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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, 1940s
Born 2 October 1869(1869-10-02)
Porbandar, Kathiawar Agency, British India
Died 30 January 1948 (aged 78)
New Delhi, Union of India
Cause of death Assassination
Resting place Rajghat in New Delhi
Nationality Indian
Other names Mahatma Gandhi, Bapu
Alma mater University College London, University of London
Known for Prominent Figure of Indian Independence Movement
Propounding the philosophy of Satyagraha and Ahimsa
Religion Hinduism
Spouse(s) Kasturba Gandhi
Children Harilal
Manilal
Ramdas
Devdas
Parents Putlibai Gandhi (Mother)
Karamchand Gandhi (Father)
Signature
.Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Hindi: मोहनदास करमचंद गाँधी, Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી, pronounced [moːɦən̪d̪aːs kərəmʨən̪d̪ ɡaːn̪d̪ʱiː]  ( listen); 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement.^ Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in Bombay, 1944.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Religion Gandhi, Mahatma, 1869-1948.

^ Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati : મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી , pronounced [moːɦənˈdaːs kəɾəmˈtʂənd ˈɡaːndʱiː] ( listen ) ; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement .
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.He was the pioneer of satyagraha—resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, a philosophy firmly founded upon ahimsa or total nonviolence—which led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.^ He was the pioneer of satyagraha —resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience , firmly founded upon ahimsa or total nonviolence —which led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was the pioneer of Satyagraha —resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience , firmly founded upon ahimsa or total non-violence —which led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A key element on the road to India's Independence was not only Gandhi's launching in 1921 of the movement of non-cooperation with the British, but the willingness of the exemplary Gandhi and his comrades to go to prison many times through peaceful, courageous acts of civil disobedience, like the famous Dandi march to the sea in 1930 to make salt against the British ban.

.Gandhi is commonly known around the world as Mahatma Gandhi ([məɦaːt̪maː]; Sanskrit: महात्मा mahātmā or "Great Soul", an honorific first applied to him by Rabindranath Tagore),[1] and in India also as Bapu (Gujarati: બાપુ, bāpu or "Father").^ Mahatma Gandhi, a great life in brief.

^ Mahatma Gandhi: pensaer yr India.

^ Relevance of Mahatma Gandhi to the world of thought.

.He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence.^ He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation ; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti , a national holiday , and world-wide as the International Day of Non-Violence .
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is a national holiday in India , Gandhi Jayanti .
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation ; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti , a national holiday , and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence .
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.Gandhi first employed non-violent civil disobedience while an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, during the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights.^ In 1906 Gandhi organized his first non-violent campaign, against an Asiatic Ordinance directed at Indians in South Africa.

^ In South Africa, Gandhi faced discrimination directed at Indians.
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^ In 1915 Gandhi helped to negotiate the Indian Relief Bill, which granted important civil rights concessions to South Africas Indian community.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After his return to India in 1915, he organized protests by peasants, farmers, and urban labourers concerning excessive land-tax and discrimination.^ Gandhi returns to India 1915 .
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^ Gandhi returned to India in 1915.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon his return to India back in 1915, Gandhi had organized poor farmers and labourers to protest against oppressive taxation and widespread discrimination.

.After assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease poverty, expand women's rights, build religious and ethnic amity, end untouchability, and increase economic self-reliance.^ Gandhi and the Indian Congress were defiantly outraged.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In December 1921, Gandhi was invested with executive authority on behalf of the Indian National Congress .
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon after assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress, Gandhi had led nationwide campaigns for mitigating poverty, for liberating women, for brotherhood and respect among differing religious faiths and ethnicities, for an end to untouchability and caste discrimination, and for the economic self-sufficiency of the nation.

.Above all, he aimed to achieve Swaraj or the independence of India from foreign domination.^ But above all his struggle had been for Swaraj , "self-rule," the independence of India from foreign domination.

^ Above all, he aimed to achieve Swaraj or the independence of India from foreign domination.
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^ Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, for expanding women's rights, for building religious and ethnic amity, for ending untouchability , for increasing economic self-reliance, but above all for achieving Swaraj —the independence of India from foreign domination.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gandhi famously led his followers in the Non-cooperation movement that protested the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km (240 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930. Later, in 1942, he launched the Quit India civil disobedience movement demanding immediate independence for India.^ Gandhi then launched a new satyagraha against the tax on salt in March 1930.
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^ On the Salt March : the historiography of Gandhi's march to Dandi.

