (1939 – 1981), boss of the Santa Maria di Gesù clan.^ August 31, 1970: Raymond Patriarca, LCN boss of New England, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for conspiracy to murder.
    • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

    ^ September 10, 1959: Onofrio Sciortino, boss of the San Jose, California, Family, died of natural causes.
    • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

    ^ July 25, 1944: Corrado Giacona, boss of the New Orleans Family for approximately 20 years, died.
    • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

    His murder by the Corleonesi in 1981 inaugurated the Second Mafia War.
  • Leoluca Bagarella (born 1941), member of the Mafia Family in Corleone arrested in 1995
  • Salvatore Lo Piccolo (born 1942), considered to be one of the successors of Provenzano.
  • Salvatore Inzerillo (1944 – 1981), boss of the Mafia Family in Passo di Rigano
  • Giovanni 'Lo Scannacristiani' Brusca (born 1957), who was involved in the murder of Giovanni Falcone.
  • Matteo Messina Denaro (born 1962), considered to be one of the successors of Provenzano.

See also

Analogous terms:

References

  1. ^ Omerta in the Antipodes, Time, 31 January 1964
  2. ^ This etymology is based on the books Mafioso by Gaia Servadio; The Sicilian Mafia by Diego Gambetta; and Cosa Nostra by John Dickie (see Books below).
  3. ^ Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia, p. 136
  4. ^ a b Lupo, Storia della Mafia, p. 6
  5. ^ Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia, p. 137
  6. ^ Servadio, Mafioso, p. 42-43
  7. ^ Giuseppe Pitrè, Usi e costumi, credenze e pregiudizi del popolo siciliano, Palermo 1889
  8. ^ Hess, Mafia & Mafiosi, pp. 2-3
  9. ^ Their Thing, Time, 16 August 1963
  10. ^ Killers in Prison, Time, 4 October 1963
  11. ^ "The Smell of It", Time, 11 October 1963
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k John Dickie. Cosa Nostra: A History of the Sicilian Mafia. ISBN 978-0-349-93526-2
  13. ^ Paoli, Mafia Brotherhoods, p. 24
  14. ^ Paoli, Mafia Brotherhoods, p. 32
  15. ^ Arlacchi, Addio Cosa nostra, p. 106
  16. ^ (Italian) Zu Binnu? Non è il superboss, Intervista a Salvatore Lupo di Marco Nebiolo, Naromafie, April 2006
  17. ^ Italian police arrest the "Godmother", BBC News, December 18, 1997.
  18. ^ Warrant for British "Mafia wife, BBC News, January 8, 2007
  19. ^ Meet the Modern Mob, TIME Magazine, June 2, 2002
  20. ^ Diego Gambetta. Codes of the Underworld. pg 206-208
  21. ^ a b c Diego Gambetta. The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. 1993
  22. ^ Patients die as Sicilian mafia buys into the hospital service, The Guardian, January 1, 2007
  23. ^ Review of Paoli, Mafia Brotherhoods by Klaus Von Lampe
  24. ^ Crisis among the "Men of Honor", interview with Letizia Paoli, Max Planck Research, February 2004
  25. ^ Arlacchi, Gli uomini del disonore, p. 30
  26. ^ Diego Gambetta. Codes of the Underworld. Princeton. ISBN 978-0-691-11937-3
  27. ^ Mafia's 'Ten Commandments' found, BBC News, November 9, 2007
  28. ^ Sicilian businessmen fight Mafia, BBC News, September 3, 2007
  29. ^ (Italian)Le mani della criminalità sulle imprese ("The grip of criminality on enterprises"), Confesercenti, November 2008
  30. ^ Fighting the Sicilian mafia through tourism, The Guardian, May 17, 2008
  31. ^ Heroes in business suits stand up to fight back against Mafia, The Times, November 3, 2007
  32. ^ Diego Gambetta. The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. pg. 54
  33. ^ Diego Gambetta. The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. pg. 171
  34. ^ Diego Gambetta. The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. pg. 172
  35. ^ Cosa Nostra still big in drugs, Italy Magazine, December 13, 2007
  36. ^ (Italian) Mafie: una guerra infinita, 700 morti in cinque anni, Eurispes press release, December 9, 2003
  37. ^ (Italian) Le mani della criminalità sulle imprese (The grip of criminality on enterprises), Confesercenti, October 22, 2007. The statistics in the report were obtained from the Italian Ministry of the Interior.
  38. ^ Patients die as Sicilian mafia buys into the hospital service, The Guardian, January 1, 2007
  39. ^ Diego Gambetta. Codes of the Underworld. 2008
  40. ^ Diego Gambetta. The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. pg 177
  41. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 39-46
  42. ^ The sect made "affiliates every day of the brightest young people coming from the rural class, of the guardians of the fields in the Palermitan countryside, and of the large number of smugglers; a sect which gives and receives protection to and from certain men who make a living on traffic and internal commerce. It is a sect with little or no fear of public bodies, because its members believe that they can easily elude this." See: Paoli, Mafia Brotherhoods, p. 33 (Colonna seemed to have known what he was talking about, as there was widespread suspicion that he was the protector of some important Mafiosi in Palermo)
  43. ^ Gaia Servadio. Mafioso, p. 18
  44. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 27-33
  45. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 72
  46. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 96
  47. ^ Mafia Trial, Time, 24 October 1927
  48. ^ Mafia Scotched, Time, 23 January 1928
  49. ^ Selwyn Raab. Five Families. ISBN 978-1-86105-952-9
  50. ^ a b John Dickie, Cosa Nostra, pp. 176
  51. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 243
  52. ^ Servadio, Mafioso, p. 91
  53. ^ Fighting the Mafia in World War Two, by Tim Newark, May 2007
  54. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 240
  55. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 245
  56. ^ The Sack of Palermo and the Concrete Business of the Sicilian Mafia, Florence Newspaper
  57. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 281
  58. ^ Letizia Paoli. Mafia Brotherhoods. pg 167
  59. ^ John Dickie, Cosa Nostra, pg 293-297
  60. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 311
  61. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 312
  62. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 318
  63. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 325
  64. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 357
  65. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 358
  66. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 369-370
  67. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 371
  68. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 373
  69. ^ Dearth of honour. The Guardian. February 21, 2004.
  70. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 389-390
  71. ^ Dickie, Cosa Nostra, p. ??
  72. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 416
  73. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 427
  74. ^ John Dickie. Cosa Nostra. pg 429
  75. ^ "Berlusconi implicated in deal with godfathers", The Guardian, December 5, 2002
  76. ^ "Berlusconi aide 'struck deal with mafia'", The Guardian, January 8, 2003
  77. ^ "Mafia supergrass fingers Berlusconi" by Philip Willan, The Observer, January 12, 2003
  78. ^ (Italian) Caserta, revocato 41 bis a figlio Bidognetti: lo dice ancora l'Espresso, Casertasete, January , 2006
  79. ^ Move over, Cosa Nostra, The Guardian, June 8, 2006
  80. ^ 'Top Mafia boss' caught in Italy, BBC News, April 11, 2006

