Magnetometer: Wikis

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A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument. Magnetism varies from place to place and differences in Earth's magnetic field (the magnetosphere) can be caused by the differing nature of rocks and the interaction between charged particles from the Sun and the magnetosphere of a planet. Magnetometers are a frequent component instrument on spacecraft that explore planets.

Contents

Uses

Magnetometers are used in ground-based electromagnetic geophysical surveys (such as magnetotellurics) to assist with detecting mineralization and corresponding geological structures. Airborne geophysical surveys use magnetometers that can detect magnetic field variations caused by mineralization, using airplanes like the Shrike Commander.[1] Magnetometers are also used to detect archaeological sites, shipwrecks and other buried or submerged objects, and in metal detectors to detect metal objects, such as guns in security screening. Magnetic anomaly detectors detect submarines for military purposes.

They are used in directional drilling for oil or gas to detect the azimuth of the drilling tools near the drill bit. They are most often paired up with accelerometers in drilling tools so that both the inclination and azimuth of the drill bit can be found.

Magnetometers are very sensitive, and can give an indication of possible auroral activity before one can see the light from the aurora. A grid of magnetometers around the world constantly measures the effect of the solar wind on the Earth's magnetic field, which is published on the K-index.[2]

A three-axis fluxgate magnetometer was part of the Mariner 2 and Mariner 10 missions.[3] A dual technique magnetometer is part of the Cassini-Huygens mission to explore Saturn.[4] This system is composed of a vector helium and fluxgate magnetometers.[5] Magnetometers are also a component instrument on the Mercury MESSENGER mission. A magnetometer can also be used by satellites like GOES to measure both the magnitude and direction of a planet's or moon's magnetic field.

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Mobile phones

Magnetometers are appearing in mobile phones. The HTC Dream, Apple iPhone 3GS, Motorola Droid[6], Nokia N97,Nokia E72, Nexus One and the HTC Hero all have a magnetometer and come with compass apps for showing direction.[7][8]

Types

Magnetometers can be divided into two basic types:

  • Scalar magnetometers measure the total strength of the magnetic field to which they are subjected, and
  • Vector magnetometers have the capability to measure the component of the magnetic field in a particular direction, relative to the spatial orientation of the device.

The use of three orthogonal vector magnetometers allows the magnetic field strength, inclination and declination to be uniquely defined. Examples of vector magnetometers are fluxgates, superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), and the atomic SERF magnetometer. Some scalar magnetometers are discussed below.

A magnetograph is a special magnetometer that continuously records data.

Rotating coil magnetometer

The magnetic field induces a sine wave in a rotating coil. The amplitude of the signal is proportional to the strength of the field, provided it is uniform, and to the sine of the angle between the rotation axis of the coil and the field lines. This type of magnetometer is obsolete.

Hall effect magnetometer

The most common magnetic sensing devices are solid-state Hall effect sensors. These sensors produce a voltage proportional to the applied magnetic field and also sense polarity.

Proton precession magnetometer

Proton precession magnetometers, also known as proton magnetometers, measure the resonance frequency of protons (hydrogen nuclei) in the magnetic field to be measured, due to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Because the precession frequency depends only on atomic constants and the strength of the ambient magnetic field, the accuracy of this type of magnetometer is very good. They are widely used.

A direct current flowing in an inductor creates a strong magnetic field around a hydrogen-rich fluid, causing some of the protons to align themselves with that field. The current is then interrupted, and as protons realign themselves with ambient magnetic field, they precess at a frequency that is directly proportional to the magnetic field. This produces a weak alternating magnetic field that is picked up by a (sometimes separate) inductor, amplified electronically, and fed to a digital frequency counter whose output is typically scaled and displayed directly as field strength or output as digital data.

The relationship between the frequency of the induced current and the strength of the magnetic field is called the proton gyromagnetic ratio, and is equal to 0.042576 Hz/nT.

These magnetometers can be moderately sensitive if several tens of watts are available to power the aligning process. Measuring once per second, standard deviations in the readings in the 0.01 nT to 0.1 nT range can be obtained. Variations of about 0.1 nT can be detected.

The two main sources of measurement errors are magnetic impurities in the sensor and errors in the measurement of the frequency.