^ Protest on British-made salt begins with the Salt March .
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Gandhi spent a number of years in jail in both South Africa and India.^ Gandhi returns to India after spending 20 years in S. Africa .
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1915, Gandhi returned from South Africa to live in India.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi and South Africa, 1914-1948.

.As a practitioner of ahimsa, he swore to speak the truth and advocated that others do the same.^ As a practitioner of ahimsa , he swore to speak the truth and advocated that others do the same.
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^ Gandhi was a practitioner of non-violence and truth , and advocated that others do the same.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gandhi lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn he had hand spun on a charkha.^ He lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn he had hand spun on a charkha .
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn he had hand spun on a charkha .
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^ Gandhi believed that hand spinning, combined with weaving on hand looms, was the only logical way for the people of India to become self-sufficient and independent.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He ate simple vegetarian food, eventually adopting a fruitarian diet, and also undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and social protest.^ He ate simple vegetarian food, and also undertook long fasts as means of both self-purification and social protest.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He ate simple vegetarian food, and also undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and social protest.
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^ On 8 May 1933 Gandhi began a 21-day fast of self-purification to help the Harijan movement.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Early life and background

A young Gandhi c. 1886.
.Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi[2] was born on 2 October 1869 in Porbandar, a coastal town in present-day Gujarat, India.^ Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in Bombay, 1944.
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^ Reply PortlandMark says: September 20, 2009 at 6:14 am Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi[2] was born in Porbandar, a coastal town in present-day Gujarat, India, on 2 October 1869.
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^ Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in Porbander , a coastal town in present-day Gujarat , Western India , on 2 October 1869.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.His father, Karamchand Gandhi (1822–1885), who belonged to the Hindu Modh community, was the diwan (Prime Minister) of Porbander state, a small princely state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India.^ His father, Karamchand Gandhi, who belonged to the Hindu Modh community, was the diwan (Prime Minister) of the eponymous Porbander state , a small princely state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India .
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His father, Karamchand Gandhi (1822-1885), who belonged to the Hindu Modh community, was the diwan (Prime Minister) of the eponymous Porbander state, a small princely state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India.
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^ His father, Karamchand Gandhi (1822-1885), who belonged to the Hindu Modh community, was the diwan (Prime Minister) of the eponymous Porbander state , a small princely state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India .
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[3] .His grandfather's name was Uttamchand Gandhi, fondly called Utta Gandhi.^ His grandfather's name was Uttamchand Gandhi, fondly called Utta Gandhi.
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.His mother, Putlibai, who came from the Hindu Pranami Vaishnava community, was Karamchand's fourth wife, the first three wives having apparently died in childbirth.^ His mother, Putlibai, who came from the Hindu Pranami Vaishnava community, was Karamchand’s fourth wife, the first three wives having apparently died in childbirth.
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^ His mother, Putlibai, who came from the Hindu Pranami Vaishnava community, was Karamchand's fourth wife, the first three wives having apparently died in childbirth.
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^ His father, Karamchand Gandhi (1822-1885), who belonged to the Hindu Modh community, was the diwan (Prime Minister) of the eponymous Porbander state, a small princely state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India.
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[4] .Growing up with a devout mother and the Jain traditions of the region, the young Mohandas absorbed early the influences that would play an important role in his adult life; these included compassion for sentient beings, vegetarianism, fasting for self-purification, and mutual tolerance between individuals of different creeds.^ Growing up with a devout mother and the Jain traditions of the region, the young Mohandas absorbed early the influences that would play an important role in his adult life; these included compassion for sentient beings, vegetarianism , fasting for self-purification, and mutual tolerance between individuals of different creeds.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Growing up with a devout mother and the Jain traditions of the region, the young Mohandas absorbed early the influences that would play an important role in his adult life; these included compassion to sentient beings, vegetarianism , fasting for self-purification, and mutual tolerance between individuals of different creeds.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Growing up with a devout mother and the Jain traditions of the region, the young Mohandas absorbed early the influences that would play an important role in his adult life; these included compassion to sentient beings, vegetarianism, fasting for self-purification, and mutual tolerance between individuals of different creeds.
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[citation needed]
.The Indian classics, especially the stories of Shravana and Maharaja Harishchandra from the Indian epics, had a great impact on Gandhi in his childhood.^ The Indian classics, especially the stories of Shravana and Maharaja Harishchandra from the Indian epics, had had a great impact on Gandhi in his childhood.
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^ The Indian classics, especially the stories of Shravana and Maharaja Harishchandra from the Indian epics, had a great impact on Gandhi in his childhood.
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^ The story of Harishchandra, a well known tale of an ancient Indian king and a truthful hero, “haunted” Gandhi as a boy.
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.The story of Harishchandra, a well known tale of an ancient Indian king and a truthful hero, haunted Gandhi as a boy.^ The story of Harishchandra, a well known tale of an ancient Indian king and a truthful hero, “haunted” Gandhi as a boy.
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^ The story of Harishchandra, a well known tale of an ancient Indian king and a truthful hero, haunted Gandhi as a boy.
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^ Mahatma Gandhi , Gandhi, An Autobiography, The story of my experiments with truth (Chapter XXVII, Recruiting Campaign, pg 446-447, Beacon Press, 1957) .
  • Mahatma Gandhi Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: General]

