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sodiummagnesiumaluminium
Be

Mg

Ca
Appearance
silvery white solid
General properties
Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12
Element category alkaline earth metal
Group, period, block 23, s
Standard atomic weight 24.3050(6)g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 2 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 1.738 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 1.584 g·cm−3
Melting point 923 K, 650 °C, 1202 °F
Boiling point 1363 K, 1091 °C, 1994 °F
Heat of fusion 8.48 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 128 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 24.869 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 701 773 861 971 1132 1361
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 2, 1 [1]
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.31 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 737.7 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1450.7 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 7732.7 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 160 pm
Covalent radius 141±7 pm
Van der Waals radius 173 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 43.9 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 156 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 24.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (annealed)
4940 m·s−1
Young's modulus 45 GPa
Shear modulus 17 GPa
Bulk modulus 45 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.290
Mohs hardness 2.5
Brinell hardness 260 MPa
CAS registry number 7439-95-4
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of magnesium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
24Mg 78.99% 24Mg is stable with 12 neutrons
25Mg 10% 25Mg is stable with 13 neutrons
26Mg 11.01% 26Mg is stable with 14 neutrons
Magnesium (pronounced /mæɡˈniːziəm/, mag-NEE-zee-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Mg, atomic number 12 and common oxidation number +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, where it constitutes about 2% by mass,[2] and ninth in the known Universe as a whole.[3][4] This preponderance of magnesium is related to the fact that it is easily built up in supernova stars from a sequential addition of three helium nuclei to carbon (which in turn is made from three helium nuclei). .Magnesium ion's high solubility in water helps ensure that it is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater.^ Cobalamin is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sources and uses Titanium, the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust, is widely distributed.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Natural Occurrence Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[5]
.Magnesium is the 11th most abundant element by mass in the human body; its ions are essential to all living cells, where they play a major role in manipulating important biological polyphosphate compounds like ATP, DNA, and RNA.^ Thus, the aortic bodies of the cat play a significant role in the hyperventilation produced by cytotoxic hypoxia, although it is less marked than that induced through the carotid bodies.

Hundreds of enzymes thus require magnesium ions in order to function. Magnesium is also the metallic ion at the center of chlorophyll, and is thus a common additive to fertilizers.[6] .Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids (i.e., milk of magnesia), and in a number of situations where stabilization of abnormal nerve excitation and blood vessel spasm is required (i.e., to treat eclampsia).^ The number of mature and immature abnormal white blood cells in the bone marrow and blood is higher than normal, but lower than in the accelerated or blast phase.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgery in which a healthy blood vessel taken from another part of the body is used to make a new path for blood around a blocked artery leading to the heart.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A benign, slow-growing tumor in the cerebellum (part of the brain at the back of the head), made up of abnormal blood vessel growth.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Magnesium ions are sour to the taste, and in low concentrations help to impart a natural tartness to fresh mineral waters.
.The free element (metal) is not found naturally on Earth, as it is highly reactive (though once produced, is coated in a thin layer of oxide—see passivation—which partly masks this reactivity).^ A metallic element that occurs naturally in tiny amounts in air, water, soil, and food.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is an antioxidant that helps prevent cell damage caused by free radicals (highly reactive chemicals).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The free metal burns with a characteristic brilliant white light, making it a useful ingredient in flares. The metal is now mainly obtained by electrolysis of magnesium salts obtained from brine. .Commercially, the chief use for the metal is as an alloying agent to make aluminium-magnesium alloys, sometimes called "magnalium" or "magnelium". Since magnesium is less dense than aluminium, these alloys are prized for their relative lightness and strength.^ It is a byproduct of zinc refining, and is used to make batteries, pigments, plastics, alloys, and electroplate.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ When radioactive material is used to examine the thyroid with a scanner, nodules that collect less radioactive material than the surrounding thyroid tissue are considered "cold."
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In medicine, chelating agents are used to remove toxic metals from the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Characteristics

Physical and chemical

.Elemental magnesium is a fairly strong, silvery-white, light-weight metal (two thirds the density of aluminium).^ Soft, silvery white metal which oxidizes rapidly when cut.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Na Sodium 6 January 2010 8:54 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A series of x-ray pictures of the esophagus taken after a patient drinks a liquid containing barium sulfate (a form of the silver-white metallic element barium).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It tarnishes slightly when exposed to air, although unlike the alkali metals, storage in an oxygen-free environment is unnecessary because magnesium is protected by a thin layer of oxide which is fairly impermeable and hard to remove.^ A drug used to treat certain types of leukemia and prevent the spread of leukemia to the meninges (three thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The fluid that flows in and around the hollow spaces of the brain and spinal cord, and between two of the meninges (the thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is used to treat lymphoma that has spread to the meninges (three thin layers of tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Like its lower periodic table group neighbor calcium, magnesium reacts with water at room temperature, though it reacts much more slowly than calcium.^ The occurrence of a larger-than-expected number of cases of cancer within a group of people in a geographic area over a period of time.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.When it is submerged in water, hydrogen bubbles will almost unnoticeably begin to form on the surface of the metal, though if powdered it will react much more rapidly.^ Titanium and its alloys may react strongly with oxidizing agents, especially when in the form of powdered metal (Mogilevskaja, 1972; ACGIH, 1973).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Titanium metal powder is usually produced by reaction of the metal with hydrogen; the resulting brittle titanium hydride is then crushed before heating in a vacuum to remove the hydrogen (Stamper, 1970).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The resulting cyanide ion may then form hydrogen cyanide or react with various metals present in natural water.

The reaction will occur faster with higher temperatures (see precautions). Magnesium also reacts exothermically with most acids, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl). As with aluminium, zinc and many other metals, the reaction with hydrochloric acid produces the chloride of the metal and releases hydrogen gas.
.Magnesium is a highly flammable metal, but while it is easy to ignite when powdered or shaved into thin strips, it is difficult to ignite in mass or bulk.^ It is extremely resistant to corrosion and, in the form of a powder or dust, is highly flammable and explosive.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Magnesium Metal Powder .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
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.Once ignited, it is difficult to extinguish, being able to burn in nitrogen (forming magnesium nitride), carbon dioxide (forming magnesium oxide and carbon) and water (forming magnesium oxide and hydrogen).^ This is usually done with a special instrument that contains liquid nitrogen or liquid carbon dioxide.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Titanium tetrachloride is a liquid, which is stable in dry air, but decomposes in cold water to form titanium oxide and hydrochloric acid.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.This property was used in incendiary weapons used in the firebombing of cities in World War II, the only practical civil defense being to smother a burning flare under dry sand to exclude the atmosphere.^ If Silver's stolen starter is Totodile , he uses Croconaw at level 16 in his second battle, despite Totodile only being able to evolve from level 18 onwards.
  • Silver (game) - Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokémon encyclopedia 8 January 2010 3:31 UTC bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net [Source type: General]

^ During the Second World War, a protective film of cream containing titanium dioxide was used on exposed parts of the body to prevent flash burns (Fairhall, 1969).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

On burning in air, magnesium produces a brilliant white light. Thus magnesium powder (flash powder) was used as a source of illumination in the early days of photography. Later, magnesium ribbon was used in electrically ignited flash bulbs. Magnesium powder is used in the manufacture of fireworks and marine flares where a brilliant white light is required. .Flame temperatures of magnesium and magnesium alloys can reach 3,100 °C (3,370 K; 5,610 °F) [7], although flame height above the burning metal is usually less than 300 mm (12 in).^ Used as bulk metal and in lightweight alloys with magnesium for engines, also as a sacrificial electrode to protect other metals.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Uses of Titanium Titanium, used as a construction material, is usually in the form of alloys, most of which have higher strength than pure titanium and enhanced corrosion resistance.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Klein & Russel (1973) reported that soils around a coal- burning power plant contained higher levels of trace metals than surrounding areas.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Magnesium may be used as an ignition source for thermite, an otherwise difficult to ignite mixture of aluminium and iron oxide powder.^ Titanium does not easily atomize and has a tendency to form refractory oxides, which may influence the use of atomic absorption assays.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Powdered Iron Oxide .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
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^ Iron Oxide Powder .
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Magnesium compounds are typically white crystals. Most are soluble in water, providing the sour-tasting magnesium ion Mg2+. .Small amounts of dissolved magnesium ion contribute to the tartness and taste of natural waters.^ A metallic element that occurs naturally in tiny amounts in air, water, soil, and food.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Magnesium ion in large amounts is an ionic laxative, and magnesium sulfate (common name: Epsom salt) is sometimes used for this purpose. So-called "milk of magnesia" is a water suspension of one of the few insoluble magnesium compounds, magnesium hydroxide. The undissolved particles give rise to its appearance and name. .Milk of magnesia is a mild base commonly used as an antacid, which has some laxative side effect.^ A drug used to treat high blood pressure that is also being studied in the prevention of side effects caused by radiation therapy used in the treatment of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They may be used as hormone replacement, to suppress the immune system, and to treat some side effects of cancer and its treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer and heart disease and in the relief of side effects caused by some cancer treatments.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Isotopes

