The Full Wiki

Mahabharata: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Mahabharata

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra
.The Mahabharata (Sanskrit Mahābhārata महाभारत) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.^ Mahabharata - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Mahabharata (Devanāgarī: महाभारत, Mahābhārata) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
  • Mahabharata - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]
  • Mahabharata - ninemsn Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mahabharata - Search Results - ninemsn Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]
  • mahabharata - Search Results - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC ca.encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]
  • Mahabharata - Search Results - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • Mahabharata - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC fr.ca.encarta.msn.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Mahabharata is India's greatest epic.
  • Tales of the Mahabharata — Sri Chinmoy 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.srichinmoy.org [Source type: News]

^ One of India's two major Sanskrit epics (the other is the Ramayana ), the verse incorporates the Bhagavad Gita (‘Song of the Lord’).
  • Mahabharata Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The epic is part of the Hindu itihāsa (or "history").^ The lengthy poem Bhagavad Gita, part of the 2000-year-old Sanskrit epic Mahabharata, is considered the most important text in the Hindu religion .
  • mahabharata - Search Results - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC ca.encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

^ The epic is part of the Hindu itihāsa (literally "history"), and forms an important part of Hindu mythology.

^ The work focuses on the great Hindu epic, the Mahabharata, a text that not only reflects the cogitations of a momentous period in Hindu history, but also was critical in shaping the future of Hinduism.
  • SUNY Press eBookStore - Book Woman as Fire, Woman as Sage: Sexual Ideology in the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.publishersrow.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Woman as Fire, Woman as Sage, pageTitle 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.sunypress.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A major text of Hinduism and a cornerstone of Hindu mythology, it is of immense importance to the culture of the Indian subcontinent.^ It is of immense importance to the culture of India and Nepal, and is a major text of Hinduism .
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is of immense importance to the culture of the Indian subcontinent, and is a major text of Hinduism.
  • The Mahabharata - Penguin Books 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.penguin.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ It is a major part of Hindu culture.

.Its consideration of human goals (dharma or duty, artha or purpose, kāma, pleasure or desire and moksha or liberation) is part of a long-standing tradition which seeks to explain the relationship of the individual to society and the world (the nature of the "Self") and the workings of karma.^ Its discussion of human goals (dharma or duty, artha or purpose, kama, pleasure or desire and moksha or liberation) takes place in a long-standing tradition, attempting to explain the relationship of the individual to society and the world (the nature of the ‘Self’) and the workings of karma.

^ Dharma, artha, kama and moksha.
  • Dr. A. V. Srinivasan: Dharma and Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.avsrinivasan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Its discussion of human goals (artha or wealth, kama or pleasure, dharma or duty/harmony, and moksha or liberation) takes place in a long-standing mythological tradition, attempting to explain the relationship of the individual to society and the world (the nature of the 'Self') and the workings of karma.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Traditionally, the authorship of the Mahabharata is attributed to Vyasa.^ Traditionally, the Mahabharata is ascribed to Vyasa .
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traditionally, the Mahabharata is ascribed to Vyasa.

^ Traditionally, Hindus ascribe the Mahabharata to Vyasa.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There have been many attempts to unravel its historical growth and compositional layers.^ Due to its immense length, its philological study has a long history of attempts to unravel its historical growth and composition layers.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to its immense length, its philological study has a long history of attempting to unravel its historical growth and composition layers.

.The origins of the text's core narrative may be a struggle for control of the upper Ganges and Yamuna as part of the eastern migration of the Aryans, in the late Vedic period (ca.^ It is set and originated in the late Vedic age (ca.
  • mahabharata.html 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.history.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its earliest layers date back to the late Vedic period (ca.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No part of this text may be commercially used without the author's approval; Copyright (c) George Sipos .
  • Hinduism, Krishna, Ganesh, Shiva, Surya... 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.freebsd.nfo.sk [Source type: Original source]

8th c. BCE)[citation needed]. .The earliest parts of the extant text, on the other hand, are not appreciably older than around 400 BCE.[1] The text probably reached its final form by the early Gupta period (ca.^ The origin of the Great Indian Epic dates back to the late Vedic period and it probably reached its final form in the early Gupta period.

^ It is a massive compilation of chronicle and myth, brought together from about the 4th century BC and probably reaching its present form by about AD 200.
  • History of LITERATURE 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I want this to be the first major book by an Indian author (to me it’s still one enormous book, split into 9 parts, not 9 separate books, ditto the Ramayana) that’s edited in India and then reprinted elsewhere, rather than the other way around.
  • Epic News! Penguin India to publish Ashok K. Banker’s Mahabharata series in 9 volumes – Confessions of an Epic Indian 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC ashokbanker.com [Source type: General]

4th c. CE).[2] The title may be translated as "the great tale of the Bhārata dynasty". According to the Mahabharata itself, the tale is extended from a shorter version of 24,000 verses, called simply Bhārata'.[3]
.With about one hundred thousand verses, long prose passages, and about 1.8 million words in total, the Mahabharata is the longest epic poem in the world.^ The Mahabharata is the longest and, arguably, one of the greatest epic poems in any language.
  • Bhagavad Gita Quotes - Famous Quotes & Quotations from the Bhagavad Gita 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.quotesandsayings.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It contains one hundred thousand verses.

^ The Mahabharata is one of the longest epic in the world with more than 74000 verses, long prose and about 1.8 million words in total.

[4] .It is roughly ten times the length of the Iliad and Odyssey combined,[5] roughly five times longer than Dante's Divine Comedy, and about four times the length of the Rāmāyaṇa.^ Roughly 10 times the size of the Iliad and Odyssey taken together, and about 4 times the size of the Ramayana.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mahabharata is the worlds longest poem, eight times longer than the Iliad and the Odyssey combined.
  • Mahabharata - R. K. Narayan - Mythology & Folk Tales - Subject - London Review Bookshop 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lrbshop.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ It was named Mahabharata as it was more than five times longer than Bharata.

Contents

Scope

Krishna, Arjuna at Kurukshetra, 18-19th century painting.
."What is found here, may be found elsewhere.^ It says a couple of times, 'What is found here may be found elsewhere also but what is not found here is to be found nowhere.'
  • Translating the Hindu epic the Mahabharata - RN Book Show - 26 November 2009 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ It is said that Whatever is here is found elsewhere.

^ What is not found here, will not be found elsewhere."
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.What is not found here, will not be found elsewhere."^ It is said that Whatever is here is found elsewhere.

^ What is not found here, will not be found elsewhere."
  • Mahabharata,Indian Epics,Great Indian Epics,Bhagavada Gita,Bhagavad Geeta,Bhagavat Gita 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.india-crafts.com [Source type: General]
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An interesting claim made about the Mahabharata is that whatever is found here may be found elsewhere too, but what is not found here cannot be found anywhere.
  • Buy Amar Chitra Katha - Mythology - Mahabharata: The Complete Epic from mall.coimbatore.com 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC mall.coimbatore.com [Source type: Original source]

.Besides its epic narrative of the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kauravas and the Pandavas, the Mahabharata contains much philosophical and devotional material, such as the Shrimad Bhagavad Gita (6.25-42) which has a very high level of philosophical and religious content, or a discussion of the four "goals of life" or purusharthas (12.161).^ The Pandavas and Kauravas were fully energized in the war.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bhagavad Gita 2.11 and 2.12 .
  • Bhagavad Gita Quotes - Famous Quotes & Quotations from the Bhagavad Gita 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.quotesandsayings.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The pearls of wisdom contained in Bhagavad Gita...
  • Lord Krishna | Did krishna really exist Bhagavad Gita 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.godrealized.com [Source type: Original source]

.The latter are enumerated as dharma (right action), artha (purpose), kama (pleasure), and moksha (liberation).^ When the king relies on three of the four parts of this Dandaneeti [the treatise of a hundred thousand lessons composed by Brahma that deals with the subjects of Dharma (righteousness), Artha (economic development), Kama (sensual enjoyment) and Moksha (spiritual liberation)] Tretayuga sets in.
  • Purpose and Function of Government According to Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.stephen-knapp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Purushartha (Dharma- Artha- Kama- Moksha) .

^ Moksha : Ultimate release (BV-10) , liberation from the cycle of birth and dead, (BV-33) , Liberation; one of the Four Goals of Human Life together with Dharma, Artha, Kama (Righteousness, Welfare and Endeavour) (RRV-5) , ( BV-36) .
  • VAHINI. ORG: GLOSSARY-M 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.vahini.org [Source type: Original source]

Among the principal works and stories that are a part of the Mahabharata are the following (often considered as works in their own right):
  • the Bhagavad Gita in book 6 (Bhishmaparva): Krishna advises and teaches Arjuna when he is ridden with doubt.
  • the story of Damayanti, sometimes called (Nala and Damayanti) in book 3 (Aranyakaparva), a love story.
  • An abbreviated version of the Ramayana, in book 3 (Aranyakaparva)
  • Rishyasringa, the horned boy and rishi, in book 3 (Aranyakaparva)

Textual history and structure

Part of a series on
Hindu scriptures
Aum
Mahabharata · Ramayana

.The epic is traditionally ascribed to Vyasa, who is also a major character in the epic.^ The epic is traditionally ascribed to Maha Rishi Veda Vyasa , who is one of the major dynastic characters within the epic.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The epic is traditionally ascribed to Maha Rishi Veda Vyasa, who is one of the major dynastic characters within the epic.

^ Traditionally, the Mahabharata is ascribed to Vyasa .
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first section of the Mahabharata states that it was Ganesha who, at the request of Vyasa, wrote down the text to Vyasa's dictation.^ The first section of the Mahabharata states that it was Ganesha who, at the behest of Vyasa, wrote down the text to Vyasa's dictation.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However the first section of the Mahabharata states that it was Ganesha who on behalf of Vyasa wrote down the text when Vyasa dictated it.

^ The first section of the Mahabharata states that it was Ganesha who, at the behest of Vyasa, fixed the text in manuscript form.

.Ganesha is said to have agreed to write it only on condition that Vyasa never pause in his recitation.^ Lord Ganesha is said to have agreed, but only on condition that Vyasa never pause in his recitation.

^ Ganesha is said to have written it only on one condition that Vyasa would never pause in his recitation.

^ Ganesha is said to have agreed to write it only on condition that Vyasa never pause in his recitation.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vyasa agreed, provided Ganesha took the time to understand what was said before writing it down.^ Vyasa then put a counter-condition that Ganesha understand whatever he recited, before writing it down.

^ Vyasa countered with having Ganesha understand everything that he heard before writing it down.
  • The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC essene.com [Source type: General]

^ Vyasa agreed, providing that Ganesha took the time to understand what was said before writing it down.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The epic employs the story within a story structure, otherwise known as frametales, popular in many Indian religious and secular works.^ The epic employs the 'tale-within-tale' structure popular in many Indian religious and secular works.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It follows a story within a story structure.
  • Mahabharata,Indian Epics,Great Indian Epics,Bhagavada Gita,Bhagavad Geeta,Bhagavat Gita 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.india-crafts.com [Source type: General]

^ The epic is interwoven within a story structure.

.It is recited to the King Janamejaya who is the great-grandson of Arjuna, by Vaisampayana, a disciple of Vyasa.^ It is recited to the King Janamejaya by Vaisampayana, a disciple of Vyasa.

^ It is employed that it is recited to the King Janamejaya who is the great-grandson of Arjuna , by Vaisampayana, a disciple of Vyasa.

^ It is recited to the King Janamejaya by Vaishampayana , a disciple of Vyasa .
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The recitation of Vaisampayana to Janamejaya is then recited again by a professional storyteller named Ugrasrava Sauti, many years later, to an assemblage of sages.^ The recital took place in the august presence of King Janamejaya, a great-grandson of Vyasa, and the many learned sages who had assembled for Janamejaya's Sarpa Satra (a twelve-year-long Yajna).
  • Mahabharata - Rs 935 : One Stop Online Shop for Books, Music, Movies, Software, electronic cigarettes 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.linuxbazar.com [Source type: General]

^ It is recited to the King Janamejaya by Vaisampayana, a disciple of Vyasa.

^ There, O subjugator of hostile cities, is the sacred river called Viswamitra belonging to the royal sage of that name and which abounds, O king, in many sacred tirthas.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Research on the Mahabharata has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating various layers within the text.^ Not unlike the field of Homeric studies, research on the Mahabharata has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating various layers within the text.

^ As with the field of Homeric studies, research on the Mahabharata has put an enormous effort into recognizing and dating various layers within the text.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To specify a certain date of the Mahabharata events, historians follow particular rules and compare various texts with true historical incidents.
  • A brief overview of the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.freebsd.nfo.sk [Source type: Original source]

.The Mahabharata itself (1.1.61) distinguishes a core portion of 24,000 verses, the Bharata proper, as opposed to additional secondary material, while the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4) makes a similar distinction.^ The Mahabharata itself (1.1.61) distinguishes a core portion of 24,000 verses, the Bharata proper, as opposed to additional secondary material, while the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4) makes a similar distinction.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mahabharata itself (1.1.61) distinguishes a core portion of 24,000, the Bharata proper, as opposed to additional "secondary" material, and the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4) makes a similar distinction.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mahabharata itself (1.1.61) distinguishes a core portion of 24,000 verses, the Bharata proper, as opposed to additional "secondary" material, while the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4) makes a similar distinction.

.At least three redactions of the text are commonly recognized: Jaya (Victory) with 8,800 verses attributed to Vyasa, Bharata with 24,000 verses as recited by Vaisampayana, and finally the Mahabharata as recited by Ugrasrava Sauti with over 100,000 verses.^ According to the Adi-parva of the Mahabharata (shlokas 81, 101-102), the text was originally 8,800 verses when it was composed by Vyasa and was known as the Jaya (Victory), which later became 24,000 verses in the Bharata recited by Vaisampayana, and finally over 90,000 verses in the Mahabharata recited by Ugrasravas.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Adi-parva of the Mahabharata ( shlokas 81, 101-102), the text was originally 8,800 verses when it was composed by Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa and was known as the Jaya (" Victory "), which later became 24,000 verses in the Bharata recited by Vaisampayana, and finally over 90,000 verses in the Mahabharata recited by Ugrasravas.

^ Mahabharata is the largest epic of the world; it has about 100,000 verses.

[6][7] .However, some scholars such as John Brockington, argue that Jaya and Bharata refer to the same text, and ascribe the theory of Jaya with 8,800 verses to a misreading of a verse in Adiparvan (1.1.81).^ According to the Adi-parva of the Mahabharata (shlokas 81, 101-102), the text was originally 8,800 verses when it was composed by Vyasa and was known as the Jaya (Victory), which later became 24,000 verses in the Bharata recited by Vaisampayana, and finally over 90,000 verses in the Mahabharata recited by Ugrasravas.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same, he insisted, went for other holy texts, such as the Qur'an.
  • India's epic struggle | Books | guardian.co.uk 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Kota Venkatachalam reckoned it to be 3139 B.C. However, the astronomical data used by   the   above, and   many other, scholars contained some errors as examined by a scholar from Pune, Dr. P.V.   Vartak.

[8]
According to what one character says at Mbh. .1.1.50, there were three versions of the epic, beginning with Manu (1.1.27), Astika (1.3, sub-parva 5) or Vasu (1.57), respectively.^ Manu (1.1.27), Astika (1.3, sub-parva 5) or Vasu (1.57), respectively.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is none equal to me in this respect on earth, no, not even in the three worlds, O son of Kuru.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ SECTION XXXIV (Astika Parva continued) 'Sauti continued, 'Garuda then said, 'O Purandara, let there be friendship between thee and me as thou desirest.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.These versions would correspond to the addition of one and then another 'frame' settings of dialogues.^ These versions probably correspond to the addition of one and then another 'frame' settings of dialogues.

^ Also, it would make sense that the story would get simplified among people's who didn't have writing to record these things, and so had to memorize the stories as one poem and recite them.
  • Mahabharata and the Illiad - Sepia Mutiny 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.sepiamutiny.com [Source type: General]

^ He teaches them the golden rule that one should never do to another what one would not want another to do to you; for when you hurt others, they turn and hurt you; but when you love others, they turn and love you.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Vasu version would omit the frame settings and begin with the account of the birth of Vyasa.^ The Vasu version corresponds to the oldest, without frame settings, beginning with the account of the birth of Vyasa.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long ago Satyavati had given birth to the poet Vyasa, but now she agrees to marry Santanu on the condition that her future son by Santanu would become king.
  • Mahabharata Summary & Study Guide - Anonymous - eNotes.com 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashvamedhika-parva The Ashvamedhika-parva is also preserved in a separate version, the Jaimini-Bharata ( Jaiminiya-ashvamedha ) where the frame dialogue is replaced, the narration being attributed to Jaimini , another disciple of Vyasa.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The astika version would add the sarpasattra and ashvamedha material from Brahmanical literature, introduce the name Mahabharata, and identify Vyasa as the work's author.^ The Astika version adds the Sarpasattra and Ashvamedha material from Brahmanical literature, and introduces the name Mahabharata and identifies Vyasa as the work's author.