Sources

  • Arlacchi, Pino (1988). Mafia Business. The Mafia Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Oxford: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-285197-7
  • (Italian) Arlacchi, Pino (1994). .Addio Cosa nostra: La vita di Tommaso Buscetta, Milan: Rizzoli ISBN 88-17-84299-0
  • Chubb, Judith (1989).^ Soon Valachi was detailing his experiences about the organization he called La Cosa Nostra ("our thing") to Bobby Kennedy.
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    The Mafia and Politics, Cornell Studies in International Affairs, Occasional Papers No. 23.
  • Dickie, John (2007). Cosa Nostra: A History of the Sicilian Mafia, Hodder. ISBN 978-0-340-93526-2
  • Gambetta, Diego (1993). The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. London: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-80742-1
  • Gambetta, Diego (2009). Codes of the Underworld. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11937-3
  • Hess, Henner (1998). .Mafia & Mafiosi: Origin, Power, and Myth, London: Hurst & Co Publishers, ISBN 1-85065-500-6
  • (Italian) Lupo, Salvatore (1993).^ Ltd., London, 36, Essex Street, W.C September, 1911 (English) (as Compiler) A Selection of Books Published by Methuen and Co.
    • Browse By Author: M - Project Gutenberg 2 February 2010 10:010 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    Storia della mafia dalle origine ai giorni nostri, Rome: Donzelli editore ISBN 88-7989-020-4
  • Paoli, Letizia (2003). .Mafia Brotherhoods: Organized Crime, Italian Style, New York: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-515724-9 (Review by Klaus Von Lampe) (Review by Alexandra V. Orlova)
  • Raab, Selwyn (2005).^ After the 1920 imprisonment of "Lupo the Wolf" for counterfeiting, no supreme Mafia boss would emerge in New York City until the 1930s.
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    ^ The 370-pound former prizefighter had been a racketeer on the New York waterfront and a bouncer for Mafia-owned gambling establishments before coming to work for Hoffa.
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    ^ Another man Torrio brought from New York was Al Capone, who served as Torrio's bodyguard, friend and co-organizer.
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    Five Families. .The Rise, Decline, and Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empires, New York: Thomas Dunne Books, ISBN 978-1-86105-952-9
  • Servadio, Gaia (1976), Mafios .^ He ran a very successful bootlegging business during Prohibition and supervised a New York slot machine empire thereafter.
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    ^ After the 1920 imprisonment of "Lupo the Wolf" for counterfeiting, no supreme Mafia boss would emerge in New York City until the 1930s.
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    ^ The 370-pound former prizefighter had been a racketeer on the New York waterfront and a bouncer for Mafia-owned gambling establishments before coming to work for Hoffa.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    A history of the Mafia from its origins to the present day
    , London: Secker & Warburg ISBN 0-436-44700-2