Magnesium has three stable isotopes: 24Mg, 25Mg and 26Mg. All are present in significant amounts (see table of isotopes above). About 79% of Mg is 24Mg. .The isotope 28Mg is radioactive and in the 1950s to 1970s was made commercially by several nuclear power plants for use in scientific experiments.^ The average level of titanium in soils in the vicinity of this power plant was 92 mg/kg compared with a back- ground level of 56 mg/kg.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

This isotope has a relatively short half-life (21 hours) and so its use was limited by shipping times.
26Mg has found application in isotopic geology, similar to that of aluminium. 26Mg is a radiogenic daughter product of26Al, which has a half-life of 717,000 years. .Large enrichments of stable 26Mg have been observed in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions of some carbonaceous chondrite meteorites.^ The concentration and distribution, in healthy human tissues, of a large number of stable elements including titanium was studied by Hamilton et al.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The anomalous abundance of 26Mg is attributed to the decay of its parent 26Al in the inclusions. Therefore, the meteorite must have formed in the solar nebula before the 26Al had decayed. Hence, these fragments are among the oldest objects in the solar system and have preserved information about its early history.
It is conventional to plot 26Mg/24Mg against an Al/Mg ratio. In an isochron dating plot, the Al/Mg ratio plotted is27Al/24Mg. .The slope of the isochron has no age significance, but indicates the initial 26Al/27Al ratio in the sample at the time when the systems were separated from a common reservoir.^ It has been suggested that levels in herbage samples are indicators of soil contamination (Barlow et al., 1960).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Occurrence

Although magnesium is found in over 60 minerals, only dolomite, magnesite, brucite, carnallite, talc, and olivine are of commercial importance.
.The Mg2+ cation is the second most abundant cation in sea water (occurring at about 12% of the mass of sodium there), which makes sea water and sea-salt an attractive commercial source of Mg.^ Sources and uses Titanium, the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust, is widely distributed.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The detection limits for titanium in human tissues were 0.007 mg/kg for spark-source mass spectroscopy and 0.3 mg/kg wet weight for the XRF assay.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In most studies on concentrations of titanium in blood, levels reported have been about 0.02-0.07 mg/litre.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

To extract the magnesium, calcium hydroxide is added to sea water to form magnesium hydroxide precipitate.
MgCl2 + Ca(OH)2Mg(OH)2 + CaCl2
.Magnesium hydroxide is insoluble in water so it can be filtered out, and reacted with hydrochloric acid to obtain concentrated magnesium chloride.^ Consequently, as was pointed out by Bertine & Goldberg (1971), the contribution to the titanium concentrations in air and natural waters will be most evident at these latitudes.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The metal is highly resistant to corrosion by many agents including concentrated nitric acid, 5% sulfuric acid, and sea water.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Titanium tetrachloride is a liquid, which is stable in dry air, but decomposes in cold water to form titanium oxide and hydrochloric acid.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Mg(OH)2 + 2 HCl → MgCl2 + 2 H2O
From magnesium chloride, electrolysis produces magnesium.
In the United States, magnesium is principally obtained by electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride from brines, wells, and sea water. At the cathode, the Mg2+ ion is reduced by two electrons to magnesium metal:
Mg2+ + 2 e → Mg
At the anode, each pair of Cl ions is oxidized to chlorine gas, releasing two electrons to complete the circuit:
2 ClCl2 (g) + 2 e
.The United States has traditionally been the major world supplier of this metal, supplying 45% of world production even as recently as 1995. Today, the US market share is at 7%, with a single domestic producer left, US Magnesium, a company born from now-defunct Magcorp.^ Trans World Alloys View Website Gardena, CA 800-258-8180 Request For Quote Trans World Alloys Company is a full service supplier of metals such as titanium alloys.
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]

^ Buy titanium from us today for a quality metal.
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]

^ The products that are available in the United States may not contain the same amount or mixture of ingredients and may not be effective.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[9]
.As of 2005, China has taken over as the dominant supplier, pegged at 60% world market share, which increased from 4% in 1995. Unlike the above-described electrolytic process, China is almost completely reliant on a different method of obtaining the metal from its ores, the silicothermic Pidgeon process (the reduction of the oxide at high temperatures with silicon).^ Our standard materials include Neoprene, EPDM, Bunga-N, Natural Rubber & high or low temperature silicone.
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^ Describes the process inside a cell that occurs when the same signal is shared by two or more signaling pathways.
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^ High Temperature Silicone Gaskets .
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History

The name originates from the Greek word for a district in Thessaly called Magnesia. It is related to magnetite and manganese, which also originated from this area, and required differentiation as separate substances. See manganese for this history.
.Magnesium is the seventh most abundant element in the Earth's crust by mass and eighth by molarity.^ Natural Occurrence Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sources and uses Titanium, the ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust, is widely distributed.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[2] .It is found in large deposits of magnesite, dolomite, and other minerals, and in mineral waters, where magnesium ion is soluble.^ Other titanium minerals are known which are locally abundant in some deposits, but have not been used commercially.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

In 1618, a farmer at Epsom in England attempted to give his cows water from a well. They refused to drink because of the water's bitter taste. However the farmer noticed that the water seemed to heal scratches and rashes. The fame of Epsom salts spread. Eventually they were recognized to be hydrated magnesium sulfate, MgSO4.
The metal itself was first produced in England by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808 using electrolysis of a mixture of magnesia and mercury oxide. Antoine Bussy prepared it in coherent form in 1831. Davy's first suggestion for a name was magnium, but the name magnesium is now used.

Applications

As metal

An unusual application of magnesium as an illumination source while wakeskating in 1931
.Magnesium is the third most commonly used structural metal, following steel and aluminium.^ Metallic titanium, titanium dioxide, and titanium tetrachloride are the compounds most widely used in industry.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The main applications of magnesium are in order: component of aluminium alloys, in die-casting, to remove sulfur in the production of iron and steel, the production of titanium in the Kroll process.^ Exposure to titanium and its compounds occurs not only in the production of metallic titanium, but also in processes in which it is used.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The principal method for the commercial production of titanium sponge metal is the Kroll process, which involves the reduction of titanium tetrachloride with magnesium metal in an inert atmosphere.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Occupational exposure to titanium mainly occurs in the mining and production of the metal, and in the production and processing of titanium dioxide and carbide.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[10]
.Magnesium, in its purest form, can be compared with aluminium, and is strong and light, so it is used in several high volume part manufacturing applications, including automotive and truck components.^ A component of certain plants, including cayenne and red pepper, used topically for peripheral nerve pain.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ High concentrations of titanium in food, especially cheese, can arise from the use of titanium dioxide as a whitener in the manufacture of mozzarella cheese (Kosikowski & Brown, 1969; Leone, 1973).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, trace metals collected on filter paper by a high volume air sampler for 25 h were analysed by Dittrich & Cothern (1971) using the XRF technique.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Specialty, high-grade car wheels of magnesium alloy are called "mag wheels", although the term is often more broadly misapplied to include aluminum wheels.^ Specialty Magnesium Alloys .
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

In 1957, a Corvette SS, designed for racing, was constructed with magnesium body panels. An earlier Mercedes-Benz race car model, the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR, had a body made from Elektron, a magnesium alloy; these cars ran (with successes) at Le Mans, the Mille Miglia, and other world-class race events in 1955 (though one was involved in the single worst accident in auto racing history, in terms of human casualties, at the Le Mans race.) Porsche's all-out quest to decrease the weight of their race cars led to the use of magnesium frames in the famous 917/053 which won Le Mans in 1971, and still holds the absolute distance record. The 917/30 Can-Am car also featured a magnesium frame, helping it to make the most of its prodigious 1100–1500 hp. .Volkswagen Group has used magnesium in its engine components for many years.^ We design, engineer & assemble close tolerance custom rubber molded OEM components for many uses, including respiratory/safety appliances & power distribution products.
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.For a long time, Porsche used magnesium alloy for its engine blocks due to the weight advantage.^ Engineering Magnesium Alloys .
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There is renewed interest in magnesium engine blocks, as featured in the 2006 BMW 325i and 330i models. .The BMW engine uses an aluminium alloy insert for the cylinder walls and cooling jackets surrounded by a high-temperature magnesium alloy AJ62A. The application of magnesium AE44 alloy in the 2006 Corvette Z06 engine cradle has advanced the technology of designing robust automotive parts in magnesium.^ Elements in titanium alloys fall into two categories, i.e., those that strengthen and stabilize the alpha or room temperature modification, and those that strengthen the beta or high temperature modification.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other alloys used widely include those containing either, 8% aluminium, 1% each of molybdenum, and vanadium, or 5% aluminium and 2.5% tin.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Metallic titanium is mainly used in the aircraft industry and in the production of high-strength, corrosion-resistant alloys.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Both these alloys are recent developments in high-temperature low creep magnesium alloys.^ Our standard materials include Neoprene, EPDM, Bunga-N, Natural Rubber & high or low temperature silicone.
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^ Elements in titanium alloys fall into two categories, i.e., those that strengthen and stabilize the alpha or room temperature modification, and those that strengthen the beta or high temperature modification.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Custom High Temperature Alloys .
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.Mitsubishi Motors also uses magnesium (branded magnesium alloy) for its paddle shifters.^ Used as bulk metal and in lightweight alloys with magnesium for engines, also as a sacrificial electrode to protect other metals.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

The general strategy for such alloys is to form intermetallic precipitates at the grain boundaries, for example by adding mischmetal or calcium.[11] New alloy development and lower costs, which are becoming competitive to aluminium, will further the number of automotive applications.[citation needed]
Products made of magnesium: firestarter and shavings, sharpener, magnesium ribbon
The second application field of magnesium is electronic devices. Because of low weight, good mechanical and electrical properties, magnesium is widely used for manufacturing of mobile phones, laptop computers, cameras, and other electronic components.
.Historically, magnesium was one of the main aerospace construction metals and was used for German military aircraft as early as World War I and extensively for German aircraft in World War II. The Germans coined the name 'Elektron' for magnesium alloy which is still used today.^ A world renowned metal service center fully stocked with aluminum, stainless steel, titanium, copper, brass, tungsten, nickel alloys, magnesium, aircraft quality steel, waspaloy, cobalt, etc.