The Earth's magnetic field varies with time, geographical location, and local magnetic anomalies. The frequency of Earth's field NMR (EFNMR) for protons varies between approximately 1.5 kHz near the equator to 2.5 kHz near the geomagnetic poles. Typical short-term magnetic field variations at a particular location during Earth's daily rotation is about 25 nT (i.e., about 1 part in 2,000), with variations over a few seconds of typically around 1nT (i.e., about 1 part in 50,000).[9]

Apart from the direct measurement of the magnetic field on Earth or in space, these magnetometers prove to be useful to detect variations of magnetic field in space or in time (often referred to as magnetic anomalies), caused by submarines, skiers buried under snow, archaeological remains, and mineral deposits.

Gradiometer

Magnetic gradiometers are pairs of magnetometers with their sensors separated by a fixed distance (usually horizontally): the readings are subtracted in order to measure the differences between the sensed magnetic fields (i.e. field gradients caused by magnetic anomalies). This is one way of compensating both for the variability in time of the Earth's magnetic field and for other sources of electromagnetic interference, allowing more sensitive detection of anomalies. Because nearly equal values are being subtracted, the noise performance of the magnetometers used the performance requirements for the magnetometers is more extreme. For this reason, high performance magnetometers are the rule in this type of system.

Fluxgate magnetometer

A uniaxial fluxgate magnetometer
A fluxgate compass/inclinometer

A fluxgate magnetometer consists of a small, magnetically susceptible, core wrapped by two coils of wire. An alternating electrical current is passed through one coil, driving the core through an alternating cycle of magnetic saturation; i.e., magnetised, unmagnetised, inversely magnetised, unmagnetised, magnetised, etc. This constantly changing field induces an electrical current in the second coil, and this output current is measured by a detector. In a magnetically neutral background, the input and output currents will match. However, when the core is exposed to a background field, it will be more easily saturated in alignment with that field and less easily saturated in opposition to it. Hence the alternating magnetic field, and the induced output current, will be out of step with the input current. The extent to which this is the case will depend on the strength of the background magnetic field. Often, the current in the output coil is integrated, yielding an output analog voltage, proportional to the magnetic field.

Fluxgate magnetometers, paired in a gradiometer configuration, are commonly used for archaeological prospecting.

A wide variety of sensors are currently available and used to measure magnetic fields. Fluxgate magnetometers and gradiometers measure the direction and magnitude of magnetic fields. Fluxgates are affordable, rugged and compact. This, plus their typically low power consumption makes them ideal for a variety of sensing applications.

The typical fluxgate magnetometer consists of a "sense" (secondary) coil surrounding an inner "drive" (primary) coil that is wound around permeable core material. Each sensor has magnetic core elements that can be viewed as two carefully matched halves. An alternating current is applied to the drive winding, which drives the core into plus and minus saturation. The instantaneous drive current in each core half is driven in opposite polarity with respect to any external magnetic field. In the absence of any external magnetic field, the flux in one core half cancels that in the other and the total flux seen by the sense coil is zero. If an external magnetic field is now applied, it will, at a given instance in time, aid the flux in one core half and oppose flux in the other. This causes a net flux imbalance between the halves, so that they no longer cancel one another. Current pulses are now induced in the sense winding on every drive current phase reversal (or at the 2nd, and all even harmonics). This results in a signal that is dependent on both the external field magnitude and polarity.

There are additional factors that affect the size of the resultant signal. These factors include the number of turns in the sense winding, magnetic permeability of the core, sensor geometry and the gated flux rate of change with respect to time. Phase synchronous detection is used to convert these harmonic signals to a DC voltage proportional to the external magnetic field.

Fluxgate magnetometers were invented in the 1930s by Victor Vacquier at Gulf Research Laboratories; Vacquier applied them during World War II as an instrument for detecting submarines, and after the war confirmed the theory of plate tectonics by using them to measure shifts in the magnetic patterns on the sea floor.[10]

Caesium vapor magnetometer

A basic example of the workings of a magnetometer may be given by discussing the common optically pumped caesium vapor magnetometer which is a highly sensitive (300 fT/Hz0.5) and accurate device used in a wide range of applications. Although it relies on some interesting quantum mechanics to operate, its basic principles are easily explained.

The device broadly consists of a photon emitter containing a caesium light emitter or lamp, an absorption chamber containing caesium vapor and a "buffer gas" through which the emitted photons pass, and a photon detector, arranged in that order.