^ This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the Mahabharata by "thematic attraction" (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have particularly close connection to Vedic ( Brahmana literature), in particular the Panchavimsha Brahmana which describes the Sarpasattra as originally performed by snakes, among which are snakes named Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata' s sarpasattra, and Takshaka, the name of a snake also in the Mahabharata .

^ This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the Mahabharata by "thematic attraction" (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have particularly close connection to Vedic (Brahmana literature), in particular the Panchavimsha Brahmana which describes the Sarpasattra as originally performed by snakes, among which are snakes named Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata' s sarpasattra, and Takshaka, the name of a snake also in the Mahabharata .
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The redactors of these additions were probably Pancharatrin scholars who according to Oberlies (1998) likely retained control over the text until its final redaction.^ The redactors of these additions were probably Pancharatrin scholars who according to Oberlies (1998) likely retained control over the text until its final redaction.

^ "Hearing these words of hers, Bhima replied, 'O Rakshasa woman, who can, like a Muni having all his passions under control, abandon his sleeping mother and elder and younger brothers?
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, we appeal that these texts be read with the aid of your intellect, keeping emotions under control.
  • http://www.hinduism.co.za 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hinduism.co.za [Source type: Original source]

.Mention of the Huna in the Bhishma-parva however appears to imply that this parva may have been edited around the 4th century[citation needed].^ Mention of the Huna in the Bhishma-parva however appears to imply that this parva may have been edited around the 4th century.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mention of the Hunas in the Bhishma-parva however appears to imply that this parva may have been edited around the 4th century.

^ From this evidence, it is likely that the redaction into 18 books took place in the 3rd or 4th century CE. An alternative division into 20 parvas appears to have co-existed for some time.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earliest known references to the Mahabharata and its core Bharata date back to the Ashtadhyayi (sutra 6.2.38) of Pāṇini (fl.^ The earliest known references to the Mahabharata and its core Bharata date back to the 6th-5th century BC, in the Ashtadhyayi (sutra 6.2.38) of Pāṇini (c.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The earliest known references to the Mahabharata and its core Bharata date back to the 6th-5th century BC, in the Ashtadhyayi ( sutra 6.2.38) of Pāṇini (c.

^ The earliest known references to the Mahabharata and its core Bharata date back to the 6th-5th century BC, in the Ashtadhyayi (sutra 6.2.38) of Panini (c.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

4th century BCE), and in the Ashvalayana Grhyasutra (3.4.4).[citation needed] This may suggest that the core 24,000 verses, known as the Bharata, as well as an early version of the extended Mahabharata, were composed by the 4th century BCE.
.Later, the copper-plate inscription of the Maharaja Sharvanatha (533-534 CE) from Khoh (Satna District, Madhya Pradesh) describes the Mahabharata as a "collection of 100,000 verses" (shatasahasri samhita).^ The later copper-plate inscription of the Maharaja Sharvanatha (533-534) from Khoh (Satna District, Madhya Pradesh) also describes the Mahabharata as a "collection of 100,000 verses" (shatasahasri samhita).
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A copper-plate inscription of the Maharaja Sharvanatha 533-534 from Khoh, Madhya Pradesh illustrates the Mahabharata as a collection of 100,000 verses, it was known from this evidence, that it is likely there are about 18 books whose anthology took place in the first century.

^ The later copper-plate inscription of the Maharaja Sharvanatha (533-534) from Khoh ( Satna District, Madhya Pradesh) also describes the Mahabharata as a "collection of 100,000 verses" ( shatasahasri samhita ).

.The redaction of this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18[9] and 12. The addition of the latest parts may be dated by the absence of the Anushasana-parva and "Virat-parva" from MS Spitzer, the oldest surviving Sanskrit philosophical manuscript dated to Kushan Period (200 CE)[10], that contains among other things a list of the books in the Mahabharata.^ The redaction of this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18 and 12.

^ CE, that contains among other things a list of the books in the Mahabharata.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The redaction of this large body of text was carried out after formal principles, emphasizing the numbers 18 18 books, 18 chapters of the Bhagavadgita and the Narayaniya each, corresponding to the 18 days of the battle and the 18 armies (Mbh.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From this evidence, it is likely that the redaction into 18 books took place in the first century.^ From this evidence, it is likely that the redaction into 18 books took place in the first century.

^ From this evidence, it is likely that the redaction into 18 books took place in the 3rd or 4th century CE. An alternative division into 20 parvas appears to have co-existed for some time.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is divided into 18 major and 100 minor books, listed at left.
  • Comments on the Bhagavad Gita, Synopsis of the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.An alternative division into 20 parvas appears to have co-existed for some time.^ From this evidence, it is likely that the redaction into 18 books took place in the 3rd or 4th century CE. An alternative division into 20 parvas appears to have co-existed for some time.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The division into 18 parvas is as follows: .

^ An alternative division into 20 parvas appears to have co-existed for some time.

.The division into 100 sub-parvas (mentioned in Mbh.^ The division into 18 parvas is as follows: .
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The division into 100 sub-parvas (mentioned in Mbh.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 18 division into parvas is as follows: .
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.1.2.70) is older, and most parvas are named after one of their constituent sub-parvas.^ Please tell me of His various names by which one may obtain that most exalted of beings.
  • Mahabharata - Udyoga Parva Chapter Two 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.warriormonks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Harivamsa consists of the final two of the 100 sub-parvas, and was considered an appendix (khila) to the Mahabharata proper by the redactors of the 18 parvas.^ The Harivamsa consists of the final two of the 100 sub-parvas, and was considered an appendix ( khila ) to the Mahabharata proper by the redactors of the 18 parvas.

^ The Harivamsa consists of the final two of the 100 sub-parvas, and was considered an appendix (khila) to the Mahabharata proper by the redactors of the 18 parvas.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Harivamsha consists of the final two of the 100 sub-parvas, and was considered an appendix ( khila ) to the Mahabharata proper by the redactors of the 18 parvas.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
The snake sacrifice of Janamejaya
.The Adi-parva includes the snake sacrifice (sarpasattra) of Janamejaya, explaining its motivation, detailing why all snakes in existence were intended to be destroyed, and why in spite of this, there are still snakes in existence.^ His furious son, Janamejaya, decides to perform a snake sacrifice ( sarpasattra ) in order to destroy the snakes.

^ His furious son, Janamejaya, decides to perform a snake sacrifice (sarpasattra) in order to destroy the snakes.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Adi-parva is dedicated to the snake sacrifice ( sarpasattra ) of Janamejaya, explaining its motivation, detailing why all snakes in existence were intended to be destroyed, and why in spite of this, there are still snakes in existence.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the Mahabharata by "thematic attraction" (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have a particularly close connection to Vedic (Brahmana) literature.^ This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the Mahabharata by "thematic attraction" (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have particularly close connection to Vedic ( Brahmana literature), in particular the Panchavimsha Brahmana which describes the Sarpasattra as originally performed by snakes, among which are snakes named Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata' s sarpasattra, and Takshaka, the name of a snake also in the Mahabharata .

^ This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the Mahabharata by "thematic attraction" (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have particularly close connection to Vedic (Brahmana literature), in particular the Panchavimsha Brahmana which describes the Sarpasattra as originally performed by snakes, among which are snakes named Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata's sarpasattra, and Takshaka, the name of a snake also in the Mahabharata.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the Mahabharata by "thematic attraction" (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have particularly close connection to Vedic (Brahmana literature), in particular the Panchavimsha Brahmana which describes the Sarpasattra as originally performed by snakes, among which are snakes named Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata' s sarpasattra, and Takshaka, the name of a snake also in the Mahabharata .
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Panchavimsha Brahmana (at 25.15.3) enumerates the officiant priests of a sarpasattra among whom the names Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata's sarpasattra, as well as Takshaka, the name of a snake in the Mahabharata, occur.^ Karna is one of the main characters of Mahabharata.
  • Mahabharata- Why Karna Supported Evil? 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the Mahabharata by "thematic attraction" (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have particularly close connection to Vedic (Brahmana literature), in particular the Panchavimsha Brahmana which describes the Sarpasattra as originally performed by snakes, among which are snakes named Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata's sarpasattra, and Takshaka, the name of a snake also in the Mahabharata.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This sarpasattra material was often considered an independent tale added to a version of the Mahabharata by "thematic attraction" (Minkowski 1991), and considered to have particularly close connection to Vedic ( Brahmana literature), in particular the Panchavimsha Brahmana which describes the Sarpasattra as originally performed by snakes, among which are snakes named Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata's sarpasattra, and Takshaka, the name of a snake also in the Mahabharata.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.The Shatapatha Brahmana gives an account of an Ashvamedha performed by Janamejaya Pārikshita.^ The Shatapatha Brahmana gives an account of an Ashvamedha performed by Janamejaya Parikshita.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The state of the text has been described by some early 20th century Indologists as unstructured and chaotic.^ Your list suggests that art might > be a late 19th early 20th century invention with a few historical > precursors.
  • ArtsEdNet Mail for June 1998: Re: artsednet-digest V2 #811 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC www.getty.edu [Source type: General]

^ Some texts describe both gods (devas) and asuras as being assigned to castes.

^ The complex structure had caused some early Western Indologists to refer to it as chaotic.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hermann Oldenberg (1922) supposed that the original poem must once have carried an immense "tragic force", but dismissed the full text as a "horrible chaos."[citation needed]
.The Mahabharata is presumed to predate the Greek epic Iliad, and some episodes of the Mahabharata are syncretistically said to identify with the story of the Iliad.^ The Mahabharata has been likened to the epic stories of the Iliad and the Odyssey .
  • Translating the Hindu epic the Mahabharata - RN Book Show - 26 November 2009 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mahabharata is believed to have been composed between 200 BCE and 200 CE, authored by Vyasa and said to be the longest epic in history (Rodrigues 227).
  • Mahavidya.ca » Draupadi in the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.mahavidya.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ (Hinduism) a sacred epic Sanskrit poem of India dealing in many episodes with the struggle between two rival families · More Q&A about The Mahabharata » « 1 2 » .
  • The Mahabharata - Ask.com 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Christian Lassen, in his Indische Alterthumskunde, supposed that the reference is ultimately to Dhritarashtra's sorrows, the laments of Gandhari and Draupadi, and the valor of Arjuna and Duryodhana or Karna.^ Episode 48: Gandhari warns Dhritarashtra that the attempt to disrobe Draupadi would cause the destruction of his lineage.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ And the people, too, came away, some naming Arjuna, some Karna, and some Duryodhana (as the victor of the day).
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And Duryodhana, hearing that Draupadi had selected the owner of white steeds (Arjuna) as her lord, became greatly depressed.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

[12] .This interpretation, endorsed in such standard references as Albrecht Weber's History of Indian Literature, has often been repeated.^ Many day-to-day references used by any Indian often are from the Mahabharata.
  • French Scriptwriter Jean-Claude Carriere on Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.lifepositive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not difficult to understand that all such utterances of Sen, Gandhi and many other like minded Indians derive inspiration from the Western interpretation of Indian history.
  • [nukkad] Krishna and Mahabharata: historical reality 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.mumbai-central.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So M. Winternitz in his History of Indian Literature writes, “History is one weak spot in Indian literature.
  • [nukkad] Krishna and Mahabharata: historical reality 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.mumbai-central.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .Some scholars have noted parallels between the Mahabharata, the The Rape of the Sabine Women in Roman mythology, and the Æsir–Vanir War in Norse mythology.^ After the Mahabharata war, and after the "dark age" in between there was a lot of mixing up - people leaving from here and coming back from there.
  • VEDA - Vedas and Vedic Knowledge Online - Vedic Encyclopedia, Bhakti-yoga in vedas, Library 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.veda.harekrsna.cz [Source type: Original source]

^ Notes In some senses this essay is both culmination of ground covered as well as territory that remains to be traversed in what one hopes will be a work on popular Mahabharatas.
  • http://www.indiatogether.org/manushi/issue103/meomaha.htm 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some scholars rely on the various inscriptions found   in   the   temples and elsewhere to fix the date of Mahabharat War.

[14]

The 18 parvas

The division into 18 parvas is as follows:
Parva title sub-parvas contents
1 Adi Parva (The Book of the Beginning) 1-19 How the Mahabharata came to be narrated by Sauti to the assembled rishis at Naimisharanya. The recital of the Mahabharata at the sarpasattra of Janamejaya by Vaishampayana at Takṣaśilā. .The history of the Bharata race is told in detail and the parva also traces history of the Bhrigu race.^ "Markandeya said, 'Listen, O prince of Bharata's race, to this old history exactly as it happened!
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ SECTION XXXVIII (Kairata Parva) Janemejaya said, "O illustrious one, I desire to hear in detail the history of the acquisition of weapons by Arjuna of spotless deeds.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ SECTION LIX (Adivansavatarana Parva) "Saunaka said, 'O son, thou hast narrated to me this extensive and great history commencing from the progeny of Bhrigu.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

The birth and early life of the Kuru princes. (adi means first)
2 Sabha Parva (The Book of the Assembly Hall) 20-28 Maya Danava erects the palace and court (sabha), at Indraprastha. .Life at the court, Yudhishthira's Rajasuya Yajna, the game of dice, and the eventual exile of the Pandavas.^ Life at the court, the game of dice, and the exile of the Pandavas.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sabha-parva 20-28 Life at the court, the game of dice, and the exile of the Pandavas.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After thirteen years of exile imposed on them as the penalty for Yudhisthira’s defeat in a crooked dice game played as part of a ritual, the Pandavas return to reclaim their kingdom.

3 Vana Parva also Aranyaka-parva, Aranya-parva (The Book of the Forest) 29-44 The twelve years of exile in the forest (aranya).
4 Virata Parva (The Book of Virata) 45-48 The year in incognito spent at the court of Virata.
5 Udyoga Parva (The Book of the Effort) 49-59 Preparations for war and efforts to bring about peace between the Kurus and the Pandavas which eventually fail (udyoga means effort or work).
6 Bhishma Parva (The Book of Bhishma) 60-64 The first part of the great battle, with .Bhishma as commander for the Kauravas and his fall on the bed of arrows.^ Bhishma was still alive on the bed of arrows.

^ In this, Bhishma lay stretched on his bed of arrows.
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bhishma-parva 60-64 The first part of the great battle, with Bhishma as commander for the Kauravas.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

7 Drona Parva (The Book of Drona) 65-72 The battle continues, with Drona as commander. .This is the major book of the war.^ Only major points have been extracted from two sources: Dr.P.V. Vartak's Marathi book "Swayambhu" and "Scientific Dating of the Mahabharat War" in English.

.Most of the great warriors on both sides are dead by the end of this book.^ Both sides had a great number of allies.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Both sides stopped fighting to pay homage to this great warrior.

^ The warriors on both sides gathered together and solemnly bound themselves to honour the traditional rules of war.
  • Books By Rajaji - Mahabharata - Index 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hindubooks.org [Source type: General]
  • Hindu Youth Universe 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hinduyouth.com [Source type: General]

8 Karna Parva (The Book of Karna) 73 The battle again, with Karna as commander.
9 Shalya Parva (The Book of Shalya) 74-77 The last day of the battle, with Shalya as commander. .Also told in detail is the pilgrimage of Balarama to the fords of the river Saraswati and the mace fight between Bhima and Duryodhana which ends the war, since Bhima kills Duryodhana by smashing him on the thighs with a mace.^ Duryodhana tried to kill Bhima but failed.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bhima and Duryodhana engaged in mace warfare.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A great fight arises and Bhima with his might kills him.

10 Sauptika Parva (The Book of the Sleeping Warriors) 78-80 .Ashvattama, Kripa and Kritavarma kill the remaining Pandava army in their sleep.^ Sauptika-parva 78-80 How Ashvattama and the remaining Kauravas killed the Pandava army in their sleep (Sauptika).
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How Ashvattama and the remaining Kauravas killed the Pandava army in their sleep (Sauptika).
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Satyaki and Yuyutsu on Pandavas side, and Kripa, Krutavarma and Ashwatthama on Kaurava's side, all were killed.
  • The Mahabharat Chronology 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hindunet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only 7 warriors remain on the Pandava side and 3 on the Kaurava side.^ He fell only all these warriors joined together and fought with him from all sides.