^ Aerospace Metal Alloys .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

Because of perceived hazards with magnesium parts in the event of fire, the application of magnesium in the commercial aerospace industry was generally restricted to engine related components. Currently the use of magnesium alloys in aerospace is increasing, mostly driven by the increasing importance of fuel economy and the need to reduce weight..September 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The development and testing of new magnesium alloys continues, notably Elektron 21 which has successfully undergone extensive aerospace testing for suitability in engine, internal and airframe components.^ Engineering Magnesium Alloys .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

The European Community runs three R&D magnesium projects in the Aerospace priority of Six Framework Program.

Niche uses of the metal

Magnesium being cheaply available and relatively nontoxic has variety of uses:
  • Magnesium is flammable, burning at a temperature of approximately 3,100 °C (3,370 K; 5,610 °F) [12], and the autoignition temperature of magnesium ribbon is approximately 630 °C (903 K; 1,166 °F) in air.[13] It produces intense, bright, white light when it burns. .The high temperature at which magnesium burns makes it a useful tool for starting emergency fires during outdoor recreation.^ A type of external radiation therapy that uses a special machine to make invisible, high-energy particles (protons or helium ions) that kill cancer cells.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An x-ray is a type of high-energy radiation that can go through the body and onto film, making pictures of areas inside the chest, which can be used to diagnose disease.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Other related uses include flashlight photography, flares, pyrotechnics and fireworks sparklers.^ Other alloys used widely include those containing either, 8% aluminium, 1% each of molybdenum, and vanadium, or 5% aluminium and 2.5% tin.
    • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Catechol is used as an astringent, an antiseptic, and in photography, electroplating, and making other chemicals.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Magnesium firestarter (in left hand), used with a pocket knife and flint to create sparks which ignite the shavings
  • To photoengrave plates in the printing industry.
  • In the form of turnings or ribbons, to prepare Grignard reagents, which are useful in organic synthesis.
  • As an additive agent in conventional propellants and the production of nodular graphite in cast iron.
  • As a reducing agent for the production of uranium and other metals from their salts.
  • As a sacrificial (galvanic) anode to protect underground tanks, pipelines, buried structures, and water heaters.

As magnesium compounds

Magnesium ion is necessary for all life (see magnesium in biology), so magnesium salts are an additive for foods, fertilizers (Mg is a component of chlorophyll), and culture media.
Magnesium compounds, primarily magnesium oxide (MgO), are used mainly as refractory material in furnace linings for producing iron, steel, nonferrous metals, glass and cement. .Magnesium oxide and other compounds also are used in agricultural, chemical and construction industries.^ Used as bulk metal and in lightweight alloys with magnesium for engines, also as a sacrificial electrode to protect other metals.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

.As a metal, this element's principal use is as an alloying additive to aluminium with these aluminium-magnesium alloys being used mainly for beverage cans.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Niche and illustrative uses of magnesium compounds

Biological role

.Because of the important interaction between phosphate and magnesium ions, magnesium ions are essential to the basic nucleic acid chemistry of life, and thus are essential to all cells of all known living organisms.^ All living things are made up of one or more cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The sum of all chemical changes that take place in a cell through which energy and basic components are provided for essential processes, including the synthesis of new molecules and the breakdown and removal of others.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes utilizing or synthesizing ATP, or those which use other nucleotides to synthesize DNA and RNA.^ CI-958 binds to DNA and stops cells, including cancer cells, from repairing damage to DNA and from making more DNA, RNA, and protein.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

ATP exists in cells normally as a chelate of ATP and a magnesium ion.
Plants have an additional use for magnesium in that chlorophylls are magnesium-centered porphyrins. Magnesium deficiency in plants causes late-season yellowing between leaf veins, especially in older leaves, and can be corrected by applying Epsom salts (which is rapidly leached), or else crushed dolomitic limestone to the soil.
Food sources of magnesium
Magnesium is a vital component of a healthy human diet. .Human magnesium deficiency (including conditions which show few overt symptoms) is relatively common, with only 32% of the United States meeting the RDA-DRI;[14] low levels of magnesium in the body has been associated with the development of a number of human illnesses such as asthma, diabetes, and osteoporosis.^ It is used as a drug to increase calcium levels in the body in order to treat skeletal and tissue-related calcium deficiencies caused by kidney or thyroid disorders.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is linked to ATSM, which is taken up by tissues that have low levels of oxygen, such as some tumor tissues.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[15]
Adult human bodies contain about 24 grams of magnesium, with 60% in the skeleton, 39% intracellular (20% in skeletal muscle), and 1% extracellular. .Serum levels are typically 0.7 – 1.0 mmol/L or 1.8 - 2.4mEq/L. Serum magnesium levels may appear normal even in cases of underlying intracellular deficiency, although no known mechanism maintains a homeostatic level in the blood other than renal excretion of high blood levels.^ Some tumors have high levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and blocking its activity may reduce tumor growth.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This type of radiation may cause less damage to nearby healthy tissue than radiation therapy with high-energy x-rays.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An inherited disorder in which there is a lower-than-normal number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell that is important in fighting infections).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Intracellular magnesium is correlated with intracellular potassium. Magnesium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, with more absorbed when status is lower. In humans, magnesium appears to facilitate calcium absorption. Low and high protein intake inhibit magnesium absorption, and other factors such as phosphate, phytate, and fat affect absorption. Absorbed dietary magnesium is largely excreted through the urine, although most magnesium "administered orally" is excreted through the feces.[16] .Magnesium status may be assessed roughly through serum and erythrocyte Mg concentrations and urinary and fecal excretion, but intravenous magnesium loading tests are likely the most accurate and practical in most people.^ In working environments, the air concentration may reach several mg/m 3 .
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Higher urinary excretion levels of 0.41 and 0.46 mg/litre have been reported in two adults (Tipton et al., 1966).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In most studies on concentrations of titanium in blood, levels reported have been about 0.02-0.07 mg/litre.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[17] In these tests, magnesium is injected intravenously; a retention of 20% or more indicates deficiency.[18] Other nutrient deficiencies are identified through biomarkers, but none are established for magnesium.[19]
.Spices, nuts, cereals, coffee, cocoa, tea, and vegetables are rich sources of magnesium.^ A substance found in the leaves and beans of the coffee tree, in tea, yerba mate, guarana berries, and in small amounts in cocoa.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Green leafy vegetables such as spinach are also rich in magnesium as they contain chlorophyll which is rich in magnesium.^ A substance found in yellow and orange fruits and vegetables and in dark green, leafy vegetables.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Observations of reduced dietary magnesium intake in modern Western countries as compared to earlier generations may be related to food refining and modern fertilizers which contain no magnesium.^ Outside occupational settings, the amount of titanium absorbed via the lungs is of little significance in relation to the intake from food, and the intake by inhalation is less than 1% of the total intake.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A person with celiac disease may become malnourished no matter how much food is consumed.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[16]
Numerous magnesium dietary supplements are available. Magnesium oxide, one of the most common because it has high magnesium content per weight, has been reported to be the least bioavailable.[20][21] .Magnesium citrate has been reported as more bioavailable than oxide or amino-acid chelate (glycinate) forms.^ Titanium tetrachloride is a liquid, which is stable in dry air, but decomposes in cold water to form titanium oxide and hydrochloric acid.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[22]
.Excess magnesium in the blood is freely filtered at the kidneys, and for this reason it is difficult to overdose on magnesium from dietary sources alone.^ The kidneys filter carbamide out of the blood and into the urine.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[15] .With supplements, overdose is possible, however, particularly in people with poor renal function; occasionally, with use of high cathartic doses of magnesium salts, severe hypermagnesemia has been reported to occur even without renal dysfunction.^ The dose administered was not reported but the compound used was characterized as "pure".
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[23] Alcoholism can produce a magnesium deficiency which is easily reversed by oral or parenteral administration, depending on the degree of deficiency.[24]