Polarization
The basic principle that allows the device to operate is the fact that a caesium atom can exist in any of nine energy levels, which is the placement of electron atomic orbitals around the atomic nucleus. When a caesium atom within the chamber encounters a photon from the lamp, it jumps to a higher energy state and then re-emits a photon and falls to an indeterminate lower energy state. The caesium atom is 'sensitive' to the photons from the lamp in three of its nine energy states, and therefore eventually, assuming a closed system, all the atoms will fall into a state in which all the photons from the lamp will pass through unhindered and be measured by the photon detector. At this point the sample (or population) is said to be polarized and ready for measurement to take place. This process is done continuously during operation.
Detection
Given that this theoretically perfect magnetometer is now functional, it can now begin to make measurements.

In the most common type of caesium magnetometer, a very small AC magnetic field is applied to the cell. Since the difference in the energy levels of the electrons is determined by the external magnetic field, there is a frequency at which this small AC field will cause the electrons to change states. In this new state, the electron will once again be able to absorb a photon of light. This causes a signal on a photo detector that measures the light passing through the cell. The associated electronics uses this fact to create a signal exactly at the frequency which corresponds to the external field.

Another type of caesium magnetometer modulates the light applied to the cell. This is referred a Bell-Bloom magnetometer after the two scientists who first investigated the effect. If the light is turned on and off at the frequency corresponding to the Earth's field, there is a change in the signal seen at the photo detector. Again, the associated electronics uses this to create a signal exactly at the frequency which corresponds to the external field.

Both methods lead to high performance magnetometers.

Applications

The caesium magnetometer is typically used where a higher performance magnetometer than the proton magnetometer is needed. In archaeology and geophysics, where the sensor is moved through an area and many accurate magnetic field measurements are needed, the caesium magnetometer has advantages over the proton magnetometer.

The caesium magnetometer's faster measurement rate allows the sensor to be moved through the area more quickly for a given number of data points.

The lower noise of the caesium magnetometer allows those measurements to more accurately show the variations in the field with position.

Spin-exchange relaxation-free (SERF) atomic magnetometers

At sufficiently high atomic density, extremely high sensitivity can be achieved. Spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) atomic magnetometers containing potassium, caesium or rubidium vapor operate similarly to the caesium magnetometers described above yet can reach sensitivities lower than 1 fT/Hz0.5.

The SERF magnetometers only operate in small magnetic fields. The Earth's field is about 50 µT. SERF magnetometers operate in fields less than 0.5 µT.

As shown in large volume detectors have achieved 200 aT/Hz0.5 sensitivity. This technology has greater sensitivity per unit volume than SQUID detectors.[11]

The technology can also produce very small magnetometers that may in the future replace coils for detecting changing magnetic fields.

Rapid developments are ongoing in this area. This technology may produce a magnetic sensor that has all of its input and output signals in the form of light on fiberoptic cables. This would allow the magnetic measurement to be made in places where high electrical voltages exist.

SQUID magnetometer

SQUIDs, or superconducting quantum interference devices, measure extremely small magnetic fields; they are very sensitive vector magnetometers, with noise levels as low as 3 fT/Hz0.5 in commercial instruments and 0.4 fT/Hz0.5 in experimental devices. Many liquid-helium-cooled commercial SQUIDs achieve a flat noise spectrum from near DC (less than 1 Hz) to tens of kiloHertz, making such devices ideal for time-domain biomagnetic signal measurements. SERF atomic magnetometer demonstrated in a laboratory so far reaches competitive noise floor but in relatively small frequency ranges.

SQUID magnetometers require cooling with liquid helium (4.2 K) or liquid nitrogen (77 K) to operate, hence the packaging requirements to use them are rather stringent both from a thermal-mechanical as well as magnetic standpoint. SQUID magnetometers are most commonly used to measure the magnetic fields produced by brain or heart activity (magnetoencephalography and magnetocardiography, respectively). Geophysical surveys use SQUIDS from time to time, but the logistics is much more complicated than coil-based magnetometers.

Early magnetometers

In 1833, Carl Friedrich Gauss, head of the Geomagnetic Observatory in Göttingen, published a paper on measurement of the Earth's magnetic field.[12] It described a new instrument that Gauss called a "magnometer" (a term which is still occasionally used instead of magnetometer).[citation needed] It consisted of a permanent bar magnet suspended horizontally from a gold fibre.[13] A magnetometer may also be called a gaussmeter.