^ Satyaki and Yuyutsu on Pandavas side, and Kripa, Krutavarma and Ashwatthama on Kaurava's side, all were killed.
  • The Mahabharat Chronology 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hindunet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only one Kaurava, Yuyutsu, joined the forces of the Pandavas.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

11 Stri Parva (The Book of the Women) 81-85 .Gandhari, Kunti and the women (stri) of the Kurus and Pandavas lament the dead.^ Stri-parva 81-85 Gandhari and the other women (stri) lament the dead.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And Vidura described to Dhritarashtra and the mother of the Pandavas (Kunti) and Gandhari, all the feats of the princes.'"
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Vyasa hath fully represented the greatness of the house of Kuru, the virtuous principles of Gandhari, the wisdom of Vidura, and the constancy of Kunti.
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

12 Shanti Parva (The Book of Peace) 86-88 The crowning of .Yudhisthira as king of Hastinapura, and instructions from Bhishma for the newly anointed king on society, economics and politics.^ The crowning of Yudhisthira, and his instructions from Bhishma .
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Bhishma had vowed to always protect the king of Hastinapura, whoever he may be.

^ Yudhisthira, his brothers, and Draupadi came back to Hastinapuras court, where Bhisma, Vidura, Dronacarya, Krpacarya, and King Dhrtarastra were present.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is the longest book of the Mahabharata (shanti means peace).^ The long twelfth book called Peace (Shanti) has been discussed in relation to Samkhya philosophy.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

13 Anushasana Parva (The Book of the Instructions) 89-90 The final instructions (anushasana) from Bhishma.
14 Ashvamedhika Parva (The Book of the Horse Sacrifice)[15] 91-92 The royal ceremony of the .Ashvamedha (Horse sacrifice) conducted by Yudhisthira.^ The royal ceremony of the ashvamedha conducted by Yudhisthira.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ashvamedhika-parva 91-92 The royal ceremony of the ashvamedha conducted by Yudhisthira.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The world conquest by Arjuna. .The Anugita is told by Krishna to Arjuna.^ Then Sri Krishna told Arjuna to ask this question to Bhisma himself.
  • Mahabharata—-Bollywood Steps In | Random Thoughts of a Demented Mind 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC greatbong.net [Source type: Original source]

15 Ashramavasika Parva (The Book of the Hermitage) 93-95 The eventual deaths of Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and Kunti in a forest fire when they are living in a hermitage in the Himalayas. Vidura predeceases them and Sanjaya on Dhritarashtra's bidding goes to live in the higher Himalayas.
16 Mausala Parva (The Book of the Clubs) 96 The infighting between the .Yadavas with maces (mausala) and the eventual destruction of the Yadavas.^ The infighting between the Yadavas with maces ( mausala ).
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mausala-parva 96 The infighting between the Yadavas with maces (mausala).
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

17 Mahaprasthanika Parva (The Book of the Great Journey) 97 The great journey of Yudhisthira and his brothers across the whole country and finally their ascent of the great Himalayas where each Pandava falls except for Yudhisthira.
18 Svargarohana Parva (The Book of the Ascent to Heaven) 98 Yudhisthira's final test and the return of the Pandavas to the spiritual world (svarga).
khila Harivamsa Parva (The Book of the Genealogy of Hari) 99-100 Life of .Krishna which is not covered in the 18 parvas of the Mahabharata.^ The Harivamsa consists of the final two of the 100 sub-parvas, and was considered an appendix ( khila ) to the Mahabharata proper by the redactors of the 18 parvas.

^ The Harivamsa consists of the final two of the 100 sub-parvas, and was considered an appendix (khila) to the Mahabharata proper by the redactors of the 18 parvas.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Harivamsha consists of the final two of the 100 sub-parvas, and was considered an appendix ( khila ) to the Mahabharata proper by the redactors of the 18 parvas.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Historical context

English language map of "Bharatvarsha" (Kingdom of India) during the era of the Mahabharata and Ramayana.
.The historicity of the Kurukshetra War is unclear.^ The historicity of the Mahabharata war is unclear.

.Some historians like A L Basham estimate the date of the Kurukshetra war to Iron Age India of the 10th century BCE.^ The time period of the Ramayana has been estimated as between the twelfth and tenth centuries BC when the Kosalas and Videhas ruled northern India.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It may sound like mythology, but its just the histories which have been handed down from the Kurukshetra war by the bards and entertainers.
  • VEDA - Vedas and Vedic Knowledge Online - Vedic Encyclopedia, Bhakti-yoga in vedas, Library 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.veda.harekrsna.cz [Source type: Original source]

^ This was his chronicle age (89) at the time of war but according to books and epics he was looking like in his 20’s at that time.
  • Mahabharata—-Bollywood Steps In | Random Thoughts of a Demented Mind 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC greatbong.net [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.Other historians like M Witzel have corroborated that the general setting of the epic has a historical precedent in Iron Age (Vedic) India, where the Kuru kingdom was the center of political power during roughly 1200 to 800 BCE.[17] A dynastic conflict of the period could have been the inspiration for the Jaya, the foundation on which the Mahabharata corpus was built, with a climactic battle eventually coming to be viewed as an epochal event.^ The Mahabharata is an epic that tells the story of a conflict in Kurujangala , a kingdom of northern India .
  • Mahabharata@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people believe that "The epic's setting certainly has a historical precedent in Vedic India, where the Kuru kingdom was the center of political power in the late 2nd and early 1st millennia BCE. A dynastic conflict of the period could very well have been the inspiration for the Jaya , the core on which the Mahabharata corpus was built, and eventually the climactic battle came to be viewed as an epochal event.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Map of "Bharatvarsha" (Kingdom of India) during the time of Mahabharata and Ramayana .

.Puranic literature presents genealogical lists associated with the Mahabharata narrative.^ Dating this conflict relies almost exclusively on textual materials in the Mahabaharata itself and associated genealogical lists in the later Puranic literature."
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This story is not to be found in the main Mahabharata narrative or in any Sanskrit literature or scriptures.
  • Epic India: A Study In Folk "Mahabharata": How Balarama Became Abhimanyu's Father-in-law 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.epicindia.com [Source type: General]

.The evidence of the Puranas is of two kinds.^ The evidence of the Puranas is of two kinds.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of the first kind, there is the direct statement that there were 1015 (or 1050) years between the birth of Parikshit (Arjuna's grandson) and the accession of Mahapadma Nanda, commonly dated to 382 BCE, which would yield an estimate of about 1400 BCE for the Bharata battle.^ It revolves around the conflict between two royal families, the Pandavas and Kauravas, and their great battle of Kurukshetra near modern Delhi in approximately 1424 bce.

^ According to the Puranas, there is a time gap of 1015 or 1500 years between Parikshit 's birth during the Mahabharata war and the coronation of king Mahapadma Nanda (ca.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Puranas, there is a time gap of 1015 or 1500 years between Parikshit's birth during the Mahabharata war and the coronation of king Mahapadma Nanda (ca.

[18] .However, this would imply improbably long reigns on average for the kings listed in the genealogies.^ F.E. Pargiter rejected this because it would imply improbably long reigns on average for the kings listed in the genealogies.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like death himself that slays a person however swollen with pride, the long-armed and mighty Bhimasena will effect the destruction of the king.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ O king, if thou hadst obtained the sovereignty before, we would certainly have succeeded to it, however much the people might be unfavourable to us.'"
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

[19] .Of the second kind are analyses of parallel genealogies in the Puranas between the times of Adhisimakrishna (Parikshit's great-grandson) and Mahapadma Nanda.^ Of the second kind are analyses of parallel genealogies in the Puranas between the times of Adhisimakrishna (Parikshit's great-grandson) and Mahapadma Nanda.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the first kind, there is the direct statement that there were 1015 (or 1050) years between the birth of Parikshit (Arjuna's grandson) and the accession of Mahapadma Nanda, commonly dated to 382 BCE, which would lead to an estimate of about 1400 BCE for the Bharata battle.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Puranas, there is a time gap of 1015 or 1500 years between Parikshit's birth during the Mahabharata war and the coronation of king Mahapadma Nanda (ca.

.Pargiter accordingly estimated 26 generations by averaging 10 different dynastic lists and, assuming 18 years for the average duration of a reign, arrived at an estimate of 850 BCE for Adhisimakrishna, and thus approximately 950 BCE for the Bharata battle.^ Pargiter accordingly estimated 26 generations by averaging the lists of ten different dynasties, and assumed 18 years for the average duration of a reign to arrive at an estimate of 850 BCE for Adhisimakrishna, and thus approximately 950 BCE for the Bharata battle.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It revolves around the conflict between two royal families, the Pandavas and Kauravas, and their great battle of Kurukshetra near modern Delhi in approximately 1424 bce.

^ His date of February 18th 3102 BCE has become widespread in Indian tradition (for example, the Aihole inscription of Pulikeshi II, dated to Saka 556 = 634 CE, claims that 3735 years have elapsed since the Bharata battle.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.B. B. Lal used the same approach with a more conservative assumption of the average reign to estimate a date of 836 BCE, and correlated this with archaeological evidence from Painted Grey Ware sites, the association being strong between PGW artifacts and places mentioned in the epic.^ B. B. Lal used the same approach with a more conservative assumption of the average reign to estimate a date of 836 BCE, and correlated this with archaeological evidence from Painted Grey Ware sites, the association being strong between PGW artifacts and places mentioned in the epic.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pargiter accordingly estimated 26 generations by averaging the lists of ten different dynasties, and assumed 18 years for the average duration of a reign to arrive at an estimate of 850 BCE for Adhisimakrishna, and thus approximately 950 BCE for the Bharata battle.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don’t think there is a direct correlation between the choice of colors in paintings and the social prejudice.
  • || Satyameva Jayate || » Blog Archive » Need Help: Question on Indian Art 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC satyameva-jayate.org [Source type: Original source]

[21]
.Attempts to date the events using methods of archaeoastronomy have produced, depending on which passages are chosen and how they are interpreted, estimates ranging from the late 4th to the mid 2nd millennium BCE.[22] The late 4th millennium date has a precedent in the calculation of the Kaliyuga epoch, based on planetary conjunctions, by Aryabhata (6th century).^ Attempts to date the events using methods of archaeoastronomy have produced, depending on which passages are chosen and how they are interpreted, estimates ranging from the late 4th to the mid 2nd millennium BCE. [12] The late 4th millennium date has a precedent in the calculation of Aryabhata (6th century), based on planetary conjunctions.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The epic's setting certainly has a historical precedent in Vedic India, where the Kuru kingdom was the centre of political power in the late 2nd and early 1st millennia BCE. Ancient Indian scholars have calculated chronologies for the Mahabharata war, the 5th century mathematician Aryabhatta arriving at an approximate date for the Kurukshetra battle of 3137 BCE. The Aihole inscription of Pulakesin II (7th century CE) dates the Kurukshetra War to 3102 BCE. Vriddha-Garga, Varahamihira and Kalhana dated the War to 653 years after 3102 BCE. Contentious and disputable attempts to date the events of the Mahabharata with the help of archaeoastronomy have claimed dates in the 6th millennium BCE..

^ The epic's setting certainly has a historical precedent in Vedic India , where the Kuru kingdom was the center of political power in the late 2nd and early 1st millennia BCE. Ancient Indian scholars have calculated chronologies for the Mahabharata war, comparable to the Hellenistic attempts at a chronology of Greek mythology , the 5th century mathematician Aryabhatta arriving at an approximate date for the Kurukshetra battle of 3100 BCE. Placing the Kurukshetra battle at 3137 BCE and the death of Krishna and the beginning of the Kali Yuga at 3102 BCE. Contentious and disputable attempts to date the events of the Mahabharata with the help of archaeoastronomy have claimed dates in the 6th millennium BC E. For example 16 October, 5561 BCE, calculated by V.Vartak; The Scientific Dating of the Mahabharat War .
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His date of February 18 3102 BCE has become widespread in Indian tradition (for example, the Aihole inscription of Pulikeshi II, dated to Saka 556 = 634 CE, claims that 3735 years have elapsed since the Bharata battle.^ His date of February 18th 3102 BCE has become widespread in Indian tradition (for example, the Aihole inscription of Pulikeshi II, dated to Saka 556 = 634 CE, claims that 3735 years have elapsed since the Bharata battle.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another traditional school of astronomers and historians, represented by Vriddha-Garga, Varahamihira (author of the Brhatsamhita ) and Kalhana (author of the Rajatarangini ), place the Bharata war 653 years after the Kaliyuga epoch, corresponding to 2449 BCE. [14] .
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pargiter accordingly estimated 26 generations by averaging the lists of ten different dynasties, and assumed 18 years for the average duration of a reign to arrive at an estimate of 850 BCE for Adhisimakrishna, and thus approximately 950 BCE for the Bharata battle.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]) Another traditional school of astronomers and historians, represented by Vriddha-Garga, Varahamihira (author of the Brhatsamhita) and Kalhana (author of the Rajatarangini), place the Bharata war 653 years after the Kaliyuga epoch, corresponding to 2449 BCE.[24]

Synopsis

.The core story of the work is that of a dynastic struggle for the throne of Hastinapura, the kingdom ruled by the Kuru clan.^ Mahabharata: Encyclopedia II - Mahabharata - The Mahabharata the epic story The core story of the work is that of a dynastic struggle for the throne of Hastinapura, the kingdom ruled by the Kuru clan.

^ Mahabharata: Encyclopedia II - Mahabharata - The Mahabharata, the epic story The core story of the work is that of a dynastic struggle for the throne of Hastinapura, the kingdom ruled by the Kuru clan.

^ The core story of the work is that of a dynastic struggle for the throne of Hastinapura, the kingdom ruled by the Kuru clan.

.The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kaurava and the Pandava.^ The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kaurava s, the elder branch of the family, and the Pandava s, the younger branch.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kauravas, the elder branch of the family, and the Pandavas, the younger branch.

^ The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kaurava, the elder branch of the family, and the Pandava, the younger branch, with the situation where Kaurava's elder brother Duryodhana is younger than eldest brother of Pandava's i.e.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the Kaurava is the senior branch of the family, Duryodhana, the eldest Kaurava, is younger than Yudhisthira, the eldest Pandava.^ The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kaurava s, the elder branch of the family, and the Pandava s, the younger branch.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kauravas, the elder branch of the family, and the Pandavas, the younger branch.

^ The two collateral branches of the family that participate in the struggle are the Kaurava, the elder branch of the family, and the Pandava, the younger branch, with the situation where Kaurava's elder brother Duryodhana is younger than eldest brother of Pandava's i.e.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both Duryodhana and Yudhisthira claim to be first in line to inherit the throne.^ Yudhisthir, leading to conflict where both have the claims to the throne, citing themselves elder.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the evil-minded Dhrtarastra did not want the Pandavas to claim ownership of the kingdom, Dhrtarastra, as well as Duryodhana, Duhsasana, Sakuni, and Karna , wanted Yudhisthira to go to Varnavata.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhari was not happy that, in spite of her best efforts, Pandu's first son Yudhishthira would be the true heir to the throne and not her eldest son, Duryodhana.
  • INDOlink Kidz Korner : Mahabharata - Part 1 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.indolink.com [Source type: Original source]

.The struggle culminates in the great battle of Kurukshetra, in which the Pandavas are ultimately victorious.^ The struggle culminates leading to the Great battle of Kurukshetra , and the Pandavas are ultimately victorious.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The struggle culminates in the great battle of Kurukshetra, in which the Pandavas are ultimately victorious.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The struggle culminates leading to the Great battle of Kurukshetra, and the Pandavas are ultimately victorious.

.The battle produces complex conflicts of kinship and friendship, instances of family loyalty and duty taking precedence over what is right, as well as the converse.^ The battle produces complex conflicts of kinship and friendship, instances of family loyalty and duty taking precedence over what is right, as well as the converse.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everyone takes sides, agonizing over their conflicting loyalties and duties.
  • Mahabharata@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prior to war being declared, Balarama, had expressed his unhappiness at the developing conflict, and left to go on pilgrimage, thus he does not take part in the battle itself.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Mahabharata itself ends with the death of Krishna, and the subsequent end of his dynasty and ascent of the Pandava brothers to heaven.^ The Mahabharata itself ends with the death of Krishna, and the subsequent end of his dynasty, and ascent of the Pandava brothers to Heaven.

^ The Mahabharata itself ends with the death of Krishna , and the subsequent end of his dynasty, and ascent of the Pandava brothers to Heaven.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mahabharata itself ends with the death of Krishna, and the subsequent end of his dynasty, and ascent of the Pandava brothers to heaven.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also marks the beginning of the Hindu age of Kali (Kali Yuga), the fourth and final age of mankind, in which great values and noble ideas have crumbled, and man is heading toward the complete dissolution of right action, morality and virtue.^ It also marks the beginning of the Hindu age of Kali (Kali Yuga), the fourth and final age of mankind, where the great values and noble ideas have crumbled, and man is heading toward the complete dissolution of right action, morality and virtue.
  • Glorious India: Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.gloriousindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mahabharata ends with the Pandavas destination to heaven and marks the beginning of the Hindu age of Kali ( Kali Yuga ) , the fourth and final age of mankind, where the great values and noble ideas have been crumbled, and man is heading towards the complete dissolution of right action, morality and virtue.