Precautions

.
The magnesium-bodied Honda RA302 of Jo Schlesser crashes and burns during the 1968 French Grand Prix.
^ Symptoms include body aches, pain in the lower back and genital area, a burning feeling during urination, and problems with emptying the bladder all the way.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Schlesser was killed.
.Magnesium metal and its alloys are explosive hazards; they are highly flammable in their pure form when molten or in powder or in ribbon form.^ It is extremely resistant to corrosion and, in the form of a powder or dust, is highly flammable and explosive.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Titanium powders are highly pyrophoric and molten titanium burns in air.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Uses of Titanium Titanium, used as a construction material, is usually in the form of alloys, most of which have higher strength than pure titanium and enhanced corrosion resistance.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Burning or molten magnesium metal reacts violently with water.^ Burns in air and reacts with hot water.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

.When working with powdered magnesium, safety glasses with welding eye protection are employed, because the bright white light produced by burning magnesium contains ultraviolet light that can permanently damage the retinas of the eyes.^ It is estimated that over half of all non-permanent white or light-coloured surface coatings include a titanium dioxide level of 0.1-0.3 kg/litre.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The third largest and apparently fastest growing application of titanium dioxide is in the plastics industry, because of its resistance to degradation by ultraviolet light, high refractive index, whiteness, and chemical inertness (Stamper, 1970).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A thin layer of tissue that is part of the middle layer of the wall of the eye, between the sclera (white outer layer of the eye) and the retina (the inner layer of nerve tissue at the back of the eye).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[25]
Magnesium is capable of reducing water to the highly flammable hydrogen gas:[26]
Mg (s) + 2 H2O (l) → Mg(OH)2 (s) + H2 (g)
As a result, water cannot be used to extinguish magnesium fires; the hydrogen gas produced will only intensify the fire. Dry sand is an effective smothering agent but is usable only on relatively level and flat surfaces.
Magnesium also reacts with carbon dioxide to form magnesium oxide and carbon:
2 Mg (s) + CO2 → 2 MgO (s) + C (s)
Hence, carbon dioxide fire extinguishers cannot be used for extinguishing magnesium fires either.[27]
.Burning magnesium is usually quenched by using a Class D dry chemical fire extinguisher, or by covering the fire with sand or magnesium foundry flux to remove its air source.^ To destroy tissue using a hot or cold instrument, an electrical current, or a chemical that burns or dissolves the tissue.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

References

  1. ^ Bernath, P. F., Black, J. H., & Brault, J. W. (1985). "The spectrum of magnesium hydride". Astrophysical Journal 298: 375. http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/24.pdf. 
  2. ^ a b (PDF) Abundance and form of the most abundant elements in Earth’s continental crust. http://www.gly.uga.edu/railsback/Fundamentals/ElementalAbundanceTableP.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-15. 
  3. ^ Housecroft, Catherine E; Sharpe, Alan G. (2007). "Group 2 metals". Inorganic Chemistry (3 ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson. ISBN 9780131755536. 
  4. ^ Ash, Russell (2005). The Top 10 of Everything 2006: The Ultimate Book of Lists. Dk Pub. ISBN 0756613213. http://plymouthlibrary.org/faqelements.htm. .
  5. ^ Anthoni, J Floor (2006). "The chemical composition of seawater". http://www.seafriends.org.nz/oceano/seawater.htm#composition. 
  6. ^ "Magnesium in health". http://www.mg12.info. 
  7. ^ Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H. and Vicenzi, Edward P.. "Condensed-phase modifications in magnesium particle combustion in air". Scripta Materialia 122. doi:10.1016/S0010-2180(00)00101-2. 
  8. ^ DOE Handbook - Primer on Spontaneous Heating and Pyrophoricity. U.S. Department of Energy. December 1994. p. 20. DOE-HDBK-1081-94. http://www.hss.doe.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds/standard/hdbk1081/hbk1081c.html. 
  9. ^ Vardi, Nathan (February 22, 2007). "Man With Many Enemies". Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2002/0722/044_print.html. Retrieved 2006-06-26. 
  10. ^ Ketil Amundsen, Terje Kr. Aune, Per Bakke, Hans R. Eklund, Johanna Ö. Haagensen, Carlos Nicolas, Christian Rosenkilde, Sia Van den Bremt, Oddmund Wallevik “Magnesium” in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2002, Wiley-VCH. doi: 10.1002/14356007.a15_559
  11. ^ Luo, Alan A. and Powell, Bob R. (2001) (PDF). Tensile and Compressive Creep of Magnesium-Aluminum-Calcium Based Alloys. Materials & Processes Laboratory, General Motors Research & Development Center. http://doc.tms.org/ezmerchant/prodtms.nsf/productlookupitemid/01-481x-137/%24FILE/01-481X-137F.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-21. 
  12. ^ Dreizin, Edward L.; Berman, Charles H. and Vicenzi, Edward P.. "Condensed-phase modifications in magnesium particle combustion in air". Scripta Materialia 122. doi:10.1016/S0010-2180(00)00101-2. 
  13. ^ Ravi Kumar, N. V. et al.. Effect of alloying elements on the ignition resistance of magnesium alloys. doi:10.1016/S1359-6462(03)00263-X. 
  14. ^ "Lack Energy? Maybe It's Your Magnesium Level". United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/may04/energy0504.htm?pf=1. Retrieved 2008-09-18.  Last paragraph
  15. ^ a b University of Maryland Medical Center. Magnesium
  16. ^ a b Wester PO (May 1987). "Magnesium". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45 (5 Suppl): 1305–12. PMID 3578120. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3578120. 
  17. ^ Arnaud MJ (2008). "Update on the assessment of magnesium status". Br. J. Nutr. 99 Suppl 3: S24–36. doi:10.1017/S000711450800682X. PMID 18598586. 
  18. ^ Rob PM, Dick K, Bley N, et al. (October 1999). "Can one really measure magnesium deficiency using the short-term magnesium loading test?". J. Intern. Med. 246 (4): 373–8. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.1999.00580.x. PMID 10583708. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0954-6820&date=1999&volume=246&issue=4&spage=373. 
  19. ^ Franz KB (2004). "A functional biological marker is needed for diagnosing magnesium deficiency". J Am Coll Nutr 23 (6): 738S–41S. PMID 15637224. 
  20. ^ Firoz M, Graber M (December 2001). "Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparations". Magnes Res 14 (4): 257–62. PMID 11794633. 
  21. ^ Lindberg JS, Zobitz MM, Poindexter JR, Pak CY (1990). "Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide". J Am Coll Nutr 9 (1): 48–55. PMID 2407766. 
  22. ^ Walker AF, Marakis G, Christie S, Byng M (2003). "Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomised, double-blind study" (free text on-line). Magnes Res 16 (3): 183–91. PMID 14596323. http://www.john-libbey-eurotext.fr/medline.md?issn=0953-1424&vol=16&iss=3&page=183. 
  23. ^ Kontani M, Hara A, Ohta S, Ikeda T (2005). "Hypermagnesemia induced by massive cathartic ingestion in an elderly woman without pre-existing renal dysfunction". Intern. Med. 44 (5): 448–52. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.44.448. PMID 15942092. 
  24. ^ Giannini, A. J. (1997). Drugs of Abuse (Second ed.). Los Angeles: Physicians Management Information Co.. 
  25. ^ "Science Safety: Chapter 8". Government of Manitoba. http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/docs/support/scisafe/chapter8.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21. 
  26. ^ "Chemistry : Periodic Table : magnesium : chemical reaction data". webelements.com. http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Mg/chem.html. Retrieved 2006-06-26. 
  27. ^ "Demo Lab: Reaction Of Magnesium Metal With Carbon Dioxide". http://www.ilpi.com/genchem/demo/co2mg/. Retrieved 2006-06-26. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.MAGNESIUM [[[symbol]] Mg, atomic weight 24.32 (0 = 16)], a metallic chemical element.^ Magnesium (Mg) Element Properties .
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

^ TERAOKA, H. (1980) Distribution of 24 elements in the internal organs of normal males and the metallic worker in Japan.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium .
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

The sulphate or " Epsom salts " (q.v.) was isolated in .1695 by N. Grew, while in 1707 M. B. Valentin prepared magnesia alba from the mother liquors obtained in the manufacture of nitre.^ Loew, who prepared in 1885 a sweet, unfermentable syrup , which he named formose, C6H120e and, later, by using magnesia instead of lime, he obtained the fermentable methose.

.Magnesia was confounded with lime until 1755, when J. Black showed that the two substances were entirely different; and in 1808 Davy pointed out that it was the oxide of a metal, which, however, he was not able to isolate.^ Isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

.Magnesium is found widely distributed in nature, chiefly in the forms of silicate, carbonate and chloride, and occurring in the minerals olivine, hornblende, talc, asbestos, meerschaum, augite, dolomite, magnesite, carnallite, kieserite and kainite.^ Coal is pretty widely distributed in Spain, and occurs in several districts in the Balkan peninsula .