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MAFIA (MAFFIA), a secret society of Sicily. Its organization and purposes much resemble those of the Camorra.
Various derivations are found for the name. Some hold it to be a Tuscan synonym for miseria; others, a corruption of Fr. mauvais (bad). Others connect it with the name of an alleged Arab tribe, Ma-afir, once settled at Palermo. Giuseppe Pitre asserts that the word is peculiar to western Sicily and that, with its derivatives, it formerly meant, in 11 Borgo, a district of Palermo, beauty or excellence. .Thus, a handsome woman showily dressed was said "to have mafia," or to be mafiusa. Often in Palermo the street merchants call arance-mafiuse (fine oranges).^ Paul Krassner , who founded the satirical magazine The Realist in 1958 and is often called the father of the alternative press, said he was encouraged by the broadening of the magazine.

^ "Streets do not exist in civilized societies for the purpose of people sleeping there," Giuliani said during his weekly radio call-in show.
  • GIULIANI AT LARGE: News items about Rudy Giuliani 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC prorev.com [Source type: News]

Thus, Pitre argues, mafia, applied to a man to express manly carriage and bravery, would naturally become the title of a society the members of which were all "bravos." A less credible explanation of the term is connected with Mazzini, who is said to have formed a secret society the members of which were called Mafiusi, from Mafia, a word composed of the initial letters of five Italian words, Mazzini autorizzafurti, incendi, avvelenamenti, " Mazzini authorizes theft, arson and poisoning." This theory suggests that the word was unknown before 1859 or 1860.
The Mafia, however named, existed long before Mazzini's day. In its crudest form it was co-operative brigandage, blended with the Vendetta. The more strictly organized Mafia was the result of the disorders consequent upon the expulsion of the king of Naples by Napoleon. .When the Bourbon court took refuge in Sicily there were a large number of armed retainers in the service of the Sicilian feudal nobility.^ By the way, three months later – at the end of June, 2007 — there was just one more hedge fund with large numbers of Dendreon put options.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was a toast rack, a coffee service, a jug of orange juice, a tray of biscuits, and a large selection of jams in small porcelain pots.
  • Fiction Liberation Front--Gold 28 January 2010 0:57 UTC www.lewisshiner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ O'Brien was receiving a large retainer from Hughes without many people knowing what services were being rendered.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ferdinand IV., at the bidding of England, granted a constitution to the island in 1812, and with the destruction of feudalism most of the feudal troops became brigands. .Powerless to suppress them, Ferdinand organized the bandits into a rural gendarmerie, and they soon established a reign of terror.^ "Reign of Terror"s, even though people of all ages caught on and loved them for they abilities, the music was made for they peers.
  • KRS DROPS A "CRIMINAL MINDED" VIDEO, CORY GUNZ RESURFACES! D | SOHH NYC | SOHH BLOG 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC blogs.sohh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The abject poverty of the poorer classes, unable to eke out existence by work in the sulphur mines or on the fields, fostered the growth of two classes of mafiusi - the vast majority of the inhabitants who were glad to put themselves as passive members under the protection of the Mafia, while the active members shared in the plunder.^ Julian’s promotion worked out perhaps a little too well – Constantius died during a campaign to put down Julian’s rebellion.
  • Roman Coin Attribution Toolkit 6 February 2010 11:56 UTC romancoin.info [Source type: Reference]

^ Plus partnering/bundling your product with those who are already the best in your class helps get more copies out the door.