^ It also marks the beginning of the Hindu age of Kali ( Kali Yuga ), the fourth and final age of mankind, where the great values and noble ideas have crumbled, and man is speedily heading toward the complete dissolution of right action, morality and virtue.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Arshia Sattar states that the central theme of the Mahabharata, as well as the Ramayana, is respectively Krishna's and Rama's hidden divinity and its progressive revelation.^ A Hero of the Mahabharata in Folklore of Central India The Ramayana and the Mahabharata composed by Valmiki and Vyasa respectively, have given due importance to each and every part of the subcontinent encompassing lands, forests, mountains, rivers and peoples of different castes and races.
  • Atricles - Dr.Mahedra Kumar Mishra 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.asgporissa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Krishnavatara (the story of Krishna, the Krishna Lila , which is woven through many chapters of the story) Rama (an abbreviated version of the Ramayana .

[25]

The older generations

Bhishma's Oath, a painting
by Raja Ravi Varma
.Janamejaya's ancestor Shantanu, the king of Hastinapura, has a short-lived marriage with the goddess Ganga and has a son, Devavrata (later to be called Bhishma), who becomes the heir apparent.^ The son that shall be begotten on me shall become thy heir-apparent.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Janamejaya's ancestor Shantanu, the king of Hastinapura has a short-lived marriage with the goddess Ganga and has a heroic son, Devavrata (later to be called Bhishma).Devavrata a young man with a reputation already as a fearsome warrior is the heir apparent to the throne.

^ Santanu, king of Hastinapura, was married to the beautiful Ganga, who was the river goddess in disguise.

.Many years later, when King Shantanu goes hunting, he sees Satyavati, the daughter of a fisherman, and asks her father for her hand.^ Many years later, when the king goes hunting, he spots Satyavati , the daughter of a fisherman and wants to marry her.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many years later, when the king goes hunting, he see her and asks to marry her.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He went to her father, the chief fisherman, and asked him for the hand of his daughter.
  • INDOlink Kidz Korner : Mahabharata - Part 1 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.indolink.com [Source type: Original source]

.Her father refuses to consent to the marriage unless Shantanu promises to make any future son of Satyavati the king upon his death.^ Eager to secure his daughter's and her children's future happiness, the fisherman refuses to consent to the marriage unless Shantanu promises to make the future son of Satyavati, the King,Shantanu's successor.

^ Satyavati requested that he request her father for marriage.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon Shantanu's death, Chitrangada becomes king.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To resolve his father's dilemma, Devavrata agrees to relinquish his right to the throne.^ To solve the king's dilemma, Devavrata agrees not to take the throne.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, to enable the marriage of his father to a village girl, Devarata renounces his rights to the throne and also vows never to marry.
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Ye kings, I have already relinquished my right to the throne, I shall now settle the matter of my children.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.As the fisherman is not sure about the prince's children honouring the promise, Devavrata also takes a vow of lifelong celibacy to guarantee his father's promise.^ As the fisherman is not sure about the prince's children honouring the promise, Devavrata also takes a vow of lifelong celibacy to guarantee his father's promise.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chief fisherman thought for a while and showed his further concern by saying, "What about your children?
  • INDOlink Kidz Korner : Mahabharata - Part 1 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.indolink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ O fisherman, from this day I adopt the vow of Brahmacharya (study and meditation in celibacy).
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Shantanu has two sons by Satyavati, Chitrangada and Vichitravirya.^ He requested Vyas to bless Ambika, the elder of the two widows of Vichitravirya, to bless with a son who can succeed the deceased king.
  • INDOlink Kidz Korner : Mahabharata - Part 1 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.indolink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And upon her Santanu begat two other sons named Chitrangada and Vichitravirya.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon after was born of Satyavati an intelligent and heroic son of Santanu named Chitrangada.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Upon Shantanu's death, Chitrangada becomes king.^ Upon Shantanu's death, Chitrangada becomes king.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When King Shantanu is on his deathbed, his concern for his children and the stability of the Kingdom , delay his death.

^ Her father refuses to consent to the marriage unless Shantanu promises to make any future son of Satyavati the king upon his death.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He lives a very short uneventful life and dies.^ Duryodhana had lived a life of treachery, and by treachery he dies – in spite of all his strengths.
  • Mahabharata - As the Curtain of Death Falls by Satya Chaitanya 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC boloji.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Born as a result of a curse, Bheeshma lives an accursed, wasteful, unproductive life of pain and loneliness, and dies in loneliness and in intolerable agony.
  • Mahabharata - As the Curtain of Death Falls by Satya Chaitanya 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC boloji.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And though unused to toil all her life, the affectionate Kunti now regarded as very short the really long journey she had to perform.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Vichitravirya, the younger son, rules Hastinapura.^ After his death Vichitravirya rules Hastinapura.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two sons of Shantanu, Chitrangada and Vichitravirya ruled the Kingdom of Hastinapur.

^ The Death Of Pandu, Second Son of Vichitravirya and Ambalika who succeeded to the throne of Hastinapura on his father's death.
  • Books By Rajaji - Mahabharata - Index 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hindubooks.org [Source type: General]
  • Hindu Youth Universe 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hinduyouth.com [Source type: General]

.Meanwhile, the King of Kāśī arranges a swayamvara for his three daughters, neglecting to invite the royal family of Hastinapur.^ The Chapter is about Draupadi Swayamvara m, daughter of king Drupada, King of Panchala who married all the five pandavas .
  • Books By Rajaji - Mahabharata - Index 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hindubooks.org [Source type: General]

^ In order to arrange the marriage of the young Vichitravirya, Bhishma goes to Kashi for a swayamvara of the three princesses Amba, Ambika and Ambalika.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Meanwhile the son of the ocean-going Ganga heard that king Devaka had a daughter endued with youth and beauty and begotten upon a Sudra wife.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.In order to arrange the marriage of young Vichitravirya, Bhishma attends the swayamvara of the three princesses Amba, Ambika and Ambalika, uninvited, and proceeds to abduct them.^ In order to arrange the marriage of the young Vichitravirya, Bhishma goes to Kashi for a swayamvara of the three princesses Amba, Ambika and Ambalika.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bhishma arranges the marriage of Ambika and Ambalika, the daughters of a neighboring king, to King Vichitravirya.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ On behalf of his half-brother, Bhishma abducts three sisters and fights off all their suitors.

.Ambika and Ambalika consent to be married to Vichtravirya.^ He wins them, and Ambika and Ambalika are married to Vichtravirya.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Episode 6: Threatened with extinction, Queen mother Satyavati, calls on Ambalika and Ambika to marry Vyasa.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Bound by the norms of the warriors duty, the king of Kashi had no other option but to have his three daughters, Amba, Ambalika, and Ambika, go with Bhisma and marry Vicitravirya.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

.The oldest princess Amba, however, informs Bhishma that she wishes to marry Shalvaraj (king of Shalva) whom Bhishma defeated at their swayamvar.^ In order to arrange the marriage of the young Vichitravirya, Bhishma goes to Kashi for a swayamvara of the three princesses Amba, Ambika and Ambalika.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chapter is about the story of Amba daughter of King Of Kasi and Bhishma who cast about for a bride for Vichitra- virya, brother of Chitrangada.

^ When Vichitravirya came of age, Bheeshma and queen Satyavati got him married to two princesses of Kashi, Amba and Ambika.
  • INDOlink Kidz Korner : Mahabharata - Part 1 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.indolink.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bhishma lets her leave to marry Shalvaraj, but Shalvaraj refuses to marry her, still smarting at his humiliation at the hands of Bhishma.^ He had not forgotten his humiliation at the hands of Bhishma.
  • Stories from Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC indiandance.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Amba wanted to marry Shalvaraj and indicated this to Bhishma.
  • Stories from Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC indiandance.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Bheeshma’s rejection of him was so total and complete, his humiliation at the old man’s hands so cruel, that he had to refuse to fight for his friends so long as Bheeshma was in command.
  • Mahabharata - As the Curtain of Death Falls by Satya Chaitanya 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC boloji.com [Source type: Original source]

.Amba then returns to marry Bhishma but he refuses due to his vow of celibacy.^ Ever faithful to his vow, Bhishma refuses.

^ Amba then vows that one day she will kill him, even though the gods have granted Bhishma the power to choose the day of his death, because of his vow.

^ Seeing himself facing grandsire Bhishma and his teacher Drona on Duryodhana's side due to their vow to serve the state of Hastinapur, Arjuna is heartbroken at the idea of killing them.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Amba becomes enraged and becomes Bhishma's bitter enemy, holding him responsible for her plight.^ She held Bhishma totally responsible for her plight.
  • Stories from Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC indiandance.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ One should win the enemys trust by convincing him with valid reasons and after sometime when his position becomes unstable, one should attack him.
  • Purpose and Function of Government According to Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.stephen-knapp.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later she is reborn to King Drupada as Shikhandi (or Shikhandini) and causes Bhishma's fall, with the help of Arjuna, in the battle of Kurukshetra.^ Using magical mantras, Arjuna causes his arrow not only to sever Jayadratha's head, but to carry it miles away to fall into his father's lap.

^ The delinquency, O king, was the cause of my fall from my high prosperity.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Seeing that Arjuna asked Krishna what is the cause behind that even a great warrior like Bhishma is crying.
  • Mahabharata—-Bollywood Steps In | Random Thoughts of a Demented Mind 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC greatbong.net [Source type: Original source]

The Pandava and Kaurava princes

.When Vichitravirya dies young without any heirs, Satyavati asks her first son Vyasa to father children with the widows.^ He died in very young age without any son to hold his throne.
  • Stories from Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC indiandance.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately, Vichitravirya died without a successor.
  • INDOlink Kidz Korner : Mahabharata - Part 1 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.indolink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He died when his 5 sons were still young.
  • Stories from Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC indiandance.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The eldest, Ambika, shuts her eyes when she sees him, and so her son Dhritarashtra is born blind.^ As a result, the son born to Ambika was blind.
  • INDOlink Kidz Korner : Mahabharata - Part 1 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.indolink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The eldest child, the son of Ambika, was Dhrtarastra.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dhritarashtra, the elder one, was born blind.

.Ambalika turns pale and bloodless upon seeing him, and thus her son Pandu is born pale and unhealthy (the term Pandu may also mean 'jaundiced'[26]).^ Ambalikas son, Pandu, was unusually pale looking.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We have no mind to see the sons of Pandu.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ambalika turns pale and bloodless, and her son Pandu is born pale (the term Pandu may also mean ‘jaundiced’ [1]).
  • || Satyameva Jayate || » Blog Archive » Need Help: Question on Indian Art 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC satyameva-jayate.org [Source type: Original source]

.Due to the physical challenges of the first two children, Satyavati asks Vyasa to try once again.^ It was ironic that the two children of the princesses were physically impaired, while the knowledgeable and wise one would be born to a maid.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Some time after, when the oldest of Vichitravirya's widows again had her monthly season, she was solicited by Satyavati to approach Vyasa once again.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Vichitravirya dies young without any heirs, Satyavati asks her first son Vyasa to father children on the widows.
  • || Satyameva Jayate || » Blog Archive » Need Help: Question on Indian Art 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC satyameva-jayate.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, Ambika and Ambalika send their maid instead, to Vyasa's room.^ Episode 6: Threatened with extinction, Queen mother Satyavati, calls on Ambalika and Ambika to marry Vyasa.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Instead, without telling her mother-in-law, Ambika sent her maid to the saint after disguising her with stately garments.
  • INDOlink Kidz Korner : Mahabharata - Part 1 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.indolink.com [Source type: Original source]

.Vyasa fathers a third son, Vidura, by the maid.^ Vyasa fathers a third son Vidura, by a serving maid.
  • || Satyameva Jayate || » Blog Archive » Need Help: Question on Indian Art 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC satyameva-jayate.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Vyasa has a third son Vidura by a handmaiden.

^ Through a maid of the widows, he also fathers their commoner half-brother Vidura.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He is born healthy and grows up to be one of the wisest characters in the Mahabharata.^ In the story of Krishna, as told in the Puranas and the Mahabharata, she is one of the gopis (cow-herding women) of the forest of Vrindavan, and was brought up in this community with Krishna.

^ Names of characters from the Mahabharata are an unending source of names for the seemingly endless numbers of Indian children born each year.
  • Mahabharata@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ghatothkacha is the redoubtable hero and one of the finest characters in the Mahabharata .
  • Epic India: A Study In Folk "Mahabharata": How Balarama Became Abhimanyu's Father-in-law 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.epicindia.com [Source type: General]

.He serves as Prime Minister (Mahamantri or Mahatma) to King Pandu and King Dhritarashtra.^ Vaisampayana continued, "'Then king Dhritarashtra called unto him, all those celebrated ministers and took counsel with them.'"
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the rule of King Pandu, the citizens and his ministers suggested that he take a vacation, due to his hard work and successes brought upon Hastinapura.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of Dhritarashtra's blindness, Pandu was made king.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.When the princes grow up, Dhritarashtra is about to be crowned king by Bhishma when Vidura intervenes and uses his knowledge of politics to assert that a blind person cannot be king.^ Dhritarashtra, though blind, had to be anointed the king.

^ The princes then saying, 'So be it,' repaired unto Bhishma and telling him of the purport of that Brahmana's speech, related everything about his (extraordinary) feat.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And, O monarch, king Dhritarashtra having made this resolution for the pacification of Duryodhana, sent messengers unto Vidura for summoning him.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.This is because a blind man cannot control and protect his subjects.^ O bull of the Bharata race, it was because we were subject to thy control that we are thus tearing the hearts of our friends and gratifying our foes.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pan.d.u, although the younger brother, succeeds to the throne because of his brother's blindness, but then he abdicates after falling under a curse that he cannot sleep with his two wives, or he will die.
  • Comments on the Bhagavad Gita, Synopsis of the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The throne is then given to Pandu because of Dhritarashtra's blindness.^ Because of Dhritarashtra's blindness, Pandu was made king.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pandu takes the throne because of Dhritarashtra's blindness.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, Dhritarashtra could not ascend the throne, though he was the elder son, and Pandu became the emperor.

.Pandu marries twice, to Kunti and Madri.^ Pandu marries twice, to Kunti and Madri.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pandu had two wives: Kunti and Madri.

^ After the campaigns, Pandu goes to the forest for relaxation with his two queens Kunti and Madri.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

.Dhritarashtra marries Gandhari, a princess from Gandhara, who blindfolds herself so that she may feel the pain that her husband feels.^ King Dhritarastra marries Gandhari , who blindfolds herself for life when she hears that her husband-to-be is blind.
  • Mahabharata@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dhritarashtra is married to Gandhari, who blindfolds herself when she finds she has been married to a blind man.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bhisma felt that the princess of the kingdom of Gandhara (now, known as Afghanistan ), Gandhari, was the ideal match for the elder son, Dhrtarastra.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Her brother Shakuni is enraged by this and vows to take revenge on the Kuru family.^ Amba swore to take revenge on Bheeshma, so she was reborn as Shikhandi, the elder brother of Draupadi.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

.One day, when Pandu is relaxing in the forest, he hears the sound of a wild animal.^ One day the king went from his capital into the woods for purposes of hunting, and this grinder of foes pierced (with his arrows) many deer and wild boars.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the campaigns, Pandu goes to the forest for relaxation with his two queens Kunti and Madri.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Hearing this, Pandu replied, 'O deer, kings behave in the matter of slaying animals of thy species exactly as they do in the matter of slaying foes.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

He shoots an arrow in the direction of the sound. .However the arrow hits the sage Kindama, who curses him that if he engages in a sexual act, he will die.^ Pandu while out hunting deer, is however cursed that if he engages in a sexual act, he will die.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He acts well sometimes but casting him as Krishna would be an insult to Krishna and would send both Shahrukh and Bobby Bedi to hell after they die.
  • Mahabharata—-Bollywood Steps In | Random Thoughts of a Demented Mind 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC greatbong.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Bhishma, however speedily checked those numberless arrows before they could come at him by means of a shower of his own arrows as innumerable as the down on the body.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Pandu then retires to the forest along with his two wives, and his brother Dhritarashtra rules thereafter, despite his blindness.^ Pandu abdicates and goes to live in the forest with his two wives.
  • Mahabharata@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He then retires to the forest along with his two wives, and his brother rules thereafter, despite his blindness.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was thus the brother of Dhritarashtra and the illustrious Pandu.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.
The central figure is Yudhishthira; the two to his left are Bhima and Arjuna.
^ And then the two warriors, Bhima and Arjuna, rushed towards the terrified king of Sindhu whose horses had been slain and who was alone and perplexed in mind.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then through Kunti, Dharma (Justice) became the father of Yudhishthira, Vayu (Wind) the father of Bhima, and the powerful Indra father of Arjuna.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And on seeing Bhima, Arjuna and the twin brothers with Yudhishthira, the soldiers sent up a loud shout on the field of battle.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nakula and Sahadeva, the twins, are to his right.^ And the mighty Bhimasena accompanied by the twin brothers Nakula and Sahadeva and the priests and citizens all followed Krishna from behind.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kunti gave this mantra to Madri, as she summoned the two Asvina Kumara (twin demigods), and she received twin boys, who were named Nakula and Sahadeva.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And on Madri were raised by the twin Aswins, the twins Nakula and Sahadeva.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

Their wife, at far right, is Draupadi. Deogarh, Dasavatar temple.
.Pandu's older queen Kunti, however, had been given a boon by Sage Durvasa that she could invoke any god using a special mantra.^ Pandu's elder queen Kunti however, asks the gods Dharma, Vayu, and Indra for sons, by using a boon granted by Durvasa.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kunti had been given a mantra by which she could summon any god she desired to father children.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She told Pandu about the Mantra which Durvasa Muni given her.
  • Stories from Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC indiandance.ru [Source type: Original source]

.Kunti uses this boon to ask Dharma the god of justice, Vayu the god of the wind, and Indra the lord of the heavens for sons.^ I am Dharma, he God of Justice in the form of the crane.