^ These types of foods have been shown to contain not only minerals in natural food forms, but also important protein chaperones such as ATX1 and ceruplasmin [39,40].
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is widely distributed and occurs at an average concentration of 4400 mg/kg (Mason, 1966).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The metal was prepared (in a state approximating to purity) by A. A. B. Bussy (Jour. de pharm. 1829, 15, p. 30; 1830, 16, p. .142), who fused the anhydrous chloride with potassium; H. Sainte Claire Deville's process, which used to be employed commercially, was essentially the same, except that sodium was substituted for potassium (Comptes rendus, 18 57, 44, p.^ Black Treacle: Containing 18 percent water, this dark, thick liquid is obtained from the residual molasses which is drained from the molds used in the sugar refining process.

^ Devil's Oil Used by those who wish to harm others or to do mischief to them.
  • Magic Oils, Hodoo Oils, Anointing Oils, Ritual Oils, ConjureOils, Essential Oils, Massage Oils, Ointments: Lucky Mojo Curio Co.Catalogue 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.luckymojo.com [Source type: General]

^ The only calcium source found in coral reefs is calcium carbonate, the same calcium compound that is easily found in other rocks and limestone, and has been available for commercial use for decades.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

394), the product being further purified by redistillation. .It may also be prepared by heating a mixture of carbon, oxide of iron and magnesite to bright redness; and by heating a mixture of magnesium ferrocyanide and sodium carbonate, the double cyanide formed being then decomposed by heating it with metallic zinc.^ Magnesium carbonate is the rock known as magnesite.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Magnesium oxide is normally burnt magnesium carbonate.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A statistically significant protective effect was exhibited by carbon tetrachloride when sodium cyanide was given at a dose of 16 mg/kg following the administration of sodium thiosulfate.

Electrolytic methods have entirely superseded the older methods. .The problem of magnesium reduction is in many respects similar to that of aluminium extraction, bait the lightness of the metal as compared, bulk for bulk, with its fused salts, and the readiness with which it burns when exposed to air at high temperatures, render the problem somewhat more difficult.^ Used as bulk metal and in lightweight alloys with magnesium for engines, also as a sacrificial electrode to protect other metals.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, many of the problems are worsened by the need to respect the fact that the earth is young.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Magnesium is a light metal essential to the chemistry of life whereas nickel and vanadium can be poisonous.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moissan found that the oxide resisted reduction by carbon in the electric furnace, so that electrolysis of a fusible salt of the metal must be resorted to.^ QC REVIEWED** Fire Fighting Procedures: Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers must not be used where cyanide salts are present.

^ PEER REVIEWED** Methods of Manufacturing: Sodium cyanide can be prepared by heating sodium amide with carbon, by melting sodium chloride and calcium cyanamide together in an electric furnace ...

^ Electric Resistance Furnaces .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

Bunsen, in 1852, electrolysed fused magnesium chloride in a porcelain crucible. .In later processes, carnallite (a natural double chloride of magnesium and potassium) has commonly, after careful dehydration, been substituted for the single chloride.^ Magnesium chloride is magnesium ammonium chloride processed with hydrochloric acid.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Graetzel's process, which was at one time employed, consisted in electrolysing the chloride in a metal crucible heated externally, the crucible itself forming the cathode, and the magnesium being deposited upon its inner surface.^ One of the other problems, that will be amplified later, is that if the burial is too deep, or too long, any oil formed will be destroyed by further thermodynamic processes.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oil and gas reservoirs consist of a volume of porous rock (typically one to three miles beneath the ground surface).
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is one of the most compact forms of machine, the smaller size being only 20 in.

.W. Borchers also used an externally heated metal vessel as the cathode; it is provided with a supporting collar or flange a little below the top, so that the upper part of the vessel is exposed to the cooling influence of the air, in order that a crust of solidified salt may there be formed, and so prevent the creeping of the electrolyte over the top.^ Even though there may be some theoretical advantages of industrially-produced mineral 'chelates' as compared to inorganic mineral salts, these chelates are not natural food.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Surgery in which a healthy blood vessel taken from another part of the body is used to make a new path for blood around a blocked artery leading to the heart.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The carbon anode passes through the cover of a porcelain cylinder, open at the bottom, and provided with a side-tube at the top to remove the chlorine formed during electrolysis.^ Surgery to remove the bladder (the organ that holds urine) and urethra (the tube through which urine leaves the body).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Wall cabinets include tops, sides and bottoms all formed from .063" thick premium aluminum with baked enamel finish for long lasting durability and easy cleaning.

The operation is conducted at a dull red heat (about 760° C. or 1400° F.), the current density being about 0.64 amperes per sq. in. of cathode surface, and the pressure about 7 volts. .The fusing-point of the metal is about 730° C. (1350° F.), and the magnesium is therefore reduced in the form of melted globules which gradually accumulate.^ Lip balm recipes will be posted in our Recipes section and on our blog at blog.thesage.com The melting point of this butter is about 95 degrees F (35 degrees C).
  • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

At intervals the current is interrupted, the cover removed, and the temperature of the vessel raised considerably above the melting-point of magnesium. .The metal is then removed from the walls with the aid of an iron scraper, and the whole mass poured into a sheet-iron tray, where it solidifies.^ When a cool metal spoon is dipped into the syrup and then raised, the syrup runs off in drops which merge to form a sheet.

.The solidified chloride is then broken up, the shots and fused masses of magnesium are picked out, run together in a plumbago crucible without flux, and poured into a suitable mould.^ Halter broke, handled daily, will eat out of your hand, up to date on shots and worming.
  • National Dexter Cattle for Sale List 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC dextercattle4sale.net [Source type: General]

^ A saturated sugar solution contains the maximum amount of sugar possible at room temperature without precipitating out into crystals.

.Smaller pieces are thrown into a bath of melted carnallite and pressed together with an iron rod, the bath being then heated until the globules of metal float to the top, when they may be removed in perforated iron ladles, through the holes in which the fused chloride can drain away, but through which the melted magnesium cannot pass by reason of its high surface tension.^ They were sold at party stores, discount dollar stores and hardware stores nationwide from May 2007 through August 2008 for between $1 and $5.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

^ They were sold at Limited Too and Justice retail stores nationwide, the Limited Too catazine (catalog) and on Limitedtoo.com from May 2007 through August 2008.
  • Lead Paint Toy Recalls - Latest Lead Toy Recalls - Toxic Childrens Products - thedailygreen.com 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.thedailygreen.com [Source type: General]

^ A, at 40 fathoms; at this depth it is considered proper to remove nearer to the outcrop so that lower strata may be bored into at a less depth, and a second bore is commenced.

The globules are then re-melted. F. Oettel (Zeit. f. Elektrochem., 1895, 2, P. 394) recommends the electrolytic preparation from carnallite; the mineral should be freed from water and sulphates.
.Magnesium is a silvery white metal possessing a high lustre.^ PEER REVIEWED** Animal Toxicity Studies: Toxicity Summary: IDENTIFICATION: Aluminum is a silvery-white, ductile and malleable metal.

It is malleable and ductile. Sp. gr. .1.75. It preserves its lustre in dry air, but in moist air it becomes tarnished by the formation of a film of oxide.^ PEER REVIEWED** Stability/Shelf Life: IN MOIST AIR, OXIDE FILM FORMS WHICH PROTECTS METAL FROM CORROSION. [The Merck Index.

^ IN MOIST AIR, OXIDE FILM FORMS WHICH PROTECTS METAL FROM CORROSION; ...

It melts at 632.7° C. (C. T. Heycock and F. H. Neville), and boils at about lioo C. Magnesium and its salts are diamagnetic. .It burns brilliantly when heated in air or oxygen, or even in carbon dioxide, emitting a brilliant white light and leaving a residue of magnesia, MgO. The light is rich in the violet and ultra-violet rays, and consequently is employed in photography.^ These crystals fluoresce a nice vibrant powder blue or purplish blue in ultra-violet light.
  • Pictures, stories, and facts about the element Calcium in the Periodic Table 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC periodictable.com [Source type: General]

^ V7 766]**PEER REVIEWED** When heated in a dry carbon dioxide atmosphere, sodium cyanide fuses without much decomposition.

^ The oxygen might be expected to react and form carbon dioxide and water.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The metal is also used in pyrotechny. It also burns when heated in a current of steam, which it decomposes with the liberation of hydrogen and the formation of magnesia. At high temperatures it acts as a reducing agent, reducing silica to silicon, boric acid to boron, &c. (H. Moissan, Comptes rendus, 1892, 114, p. 39 2). It combines directly with nitrogen, when heated in the gas, to form the nitride Mg 3 N 2 (see Argon). .It is rapidly dissolved by dilute acids, with the evolution of hydrogen and the formation of magnesium salts.^ PEER REVIEWED** Contact with acids and acid salts causes immediate formation of toxic and flammable hydrogen cyanide gas.