.Gandhi in his autobiography admits that it left an indelible impression on his mind.^ Gandhi in his autobiography admits that it left an indelible impression on his mind.
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.He writes: "It haunted me and I must have acted Harishchandra to myself times without number."^ He writes: "It haunted me and I must have acted Harishchandra to myself times without number."
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^ He writes “It haunted me and I must have acted Harischandra to myself times without number.” Gandhi’s early self -identification with Truth and Love as the supreme value is traced back to his identification with these epic characters[5][6] .
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.Gandhi's early self-identification with Truth and Love as supreme values is traceable to his identification with these epic characters.^ Gandhi's early self-identification with Truth and Love as supreme values is traceable to his identification with these epic characters.
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^ He writes “It haunted me and I must have acted Harischandra to myself times without number.” Gandhi’s early self -identification with Truth and Love as the supreme value is traced back to his identification with these epic characters[5][6] .
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^ Cooperation and self-reliance were the basis of Gandhis ashrams, and were twin cornerstones in Gandhis foundational principles of satyagraha from two Sanskrit words, satya, meaning truth and love, plus agraha, meaning force or firmness.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

[5][6]
.In May 1883, the 13-year old Mohandas was married to 14-year old Kasturbai Makhanji (her first name was usually shortened to "Kasturba," and affectionately to "Ba") in an arranged child marriage, as was the custom in the region.^ In May 1883, the 13-year old Mohandas was married to 14-year old Kasturbai Makhanji (her first name was usually shortened to “Kasturba,” and affectionately to “Ba”) in an arranged child marriage, as was the custom in the region.
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^ In May 1883, the 13-year old Mohandas was married to 14-year old Kasturbai Makhanji (her first name was usually shortened to "Kasturba," and affectionately to "Ba") in an arranged child marriage , as was the custom in the region.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
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[7] .Recalling about the day of their marriage he once said that " As we didn't know much about marriage, for us it meant only wearing new clothes, eating sweets and playing with relatives."^ Recalling about the day of their marriage he once said that " As we didn't know much about marriage, for us it meant only wearing new clothes, eating sweets and playing with relatives."
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^ Recalling about the day of their marriage he once said that ” As we didn’t know much about marriage, for us it meant only wearing new clothes, eating sweets and playing with relatives.” However, as was also the custom of the region, the adolescent bride was to spend much time at her parents’ house, and away from her husband.
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^ Reply Jessi says: September 21, 2009 at 12:47 am You know, they make them wear horrible clothing and have bad hair… .
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.However, as was also the custom of the region, the adolescent bride was to spend much time at her parents' house, and away from her husband.^ However, as was also the custom of the region, the adolescent bride was to spend much time at her parents' house, and away from her husband.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Recalling about the day of their marriage he once said that ” As we didn’t know much about marriage, for us it meant only wearing new clothes, eating sweets and playing with relatives.” However, as was also the custom of the region, the adolescent bride was to spend much time at her parents’ house, and away from her husband.
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^ DUH! I mean… it’s not like I’d choose to spend my time surrounding myself with people like you, just as much as you’d find displeasure in surrounding yourself with people like me.
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[8] .In 1885, when Gandhi was 15, the couple's first child was born, but survived only a few days; Gandhi's father, Karamchand Gandhi, had died earlier that year.^ In 1885, when Gandhi was 15, the couple's first child was born, but survived only a few days; Gandhi's father, Karamchand Gandhi, had died earlier that year.
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^ In 1885, when Gandhi was 15, the couple’s first child was born, but survived only a few days; Gandhi’s father, Karamchand Gandhi, had died earlier that year.
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^ His father, Karamchand Gandhi (1822-1885), who belonged to the Hindu Modh community, was the diwan (Prime Minister) of the eponymous Porbander state, a small princely state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India.