^ Two especially well-organized and for many years quite active classes are the Wesley Wade or adult group and the Wesley Banner Class of young people.
  • Mineral Wells 15 September 2009 3:35 UTC www.wvculture.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Mafia thus became a loosely organized society under -an unwritten code of laws or ethics known as Omertd, i.e., manliness (from Sicil.^ Luciana took over the Masseria (Napolitana) Family, with Frank Costello as underboss; Vito Genovese was a trusted associate, and later became the boss and the organization was known as the Genovese Family.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ One of the main features of the Anti-Mafia Law is that association with known Mafia types is illegal, whether or not a crime is committed.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ For some Americans he became a martyr symbolizing the beginning of a war between America and Communism — and he thus became the namesake of The John Birch Society.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

omu, Ital. uomo, a man), which embodied the rules of the Vendetta. .Candidates were admitted after trial by duel, and were sworn to resist law and defeat justice.^ This sweetheart did not merely smuggle 56 tons of coke into our country; he also admitted in sworn testimony at the Noriega trial to involvement in a number of murders.

.Like the Camorra, the Mafia was soon powerful in all classes, and even the commander of the royal troops acted in collusion with it.^ The British North America Act assigns to the different provinces, as to the central parliament, their spheres of control, but all residuary powers are given to the general government.

^ Nevada desert), Batista returned to power in March, 1952, and soon asked Lansky to come back and "add a touch of class" to the Cuban operations.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

.The real home of Mafia was in and around Palermo, where no traveller was safe from robbery and the knife.^ Many union officials have used union workers to work around his home or property for littler or no money.
  • THE COSA NOSTRA AND LABOR RACKETEERING 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.laborers.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Look around and you will find, no-one's really colour blind.
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

In an organized form the Mafia survives only in isolated districts. Generally speaking, it is to-day not a compact criminal association but a complex social phenomenon, the consequence of centuries of misgovernment. The Mafiuso is governed by a sentiment akin to arrogance which imposes a special line of conduct upon him. .He considers it dishonourable to have recourse to lawful authority to obtain redress for a wrong or a crime committed against him.^ Fujimori was jailed for six years for abuse of authority, the most minor of the charges he faces, which include human rights and corruption charges, as well as murder and crimes against humanity.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2007/121607.html 15 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

^ One of the main features of the Anti-Mafia Law is that association with known Mafia types is illegal, whether or not a crime is committed.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ People seem to consider him a battle rapper but the only battle he's known for is on wax against wack ass MC Shan.
  • KRS DROPS A "CRIMINAL MINDED" VIDEO, CORY GUNZ RESURFACES! D | SOHH NYC | SOHH BLOG 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC blogs.sohh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He therefore hides the identity of the offender from the police, reserving vengeance to himself or to his friends and dependants. This sentiment, still widely diffused among the lower classes of many districts, and not entirely unknown to the upper classes, renders difficult legal proof of culpability for acts of violence, and multiplies sanguinary private reprisals. In September 1892 about i 50 Mafiusi were arrested at Catania, but all repressive measures proved useless. .The only result was to drive some of the members abroad, with disastrous results to other countries.^ Marincola added: “If it is true (which I doubt) that some other member of the board contacted the FDA afterwards, it is beyond my control.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the other members of the History interface are defined in terms of the go() method, as follows: .
  • HTML5 25 September 2009 3:33 UTC dev.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Perhaps some of the other newsgroup members will know how to contact some of the people I've mentioned.
  • M Technology and MUMPS Language FAQ, Part 1/2 2 February 2010 10:010 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In October 1890 David Hennessy, chief of police in New Orleans, was murdered.^ On October 15, 1890, David Hennessey, Superintendent of Police of New Orleans, was ambushed by assassins.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ The first known occurrence of warfare among Italian secret societies on American soil was in 1890, in New Orleans.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Subsequent legal inquiry proved the crime to be the work of the Mafia, which had been introduced into the United States thirty years before.^ OSS analysts went to work for the State Department whereas the intelligence operatives were incorporated into the Strategic Services Unit of the War Department.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 370-pound former prizefighter had been a racketeer on the New York waterfront and a bouncer for Mafia-owned gambling establishments before coming to work for Hoffa.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 23, 1969: President Nixon sent a message to Congress proposing a campaign against the members of organized crime Families in the United States.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