^ THOSE WORKING WITH CYANIDE SALTS SHOULD BE INSTRUCTED THAT CONTACT WITH ACIDS WILL RELEASE HYDROGEN CYANIDE. WHERE EXPOSURE POTENTIAL EXISTS, WORKERS SHOULD BE TRAINED TO RECOGNIZE THE ODOR OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE & WHEN ...

It precipitates many metals from solutions of their salts.
.Magnesium Oxide, magnesia, MgO, occurs native as the mineral periclase, and is formed when magnesium burns in air; it may also be prepared by the gentle ignition of the hydroxide or carbonate.^ Titanium tetrachloride is a liquid, which is stable in dry air, but decomposes in cold water to form titanium oxide and hydrochloric acid.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ignition may occur if powders are mixed with halogens, carbon disulfide, or methyl chloride].

^ Aluminum occurs ubiquitously in the environment in the form of silicates, oxides and hydroxides, combined with other elements such as sodium and fluorine and as complexes with organic matter.

.It is a non-volatile and almost infusible white powder, which slowly absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from air, and is readily soluble in dilute acids.^ Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a white, tasteless powder.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As might be expected, the finer the granulation, the greater the tendency of the sugar to lump, which explains why 3 percent cornstarch is added to absorb any moisture from the air before the sugar can.

^ The air was continually returned and circulated until it was too much contaminated with carbonic acid to be further used, a condition which limited the use of the apparatus to a very short period.

On account of its refractory nature, it is employed in the manufacture of crucibles, furnace linings, &c. It is also used in making hydraulic cements. A crystalline form was obtained by M. Houdard (Abst. J. C. S., 1907, ii. p. 621) by fusing the oxide and sulphide in the electric furnace. .Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2, occurs native as the minerals brucite and nemalite, and is prepared by precipitating solutions of magnesium salts by means of caustic soda or potash.^ PEER REVIEWED** Environmental considerations - Water spill: Add dilute caustic soda (sodium hydroxide).

.An artificial brucite was prepared by A. de Schulten (Comptes rendus, 1885, 101, p.^ Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences, vol.
  • Iron: Iron mineral information and data. 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.mindat.org [Source type: Academic]

72) by boiling magnesium chloride with caustic potash and allowing the solution to cool. .Magnesium hydroxide is a white amorphous solid which is only slightly soluble in water; the solubility is, however, greatly increased by ammonium salts.^ Its true that oil will be with us for many years to come however the massive movement to move away from oil has already begun and will only increase in the next ten years.
  • Keeping Iraq's Oil In the Ground | World | AlterNet 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Water is the only element that naturally changes before our eyes from liquid, to gaseous, to solid forms.
  • Alltop - Top Water News 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC water.alltop.com [Source type: General]

It possesses an alkaline reaction and absorbs carbon dioxide. It is employed in the manufacture of cements.
When magnesium is heated in fluorine or chlorine or in the vapour of bromine or iodine there is a violent reaction, and the corresponding halide compounds are formed. .With the exception of the fluoride, these substances are readily soluble in water and arc deliquescent.^ [Note: It is intended that these facilities provide a sufficient quantity or flow of water to quickly remove the substance from any body areas likely to be exposed.

^ When slowly crystallized it forms large monoclinic prisms which are readily soluble in water but difficultly soluble in alcohol.

.The fluoride is found native as sellaIte, and the bromide and iodide occur in sea water and in many mineral springs.^ The metal is highly resistant to corrosion by many agents including concentrated nitric acid, 5% sulfuric acid, and sea water.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The most important of the halide salts is the chloride which, in the hydrated form, has the formula MgC1 2.6H 2 O. It may be prepared by dissolving the metal, its oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in dilute hydrochloric acid, or by mixing concentrated solutions of magnesium sulphate and common salt, and cooling the mixture rapidly, when the less soluble sodium sulphate separates first.^ Separate from water, acids, carbon dioxide.

^ If the cyanide ion is present in excess, complex metallocyanides may form; however, if metals are prevalent, simple metal cyanides may form.

^ The turbinado sugar is heated again to a liquid state, centrifuged, clarified with lime or phosphoric acid, and then percolated through a column of beef-bone char or mixed in a solution of activated carbon.

It is also formed as a by-product in the manufacture of potassium chloride from carnallite. .The hydrated salt loses water on heating, and partially decomposes into hydrochloric acid and magnesium oxychlorides.^ OTHER SYRUPS Corn Syrup: Containing 24 percent water, corn syrup is obtained by partial hydrolysis of cornstarch by acid, alkaline or enzymatic catalysts.

^ Titanium tetrachloride is a liquid, which is stable in dry air, but decomposes in cold water to form titanium oxide and hydrochloric acid.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this procedure, the oxides are converted, under heating, into water-soluble sulfates by fumes of sulfuric acid, after which the corresponding sulfates are identified by staining reactions.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

To obtain the anhydrous salt, the double magnesium ammonium chloride, MgCl2 NH 4 C1.6H 2 O, is prepared by adding ammonium chloride to a solution of magnesium chloride. The solution is evaporated, and the residue strongly heated, when water and ammonium chloride are expelled, and anhydrous magnesium chloride remains. Magnesium chloride readily forms double salts with the alkaline chlorides. .A strong solution of the chloride made into a thick paste with calcined magnesia sets in a few hours to a hard, stone-like mass, which contains an oxychloride of varying composition.^ The thickness of coal seams varies in Great Britain from a mere film to 35 or 40 ft.; but in the south of France and in India masses of coal are known up to 200 ft.

^ The cyanide, as hydrocyanic acid, is released by refluxing the sample with strong acid and distillation of the hydrogen cyanide into an absorber-scrubber containing sodium hydroxide solution.

^ The carbonic acid gas injected into the highly limed juice in the saturators is made by the calcination of limestone in a kiln provided with three cleaning doors, so arranged as to allow the lime to be removed simultaneously from them every six hours.

.Magnesium oxychloride when heated to redness in a current of air evolves a mixture of hydrochloric acid and chlorine and leaves a residue of magnesia, a reaction which is employed in the Weldon-Pechiney and Mond processes for the manufacture of chlorine.^ Reaction with water may generate much heat which will increase the concentration of fumes in the air.

.Magnesium Carbonate, MgCO 3. - The normal salt is found native as the mineral magnesite, and in combination with calcium carbonate as dolomite, whilst hydromagnesite is a basic carbonate.^ A condition in which abnormal amounts of calcium salts are found in soft tissue, such as muscle.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Male Fischer 344 rats were fed one of two diets that were identical except for calcium carbonate content: normal (0.5%) and high (4%).

^ Mineral Oil • mechanism: Mineral oil, as a lipid solvent, may absorb many substances and/or interfere with normal absorption of calcium and other nutrients.

.It is not possible to prepare the normal carbonate by precipitating magnesium salts with sodium carbonate.^ PEER REVIEWED** Methods of Manufacturing: Sodium cyanide can be prepared by heating sodium amide with carbon, by melting sodium chloride and calcium cyanamide together in an electric furnace ...

C. Marignac has prepared it by the action of calcium carbonate on magnesium chloride. .A salt MgCO 3.3H 2 O or Mg(CO 3 H)(OH) 2H 2 O may be prepared from the carbonate by dissolving it in water charged with carbon dioxide, and then reducing the pressure (W. A. Davis, Jour.^ Separate from water, acids, carbon dioxide.

^ Verapamil • mechanism: It is possible that calcium supplements may interfere with the blood pressure-lowering activity of and reduce the therapeutic response to this drug.

^ The oxygen might be expected to react and form carbon dioxide and water.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Soc. Chem. Ind.
1906, 25, p. 788). .The carbonate is not easily soluble in dilute acids, but is readily soluble in water containing carbon dioxide.^ Separate from water, acids, carbon dioxide.

^ Whilst the oil is also light and has a volume of around one billion barrels, it contains a moderate amount of carbon dioxide (≥ 20 mol %).
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A team of biologists identified plant enzymes last month that help plants utilize raised levels of carbon dioxide to more efficiently use water.
  • Alltop - Top Water News 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC water.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Magnesia alba, a white bulky precipitate obtained by adding sodium carbonate to Epsom salts,is a mixture of Mg(CO 3 H) (OH) 2H 2 O,Mg(CO 3 H) (OH) and Mg(OH) 2. It is almost insoluble in water, but readily dissolves in ammonium salts.^ Insoluble matter is removed and water is added.

^ A statistically significant protective effect was exhibited by carbon tetrachloride when sodium cyanide was given at a dose of 16 mg/kg following the administration of sodium thiosulfate.

^ Lethality was not changed by carbon tetrachloride pretreatments when sodium cyanide was given alone in doses of 4 or 6 mg/kg or at a dose of 10.7 mg/kg following sodium thiosulfate (sodium sulfide, 1 g/kg, ip).