^ Pandu's elder queen Kunti however, asks the gods Dharma, Vayu, and Indra for sons, by using a boon granted by Durvasa.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Know O lord, even this is the boon that I ask.'
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.She gives birth to three sons, Yudhisthira, Bhima, and Arjuna, through these gods.^ Know me to be the eldest of the sons of Kunti and these to be Bhima and Arjuna.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She gives birth to three sons Yudhishtira, Bhima, and Arjuna through these gods.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pandu had three sons by Kunti: Yudhishtira, Bhima and Arjuna.

.Kunti shares her mantra with the younger queen Madri, who bears the twins Nakula and Sahadeva through the Ashwini twins.^ And on Madri were raised by the twin Aswins, the twins Nakula and Sahadeva.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His younger queen, Madri bears the twins Nakula and Sahadeva through the Ashwini twins.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The twins (Nakula and Sahadeva) and Kunti wait where Krishna is.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, Pandu and Madri indulge in sex, and Pandu dies.^ However Pandu and Madri cannot resist temptation,indulge in sex and die in the forest and Kunti returns to Hastinapura with her sons.

^ However, Pandu made love to Madri and died, joined on his funeral pyre by Madri.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However Pandu and Madri, unable to resist temptation, indulge in sex and die in the forest, and Kunti returns to Hastinapura to raise her sons, who are then usually referred to as the Pandava brothers.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Madri dies on his funeral pyre out of remorse.^ Madri ascended the funeral pyre with her lord.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once they make love, Pandu falls dead, fulfilling the curse, and Madri, devoted to him always, joins him on the funeral pyre.

^ When a son dies and the father is alive, then the father cannot apply or light the funeral pyre, and there is no Sapindi ceremony.
  • http://www.hinduism.co.za 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hinduism.co.za [Source type: Original source]

.Kunti raises the five brothers, who are from then on usually referred to as the Pandava brothers.^ The five brothers were together called Pandavas.

^ Among the Brahmanas were seated the five Pandava brothers.

^ The five Pandava brothers had fled to the forest with their mother, Kunti.

.Dhritarashtra has a hundred sons through Gandhari, all born after the birth of Yudhishtira.^ Dhritarashtra had a hundred sons and a daughter.

^ Dhritarashtra had a hundred sons, and Pandu had only five.

^ And upon Yudhishthira agreeing to this, the sons of Dhritarashtra, taking the Pandavas with them, mounted country-born elephants of great size and cars resembling towns, and left the metropolis.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.These are the Kaurava brothers, the eldest being Duryodhana, and the second Dushasana.^ Dhritarashtra has a hundred sons through Gandhari, the Kaurava brothers, the eldest being Duryodhana, and the second Dushasana.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The eldest among the Kauravas was called Duryodhana.

^ Dhritarastra had a hundred sons from Gandhari, the eldest being Duryodhana.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

.Other Kaurava brothers were Vikarna and Sukarna.^ This compassionate attitude made Duryodhana and the other Kaurava brothers very angry.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

.The rivalry and enmity between them and the Pandava brothers, from their youth and into manhood, leads to the Kurukshetra war.^ There is rivalry between the sets of cousins, from their youth and into manhood.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Growing Rivalry between the Pandavas and the Kauravas .

^ To avoid rivalry amongst themselves, they had come to a decision to have Draupadi divide her time equally between the five brothers.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

Lākṣagṛha (The House of Lac)

.After the deaths of their mother (Madri) and father (Pandu), the Pandavas and their mother Kunti return to the palace of Hastinapur.^ Pandu had two wives: Kunti and Madri.

^ Pandu marries twice, to Kunti and Madri.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pandu dies in the forest and Kunti returns to Hastinapur with her children.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

.Yudhisthira is made Crown Prince by Dhritarashtra, under considerable pressure from his kingdom.^ And, O foremost of kings, having subdued him, (Karna) brought under subjection those princes that were under him (Drupada) and made them pay tribute.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the people of Hastinapura, the ministers, Vidura, and Bhisma wanted Yudhisthira as the crowned prince, as he was not only the oldest but the wisest and most worthy person to be next successor.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Dhritarashtra wanted his own son Duryodhana to become king and lets his ambition get in the way of preserving justice.^ Finding that his three sons are hostile to the usual education, a king asks the Brahmin Vishnu-Sharman to teach them the art of practical life in a way they will understand.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Vaisampayana continued,--"And as the Pandavas were going away from the assembly, the wicked king Duryodhana from excess of joy mimiced by his own steps the playful leonine trade of Bhima.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When they came, king Dhritarashtra addressing Yudhishthira, said, 'Listen, O son of Kunti, with thy brothers, to what I say.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Shakuni, Duryodhana and Dusasana plot to get rid of the Pandavas.^ Meanwhile Duryodhana plots to get rid of the Pandavas and tries to kill the Pandavas secretly by burning their palace which is made of lac .
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Duryodhana plots to get rid of the Pandavas and tries to kill the Pandavas secretly by setting fire to their palace which he had made of lac.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile Duryodhana plots to get rid of the Pandavas and tries to kill the Pandavas secretly by burning their palace which is made of lac.

.Shakuni calls the architect Purvanchan to build a palace out of flammable materials like lac and ghee.^ There they were accommodated in a palace made under Duryodhana's instructions, of hemp, resin, and lac, and other inflammable materials, which were subsequently set fire to secretly.

^ And that worst of Mlechchhas, the wretched Purochana (who was the architect employed in building the house of lac) was also burnt in the conflagration.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.He then arranges for the Pandavas and the Queen Mother Kunti to stay there, with the intention of setting it alight.^ Kunti, the mother of Pandavas, was told about the archery contest won by Arjuna.

^ Then the aged monarch leaving Yudhishthira on the throne, retired to the forest with his devoted wife and Kunti, the mother of the Pandava brothers, to pass his last days in asceticism.

^ The Kumbars (potters) of this region claim that during the Swayamvara of Draupadi, the Pandavas with mother Kunti had taken shelter in their house.
  • Atricles - Dr.Mahedra Kumar Mishra 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.asgporissa.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, the Pandavas are warned by their wise uncle, Vidura, who sends them a miner to dig a tunnel.^ However, the Pandavas are warned and escape from the palace.
  • Mahabharata at AllExperts 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the Pandavas are warned by their uncle, Vidura, who sends them a miner to dig a tunnel.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This, however, surpriseth me greatly that though thou leadest the Pandavas away from the path of the wise, they yet regard thee as honest.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.They are able to escape to safety and go into hiding.^ They are able to escape to safety and go into hiding, but after leaving others behind, whose bodies are mistaken for them.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally they decide to play one more dice game for the kingdom, the loser of which will have to go into exile for twelve years and be in hiding without being discovered for one year after that.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Duryodhana challanges Yudhis.t.hira to a last bet, that the Pân.d.avas must go into exile for twelve years and into hiding for one, or forfeit their kingdom.
  • Comments on the Bhagavad Gita, Synopsis of the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Back at Hastinapur, the Pandavas and Kunti are presumed dead.^ They, therefore, now regarded the Pandavas in the light of persons who had come back from the region of the dead.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just then Vidur arrives and tells the Pandava brothers that they have been invited back to Hastinapur along with their bride.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Episode 36: Duryodhan and Shakuni are furious when they learn that the Pandava brothers are alive and that King Dhritrashtra has sent Vidur to call them back to Hastinapur.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

[27]

Marriage to Draupadi

Arjuna piercing the eye of the fish
.During the course of their hiding the Pandavas learn of a swayamvara which is taking place for the hand of the Pāñcāla princess Draupadī.^ In course of this exile the Pandavas are informed of a swayamvara, a marriage competition, which is taking place for the hand of the Panchala princess Draupadi.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this period, the Pandavas visited many pilgrimage sites and holy places.

^ Solar eclipses take place during daylight hours and can occur only at new moon .
  • History of India - Dating of Mahabharata : Facets of India : Ancient and Modern : History of India and World 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tri-murti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pandavas enter the competition in disguise as Brahmins.^ The Pandavas enter the competition in disguise as Brahmins.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The task is to string a mighty steel bow and shoot a target on the ceiling, which is the eye of a moving artificial fish, while looking at its reflection in oil below.^ The candidate for the hand of the princess was required to string a mighty steel bow and shoot a steel arrow.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ The task is to string a mighty steel bow and shoot a target on the ceiling while looking at its reflection in water below.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The suitor must be able to lift a very heavy bow and attack the target by looking at the water reflection of the target.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Most of the princes fail, many being unable to lift the bow.^ Most of the princes fail, being unable to lift the bow.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having bowed down to Narayana and Nara, the most exalted male being, and also to the goddess Saraswati, must the word Jaya be uttered.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After having bowed down to Narayana, and Nara, the most exalted male being, and also to the goddess Saraswati, must the word Jaya be uttered.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

Arjuna succeeds however. .The Pandavas return home and inform their mother that Arjuna has won a competition and to look at what they have brought back.^ When Arjuna returned home, Arjuna told Kunti, We have brought home alms.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kunti, the mother of Pandavas, was told about the archery contest won by Arjuna.

^ At last through the intervention of the blind king, they got their liberty, and were asked to return home and rule their kingdom.

.Without looking, Kunti asks them to share whatever it is Arjuna has won among themselves.^ Kunti, the mother of Pandavas, was told about the archery contest won by Arjuna.

^ When Arjuna announces to his mother that he has won the prize, Kunti tells him to share with his brothers, before seeing Draupadi.

^ Whatever wealth the Pandavas had--she herself and these Pandavas themselves,--have all been justly won by the son of Suvala.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus Draupadi ends up being the wife of all five brothers.^ This meant that all five brothers had to marry Draupadi.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So it was that Draupadi became the common wife of all the five Pandava princes.

^ Draupadi is a model and devoted wife to the brothers.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

Indraprastha

.After the wedding, the Pandava brothers are invited back to Hastinapura.^ Meanwhile Dhrishtadyumna, who had followed them, reports back and reveals the true identities of Pandava brothers.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Just then Vidur arrives and tells the Pandava brothers that they have been invited back to Hastinapur along with their bride.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Episode 36: Duryodhan and Shakuni are furious when they learn that the Pandava brothers are alive and that King Dhritrashtra has sent Vidur to call them back to Hastinapur.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

.The Kuru family elders and relatives negotiate and broker a split of the kingdom, with the Pandavas obtaining a new territory.^ "The Pandavas, having performed propitiatory rites for obtaining (their share of) the kingdom, and finishing their preparations, set out for Varanavata.'"
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After Dhrtarastras wedding, eyes were on Pandu, as the citizens and the Kuru family, were awaiting for a new queen of Hastinapura.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Living in their new territory of Indraprastha, Yudhishthira turns poor land into a wealthy kingdom, and declares himself King of Kings.

.Yudhishtira has a new capital built for this territory at Indraprastha which is now Delhi.^ Pandavas built a new capital called Indraprastha.

^ Living in their new territory of Indraprastha, Yudhishthira turns poor land into a wealthy kingdom, and declares himself King of Kings.

.Neither the Pandava nor Kaurava sides are happy with the arrangement however.^ The gambling tournament took place with two sides: the Pandava brothers and the Kaurava side with Duryodhana, Duhsasana, Sakuni, and Karna.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Later in the war, Drona and Bhishma will fight on the side of the Kauravas not so much out of loyalty but because their mortal enemies (Dhrishtadyumna and Sikhandi) fight with the Pandavas.

^ The Pandavas and their army was very much in strength, while the Kaurava side had only four people left: Duryodhana, Krpacarya, Asvatthama, and Krtavarma.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Shortly after this, Arjuna elopes with and then marries Krishna's sister, Subhadra.^ Subhadra was Krishna's sister.

^ "Arjuna answered, 'She is Vasudeva's daughter and Vasudeva's (Krishna) sister; endued with so much beauty, whom can she not fascinate?
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before any decision could be made, Krishna helped Arjun to elope with Subhadra.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

.Yudhishtira wishes to establish his position as king; he seeks Krishna's advice.^ Yudhishthir seeks Sri Krishna's advice on performing the Rajsuya Yagna.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ On Krishna's advice the Pandavas present themselves to the blind king.

^ Again when old Bhishma, the son of Santanu, that foremost of men who is not to die save at his own wish is here, why, O king, hath Krishna been worshipped by thee?
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Krishna advises him, and after due preparation and the elimination of some opposition, Yudhishthira carries out the rājasūya yagna ceremony; he is thus recognised as pre-eminent among kings.^ And when the eighth child, Krishna is born, miraculously the prison doors open and Vasudev is able to smuggle out the child and leave him in Gokul with his friend Nand.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Yudhishthir has been made Heir Apparent (Yuvaraj) and due to his popularity the people want him to become their king as soon as possible.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Rusty feels guilty, but Victor advises him to remain resolute, claiming that normal morality does not apply to kings.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Pandavas have a new palace built for them, by Maya the Danava.^ Pandavas built a new capital called Indraprastha.

^ And the palace that Maya built consisted of columns of gold, and occupied, O monarch, an area of five thousand cubits.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And Maya, in gratitude, built (for the Pandavas) a celestial palace decked with every sort of jewels and precious stones.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

[28] They invite their Kaurava cousins to Indraprastha. .Duryodhana walks round the palace, and mistakes a glossy floor for water, and will not step in.^ Duryodhana is jealous and humiliated on his visit to the magnificent palace, where he mistakes a glass floor for a pool, then later falls into a pool thinking it is glass.

.After being told of his error, he then sees a pond, and assumes it is not water and falls in.^ We are told that his reason being overpowered by anger he offered oblations of blood to the manes of his ancestors, standing in the midst of the sanguine waters of those lakes.
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then the delightful (river), of pure water in being so thought of by the king, and seeing that the great lord (Siva) was standing (to receive her fall), came down all of a sudden from the sky.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "We see our fellow-beings every moment falling off around us; but those that are left behind think that they will never die.

.Draupadi laughs at him and ridicules him by saying that this is because of his blind father Dhritrashtra.^ She laughed and ridiculed him saying, A blind mans son is also blind.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Draupadi and Bhima laugh at him.

^ Draupadi calls him the "blind son of a blind father."
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

He then decides to avenge his humiliation.

The dice game

Draupadi humiliated. Painting by Raja Ravi Varma.
.Shakuni, Duryodhana's uncle, now arranges a dice game, playing against Yudhishtira with loaded dice.^ That, and the recollection of the insults and humiliations of the dice game, results in war:  the eleven armies of the Kurus against the seven armies of the Pân.d.avas.
  • Comments on the Bhagavad Gita, Synopsis of the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Draupadi replies angrily, "Ask him who played the game of dice with Duryodhan, whether he first lost himself or his wife?
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Duryodhana follows the advice of his uncle, the cunning Shakuni, an infamous dice player, and invites Yudhishthira to a game, knowing full well that gambling is his cousin's one weakness.

.Yudhishtira loses all his wealth, then his kingdom.^ Kingdom, sons, fame, wealth,--all these do not come up to even a sixteenth part of truth.'
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So Yudhishthira lost game after game, and stung with his losses, he went on with the fatal game, staking everything he had, and losing all, until all his possessions, his kingdom and everything, were lost.

.He then even gambles his brothers, himself, and finally his wife into servitude.^ They even brought into the public assembly my wife dearer unto me than life itself.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At his touch Narendra saw, with open eyes, the whole world vanishing – the walls, the room, the temple garden, and even himself were disappearing into the void.
  • http://www.hinduism.co.za 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hinduism.co.za [Source type: Original source]

^ O foremost of warriors, the sins of one that desireth to repair to Kurukshetra even mentally are all destroyed, and he finally goeth into the region of Brahma.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.The jubilant Kauravas insult the Pandavas in their helpless state and even try to disrobe Draupadi in front of the entire court, but her honour is saved by Krishna who miraculously creates lengths of cloth to replace the ones being removed.^ The evil Kauravas tried to disrobe Draupadi by force.