See also

References

  1. ^ David Eyre (1985). "Picture of the North American Rockwell 500U Shrike Commander aircraft". Airliners.net. http://www.airliners.net/photo/Bureau-of-Mineral/North-American-Rockwell/0812587&tbl=photo_info&photo_nr=18&sok=keyword_%28%5C%27%2B%5C%22twin%5C%22_%2B%5C%22commander%5C%22%5C%27_IN_BOOLEAN_MODE%29%29_&sort=_order_by_photo_id_DESC_&prev_id=0829774&next_id=0812386. Retrieved 2009-10-21. 
  2. ^ "The K-index". Space Weather Production Center. 1 October 2007. http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/info/Kindex.html. Retrieved 2009-10-21. 
  3. ^ Coleman Jr., P.J; Davis Jr., L; Smith, E.J.; Sonett, C.P. (1962). "The Mission of Mariner II: Preliminary Observations - Interplanetary Magnetic Fields". Science 138 (3545): 1099–1100. 
  4. ^ "Cassini Orbiter Instruments - MAG". JPL/NASA. http://cassini-huygens.jpl.nasa.gov/spacecraft/instruments-cassini-mag.cfm. 
  5. ^ Dougherty M.K., Kellock S., Southwood D.J., et al. (2004). "The Cassini magnetic field investigation". Space Science Reviews 114: 331–383. doi:10.1007/s11214-004-1432-2. 
  6. ^ http://developer.motorola.com/products/droid/#section_8
  7. ^ http://forumnokia.mobi/devices/Nokia_E72.html
  8. ^ http://www.apple.com/iphone/iphone-3gs/maps-compass.html
  9. ^ Nature 439. 16 February 2006. 
  10. ^ Thomas H. Maugh II (24 January 2009). "Victor Vacquier Sr. dies at 101; geophysicist was a master of magnetics". The Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/science/la-me-vacquier24-2009jan24,0,3328591.story. 
  11. ^ Budker, D.; Romalis, M.V. (2006). "Optical Magnetometry". arΧiv:physics/0611246 [physics.atom-ph]. 
  12. ^ Gauss, C.F (1832). "The Intensity of the Earth's Magnetic Force Reduced to Absolute Measurement". http://21stcenturysciencetech.com/translations/gaussMagnetic.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-21. 
  13. ^ "Magnetometer: The History". CT Systems. http://www.ctsystems.eu/gauss.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-21. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MAGNETOMETER, a name, in its most general sense, for any instrument used to measure the strength of any magnetic field; it is, however, often used in the restricted sense of an instrument for measuring a particular magnetic field, namely, that due to the earth's magnetism, and in this article the instruments used for measuring the value of the earth's magnetic field will alone be considered.

The elements which are actually measured when determining the value of the earth's field are usually the declination, the dip and the horizontal component (see Terrestrial magnetism). For the instruments and methods used in measuring the dip see Inclinometer. It remains to consider the measurement of the declination and the horizontal component, these two elements being generally measured with the same instrument, which is called a unifilar magnetometer.

Measurement of Declination

The measurement of the declination involves two separate observations, namely, the determination of (a) the magnetic meridian and (b) the geographical meridian, the angle between the two being the declination. In order to determine the magnetic meridian the orientation of the magnetic FIG. i. - Unifilar Magnetometer, arranged to indicate declination.

axis of a freely suspended magnet is observed; while, in the absence of a distant mark of which the azimuth is known, the geographical meridian is obtained from observations of the transit of the sun or a star. The geometrical axis of the magnet is sometimes defined by means of a mirror rigidly attached to the magnet and having the normal to the mirror as nearly as may be parallel to the magnetic axis. This arrangement is not very convenient, as it is difficult to protect the mirror from accidental displacement, so that the angle between the geometrical and magnetic axes may vary. For this reason the end of the magnet is sometimes polished and acts as the mirror, in which case no displacement of the reflecting surface with reference to the magnet is possible. A different arrangement, used in the instrument described below, consists in having the magnet hollow, with a small scale engraved on glass firmly attached at one end, while to the other end is attached a lens, so chosen that the scale is at its principal focus. In this case the geometrical axis is the line joining the central division of the scale to the optical centre of the lens. The position of the magnet is observed by means of a small telescope, and since the scale is at the principal focus of the lens, the scale will be in focus when the telescope is adjusted to observe a distant object. Thus no alteration in the focus of the telescope is necessary whether we are observing the magnet, a distant fixed mark, or the sun.