.In May 1890 a band of Italians living in New Orleans had ambushed another gang of their fellow-countrymen belonging to a society called Stoppaghera. The severe police measures taken brought the vengeance of the society upon Hennessy.^ In May 1963, Oswald began organizing a Fair Play for Cuba Committee in New Orleans.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another man Torrio brought from New York was Al Capone, who served as Torrio's bodyguard, friend and co-organizer.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On October 15, 1890, David Hennessey, Superintendent of Police of New Orleans, was ambushed by assassins.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

.Eleven Italians were indicted on suspicion of being implicated in his murder; but the jury was terrorized and acquitted six.^ Luchese was arrested for Pinzolo's murder, but the grand jury failed to indict him.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ Maheu worked with the criminal lawyer Edward Bennett Williams to solve the murder case which implicated the Italian-American OSS man Aldo Icardi.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the 14th of March 1891 a mob led by well-known New Orleans citizens broke into the gaol where nineteen Italians were imprisoned and lynched eleven of them.^ On March 14, 1891, a mob marched to Orleans Parish Prison, where the warden, realizing the futility of resistance, released the 19 prisoners, so that they might have a chance to hide.
  • Chronological History Of La Cosa Nostra In The United States 1920-1987 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nevadaobserver.com [Source type: News]

^ That effort led to other operations and many more cases that collectively came to be known at the FBI as the “Mob on Wall Street” campaign.
  • Mafia | Deep Capture: exposing the crime of naked short selling 28 January 2010 1:23 UTC www.deepcapture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Orleans Mafia boss Carlos Marcello was well looked-after.
  • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See W. Agnew Paton, Picturesque Sicily (1898); C. W. Heckethorn, Secret Societies of all Ages (1897); Alongi, La Maffia (Turin, 1887); Le Faure, La Maffia (Paris, 1892).


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
See also mafia

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

Etymology

Italian, originally meaning "bragging"; see the Wikipedia article for greater discussion of the origin of the word

Proper noun

Singular
the Mafia
Plural
-
the Mafia
.
  1. (specifically) An international criminal organization of Sicilian origin operating in Italy and the United States.
  2. (by extension) Any organized crime syndicate operating internationally in high-level organized crime; often with a modifying adjective, such as a nationality.^ This, of course, caused factions within the international and national policies such as the National Political Action Committee operated by Jack Curran, until recently off limits in New England, New York and New Jersey.
    • THE COSA NOSTRA AND LABOR RACKETEERING 2 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.laborers.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In May 1954 the United States signed military agreements with Nicaragua and Honduras preparatory to a clandestine paramilitary operation by the CIA against the Arbenez government.
    • SCHEMERS IN THE WEB 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These investigations concluded that the Georgians' "original normative system" of crime "favored their immediate entrance and persistence into organized criminality and organized crime."

    Somehow he managed to piss off the Russian Mafia.

Synonyms

  • (organization of Sicilian origin): Cosa Nostra, mob
  • (any organized crime syndicate): mob

Derived terms

  • Mafioso
  • Mafiya (rarely used term to describe Russian "mafia" equivalents)

Translations

See also


French

Noun

la mafia f.
  1. The Mafia

German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
Mafia
Wikipedia de

Noun

Mafia f. (genitive Mafia, plural Mafias)
  1. Mafia

Italian

Etymology

Sicilian dialect, originally meaning "bragging"

Noun

la Mafia f.
  1. The Mafia

Derived terms


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Soricomorpha
Familia: Soricidae
Subfamilia: Soricinae
Tribus: Blarinini
Genus: †Mafia
Species: †M. csarnotensis

Name

Mafia Reumer, 1984

References

The Paleobiology Database Mafia

Vernacular names


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Mafia is a 3D action crime epic set in the seedy underworld of the 1930's. Rise from the lowly but well-dressed Footsoldier to an envied and feared Made Man in an era of mob hits, car chases, and bootlegging. Earn a reputation as a tough enforcer, daring getaway driver, and deadly hitman in your quest for respect and power within the Salieri Family.