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[9] .Mohandas and Kasturba had four more children, all sons: Harilal, born in 1888; Manilal, born in 1892; Ramdas, born in 1897; and Devdas, born in 1900. At his middle school in Porbandar and high school in Rajkot, Gandhi remained an average student academically.^ Mohandas and Kasturba had four more children, all sons: Harilal , born in 1888; Manilal , born in 1892; Ramdas , born in 1897; and Devdas , born in 1900.
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^ At his middle school in Porbandar and high school in Rajkot, Gandhi remained an average student academically.
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^ He was a school student at Rajkot.
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.He passed the matriculation exam for Samaldas College at Bhavnagar, Gujarat with some difficulty.^ He passed the matriculation exam for Samaldas College at Bhavnagar , Gujarat with some difficulty.
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^ He passed the matriculation exam for Samaldas College at Bhavnagar, Gujarat with some difficulty.
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.While there, he was unhappy, in part because his family wanted him to become a barrister.^ While there, he was unhappy, in part because his family wanted him to become a barrister .
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^ While there, he was unhappy, in part because his family wanted him to become a barrister.
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^ There have been games where I've wasted my FP by NOT building it at all, or waiting too long, because I wanted a better location.
  • RBD Succession game 1 - Ghandi Tales - Page 3 - Civilization Fanatics' Forums 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC forums.civfanatics.com [Source type: General]

Gandhi and his wife Kasturba (1902)
.On 4 September 1888, less than a month shy of his 19th birthday, Gandhi traveled to London, England, to study law at University College London and to train as a barrister.^ On 4 September 1888, less than a month shy of his nineteenth birthday, Gandhi traveled to London , England, to study law at University College London and to train as a barrister .
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi and his wife Kasturba (1902) On 4 September 1888, less than a month shy of his 19th birthday, Gandhi traveled to London, England, to study law at University College London and to train as a barrister .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gandhi and his wife Kasturba (1902)On 4 September 1888, less than a month shy of his 19th birthday, Gandhi traveled to London, England, to study law at University College London and to train as a barrister.
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.His time in London, the Imperial capital, was influenced by a vow he had made to his mother in the presence of the Jain monk Becharji, upon leaving India, to observe the Hindu precepts of abstinence from meat, alcohol, and promiscuity.^ His time in London, the Imperial capital, was influenced by a vow he had made to his mother in the presence of the Jain monk Becharji, upon leaving India, to observe the Hindu precepts of abstinence from meat, alcohol, and promiscuity.
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^ His time in London , the Imperial capital, was influenced by a vow he had made to his mother in the presence of the Jain monk Becharji, upon leaving India, to observe the Hindu precepts of abstinence from meat, alcohol, and promiscuity.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before leaving for his studies in London, Gandhi made a promise to his mother, Putlibai and his uncle, Becharji Swami that he would abstain from eating meat, taking alcohol, and engaging in promiscuity.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
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[10] .Although Gandhi experimented with adopting "English" customs—taking dancing lessons for example—he could not stomach the bland vegetarian food offered by his landlady and he was always hungry until he found one of London's few vegetarian restaurants.^ She pointed him towards one of London's few vegetarian restaurants.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Gandhi experimented with adopting "English" customs—taking dancing lessons for example—he could not stomach his landlady's mutton and cabbage.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Gandhi experimented with adopting "English" customs—taking dancing lessons for example—he could not stomach the bland vegetarian food offered by his landlady and he was always hungry until he found one of London's few vegetarian restaurants.
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.Influenced by Salt's book, he joined the Vegetarian Society, was elected to its executive committee[10], and started a local Bayswater chapter.^ Influenced by Salt’s book, he joined the Vegetarian Society, was elected to its executive committee[10], and started a local Bayswater chapter.
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^ He was elected to the executive committee of the Vegetarian Society, learnt French and Latin, matriculated, was called to the bar, and was enrolled in the High Court in 1891.