The Kew Observatory pattern unifilar magnetometer is shown in figs. i and 2. The magnet consists of a hollow steel cylinder fitted with a scale and lens as described above, and is suspended by a long thread of unspun silk, which is attached at the upper end to the torsion head H. The magnet is protected from draughts by the box A, which is closed at the sides by two shutters when an observation is being taken. The telescope B serves to observe the scale attached to the magnet when determining the magnetic meridian, and to observe the sun or star when determining the geographical meridian.

When making a determination of declination a brass plummet having the same weight as the magnet is first suspended in its place, and the torsion of the fibre is taken out. The magnet having been attached, the instrument is rotated about its vertical axis till the centre division of the scale appears to coincide with the vertical cross-wire of the telescope. The two verniers on the azimuth circle having been read, the magnet is then inverted, i.e. turned through 180° about its axis, and the setting is repeated. A second setting with the magnet inverted is generally made, and then another setting with the magnet in its original position. The mean of all the readings of the verniers gives the reading on the azimuth circle corresponding to the magnetic meridian. To obtain the geographical meridian the box A is removed, and an image of the sun or a star is reflected into the telescope B by means of a small transit mirror N. This mirror can rotate about a horizontal axis which is at right angles to the line of collimation of the telescope, and is parallel to the surface of the mirror. The time of transit of the sun or star across the vertical wire of the telescope having been observed by means of a chronometer of which the error is known, it is possible to calculate the azimuth of the sun or star, if the latitude and longitude ,of the place of observation are given. Hence if the readings of the verniers on the azimuth circle are made when the transit is observed we can deduce the reading corresponding to the geographical meridian.

The above method of determining the geographical meridian has the serious objection that it is necessary to know the error of the chronometer with very considerable accuracy, a matter of some difficulty when observing at any distance from a fixed observatory. If, however, a theodolite, fitted with a telescope which can rotate about a horizontal axis and having an altitude circle, is employed, so that when observing a transit the altitude of the sun or star can be read off, then the time need only be known to within a minute or so. Hence in more recent patterns of magnetometer it is usual to do away with the transit mirror method of observing and either to use a separate theodolite to observe the azimuth of some distant object, which will then act as a fixed mark when making the declination observations, or to attach to the magnetometer an altitude telescope and circle for use when determining the geographical meridian.

The chief uncertainty in declination observations, at any rate at a fixed observatory, lies in the variable torsion of the silk suspension, as it is found that, although the fibre may be entirely freed from torsion before beginning the declination observations, yet at the conclusion of these observations a considerable amount of torsion may have appeared. Soaking the fibre with glycerine, so that the moisture it absorbs does not change so much with the hygrometric state of the air, is of some advantage, but does not entirely remove the difficulty. For this reason some observers use a thin strip of phosphor bronze to suspend the magnet, considering that the absence of a variable torsion more than compensates for the increased difficulty in handling the more fragile metallic suspension.

Measurement of the Horizontal Component of the Earth's Field

The method of measuring the horizontal component which is almost exclusively used, both in fixed observatories and in the field, consists in observing the period of a freely suspended magnet, and then obtaining the angle through which an auxiliary suspended magnet is deflected by the magnet used in the first part of the experiment. By the vibration experiment we obtain the value of the product of the magnetic moment (M) of the magnet into the horizontal component (H), while by the deflexion experiment we can deduce the value of the ratio of M to H, and hence the two combined give both M and H.

In the case of the Kew pattern unifilar the same magnet that is used for the declination is usually employed for determining H, and for the purposes of the vibration experiment it is mounted as for the observation of the magnetic meridian. The time of vibration is obtained by means of a chronometer, using the eye-and-ear method. The temperature of the magnet must also be observed, for which purpose a thermometer C (fig. I) is attached to the box A.