Trivia

  • Sam and Paulie are killed by Thompson 1928s.
  • The car that carries the mobsters that kill Tommy is a 1957 Ford Thunderbird.

External Links

  • Mafia official website
Needs infobox
This article needs an infobox. You can help by adding it.
The infobox provides at-a-glance information on a game, including cover art.
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Stubs are articles that writers have begun work on, but are not yet complete enough to be considered finished articles.

This article uses material from the "Mafia" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

The Mafia is a secret crime group working in many parts of the world that was created in Italy more than 200 years ago. The mafia make money from crime. They make billions of dollars a year from such crimes as making and selling illegal drugs, money laundering, from stealing, gambling and prostitution.

Contents

Different groups

The Mafia in Italy

The mafia in Italy have been around for hundreds of years. They work in the areas of Calabria, Sicily, Naples and Apulia which are all areas in the South of Italy.

  • Sicily - The mafia in Italy was started in the island of Sicily. The mafia is still around here and they make a great deal of money. Selling drugs is frowned upon within the Mafia or La Cosa Nostra as being convicted of the intent to sell is a high prison sentence which will increase the risk of a member of the Mafia/Cosa Nostra to turn a 'rat.'
  • Calabria - The Calabrian mafia (really called the 'Ndrangheta ) are another mafia group in Italy. They also make profit from illegal drugs.
  • Naples - The mafia in Naples is called the Camorra. They are not as well known than the mafia in Sicily and Calabria.
  • Apulia - The mafia in Apulia is called the Sacra corona unita (meaning the "United Sacred Crown"). This group is not as old as the other Italian mafia groups. Little is known about this group but it is believed that they make money from prostitution.
  • Veneto - The mafia in Veneto was called Mala del Brenta (meaning "Brenta's bad thing").

This group was founded by Felice Maniero.This group was dismantled.

The Italian Mafia in America

The Italian-American mafia began at the time when many Italians moved to the United States in the 1800s. The first Italian mafia was in New Orleans in Louisiana but soon they were in many cities across the country. The Italian mafia in the United States is actually called La Cosa Nostra which in Italian language means "This thing of ours" or "Our thing". The American mafia is divided into different groups or "families". Many large cities have only one Italian-American mafia family, but some larger cities like New York City have more.

New York City has five Italian mafia families. They are called:

  • The Bonanno crime family
  • The Colombo crime family
  • The Gambino crime family
  • The Genovese crime family
  • The Lucchese crime family

Many other American cities have Italian mafia families. These include Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, and Los Angeles

Mafia groups in other countries

There are many other groups like the Italian mafia all over the world. Here are some:

  • The Yakuza - The Yakuza is the name given to the crime group in Japan. They make money from prostitution and drugs.
  • The Triads - The Triads is a name given to all the crime groups in China. Because there are so many of these crime groups in China we give them one name, the "Triads". The Triads are not just from China but many countries in South East Asia. Another name for these groups is "Tongs".
  • The South American Drugs Cartels - In South America the largest crime groups are called drug cartels. They compete for control of the drug trade which makes them huge amounts of money. The drugs produced in South America are Marijuana, Cocaine and Heroin. The main drug cartels are in Mexico and Colombia in the north of South America, this is where most of the drugs are produced and then sold into the United States which is above Mexico.

There are others as well, like the mafia groups in Russia that make money from drugs and weapons. All these groups operate in the United States, Canada, Australia, England and other Western countries and cause many problems in those countries and the countries they are from.

Hierarchy

Just like in a company, where people have a boss and workers, the Italian-American mafia, or La Cosa Nostra (LCN), has a hierarchy. Everyone has a job to do. Some people are bosses and some are workers. However you can always work your way up the ladder of power, and respect. Below is the hierarchy of an American mafia family.