^ Krishna, as the king of one of the many little indian states long time ago, is a powerful ally for the Pandavas, the good guys, who wisely use his help to secure victory over the evil Kauravas (both families courted Krishna before the battle, but it was the Pandavas, of course, who won his personal assistance).
  • "Zeitgeist", the movie, debunked (part 1) | Florin Andrei's blog 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC florin.myip.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He who being one thing representeth himself as another thing to others, is like a thief and a robber of his own self.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Dhritarashtra, Bhishma, and the other elders are aghast at the situation, but Duryodhana is adamant that there is no place for two crown princes in Hastinapura.^ There is no other reason for this.'
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dhritarashtra, Bhishma, and the other elders are aghast at the situation, and negotiate a compromise.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, there is no other refuge for her.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Against his wishes Dhritarashtra orders for another dice game.^ That, and the recollection of the insults and humiliations of the dice game, results in war:  the eleven armies of the Kurus against the seven armies of the Pân.d.avas.
  • Comments on the Bhagavad Gita, Synopsis of the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sakuni, Duryodhana's uncle, now arranges a dice game, playing against Yudhishtira with loaded dice.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Dhritrashtra forbids him from war, Duryodhan secures Dhritrashtra's approval to entice Yudhishthir to another game of dice.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

.The Pandavas are required to go into exile for 12 years, and in the 13th year must remain hidden.^ The Pandavas are required to go into exile for 13 years, and for the 13th year must remain hidden.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Pandavas had to abandon their kingdom and go into exile for twelve years.

^ Duryodhan insists that the Pandavas spend 12 more years in exile.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

.If discovered by the Kauravas, they will be forced into exile for another 12 years.^ If discovered by the Kauravas, they will be forced into exile for another 12 years.
  • WikiSlice 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, O Bharata, those children, one after another, as soon as they were born, were thrown into the river by Ganga who said, 'This is for thy good.'
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another condition was that if they were recognized during the 'incognito period', they should spend another twelve years in the forest.

Exile and return

.The Pandavas spend thirteen years in exile; many adventures occur during this time.^ Pandavas ruled in Hastinapura for many years.

^ Duryodhan insists that the Pandavas spend 12 more years in exile.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Another condition was that if they were recognized during the 'incognito period', they should spend another twelve years in the forest.

They also prepare alliances for a possible future conflict. .They spend their final year in disguise in the court of Virata, and are discovered just after the end of the year.^ They were only discovered just when the year was out.

^ When I heard that my sons had failed to discover the Pandavas under their disguise while residing with Draupadi in the dominions of Virata, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another condition was that if they were recognized during the 'incognito period', they should spend another twelve years in the forest.

At the end of their exile, they try to negotiate a return to Indraprastha. .However, this fails, as Duryodhana objects that they were discovered while in hiding, and that no return of their kingdom was agreed.^ If, however, they do return from failing sense, do thou defeat them again at dice.'
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When I heard that my sons had failed to discover the Pandavas under their disguise while residing with Draupadi in the dominions of Virata, then, O Sanjaya, I had no hope of success.
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At last through the intervention of the blind king, they got their liberty, and were asked to return home and rule their kingdom.

War becomes inevitable.

The battle at Kurukshetra

.
Bhishma on his death-bed of arrows with the Pandavas and Krishna.
^ In this, Bhishma lay stretched on his bed of arrows.
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bhishma was still alive on the bed of arrows.

^ Before officially ruling the kingdom of Hastinapura , Krsna and the Pandavas decided to meet Bhisma, who was still alive, despite resting on a bed of arrows.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

Folio from the Razmnama (1761 - 1763), Persian translation of the Mahabharata, commissioned by Mughal emperor Akbar. The Pandavas are dressed in Persian armour and robes.[29]
.The two sides summon vast armies to their help, and line up at Kurukshetra for a war.^ When a huge war like this is waged on the other side of the globe, and none of the kings ever returned, and their armies also didn't come back, what would be the state of communication?
  • VEDA - Vedas and Vedic Knowledge Online - Vedic Encyclopedia, Bhakti-yoga in vedas, Library 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.veda.harekrsna.cz [Source type: Original source]

^ Then was fought on the vast plain of Kurukshetra the great battle in which Bhisma, Drona, Karna, and the brothers of Duryodhana with the kinsmen on both sides and thousands of other heroes fell.

^ Two sided Rudraksha bead helps to increase mental powers, calms agitated minds, helps to overcome Tamasic Guna.
  • http://www.hinduism.co.za 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hinduism.co.za [Source type: Original source]

.The Kingdoms of Panchala, Dwaraka, Kasi, Kekaya, Magadha, Matsya, Chedi, Pandya, Telinga, and the Yadus of Mathura and some other clans like the Parama Kambojas were allied with the Pandavas.^ "And some time after, the preceptor Ayoda-Dhaumya asked his other disciples where Aruni of Panchala was.
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some bards have already published this history, some are now teaching it, and others, in like manner, will hereafter promulgate it upon the earth.
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of three heads, some of seven, others of ten, of poison like unto the fire at the end of the yuga and terrible in form,--they were burnt by thousands!
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.The allies of the Kauravas included the kings of Pragjyotisha, Anga, Kekaya, Sindhudesa (including Sindhus, Sauviras and Sivis), Mahishmati, Avanti in Madhyadesa, Madra, Gandhara, Bahlikas, Kambojas and many others.^ The side of the Kauravas consisted of the one-hundred Kaurava brothers, their sister-in-law (Dusalas husband) Jayadratha (the king of Sindhu [presently known as Pakistan ]), the divine army of Lord Krsna, the army of Gandhara (Sakunis land), Karna and his army (the land of Anga ), and the army of Trigarta.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Invitations were sent to all kings, including Duryodhana of the Kauravas, to attend this event.

^ "These and many other kings from the middle country came, O monarch, to that great Rajasuya sacrifice of the son of Pandu.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Prior to war being declared, Balarama, had expressed his unhappiness at the developing conflict, and left to go on pilgrimage, thus he does not take part in the battle itself.^ Arya acts the same part among female beings, as Rudra does among male ones.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have heard that the war hath left only ten alive: three of our side, and the Pandavas, seven, in that dreadful conflict eighteen Akshauhinis of Kshatriyas have been slain!
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But he declined to take an active part and fight in this war, but offered himself as charioteer to Arjuna, and as the friend and counsellor of the Pandavas while to Duryodhana he gave his army of mighty soldiers.

.Krishna takes part in a non-combatant role, as charioteer for Arjuna.^ Arjuna asks Krishna to drive the chariot out between the armies and surveys the scene.
  • Comments on the Bhagavad Gita, Synopsis of the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Arjuna mounted the chariot and both he and Krishna, the charioteer blew their conches.

^ The Lord Kr.s.n.a offers his armies to Duryodhana and himself as a non-combatant advisor and charioteer to Arjuna.
  • Comments on the Bhagavad Gita, Synopsis of the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Before the battle, Arjuna, seeing himself facing his great grandfather Bhishma and his teacher Drona on the other side, has doubts about the battle and he fails to lift his Gāndeeva bow.^ Drona is Arjuna's teacher.
  • Comments on the Bhagavad Gita, Synopsis of the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before the battle, Yudhishthira goes to both his teachers, Bhishma and Drona: O invincible one, I bow to you.

^ Or any other information about himself.
  • Stories from Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC indiandance.ru [Source type: Original source]

.Krishna wakes him up to his call of duty in the famous Bhagavad Gita section of the epic.^ Thus addressed by Krishna, Bhima, that slayer of foes, holding up in the air the powerful Jarasandha, began to whirl him on high.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Arjun does also feel guilty about killing Karna but Krishna consoles him and convinces him that it was his "Dharma" (duty).
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ But Krishna taunts him: Men in distress always call on virtue, forgetting their own evil deeds.

.Though initially sticking to chivalrous notions of warfare, both sides soon adopt dishonourable tactics.^ In war, people from both sides die, though only one side wins."
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Though the diplomatic moves were on, preparations were afoot on both sides for war.

^ For this sign of respect, both men pray for the Pandavas victory, even though they must out of loyalty fight on the side of the Kauravas.

.At the end of the 18-day battle, only the Pandavas, Satyaki, Kripa, Ashwathama, Kritavarma, Yuyutsu and Krishna survive.^ Only one Kaurava, Yuyutsu, joined the forces of the Pandavas.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Books 5-10 recount the 18-day war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas.

^ Episode 77: The Pandava army had fared poorly during the first day of battle.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]
  • OM NAMAH SHIVAY - 42 DVD DELUXE COLLECTORS EDITION 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC intelindia.com [Source type: General]

The end of the Pandavas

.After "seeing" the carnage, Gandhari who had lost all her sons, curses Krishna to be a witness to a similar annihilation of his family, for though divine and capable of stopping the war, he had not done so.^ SECTION CLX Vaisampayana said, "Hearing various sounds resounding in the caves of the mountain and not seeing Bhimasena, Kunti's son, Ajatasatru and the twin sons of Madri and Dhaumya and Krishna and all the Brahmanas and the friends (of the Pandavas), were filled with anxiety.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Krishna went to Dhritarashtra and asked him to retrain his sons from the instrument of war and to seek peace with the Pandavas.

^ And they were all skilled in war and capable of mustering any measure of energy at will.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Krishna accepts the curse, which bears fruit 36 years later.^ So after thousands years in Dwapar when Ram incarnated as Krishna during an incident he went to a cave where a big strong Bear attacked him.
  • Mahabharata—-Bollywood Steps In | Random Thoughts of a Demented Mind 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC greatbong.net [Source type: Original source]

^ She curses Krishna, whom she holds responsible for all of the tragedy that has befallen them: the Pandava kingdom will fall in 36 years.

^ In Dwapar SRK(when he was Krishna) lived for 125 years and Mahabharat war happened 36 years ago from that time.
  • Mahabharata—-Bollywood Steps In | Random Thoughts of a Demented Mind 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC greatbong.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Pandavas who had ruled their kingdom meanwhile, decide to renounce everything.^ Before officially ruling the kingdom of Hastinapura , Krsna and the Pandavas decided to meet Bhisma, who was still alive, despite resting on a bed of arrows.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile Dhrishtadyumna, who had followed them, reports back and reveals the true identities of Pandava brothers.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Karna, after hearing the painful confession and realization of who his true brothers are, decided that he will spare the other four Pandavas and attack Arjuna.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

.Clad in skins and rags they retire to the Himalaya and climb towards heaven in their bodily form.^ Only the virtuous Yudhisthira climbed to Heaven in his bodily form.

^ So they cast off the burden of royalty, placed Parikshit, the grandson of Arjuna, on the throne, and retired to the Himalayas, on the Great Journey, the Mahprasthna.

^ And defeating me a second time, they have sent me to distressful exile in this great forest, clad in deer skins.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

A stray dog travels with them. .One by one the brothers and Draupadi fall on their way.^ The brothers agree to respect the privacy of each other when with Draupadi, but one day Arjuna enters the tent to retrieve his weapons and finds Yudhishthira and Draupadi in bed together.

^ Now, O highly wise one, being intent on the welfare of thy brothers, and protected by the wind-god, do thou go along a fortunate and auspicious way.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To Yudhishthira who was leading the way, Bhima, one of the brothers, said, "Behold, O King, the queen has fallen."

.As each one stumbles, Yudhishitra gives the rest the reason for their fall (Draupadi was partial to Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva were vain and proud of their looks, Bhima and Arjuna were proud of their strength and archery skills, respectively).^ Thus Yudhishthira became a Brhmana courtier of the king, as one skilled in dice; Bhima was appointed a cook; Arjuna, dressed as a eunuch, was made a teacher of dancing and music to Uttar, the princess, and remained in the inner apartments of the king; Nakula became the keeper of the king's horses; and Sahadeva got the charge of the cows; and Draupadi, disguised as a waiting-woman, was also admitted into the queen's household.

^ And that best of cars, incapable of being vanquished by any king, ridden in by those warriors Bhima and Arjuna, and driven by Krishna, looked exceedingly handsome.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bhima, that foremost of smiters, seeing them so terrified and deprived of reason, comforted them and made them promise (to give up cannibalism), saying, 'Do not ever again kill human beings.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Only the virtuous Yudhisthira, who had tried everything to prevent the carnage, and the dog remain.^ Only the virtuous Yudhisthira climbed to Heaven in his bodily form.

^ The maiden, who had succeeded in gratifying the god, said again, 'O Sankara, I desire to have from thee only one husband possessed of every virtue?'
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.The dog reveals himself to be the god Yama (also known as Yama Dharmaraja), and then takes him to the underworld where he sees his siblings and wife.^ The youth who was none else than the god Mahadeva (the god of the gods), seeing Indra filled with wrath, only smiled, having cast a glance at him.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, Arjuna and Krishna agree to assist a hungry brahmin, who reveals himself to be Agni, god of fire.

^ And as in thought or word I have never swerved from him, O, let the gods, for the sake of that truth, reveal him to me.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.After explaining the nature of the test, Yama takes Yudhishthira back to heaven and explains that it was necessary to expose him to the underworld because (Rajyante narakam dhruvam) any ruler has to visit the underworld at least once.^ And taking up the king back to the nether regions, and having brought him thus in a moment, she apprised the Danavas of it.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However Yudhishthira brings his brothers back to life by correctly answering the questions which Dharma, disguised as a crane, puts to him.

^ Yama, the son of Surya, takes no account of the sins of him with whom Narayana the witness of all acts, is gratified.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Yama then assures him that his siblings and wife would join him in heaven after they had been exposed to the underworld for measures of time according to their vices.^ Once they make love, Pandu falls dead, fulfilling the curse, and Madri, devoted to him always, joins him on the funeral pyre.

^ He is an invaluable ally to the Pandavas in times of trouble – always available whenever they think of him.
  • Epic India: A Study In Folk "Mahabharata": How Balarama Became Abhimanyu's Father-in-law 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.epicindia.com [Source type: General]

^ And calling his wedded wife the excellent Kunti, unto him, he told her in private, 'Strive thou to raise offspring at this time of distress.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Arjuna's grandson Parikshit rules after them and dies bitten by a snake.^ Yudhishthira performs the kingly horse sacrifice and rules over a wide realm his family has subdued before he passes on the kingdom to Arjuna's grandson Parikshit and retires with his brothers to seek heaven.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So they cast off the burden of royalty, placed Parikshit, the grandson of Arjuna, on the throne, and retired to the Himalayas, on the Great Journey, the Mahprasthna.

.His furious son, Janamejaya, decides to perform a snake sacrifice (sarpasattra) in order to destroy the snakes.^ Then, O son of Bharata, after performing the funeral rites (of his father), he returned to the sacrifice and there addressed his brother saying, 'Thou wilt never be able to perform this task unassisted.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ O Yaja, perform that sacrifice by means of which I may obtain a son invincible in battle and capable of slaying Drona.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ O son of Pritha, then sacrifices and gifts and vows, instead of being performed by principals are suffered to be performed by representatives!
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

It is at this sacrifice that the tale of his ancestors is narrated to him.

Versions, translations, and derivative works

.Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added.^ And quickly passing over many regions, being drawn by his own swift horses, Krishna arrived at Indraprastha, accompanied by Indrasena.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And meeting king Vrishaparba and received by him being they became free from depression and then they accurately narrated in detail to Vrishaparba the story of their sojourn in the mountains.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And many tribes coming from different regions, of whom some possess two eyes, some three and some had eyes on their foreheads, and those also called Aushmikas, and Nishadas, and Romakas, some cannibals and many possessing only one leg.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

These include some versions from outside the Indian subcontinent, such as the Kakawin Bharatayuddha from Java. The plays of the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu, use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata, focusing on Draupadi.[30]

Critical Edition

.Between 1919 and 1966, scholars at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, compared the various manuscripts of the epic from India and abroad and produced the Critical Edition of the Mahabharata, on 13,000 pages in 19 volumes, followed by the Harivamsha in another two volumes and six index volumes.^ The following are two separate pages Conduct   From Mahabharata Virtuous Conduct   Virtue .

^ The Mahabharata is accepted to be the worlds longest epic, having 1,500,000 verses describing the history of India and the fall of civilization right before the onset of the present age of quarrel and hypocrisy, known as Kali Yuga.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mahabharata (composed between 300 BC and 300 AD) has the honor of being the longest epic in world literature, 100,000 2-line stanzas (although the most recent critical edition edits this down to about 88,000), making it eight times as long as Homer's Iliad and Odyssey together, and over 3 times as long as the Bible (Chaitanya vii).

This is the text that is usually used in current Mahabharata studies for reference.[31] This work is sometimes called the 'Pune' or 'Poona' edition of the Mahabharata.