When making the deflection experiment the magnetometer is arranged as shown in fig. 2. The auxiliary magnet has a plane mirror attached, the plane of which is at right angles to the axis of the magnet. An image of the ivory scale B is observed after reflection in the magnet mirror by the telescope A. The magnet K used in the vibration experiment is supported on a carriage L which can slide along the graduated bar D. The axis of the magnet is horizontal and at the same level as the mirror magnet, while when the central division of the scale B appears to coincide with the vertical cross-wire of the telescope the axes of the two magnets are at right angles. During the experiment the mirror magnet is protected from draughts by two wooden doors which slide in grooves. What is known as the method of sines is used, for since the axes of the two magnets are always at right angles when the mirror magnet is in its zero position, the ratio M/H is proportional to the sine of the angle between the magnetic axis of the mirror magnet and the magnetic - = meridian. When conducting a deflexion experiment the de flecting magnet K is placed with its centre at 30 cm. from the mirror magnet and to the east of the latter, and the whole instrument is turned till the centre division of the scale B coincides with the cross-wire of the telescope, when the readings of the verniers on the azimuth circle are noted. The magnet K is then reversed in the support, and a new setting taken. The difference between the two sets of readings gives twice the angle which the magnetic axis of the mirror magnet makes with the magnetic meridian. In order to eliminate any error due to the zero of the scale D not being exactly below the mirror magnet, the support L is then removed to the west side of the instrument, and the settings are repeated. Further, to allow of a correction being applied for the finite length of the magnets the whole series of settings is repeated with the centre of the deflecting magnet at 40 cm. from the mirror magnet.

Omitting correction terms depending on the temperature and on the inductive effect of the earth's magnetism on the moment of the deflecting magnet, if 0 is the angle which the axis of the deflected magnet makes with the meridian when the centre of the deflecting magnet is at a distance r, then zM sin B=I+P+y2 &c., in which P and Q are constants depending on the dimensions and magnetic states of the two magnets. The value of the constants P and Q can be obtained by making deflexion experiments at three distances. It is, however, possible by suitably choosing the proportions of the two magnets to cause either P or Q to be very small. Thus it is usual, if the magnets are of similar shape, to make the deflected magnet 0.467 of the length of the deflecting magnet, in which case Q is negligible, and thus by means of deflexion experiments at two distances the value of P can be obtained. (See C. Bergen, Terrestrial Magnetism, 1896, i. p. 176, and C. Chree, Phil. Mag., 1904 [6], 7, p. 113.) In the case of the vibration experiment correction terms have to be introduced to allow for the temperature of the magnet, for the inductive effect of the earth's field, which slightly increases the magnetic moment of the magnet, and for the torsion of the suspension fibre, as well as the rate of the chronometer. If the temperature of the magnet were always exactly the same in both the vibration and FIG 2. - Unifilar Magnetometer, arranged to show deflexion.

deflexion experiment, then no correction on account of the effect of temperature in the magnetic moment would be necessary in either experiment. The fact that the moment of inertia of the magnet varies witli the temperature must, however, be taken into account. In the deflexion experiment, in addition to the induction correction, and that for the effect of temperature on the magnetic moment, a correction has to be applied for the effect of temperature on the length of the bar which supports the deflexion magnet.

See also Stewart and Gee, Practical Physics, vol. 2, containing a description of the Kew pattern unifilar magnetometer and detailed instructions for performing the experiments; C. Chree, Phil. Mag., 1901 (6), 2, p. 613, and Proc. Roy. Soc., 18 99, 6 5, p. 375, containing a discussion of the errors to which the Kew unifilar instrument is subject; E. Mascart, Traite de magnetisme terrestre, containing a description of the instruments used in the French magnetic survey, which are interesting on account of their small size and consequent easy portability; H. E. D. Fraser, Terrestrial Magnetism, 1901, 6, p. 65, containing a description of a modified Kew pattern unifilar as used in the Indian survey; H. Wild, Mem. Acad. imp. sc. St Petersbourg, 1896 (viii.), vol. 3, No. 7, containing a description of a most elaborate unifilar magnetometer with which it is claimed results can be obtained of a very high order of accuracy; K. Haufsmann, Zeits. fur Instrumentenkunde, 1906, 26, p. 2, containing a description of a magnetometer for field use, designed by M. Eschenhagen, which has many advantages.