  1. The Boss of the family. He controls everything that goes on in the mafia family. Every worker and lower ranking boss (see below; Caporegimes) works for him. It is the boss who decides if someone should be killed or if someone should be initiated (see below; Becoming a member). The boss gets money from all of his workers and therefore is usually the richest person in the family.
  2. The Underboss. The underboss is the person who actually runs the family. He is boss over all the other members except the actual boss. He will often become the boss of the family if something happens to the boss. The boss will choose who his underboss is. A family will usually have only one underboss.
  3. The Consigliere. Consigliere is an Italian term meaning someone who gives advice. The consigliere in a mafia family is the "right hand man" to the boss. It is his job to help the boss make important decisions. The consigliere is as important as the underboss but is not the boss of anyone in the family. A family will usually have only one consigliere. Acts as a middle man in personae vendettas. His role is to make impartial decisions for the family's benefit.
  4. Caporegimes. The next position of the family is caporegime (or captain). Families will have differing numbers of caporegimes. A caporegime is in charge of a group of workers (see below; Soldiers). The underboss of the family is in charge of the caporegimes. The job of the caporegime is to collect money from the workers to give to the boss, underboss and consigliere as well as keeping money for himself. A family can have anywhere from 2 to 20 caporegimes.
  5. Soldiers. The workers of a family are called "soldiers" or in Italian "soldati". Their job is to earn money to give to their captain (caporegime). They will do any job asked of them by their captain or the boss or underboss. A family can have anywhere from 10 to 300 soldiers.

Each family will have a number of associates. These are people that work with them or for them but are not official members. (see below; Becoming a member)

History of the Mafia in New York

The mafia in New York began when thousands of Italians moved there in the late 1800s and early 1900s to find a better life. At this time many Irish and Germans also moved to the US for the same reasons. Many of these people set up businesses or worked for businesses that were already there. Most earned very little money and some, who were tired of being poor, decided to earn money from crime, which was easier than earning money by working. There were many Irish and Italian criminal groups in the city who would steal, extort and murder for money. These groups were known all-together as "the Black Hand" but they did not actually work as one group called "the Black Hand"; there were many groups and they each worked on their own and the term "Black Hand" actually was the name of what these gangs did (extortion), not their names.

Prohibition, Unification and the Castellammarese War

In 1920 alcohol (or liquor) was made illegal in the US and the gangs had a new way to make money. They brought in illegal liquor from Canada and sold it in clubs. They bribed police into letting them sell liquor (which is also illegal) and made millions of dollars from this because they were the only ones who had liquor and so could sell it at extremely high prices. Around this time the gangs in New York became one large gang (the Mafia) as leaders of the gangs realized that more money could be made if all the gangs worked together. A man named Giuseppe Masseria and a man named Salvatore Maranzano both wanted to become the boss of the newly made New York mafia. Fighting, known as the "Castellammarese War", broke out between the two men and many of their soldiers were killed. Giuseppe Masseria's underboss was a man named Lucky Luciano who also wanted to control the New York mafia. He met with Masseria's enemy Salvatore Maranzano and plotted to kill Masseria, his own boss. Masseria was shot to death in a restaurant in New York by Maranzano's soldiers; one of them was Vito Genovese - a man who would later become boss - this was also the end of the "Castellammarese War". With the death of Masseria, Maranzano appointed himself the boss of the New York Mafia, in Italian language called the "Capo di tutti Capi" meaning "Boss of all Bosses". He called a meeting with the other "mafiosi" (plural: Italian language for Mafia members) from all over the US and made the rules that are still used today.

  • Maranzano united the Italian gangs of New York into one gang, known as the Mafia or La Cosa Nostra.
  • He then divided the gang into 5 families and appointed bosses of each family: "Lucky" Luciano, Joseph Bonanno, Joseph Profaci, Vincent Mangano and Thomas Gagliano - himself as the boss of these bosses.
  • He made it so that no members could kill without reason or talk to anyone outside of the mafia about the mafia.

The bosses of the five families, particularly Luciano, began to grow tired of Maranzano's arrogance and the way he ran the mafia. Maranzano realized this and planned to have Luciano and his "consigliere" and "underboss", Vito Genovese and Frank Costello, as well as others, killed. Maranzano did not act quickly enough and was killed by men dressed as police officers, on the orders of Luciano and his friend, a Jewish gangster from Florida named Meyer Lansky. Luciano then became the head of the New York mafia, but not in the way Maranzano was; he helped the five families run their business but he did not control them or call himself the "boss of bosses". The five families were kept. The Profaci family (named after the first boss Joseph Profaci) went on to become named the Colombo crime family after a later boss, Joseph Colombo. The Mangano family (named after the first boss Vincent Mangano) went on to become named the Gambino crime family after a later boss, Carlo Gambino. The Gagliano family (named after the first boss Thomas Gagliano) went on to become named the Lucchese crime family after a later boss, Gaetano Lucchese. Frank Costello became the boss of Luciano's old family which later went on to become named the Genovese crime family after Vito Genovese became the boss and tried to kill Frank Costello. The Bonanno family (named after the first boss Joseph Bonanno) kept its name as Joseph Bonanno was the boss for a very long time.