Modern interpretations

Krishna as depicted in Yakshagana from Karnataka which is based largely on stories of Mahabharata
.The Tamil writer S. Ramakrishnan has written a critically-acclaimed book based on the Mahabharata called "Uba Paandavam". It discusses the story in a non-linear manner from a traveller's point of view.^ The long twelfth book called Peace (Shanti) has been discussed in relation to Samkhya philosophy.
  • Ethics of the Literature of India by Sanderson Beck 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The central story of the Mahabharata is of a war between two families of cousins, one family, called the Kauravas, the other the Pndavas — for the empire of India.

^ In the first two books of the Mahabharata , we learn the background of the Bharatas (also called the Kurus) leading up to the conflict between the five sons of Pandu and their cousins the Kauravas.

.The Kannada novelist S.L. Bhyrappa wrote a novel in Kannada (now translated into most Indian languages and English) titled Parva, giving a new interpretation to the story of Mahabharata.^ More than twelve years ago when Babu Pratapa Chandra Roy, with Babu Durga Charan Banerjee, went to my retreat at Seebpore, for engaging me to translate the Mahabharata into English, I was amazed with the grandeur of the scheme.
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are divisions of time The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa BOOK 2 SABHA PARVA Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896] Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the South Indian languages, ambā is corrupted into ammā , and is often affixed to the names of goddesses, and females in general [Germ.
  • Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary -- a 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC students.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

He tried to understand the social and ethical practices in these regions and correlate them with the story of Mahabharata.
.Malayalam writer M. T. Vasudevan Nair's novel Randamoozham (English: Second Turn) tells the Mahabharata from Bhima's point of view.^ He thought, 'There is no other individual who can compare with Bhima, the second son of Pandu, in point of prowess.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

Mrityunjay (English: Triumph Over Death) written by Shivaji Sawant is a novel with Karna as the central character of Mahabharata.
.In Indian cinema, several film versions of the epic exist, dating back to 1920.[32] The internationally-acclaimed parallel Bengali film director Satyajit Ray also intended to direct a theatrical adaptation of the epic, but the project was never realized.^ Dating back to "remote antiquity", it is still a living force   in   the life of the Indian masses.

[33]
.In the late 1980s, the Mahabharat TV series, directed by Ravi Chopra,[34] was televised and shown on India's national television (Doordarshan).^ "Chopra's Mahabharat was contemporary at that time when Doordarshan telecast it on the national network.
  • Mahabharat - Online Pooja Store 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.intelindia.com [Source type: General]

^ What is wrong with those people who played roles in B.R chopra’s Mahabharat?When given the opportunity those guys have shown their credentials,isn’t?
  • Mahabharata—-Bollywood Steps In | Random Thoughts of a Demented Mind 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC greatbong.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Anonymous August 29, 2006 at 2:34 pm The characters in Mahabharat serial by B.R chopra were just awesome,those characters gave the feel of how the real Arjun,Krishn,Vidur and others would have been.
  • Mahabharata—-Bollywood Steps In | Random Thoughts of a Demented Mind 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC greatbong.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the Western world, a well-known presentation of the epic is Peter Brook's nine-hour play, which premiered in Avignon in 1985, and its five-hour movie version The Mahabharata (1989).^ The Mahabharata is accepted to be the worlds longest epic, having 1,500,000 verses describing the history of India and the fall of civilization right before the onset of the present age of quarrel and hypocrisy, known as Kali Yuga.
  • Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC kksongs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Portions of the following summary have been adapted from David Williams, Peter Brook and the Mahabharata: Critical Perspectives , 1991.

^ And Tamra brought forth five daughters known throughout the worlds.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

[35]
.Among literary reinterpretations of the Mahabharata the most famous is arguably Sashi Tharoor's major work entitled "The Great Indian Novel", an involved literary, philosophical, and political novel which superimposes the major moments of post-independence India in the 20th century onto the driving events of the Mahabharata epic.^ Bharata was an early ancestor of both the Pandavas and Kauravas who fight each other in a great war, but the word is also used generically for the Indian race, so the Mahabharata sometimes is referred to as the great story of India.

^ Mahabharata is a great epic poetic story from India (India is hence forth referred to as Bharata ) in Sanskrit, considered by many to be a folklore type historical document.
  • History of India - Dating of Mahabharata : Facets of India : Ancient and Modern : History of India and World 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tri-murti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is very interesting because the Indonesian version of Mahabharata has great resemblance with the Indian folk-versions.
  • Epic India: A Study In Folk "Mahabharata": How Balarama Became Abhimanyu's Father-in-law 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.epicindia.com [Source type: General]

Mahabharata was also reinterpreted by Shyam Benegal in Kalyug. .Kalyug is a modern-day replaying of the Mahabharata.^ This study provides modern scientific support one critical astronomical statement made in Mahabharata text that "thirteen day" eclipse pair occurred Kuruxethra .
  • History of India - Dating of Mahabharata : Facets of India : Ancient and Modern : History of India and World 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tri-murti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]
.Western interpretations of the Mahabharata include William Buck's Mahabharata and Elizabeth Seeger's Five Sons of King Pandu.^ We are Kshatriyas, O king, and sons of the illustrious Pandu.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ O king, be not jealous of the sons of Pandu.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dhritarashtra had a hundred sons, and Pandu had only five.

English translations

.The first complete English translation was the Victorian prose version by Kisari Mohan Ganguli,[37] published between 1883 and 1896 (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers) and by M. N. Dutt (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers).^ FullBooks.com homepage Index of The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa Next part (2) Produced by David King, Juliet Sutherland, and Charles Franks, John B. Hare and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896] Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003.
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are divisions of time The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa BOOK 2 SABHA PARVA Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896] Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa volume 1 BOOK 1 ADI PARVA Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896] Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most critics consider the translation by Ganguli to be faithful to the original text.^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa volume 1 BOOK 1 ADI PARVA Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896] Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa BOOK 3 VANA PARVA Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896] Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) .
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The complete text of Ganguli's translation is in the public domain and is available online.^ This text is in the public domain.
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) .
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

[38]
.Another English prose translation of the full epic, based on the Critical Edition, is also in progress, published by University Of Chicago Press, initiated by Chicago Indologist J. A. B. van Buitenen (books 1-5) and, following a 20-year hiatus caused by the death of van Buitenen, is being continued by D. Gitomer of DePaul University (book 6), J. L. Fitzgerald of Brown University (books 11-13) and W. Doniger of the University of Chicago (books 14-18).^ We also find, "There is no becoming of what did not already exist, there is no unbecoming of what does exist," from J.A.B. van Buitenen [ The Bhagavadgîtâ in the Mahâbhârata , University of Chicago Press, 1981, pp.74-75], and "Nothing of nonbeing comes to be, nor does being cease to exist," from Barbara Stoler Miller [ The Bhagavad Gita, Krishna's Counsel in Time of War , Bantam Books, 1986, p.49].
  • Comments on the Bhagavad Gita, Synopsis of the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ J.A.B. van Buitenen translation of the Mahâbhârata for the University of Chiago Press remains incomplete, at three volumes, due to his tragic untimely death.
  • Comments on the Bhagavad Gita, Synopsis of the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was his chronicle age (89) at the time of war but according to books and epics he was looking like in his 20’s at that time.
  • Mahabharata—-Bollywood Steps In | Random Thoughts of a Demented Mind 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC greatbong.net [Source type: Original source]

.A poetic translation of the full epic into English, done by the poet P. Lal is complete, and in 2005 began being published by Writers Workshop, Calcutta.^ All of them, I was glad to see, approved of the specimen, and then the task of translating the Mahabharata into English seriously began.
  • The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (Translator) - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/11) 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And as it was being divided into parts, the nurse began to take them up and put them one by one into those pots filled with clarified butter.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Simply translating into another language, especially one as subtle and changable as English isn't enough - however good the translation.
  • Reading holy books for fun [Archive] - Physics Forums 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.physicsforums.com [Source type: Original source]

.The P. Lal translation is a non-rhyming verse-by-verse rendering, and is the only edition in any language to include all slokas in all recensions of the work (not just those in the Critical Edition).^ And those versed in the Sastras are of opinion that evils attend upon all these.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And all those foremost of Yatis and Munis versed in the Vedas, exceedingly desirous of again beholding the Pandavas, went back to their homes.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Are all thy superiors, and the aged, and those versed in the Vedas, honoured by thee?
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

The completion of the publishing project is scheduled for 2010. Sixteen of the eighteen volumes are now available:
.A project to translate the full epic into English prose, translated by various hands, began to appear in 2005 from the Clay Sanskrit Library, published by New York University Press.^ J.A.B. van Buitenen translation of the Mahâbhârata for the University of Chiago Press remains incomplete, at three volumes, due to his tragic untimely death.
  • Comments on the Bhagavad Gita, Synopsis of the Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are divisions of time The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa BOOK 2 SABHA PARVA Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896] Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dharma (variously translated as social duty, righteousness, or universal order) is the moral obligation which each human being should recognize and follow.

.The translation is based not on the Critical Edition but on the version known to the commentator Nīlakaṇṭha.^ The presently known oldest version of Mahabharata , based on its style, grammar and other feature was probably written down before the Gupta period.
  • History of India - Dating of Mahabharata : Facets of India : Ancient and Modern : History of India and World 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.tri-murti.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Currently available are 15 volumes of the projected 32-volume edition.

Abridged versions

.Many condensed versions, abridgements and novelistic prose retellings of the complete epic have been published in English, including work by William Buck, R.K. Narayan, C. Rajagopalachari, Krishna Dharma, Romesh C. Dutt, and Bharadvaja Sarma.^ Note: quotations throughout are from versions by C. V. Narasimhan [CN], Krishna Dharma [KD] or the play by Jean-Claude Carriere.

^ And while Yajnaseni was crying aloud to Krishna, also called Vishnu and Hari and Nara for protection, the illustrious Dharma, remaining unseen, covered her with excellent clothes of many hues.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

A Kawi version is found on the Indonesian island of Bali and was translated by Dr. I. Gusti Putu Phalgunadi. Of the eighteen parvas, only eight Kawi manuscripts remain.

Kuru family tree

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kurua
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gangā
 
 
 
 
 
Shāntanua
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Satyavati
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pārāshara
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bhishma
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vyāsa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ambikā
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vichitravirya
 
 
 
 
Ambālikā
 
Chitrāngada
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dhritarāshtrab
 
Gāndhāri
 
Shakuni
 
 
Kunti
 
Pāndub
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mādri
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Karnac
 
Yudhishthirad
 
Bhimad
 
Arjunad
 
Subhadrā
 
Nakulad
 
Sahadevad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Duryodhanae
 
Dussalā
 
Dushāsana
 
(98 sons)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abhimanyu
 
 
 
Uttarā
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Parikshit
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Janamejaya
Key to Symbols
Notes
.
  • a: Santanu was a king of the Kuru dynasty or kingdom, and was some generations removed from any ancestor called Kuru.^ And the people called their new king, that slayer of all enemies, that hero of the Kuru race, by the name of Janamejaya.
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That king of the Paurava race, called also Vasu, conquered the excellent and delightful kingdom of Chedi under instructions from Indra.
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And after Narada had gone away, king Yudhishthira, O thou of the Kuru race, began to think, along with his brothers, of that foremost of sacrifices called Rajasuya.'
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    .His marriage to Ganga preceded his marriage to Satyavati.
  • b: Pandu and Dhritarashtra were fathered by Vyasa after Vichitravirya's death.^ And from Krishna was born, in the soil of Vichitravirya, Dhritarashtra, the lord of men, and Pandu of great strength.
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Some time after, when the oldest of Vichitravirya's widows again had her monthly season, she was solicited by Satyavati to approach Vyasa once again.
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The lord Santanu of great prowess also begat upon Satyavati another son named Vichitravirya, who became a mighty bowman and who became king after his father.
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Dhritarashtra, Pandu and Vidura were the sons of Vyasa with Ambika, Ambalika and a maid servant respectively.
  • c: Karna was born to Kunti through her invocation of Surya, before her marriage to Pandu.
  • d: The Pandavas were acknowledged sons of Pandu but were begotten by Kunti's invocation of various deities.^ And the Suta was born of Kunti in her maidenhood through Surya.
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That the sons of Kunti are not wicked and sinful, I tell it before you all!"
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ 'Dhritarashtra said, 'These words, O Vidura, then thou hast spoken in this assembly, with reference to the Pandavas and myself, are for their good but not for ours.
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    .They all married Draupadi (not shown in tree).^ And they all had matted locks on their heads and were attired in barks of trees and the skins of animals.
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was then that Vidura told the monarch that Draupadi had chosen the Pandavas for her lords, and that those heroes were all alive and at peace, and that they had been received with great respect by king Drupada.
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And accompanied by Draupadi and ascending their cars which were all of the hue of the clouds, with cheerful hearts they all set out for that best of cities called Indraprastha."
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    In particular:
  • e: Duryodhana and his siblings were born at the same time, and they were of the same generation as their Pandava cousins.
.The birth order of siblings is correctly shown in the family tree (from left to right), except for Vyasa and Bhishma whose birth order is not described, and Vichitravirya who was born after them.^ It is difficult, O twice-born one, for those high-souled ones to acquire virtue who by the duties of their order are obliged to do what is cruel.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ O sinless one, by thee shall be vanquished in battle the highly virtuous grandsire of the Kurus--Bhishma of great energy--who is born of the Vasus.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Lomasa said, 'A son was born to Sagara, known by the name of Asamanjas, he who was given birth to by the princess of Sivi.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

The fact that Ambika and Ambalika are sisters is not shown in the family tree. .The birth of Duryodhana took place after the birth of Karna, Yudhishtira and Bhima, but before the birth of the remaining Pandava brothers.^ Thus remaining in disguise in various places, high-souled persons have before this conquered their enemies in battle.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And before all the assembled kings Duryodhana and Karna spake cruel and harsh words unto the distressed and enraged Krishna undeserving of such treatment.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Seeing the charioteer, the Pandava Bhimasena took Karna for a charioteer's son, and said by way of ridicule, 'O son of a charioteer, thou dost not deserve death in fight at the hands of Partha.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some siblings of the characters shown here have been left out for clarity; these include Chitrangada, the eldest brother of Vichitravirya.^ Some of these I have pointed out in footnotes.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then in obedience to these words of the ascetics, that represser of foes, Yudhishthira, set out with his brothers and those Brahmanas, followed by the Rakshasa and protected by Lomasa.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hearing these words of their eldest brother, the Pandavas, always engaged in doing what was agreeable to him, approved of them.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Vidura, half-brother to Dhritarashtra and Pandu.^ He was thus the brother of Dhritarashtra and the illustrious Pandu.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of sacred deeds and great fame, he begot Pandu and Dhritarashtra and Vidura in order to continue the line of Santanu.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Hearing these words of Vidura, Dhritarashtra said, 'Those children are to me as dear as they were to Pandu.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

Cultural influence

.In the Bhagavd Gita, Krishna explains to Arjuna his duties as a warrior and prince and elaborates on different Yogic[39] and Vedantic philosophies, with examples and analogies.^ And that best of cars, incapable of being vanquished by any king, ridden in by those warriors Bhima and Arjuna, and driven by Krishna, looked exceedingly handsome.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And amongst all the princes, Arjuna alone became an Atiratha (a car-warrior capable of fighting at one time with sixty thousand foes).
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.This has led to the Gita often being described as a concise guide to Hindu philosophy and a practical, self-contained guide to life.^ Brahma-Sutras In the Hindu philosophical tradition Vedanta means the essence of the Vedas, as described in the Upanishads, the Brahma-Sutras, and the Bhagavad Gita.
  • http://www.hinduism.co.za 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hinduism.co.za [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hindu is not satisfied merely to accept Christ in theory, but he strives hard to live the life, which Jesus lived, to lead a life of renunciation, of self-control and of love to all.
  • http://www.hinduism.co.za 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hinduism.co.za [Source type: Original source]

[40] .In modern times, Swami Vivekananda, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi and many others used the text to help inspire the Indian independence movement.^ Swami Vivekananda wrote about Conversion The Hindus, like the Jews, do not convert others .
  • http://www.hinduism.co.za 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hinduism.co.za [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet, we must do good; the desire to do good is the highest motive power we have, if we know all the time that it is a privilege to help others.
  • http://www.hinduism.co.za 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hinduism.co.za [Source type: Original source]

^ Hinduism-a brief sketch (By Swami Vivekananda) There never was a time when there was no creation.
  • http://www.hinduism.co.za 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hinduism.co.za [Source type: Original source]