Measurements of the Magnetic Elements at Sea. - Owing to the fact that the proportion of the earth's surface covered by sea is so much greater than the dry land, the determinaton of the magnetic elements on board ship is a matter of very considerable importance. The movements of a ship entirely preclude the employment of any instrument in which a magnet suspended by a fibre has any part, so that the unifilar is unsuited for such observations. In order to obtain the declination a pivoted magnet is used to obtain the magnetic meridian, the geographical meridian being obtained by observations on the sun or stars. A carefully made ship's compass is usually employed, though in some cases the compass card, with its attached magnets, is made reversible, so that the inclination to the zero of the card of the magnetic axis of the system of magnets attached to the card can be eliminated by reversal. In the absence of such a reversible card the index correction must be determined by comparison with a unifilar magnetometer, simultaneous observations being made on shore, and these observations repeated as often as occasion permits. To determine the dip a Fox's dip circle is used. This consists of an ordinary dip circle (see Inclinometer) in which the ends of the axle of the needle are pointed and rest in jewelled holes, so that the movements of the ship do not displace the needle. The instrument is, of course, supported on a gimballed table, while the ship during the observations is kept on a fixed course. To obtain the strength of the field the method usually adopted is that known as Lloyd's method. 2 To carry out a determination of the total force by this method the Fox dip circle has been slightly modified by E. W. Creak, and has been found to give satisfactory results on board ship. The circle is provided with two needles in addition to those used for determining the dip, one (a) an ordinary dip needle, and the other (b) a needle which has been loaded at one end by means of a small peg which fits into one of two symmetrically placed holes in the needle. The magnetism of these two needles is never reversed, and they are as much as possible protected from shock and from approach to other magnets, so that their magnetic state may remain as constant as possible. Attached to the cross-arm which carries the microscopes used to observe the ends of the dipping needle is a clamp, which will hold the needle b in such a way that its plane is parallel to the vertical circle and its axis is at right angles to the line joining the two microscopes. Hence, when the microscopes are adjusted so as to coincide with the points of the dipping needle a, the axes of the two needles must be at right angles. The needle a being suspended between the jewels, and the needle b being held in the clamp, the cross-arm carrying the reading microscopes and the needle b is rotated till the ends of the needle a coincide with the cross-wires of the microscopes. The verniers having been read, the cross-arm is rotated so as to deflect the needle a in the opposite direction, and a new setting is taken. Half the difference between the two readings gives 1 Annals of Electricity, 18 39, 3, p. 288.

2 Humphrey Lloyd, Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 1848, 4, P. 57.

the angle through which the needle a has been deflected under the action of the needle b. This angle depends on the ratio of the magnetic moment of the needle b to the total force of the earth's field. It also involves, of course, the distance between the needles and the distribution of the magnetism of the needles;: but this factor is determined by comparing the value given by the instrument, at a shore station, with that given by an ordinary magnetometer. Hence the above observation gives us a means of obtaining the ratio of the magnetic moment of the needle' b to the value of the earth's total force. The needle b is then substituted for a, there being now no needle in the clamp attached to the microscope arm, and the difference between the reading now obtained and the dip, together with the weight added to the needle, gives the product of the moment of the needle b into the earth's total force. Hence, from the two observations the value of the earth's total force can be deduced. In an actual observation the deflecting needle would be reversed, as well as the deflected one, while different weights would be used to deflect the needle b.. For a description of the method of using the Fox circle for observations at sea consult the Admiralty Manual of Scientific Inquiry, p. 116, while a description of the most recent form of the circle, known as the Lloyd-Creak pattern, will be found in Terrestrial Magnetism, 1901, 6, p. 119. An attachment to the ordinary ship's compass, by means of which satisfactory measurements of the horizontal component have been made on board ship, is described by L. A. Bauer in Terrestrial Magnetism, 1906, II, p. 78. The principle of the method consists in deflecting the compass needle by means of a horizontal magnet supported vertically over the compass card, the axis of the deflecting magnet being always perpendicular to the axis of the magnet attached to the card. The method is not strictly an absolute one, since it presupposes a knowledge of the magnetic moment of the deflecting magnet. In practice it is found that a magnet can be prepared which, when suitably protected from shock, &c., retains its magnetic moment sufficiently constant to enable observations of H to be made comparable in accuracy with that of the other elements obtained by the instruments ordinarily employed at sea. (W. WN.)


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