Table of contents

Magnesium Phosphates

By - adding sodium phosphate to magnesium sulphate and allowing the mixture to stand, hexagonal needles of MgHPO 4.7H 2 O are deposited. .The normal phosphate, Mg3P205, is found in some guanos, and as the mineral wagnerite.^ Several studies have found thiazide use to be associated with higher bone mineral density and some have found that thiazides reduce the risk of hip fracture.

.It may be prepared by adding normal sodium phosphate to a magnesium salt and boiling the precipitate with a solution of magnesium sulphate.^ OTHER ELEMENTS MAY BE ADDED AS ALLOYING COMPONENTS, SUCH AS BERYLIUM, COPPER, MAGNESIUM, MANGANESE, IRON & SILICA IN DURALUMIN. [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.

.It is a white amorphous powder, readily soluble in acids.
Magnesium ammonium phosphate, MgNH 4 PO 4.6H 2 O, is found as the mineral struvite and in some guanos; it occurs also in urinary calculi and is formed in the putrefaction of urine.^ A form of carnitine, which is a substance made in muscle and liver tissue and found in certain foods, such as meat, poultry, fish, and some dairy products.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Grabarov (1970) found that the titanium content of soils in Kazakhstan, USSR, ranged from 2 to 7 g/kg but that only 10-50 mg/kg was in a readily soluble form.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They all contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen , forming the carbonaceous or combustible portion, and some quantity of mineral matter, which remains after combustion as a residue or " ash ."

.It is prepared by adding sodium phosphate to magnesium sulphate in the presence of ammonia and ammonium chloride.^ The metallic characteristics of titanium are shown in compounds such as titanium chloride, phosphate, sulfate, and nitrate, whereas the non-metallic characteristics are exhibited in a series of titanates, e.g., calcium, iron, and sodium titanates.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Titanium occurs in both a cationic state (e.g., titanium chlorides, phosphates, and sulfates) and an anionic state (e.g., calcium, iron, and sodium titanates).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.When heated to 100° C., it loses five molecules of water of crystallization, and at a higher temperature loses the remainder of the water and also ammonia, leaving a residue of magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7.
Magnesium Nitrate, Mg(NO 3) 2.6H 2 O, is a colourless, deliquescent, crystalline solid obtained by dissolving magnesium or its carbonate in nitric acid, and concentrating the solution.^ Separate from water, acids, carbon dioxide.

^ Diagnostic tests: Moistened, after heating, with cobalt nitrate (CoNO 3 )and again ignited, a pink color is obtained from some infusible compounds of magnesium.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I have made that no solution, unless highly concentrated, of sugar in water can without material injury to its colouring-and crystallizing power, or to both, be exposed to its boiling temperature during the period required to evaporate such solution to the crystallizing point."

The crystals melt at 90° C.
Magnesium Nitride, Mg 3 N 2, is obtained as a greenish-yellow amorphous mass by passing a current of nitrogen or ammonia over heated magnesium (F. Briegleb and A. Geuther, Ann., 1862, 123, p. 228; see also W. Eidmann and L. Moeser, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 39 0). When heated in dry oxygen it becomes incandescent, forming magnesia. Water decomposes it with liberation of ammonia and formation of magnesium hydroxide. .The chlorides of nickel, cobalt, chromium, iron and mercury are converted into nitrides when heated with it, whilst the chlorides of copper and platinum are reduced to the metals (A. Smits, Rec.^ We offer aluminum alloys with zinc, copper, magnesium, nickel, iron and more.

^ Titanium has an atomic radius similar to, and thus is capable of substitution for, other transitional metals, e.g., vanadium, iron, cobalt, nickel, and zinc (Barksdale, 1966; Stamper, 1970; Katari et al., 1977).
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No effect of aluminum was observed on tissue levels of the essential metals zinc, copper, and iron, or on hemoglobin and hematocrit values.

Pays Bas, 1896, 15, p. 1 35). .When heated in a current of carbon monoxide or dioxide, it is converted into oxide, some carbon and cyanogen being formed at the same time. Magnesium sulphide, MgS, may be obtained, mixed with some unaltered metal and some magnesia, as a hard brown mass by heating magnesia, in sulphur vapour.^ Diagnostic tests: Moistened, after heating, with cobalt nitrate (CoNO 3 )and again ignited, a pink color is obtained from some infusible compounds of magnesium.
  • Mineral Species sorted by the element Mg Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC webmineral.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The former plan, being the older, has been most largely used, but is becoming replaced by some form of machine.

^ At the time of examination, mean hydrogen fluoride exposure was 0.56 mg/cu m, mean particulate fluoride exposure was 0.15 mg/cu m, and mean sulfur dioxide concentration was 3.38 mg/cu m.

It slowly decomposes in moist air, liberating sulphuretted hydrogen, and with water it gives a yellow solution which becomes colourless on exposure.

Organic Compounds

By heating magnesium filings with methyl and ethyl iodides A. Cahours (Ann. chim. phys., 1860, 58, pp. .5, 19) obtained magnesium methyl, Mg(CH 3) 2, and magnesium ethyl, Mg(C 2 H 5) 2, as colourless, strongly smelling, mobile liquids, which are spontaneously inflammable and are readily decomposed by water.^ Titanium tetrachloride is a liquid, which is stable in dry air, but decomposes in cold water to form titanium oxide and hydrochloric acid.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The compounds formed by the action of magnesium on alkyl iodides in the cold have been largely used in synthetic organic Gri chemistry since V. Grignard (Comptes rendus, 1900 et seq.^ The former plan, being the older, has been most largely used, but is becoming replaced by some form of machine.

^ We do not have to find large volumes of organic matter, since this is no longer the precursor material.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) observed that magnesium and alkyl or aryl halides combined together in presence of anhydrous .ether at ordinary R temperatures (with the appearance of brisk boiling) to form compounds of the type RMgX(R = an alkyl or aryl group and X = halogen).^ A type of mole formed by groups of nevus cells found in the epidermis and dermis (the two main layers of tissue that make up the skin).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

These compounds are insoluble in ether, are non-inflammable and exceedingly reactive. A. V. Baeyer (Ber., 1902, 35, p. 1201) regards them as oxonium salts containing tetravalent oxygen (C 2 H 5) 2 :0:(MgR) (X), whilst W. Tschelinzeff (Ber., 1906, 39, p. .773) considers that they contain two molecules of ether.^ We have taken a fact (that oils contain molecules that can be generated in the laboratory from biological material) and made two assumptions.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In preparing the Grignard reagent the commencement of the reaction is accelerated by a trace of iodine. W. Tschelinzeff (Ber., 1904, 37, p. .4534) showed that the ether may be replaced by benzene containing a small quantity of ether or anisole, or a few drops of a tertiary amine.^ Generators of small quantities of this waste may qualify for partial exclusion from hazardous waste regulations (40 CFR 261.5(e)).

^ The residue after shoveling, or small spills, may be removed by dry vacuuming or flushing with a liberal quantity of water.

^ PEER REVIEWED** AMT OF ALUMINUM IN TISSUES, ORGANS, BLOOD & URINE IS SMALL. ADULT HUMAN BODY MAY CONTAIN 50-150 MG ...

.With unsaturated alkyl halides the products are only slightly soluble in ether, and two molecules of the alkyl compound are brought into the reaction.^ Exposure to titanium and its compounds occurs not only in the production of metallic titanium, but also in processes in which it is used.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The laboratory process only works provided intermediate reaction products (oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur) are removed as the process continues.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this procedure, the oxides are converted, under heating, into water-soluble sulfates by fumes of sulfuric acid, after which the corresponding sulfates are identified by staining reactions.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

They are very unstable, and do not react in the normal manner. (V. Grignard and L. Tissier, Comptes rendus, 1901, 1 3 2, p. 558).
.The products formed by the action of the Grignard reagent with the various types of organic compounds are usually thrown out of solution in the form of crystalline precipitates or as thick oils, and are then decomposed by ice-cold dilute sulphuric or acetic acids, the magnesium being removed as a basic halide salt.^ Wohl forms the oxime and converts it into an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate; ammoniacal silver nitrate solution removes hydrocyanic acid and the resulting acetate is hydrolysed by acting with ammonia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with sulphuric acid.

^ On warming the osazone with hydrochloric acid the phenylhydrazine residues are removed and an osone results, which on reduction with zinc and acetic acid gives a ketose.

^ The cyanhydrins on hydrolysis give monocarboxylic acids, which yield lactones ; these compounds when reduced by sodium amalgam in sulphuric acid solution yield a sugar containing one more carbon atom.