The Five Families over the years

A chart of the bosses of the five families of New York since the "Castellammarese War" would look like this:

Bonanno crime family

  • Joseph Bonanno (was boss from 1931-1965)
  • Gaspare DiGregorio (was boss from 1965-1968)
  • Paul Sciacca (was boss from 1968-1970)
  • Natale Evola (was boss from 1970-1973)
  • Phillip Rastelli (was boss from 1973-1975)
  • Carmine Galante (was boss from 1975-1979)
  • Phillip Rastelli (was boss once again from 1979-1991)
  • Joseph Massino (was boss from 1991-2005)

lucy reed (Note: In more recent years Vincent Basciano, Salvatore Montagna, Anthony Graziano, Anthony Rabito, Michael Mancuso, Anthony Urso and Alphonse Bonanno have run the family - though not necessarily as bosses.)

Colombo crime family

  • Joseph Profaci (was boss from 1928-1962)
  • Joseph Magliocco (was boss from 1962-1963)
  • Joseph Colombo (was boss from 1964-1971)
  • Joseph Yacovelli (was boss in 1971)
  • Vincent Aloi (was boss from 1971-1973)
  • Carmine Persico (was boss during 1973)

(Note: In more recent years the leaders of the Colombo crime family have been Carmine Persico, Andrew Russo, Alphonse Persico, Jr., Joel Cacace, Thomas Gioeli, John Franzese, Vincent Aloi and Paul Bevacqua - though not necessarily as bosses.)

Gambino crime family

  • Vincent Mangano (was boss from 1931-1951)
  • Albert Anastasia (was boss from 1951-1957)
  • Carlo Gambino (was boss from 1957-1976)
  • Paul Castellano (was boss from 1976-1985)
  • John Gotti (was boss from 1986-1992)
  • John Gotti, Jr. (was boss from 1992-1996)
  • Nicholas Corozzo (was boss from 1996-1997)
  • John Gotti, Jr. (was boss from 1997-1999)
  • Peter Gotti (was boss from 1999-2003)

(Note: In more recent years the leaders of the Gambino crime family have been Peter Gotti, Arnold Squitieri, Anthony Megale, John D'Amico, Domenico Cefalu, Joseph Corozzo and Nicholas Corozzo - though not necessarily as bosses.)

Genovese crime family

  • Salvatore "Lucky" Luciano (was boss from 1931-1946)
  • Frank Costello (was boss from 1946-1957)
  • Vito Genovese (was boss from 1957-1969)
  • Thomas Eboli (was boss from 1969-1972)
  • Frank Tieri (was boss from 1972-1981)
  • Anthony Salerno (was boss from 1981-1987)
  • Vincent Gigante (was boss from 1981-2005)

(Note: In more recent years the leaders of the Genovese crime family have been Liborio Bellomo, Dominick Cirillo, Matthew Ianiello, Frank Serpico, Ernest Muscarella, Mario Gigante and Daniel Leo - though not necessarily as bosses.)

Lucchese crime family

  • Gaetano Gagliano (was boss from 1931-1953)
  • Gaetano Lucchese (was boss from 1953-1967)
  • Carmine Tramunti (was boss from 1967-1973)
  • Anthony Corallo (was boss from 1973-1986)
  • Anthony Luongo (during 1986)
  • Vittorio Amuso (from 1987 on)

(Note: During the 1990s the leaders of the Lucchese crime family were Vittorio Amuso, Anthony Casso, Alphonse D'Arco, Salvatore Avellino, Anthony Baratta, [Domenico Cutaia]], Frank Lasterino and Joseph Defede - though not necessarily as bosses. More recently the leaders of the family have been Louis Diadone, Aniello Migliore, Nick Beale and Leo Madden - Leo and Nick were bosses.)

(Note: These dates may not be correct)

The Mafia in Film

Many movies have been made about the mafia, particularly the American Mafia. Here are some of the most popular movies about American gangsters.

The television series The Sopranos is about the mafia in New Jersey and stars James Gandolfini, Steve Van Zandt, Tony Sirico, Michael Imperioli, Vincent Pastore, David Proval and Joe Pantoliano among others.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mafia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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