[41][42]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Brockington (1998, p. 26)
  2. ^ Van Buitenen; The Mahabharata - 1; The Book of the Beginning. Introduction (Authorship and Date)
  3. ^ bhārata means the progeny of Bharata, the legendary king who is claimed to have founded the Bhāratavarsha kingdom.
  4. ^ Spodek, Howard. Richard Mason. The World's History. Pearson Education: 2006, New Jersey. 224, 0-13-177318-6
  5. ^ Amartya Sen, The Argumentative Indian. Writings on Indian Culture, History and Identity, London: Penguin Books, 2005.
  6. ^ Gupta & Ramachandran (1976), citing Mahabharata, Critical Edition, I, 56, 33
  7. ^ SP Gupta and KS Ramachandran (1976), p.3-4, citing Vaidya (1967), p.11
  8. ^ Brockington, J. L. (1998). The Sanskrit epics, Part 2. Volume 12. BRILL. p. 21. ISBN 9004102604. http://books.google.com/books?id=HR-_LK5kl18C&pg=PA21&. 
  9. ^ 18 books, 18 chapters of the Bhagavadgita and the Narayaniya each, corresponding to the 18 days of the battle and the 18 armies (Mbh. 5.152.23)
  10. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/596517
  11. ^ J.A.B. van Buitenen, Mahābhārata, Volume 1, p.445, citing W. Caland, The Pañcaviṃśa Brāhmaṇa, p.640-2
  12. ^ Cited approvingly in Max Duncker, The History of Antiquity (trans. Evelyn Abbott, London 1880), vol. 4, p. 81.
  13. ^ For example, John Campbell Oman, The Great Indian Epics (London 1895), p. 215.
  14. ^ Mallory (2005:139).
  15. ^ The Ashvamedhika-parva is also preserved in a separate version, the Jaimini-Bharata (Jaiminiya-ashvamedha) where the frame dialogue is replaced, the narration being attributed to Jaimini, another disciple of Vyasa. This version contains far more devotional material (related to Krishna) than the standard epic and probably dates to the 12th century. It has some regional versions, the most popular being the Kannada one by Devapurada Annama Lakshmisha (16th century).The Mahabharata[citation needed]
  16. ^ In discussing the dating question, historian A. L. Basham says: "According to the most popular later tradition the Mahabharata War took place in 3102 BCE, which in the light of all evidence, is quite impossible. More reasonable is another tradition, placing it in the 15th century BCE, but this is also several centuries too early in the light of our archaeological knowledge. Probably the war took place around the beginning of the 9th century BCE; such a date seems to fit well with the scanty archaeological remains of the period, and there is some evidence in the Brahmana literature itself to show that it cannot have been much earlier." Basham, p. 40, citing HC Raychaudhuri, Political History of Ancient India, pp.27ff.
  17. ^ M Witzel, Early Sanskritization: Origin and Development of the Kuru state, EJVS vol.1 no.4 (1995); also in B. Kölver (ed.), Recht, Staat und Verwaltung im klassischen Indien. The state, the Law, and Administration in Classical India, München, R. Oldenbourg, 1997, p.27-52
  18. ^ A.D. Pusalker, History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol I, Chapter XIV, p.273
  19. ^ FE Pargiter, Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, p.180. He shows estimates of the average as 47, 50, 31 and 35 for various versions of the lists.
  20. ^ Pargiter, op.cit. p.180-182
  21. ^ B. B. Lal, Mahabharata and Archaeology in Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.57-58
  22. ^ Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.246, who summarize as follows: "Astronomical calculations favor 15th century BCE as the date of the war while the Puranic data place it in the 10th/9th century BCE. Archaeological evidence points towards the latter." (p.254)
  23. ^ Gupta and Ramachandran (1976), p.55; AD Pusalker, HCIP, Vol I, p.272
  24. ^ AD Pusalker, op.cit. p.272
  25. ^ Sattar 1996, pp. lvi-lvii
  26. ^ [1]
  27. ^ Book 1: Adi Parva: Jatugriha Parva
  28. ^ Book 2: Sabha Parva: Sabhakriya Parva
  29. ^ Plant Cultures - picture details
  30. ^ Srinivas, Smriti (2004) [2001]. Landscapes of Urban Memory. Orient Longman. pp. 23. ISBN 8125022546. OCLC 46353272. 
  31. ^ Bhandarkar Institute, Pune—Virtual Pune
  32. ^ Mahabharat at the Internet Movie Database (1920 film)
  33. ^ C. J. Wallia (1996). "IndiaStar book review: Satyajit Ray by Surabhi Banerjee". http://www.indiastar.com/satyajitray.html. Retrieved 2009-05-31. 
  34. ^ Mahabharat at the Internet Movie Database (1988-1990 TV series)
  35. ^ The Mahabharata at the Internet Movie Database (1989 mini-series)
  36. ^ What makes Shyam special...
  37. ^ Several editions of the Kisari Mohan Ganguli translation of the Mahabharata incorrectly cite Pratap Chandra Roy as translator and this error has been perpetuated into secondary citations. See the publishers preface to the current Munshiram Manoharlal edition for an explanation.
  38. ^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli at the Internet Sacred Text Archive
  39. ^ Introduction to the Bhagavad Gita
  40. ^ Maharishi Mahesh Yogi; On The Bhagavad Gita; A New Translation and Commentary With Sanskrit Text Chapters 1 to 6, Preface p.9
  41. ^ Stevenson, Robert W., "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga", in: Minor, p. 44.
  42. ^ Jordens, J. T. F., "Gandhi and the Bhagavadgita", in: Minor, p. 88.

References

  • Chaturvedi Badrinath, The Mahabharata : An Inquiry in the Human Condition, New Delhi, Orient Longman (2006)
  • Basham, A. L. (1954). The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture of the Indian Sub-Continent Before The Coming of the Muslims. New York: Grove Press. 
  • J. Brockington, The Sanskrit Epics, Leiden (1998).
  • Alf Hiltebeitel, The Ritual of Battle, Krishna in the Mahabharata, SUNY Press, New York 1990.
  • E. W. Hopkins, The Great Epic of India, New York (1901).
  • Keay, John (2000). India: A History. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0. 
  • H. Oldenberg, Zur Geschichte der Altindischen Prosa, Berlin (1917)
  • Jyotirmayananda Swami, Mysticism of the Mahabharata, Yoga Research Foundation, Miami 1993.
  • Paule Lerner, Astrological Key in Mahabharata, David White (trans.) Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 1988.
  • Ruth Cecily Katz, Arjuna in the Mahabharata, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia 1989.
  • R.V.Bhasin, "Mahabharata" published by National Publications, India, 2007.
  • Majumdar, R. C. (general editor) (1951). The History and Culture of the Indian People: (Volume 1) The Vedic Age. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.. 
  • Krishna Chaitanya (K.K. Nair), The Mahabharata, A Literary Study, Clarion Books, New Delhi 1985.
  • Th. Oberlies, 'Ritual an und unter der Oberfläche des Mahabharata', in: Neue Methoden der Epenforschung (ed. H. L. C. Tristram), Freiburg (1998).
  • H. Oldenberg, Das Mahabharata, Göttingen (1922).
  • Mallory, J. P (2005). In Search of the Indo-Europeans. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27616-1
  • M. Mehta, The problem of the double introduction to the Mahabharata, JAOS 93 (1973), 547-550.
  • C. Z. Minkowski, Janamehayas Sattra and Ritual Structure, JAOS 109 (1989), 410-420.
  • C. Z. Minkowski, 'Snakes, Sattras and the Mahabharata', in: Essays on the Mahabharata, ed. A. Sharma, Leiden (1991), 384-400.
  • Sattar, Arshia (transl.) (1996). The Rāmāyaṇa by Vālmīki. Viking. pp. 696. .ISBN 9780140298666. 
  • Bruce M. Sullivan, Seer of the Fifth Veda, Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa in the Mahabharata, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 1999.
  • Nicholas Sutton, Religious Doctrines in the Mahabharata, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi 2000.
  • N. B. Utgikar, The mention of the Mahabharata in the Ashvalayana Grhya Sutra, Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, Poona (1919), vol.^ The boon-giving great one then taught Sumanta, Jaimini, Paila, his son Suka, and Vaisampayana, the Vedas having the Mahabharata for their fifth.
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Vaisampayana continued,--"Having said this, the illustrious and island-born Vyasa of dark hue, accompanied by his disciples ever following the dictates of the Vedas, proceeded towards Kailasa.
    • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The followers of Christian Science, unacquainted with the Vedanta and the religious teachings of India, may in all sincerity claim originality for their founder, Mrs. Mary Baker G. Eddy.
    • http://www.hinduism.co.za 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.hinduism.co.za [Source type: Original source]

    2, Poona (1922), 46-61.
  • M. Witzel, Epics, Khilas and Puranas: Continuities and Ruptures, Proceedings of the Third Dubrovnik International Conference on the Sanskrit Epics and Puranas, ed. P. Koskiallio, Zagreb (2005), 21-80.
  • Gupta, S.P. and K.S. Ramachandran (ed.), Mahabharata: myth and reality. Agam Prakashan, New Delhi 1976.
  • Pargiter, F.E., Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, London 1922. Repr. Motilal Banarsidass 1997.
  • Majumdar, R.C. and A.D. Pusalker (ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol I. "The Vedic Age", Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 1951.
  • Vaidya, R.V., A Study of Mahabharat; A Research, Poona, A.V.G. Prakashan, 1967

External links

Original text online (Sanskrit)
Textual resources
Kisari Mohan Ganguli translation (English)
Articles on the Mahabharata

There is currently no text in this page. You can search for this page title in other pages, search the related logs, or edit this page.


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Mahabharat article)

From Wikisource

The Mahabharat
by Krishna-Swaipayana Vyasa, translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli
English translation by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [published between 1883 and 1896] from महाभारत, the original text in Sanskrit.— Excerpted from Mahabharat on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
.The Ganguli English translation of the Mahabharata is the only complete one in the public domain.^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa volume 1 BOOK 1 ADI PARVA Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896] Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He hath already brought eighty-six kings; fourteen only are wanting to complete one hundred.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa BOOK 3 VANA PARVA Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896] Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Books 1-4 were proofed at Distributed Proofing (Juliet Sutherland, Project Manager), from page images scanned at sacred-texts.com.^ These are divisions of time The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa BOOK 2 SABHA PARVA Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896] Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa BOOK 3 VANA PARVA Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896] Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Please notify any corrections to John B. Hare at www.sacred-texts.com .
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

.Books 5-7 and 12-15 were proofed at sacred-texts.com by John Bruno Hare.^ Please notify any corrections to John B. Hare at www.sacred-texts.com .
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa volume 1 BOOK 1 ADI PARVA Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896] Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa BOOK 3 VANA PARVA Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text by Kisari Mohan Ganguli [1883-1896] Scanned at sacred-texts.com, 2003.
  • Free Ebooks - The Mahabharata 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC www.bored.com [Source type: Original source]

Books 8-11 and 16-18 were proofed by Mantra Caitanya.
  • Book 1: Adi Parva 25%.png
  • Book 2: Sabha Parva 25%.png
  • Book 3: Vana Parva
  • Book 4: Virata Parva
  • Book 5: Udyoga Parva
  • Book 6: Bhishma Parva
  • Book 7: Drona Parva
  • Book 8: Karna Parva
  • Book 9: Shalya Parva
  • Book 10: Sauptika Parva
  • Book 11: Stri Parva
  • Book 12: Santi Parva
  • Book 13: Anusasana Parva 25%.png
  • Book 14: Aswamedha Parva
  • Book 15: Asramavasika Parva
  • Book 16: Mausala Parva
  • Book 17: Mahaprasthanika Parva
  • Book 18: Svargarohanika Parva
PD-icon.svg This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

.From Sanskrit महाभारत (Mahābhārata).^ Mahabharata - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Mahabharata (Devanāgarī: महाभारत, Mahābhārata) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
  • Mahabharata - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]
  • Mahabharata - ninemsn Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mahabharata - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC uk.encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]
  • Mahabharata - Search Results - ninemsn Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]
  • mahabharata - Search Results - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC ca.encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]
  • Mahabharata - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC it.encarta.msn.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Mahabharata - Search Results - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 7:29 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The Mahābhārata ( Devanagari: महाभारत ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa .

^ Sanskrit Mahābhārata महाभारत) is one of the two major Category:Sanskrit language ...
  • Search results for "Mahabharata" - Wikimedia Commons 9 January 2010 23:24 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /məhabɚad̪ə/

Proper noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
Singular
Mahabharata
Plural
-
Mahabharata
  1. A Sanskrit epic concerning some text of Bhagavad Gita plus elaborations on theology and morality.

Simple English

Hindu texts
Śruti

Smriti

The Mahabharata, that is, the great Bharata, is one of the two most important ancient epics of India, the other being the Ramayana. The Mahabharata was compiled in Ancient India. One of the Indian sages (rishi) named Vyasa is believed to have composed the work. The legend states that god Ganesh wrote the Mahabharata while Vyasa dictated the same. It is possibly one of the longest work of its kind in the world. The epic contain about 110,000 couplets in eighteen sections. There is also a 19th section named Harivamsha. The Bhagavadgita, a dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna, is a part of the Mahabharata.

Sage Vyasa taught this epic to his son Suka and his students Vaisampayana and others. King Janamejaya, son of Parikshit, and the grandson of the heroes of the epic, performed a great sacrifice (yagna). The epic was retold by Vaisampayana to Janamejaya at the advice of Vyasa. Later on, an other sage Suta retold the Mahabharata similar to Vaisampayana to Janamejaya, to Saunaka and others, during a sacrifice performed by Saunaka in Naimisaranya, which is near Sitapur in Uttar Pradesh.

The Mahabharata in its eighteen sections deals with a number of topics. These topics cover a number of aspects of Hinduism, Hindu mythology, ethics, and the Hindu way of life. One more section is called Harvamsha.

Noted below are few words about the eighteen sections of the Mahabharata. In Mahabharata, these sections are called parvan. A parvan means a book. The names of all parvas or books of the Mahabharata are noted below:

Parva Title Contents
1 Adi-parva Introduction, birth and upbringing of the princes.
2 Sabha-parva Life at the court, the game of dice, and the exile of the Pandavas. Maya Danava erects the palace and court (sabha), at Indraprastha.
3 Aranyaka-parva (also Vanaparva, Aranyaparva) The twelve years in exile in the forest (aranya).
4 Virata-parva The year in exile spent at the court of Virata.
5 Udyoga-parva Preparations for war.
6 Bhishma-parva The first part of the great battle, with Bhishma as commander for the Kauravas.
7 Drona-parva The battle continues, with Drona as commander.
8 Karna-parva The battle again, with Karna as commander.
9 Shalya-parva The last part of the battle, with Shalya as commander.
10 Sauptika-parva How Ashvattama and the remaining Kauravas killed the Pandava army in their sleep (Sauptika).
11 Stri-parva Gandhari and the other women (stri) lament the dead.
12 Shanti-parva The crowning of Yudhisthira, and his instructions from Bhishma
13 Anusasana-parva The final instructions (anusasana) from Bhishma.
14 Ashvamedhika-parva The royal ceremony of the ashvamedha conducted by Yudhisthira.
15 Ashramavasika-parva Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and Kunti leave for an ashram, and eventual death in the forest.
16 Mausala-parva The infighting between the Yadavas with maces (mausala).
17 Mahaprasthanika-parva The first part of the path to death (mahaprasthana "great journey") of Yudhisthira and his brothers.
18 Svargarohana-parva The Pandavas return to the spiritual world (svarga).
19 Harivamsha Life of Krishna.

A Summary of Mahabharata

Mahabharata mainly tells the story of Pandavas, the 5 sons of King Pandu and Kauravas, the 100 sons of King Dhritarashtra. King Pandu and King Dritarashtra were brothers, so Pandavas (the heroes of the epic) and Kauravas were cousins. King Dritarashtra ruled the Kingdom of Hastinapura with the help of his brother Pandu. Because of a curse, Pandu goes to the forest with his wives and there with the grace of five Gods, he begets his five children, from his two wives, Kunti and Madri. Because they are the sons of Pandu, they are known as Pandavas.

After the death of Pandu, Pandavas come back to Hastinapura and live there. However, Kauravas do not like Pandavas because Pandavas are superior to them in education and strength. On one occasion, Kauravas invite Pandavas to a game of dice, and using foul play they win the share of Pandava's and kingdom and sends Pandavas to spend time in forests for 12 years and hide incognito (means without anybody identifying them) for one year. After many hardships, Pandavas finish this punishment and ask back Kauravas for their share of the kingdom. But Duryodhana, the eldest of Kauravas, does not give Pandavas their share of kingdom. Hence Pandavas declare a war on Kauravas and after the war that lasts for 18 days, finally wins back the entire kingdom of Hastinapura.

The Pandavas

Kunti wants to fulfill her maternal expectations, but she has no man. She recollects the moment when her first son Karna was conceived from an arcane mantra one sage had given her once. Surya, the Sun God, appeared to her then. Thus, Kunti remembers her secret mantra and gives birth to the five sons, which are referred to as the Pandavas.

Yudhisthira's father was god Yama; Bhima's father was Vayu, Arjuna's father was Indra. Then it was Madri who gave birth to two other sons - the twins, whose fathers were Ashwins (divine twins). Madri's sons are Nakula and Sahadeva. These all are the five Panadavas.

More Information


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mahabharata, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message