Applications

For the formation of primary and secondary alcohols see Aldehydes and Ketones. Formaldehyde behaves abnormally with magnesium benzyl bromide (M. Tiffeneau, Comptes rendus, 1903, 1 37, p. 573), forming ortho-tolylcarbinol, CH3 C6H4 CH20H, and not benzylcarbinol, C 6 H 5 CH 2 CH 2 OH (cf. the reaction of formaldehyde on phenols: 0. Manasse, Ber. 18 94, 2 7, p. 2904). Acid esters yield carbinols, many of which are unstable and readily pass over into unsaturated compounds, especially when warmed with acetic anhydride: R. CO 2 R'(R") 2 R:C OMgX- (R")2R;C OH.
.Formic ester yields a secondary alcohol under similar conditions.^ A study that compares two groups of people: those with the disease or condition under study (cases) and a very similar group of people who do not have the disease or condition (controls).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Acid chlorides behave in an analogous manner to esters (Grignard and Tissier, Comptes rendus, 1901, 132, p. 683). Nitriles yield ketones (the nitrogen being eliminated as ammonia), the best yields being given by the aromatic nitriles (E. Blaise, ibid., 1901, 1 33, p. .1217): R CN -->R CO R'. Acid amides also react to form ketones (C. Beis, ibid., 1903, 1 37, 575): R Conh 2 - E Rr' :C(OMgX) NHMgX R'H--R CO. R'; the yield increases with the complexity of the organic residue of the acid amide.^ Aluminum occurs ubiquitously in the environment in the form of silicates, oxides and hydroxides, combined with other elements such as sodium and fluorine and as complexes with organic matter.

.On passing a current of dry carbon dioxide over the reagent,- the gas is absorbed and the resulting compound, when decomposed by dilute acids, yields an organic acid, and similarly with carbon oxysulphide a thio-acid is obtained: RMgX-R CO 2 MgX?R CO 2 H; COS-CS(OMgX) R--R Csoh.^ Separate from water, acids, carbon dioxide.

^ Use foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide.

^ V7 766]**PEER REVIEWED** When heated in a dry carbon dioxide atmosphere, sodium cyanide fuses without much decomposition.

A Klages (Ber., 1902, 35, pp. 2633 et seq.) has shown that if one uses an excess of magnesium and of an alkyl halide with a ketone, an ethylene derivative is formed. .The reaction appears to be perfectly general unless the ketone contains two ortho-substituent groups.^ We have taken a fact (that oils contain molecules that can be generated in the laboratory from biological material) and made two assumptions.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Organo-metallic compounds can also be prepared, for example SnBr 4 +4MgBrC 6 H 5 =4MgBr2+Sn(C6H5) 4.
For a summary see A. McKenzie, B. A. Rep. 1907.

Detection

.The magnesium salts may be detected by the white precipitate formed by adding sodium phosphate (in the presence of ammonia and ammonium chloride) to their solutions.^ OTHER ELEMENTS MAY BE ADDED AS ALLOYING COMPONENTS, SUCH AS BERYLIUM, COPPER, MAGNESIUM, MANGANESE, IRON & SILICA IN DURALUMIN. [Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.

.The same reaction is made use of in the quantitative determination of magnesium, the white precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate being converted by ignition into magnesium pyrophosphate and weighed as such.^ Directions say to use the same amount (volume) as white sugar.

^ In this procedure, the oxides are converted, under heating, into water-soluble sulfates by fumes of sulfuric acid, after which the corresponding sulfates are identified by staining reactions.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Fisher-Tropsch process is an industrial process used to convert a material with a high carbon content (such as coal) into petroleum liquids in the presence of catalysts such as ferric oxides and/or silicates.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The atomic weight of magnesium has been determined by many observers. J. Berzelius (Ann. chim. phys., 1820, 14, p. .375), by converting the oxide into the sulphate, obtained the value 12.62 for the equivalent.^ In this procedure, the oxides are converted, under heating, into water-soluble sulfates by fumes of sulfuric acid, after which the corresponding sulfates are identified by staining reactions.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

R. F. Marchand and T. Scheerer (Jour. prakt. Chsm., 1850, 50, p. .358), by ignition of the carbonate, obtained the value 24.00 for the atomic weight, whilst C. Marignac, by converting the oxide into the sulphate, obtained the value 24.37. T. W. Richards and H. G. Parker (Zeit.^ In this procedure, the oxides are converted, under heating, into water-soluble sulfates by fumes of sulfuric acid, after which the corresponding sulfates are identified by staining reactions.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Fisher-Tropsch process is an industrial process used to convert a material with a high carbon content (such as coal) into petroleum liquids in the presence of catalysts such as ferric oxides and/or silicates.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

anorg. Chem.,
1897, 13, p. have obtained the value 24.365 (0 =16).

Medicine

.These salts of magnesium may be regarded as the typical saline purgatives. Their aperient action is dependent upon the minimum of irritation of the bowel, and is exercised by their abstraction from the blood of water, which passes into the bowel to act as a diluent of the salt.^ F. Hard ball: Syrup dropped into ice water may be formed into a hard ball which holds its shape on removal but is still plastic.

^ It may prevent the growth of blood vessels from surrounding tissue into a solid tumor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Most formation waters are quite saline (typically two or more times the content of NaCl than seawater, but some are almost fully saturated).
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The stronger the solution administered, the greater is the quantity of water that passes into the bowel, a fact to be borne in mind when the salt is administered for the purpose of draining superfluous fluid from the system, as in dropsy.^ Additionally, the water surrounding individual grains will rise in pressure, and some of the rock grain material will therefore be taken into solution.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drain Water Waste Heat Recovery Systems .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

.The oxide and carbonate of magnesium are also invaluable as antidotes, since they form insoluble compounds with oxalic acid and salts of mercury, arsenic, and copper.^ Back There is little or no barium or strontium in seawater, probably because of the presence of sulfate which forms an insoluble salt with these two anions.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Strong oxidizers (such as acids, acid salts, chlorates & nitrates) [Note: Absorbs moisture from the air forming a syrup].

^ PEER REVIEWED** IN TESTING FOR GOLD, ARSENIC, MERCURY; PRECIPITATING COPPER [The Merck Index.

The result is to prevent the local corrosive action of the poison and to prevent absorption of the metals. .As alkaloids are insoluble in alkaline solutions, the oxide and carbonate - especially the former - may be given in alkaloidal poisoning.^ A bright pink coloration of the skin due to high concentrations of oxyhemoglobin in the venous return may be confused with that of carbon monoxide poisoning.

.The compounds of magnesium are not absorbed into the blood in any appreciable quantity, and therefore exert no remote actions upon other functions.^ In no event shall SilverStrategies.com or its affiliates be liable to any person or entity for decisions made or action taken in reliance upon the information provided herein.
  • Silver Strategies - Information Source About Silver Investment 8 January 2010 3:31 UTC www.silverstrategies.com [Source type: General]

^ A type of cell that makes neurohormones (chemicals that are made by nerve cells and used to send signals to other cells) and releases them into the blood.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This is fortunate, as the result of injecting a solution of a magnesium salt into a vein is rapid poisoning.^ A procedure in which a small amount of C-11 choline (a radioactive form of the vitamin choline) is injected into a vein.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A procedure in which a small amount of carbon-11 choline (a radioactive form of the vitamin choline) is injected into a vein.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Hence it is of the utmost importance to avoid the use of salts of this metal whenever it is necessary - as in diabetic coma - to increase the alkalinity of the blood rapidly.^ A procedure that uses gold salts (a salt form of the metal element gold) to treat diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Aluminum was transferred to the patients' blood during the dialysis treatments, because of the high metal content in the tap water used to prepare the dialysates.

The usual doses of the oxide and carbonate of magnesium are from half a drachm to a drachm.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also magnesium

Contents

German

Chemical Element: Mg (atomical number 12)

Pronunciation

Noun

Magnesium n
  1. magnesium

Related terms


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Magnesium]] Magnesium ( /mæɡˈniːziəm/ mag-NEE-zee-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Mg, atomic number 12 and common oxidation state +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, where it constitutes about 2% by mass, and ninth in the known Universe as a whole. This preponderance of magnesium is related to the fact that it is easily built up in supernova stars from a sequential addition of three helium nuclei to carbon (which in turn is made from three helium nuclei). Magnesium ion's high solubility in water helps ensure that it is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater.[5]

Magnesium is the 11th most abundant element by mass in the human body; its ions are essential to all living cells, where they play a major role in manipulating important biological polyphosphate compounds like ATP, DNA, and RNA. Hundreds of enzymes thus require magnesium ions to function. Magnesium is also the metallic ion at the center of chlorophyll, and is thus a common additive to fertilizers.[6] Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids (i.e., milk of magnesia), and in a number of situations where stabilization of abnormal nerve excitation and blood vessel spasm is required (i.e., to treat eclampsia). Magnesium ions are sour to the taste, and in low concentrations help to impart a natural tartness to fresh mineral waters.

The free element (metal) is not found naturally on Earth, as it is highly reactive (though once produced, is coated in a thin layer of oxide (see passivation), which partly masks this reactivity). The free metal burns with a characteristic brilliant white light, making it a useful ingredient in flares. The metal is now mainly obtained by electrolysis of magnesium salts obtained from brine. Commercially, the chief use for the metal is as an alloying agent to make aluminium-magnesium alloys, sometimes called "magnalium" or "magnelium". Since magnesium is less dense than aluminium, these alloys are prized for their relative lightness and strength.

Other pages

frr:Magnesium

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Magnesium, which are similar to those in the above article.








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