[4] .Some of the vegetarians he met were members of the Theosophical Society, which had been founded in 1875 to further universal brotherhood, and which was devoted to the study of Buddhist and Hindu literature.^ Some of the vegetarians he met were members of the Theosophical Society , which had been founded in 1875 to further universal brotherhood, and which was devoted to the study of Buddhist and Hindu literature.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the vegetarians he met were members of the Theosophical Society, which had been founded in 1875 to further universal brotherhood, and which was devoted to the study of Buddhist and Hindu literature.
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^ He joined the Vegetarian Society , was elected to its executive committee, and founded a local chapter.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.They encouraged Gandhi to join them in reading the Bhagavad Gita both in translation as well as in the original.^ They encouraged Gandhi to join them in reading the Bhagavad Gita both in translation as well as in the original.
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^ Story of my experiments with truth / by M. K. Gandhi ; translated from the original in Gujarati by Mahadev Desai.

^ Translated loosely as "hold fast to the truth," the term came to refer to both Gandhi's philosophy of conflict resolution and his method of militant nonviolent action.
  • Joseph Kip Kosek | Richard Gregg, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Strategy of Nonviolence | The Journal of American History, 91.4 | The History Cooperative 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .Not having shown a particular interest in religion before, he became interested in religious thought and began to read both Hindu as well as Christian scriptures.^ Not having shown a particular interest in religion before, he read works of and about Hinduism , Christianity , Buddhism , Islam and other religions.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not having shown a particular interest in religion before, he became interested in religious thought and began to read both Hindu as well as Christian scriptures.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the sacred space of a church, black Montgomerians became "actors" practicing for a real-life show of Christian nonviolence before a world audience.
  • Joseph Kip Kosek | Richard Gregg, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Strategy of Nonviolence | The Journal of American History, 91.4 | The History Cooperative 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][10]
.Gandhi was called to the bar on June 10, 1891 and left London for India on June 12, 1891,[4] where he learned that his mother had died while he was in London, his family having kept the news from him.^ Gandhi was called to the bar on June 10, 1891 and left London for India on June 12, 1891,[4] where he learned that his mother had died while he was in London, his family having kept the news from him.
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^ Gandhi was called to the bar on June 10, 1891 and left London for India on June 12, 1891, [ 4 ] where he learned that his mother had died while he was in London, his family having kept the news from him.
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^ His mother, Putlibai, who came from the Hindu Pranami Vaishnava community, was Karamchand’s fourth wife, the first three wives having apparently died in childbirth.
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[10] .His attempts at establishing a law practice in Mumbai failed and, later, after applying and being turned down for a part-time job as a high school teacher, he ended up returning to Rajkot to make a modest living drafting petitions for litigants, a business he was forced to close when he ran afoul of a British officer.^ His attempts at establishing a law practice in Mumbai failed and, later, after applying and being turned down for a part-time job as a high school teacher, he ended up returning to Rajkot to make a modest living drafting petitions for litigants, a business he was forced to close when he ran afoul of a British officer.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, after applying and being turned down for a part-time job as a high school teacher, he ended up returning to Rajkot to make a modest living drafting petitions for litigants, but was forced to close down that business as well when he ran afoul of a British officer.
  • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Caste Bania; son of Karamchand Gandhi, Dewan of Porebunder, Rajkote and some other Kathiawar States; He was educated at the Kathiawad High School, later at London University and the Inner Temple.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

.In his autobiography, he refers to this incident as an unsuccessful attempt to lobby on behalf of his older brother.^ In his autobiography, he refers to this incident as an unsuccessful attempt to lobby on behalf of his older brother.
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  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][10] .It was in this climate that, in April 1893, he accepted a year-long contract from Dada Abdulla & Co., an Indian firm, to a post in the Colony of Natal, South Africa, then part of the British Empire.^ It was in this climate that, in April 1893, he accepted a year-long contract from Dada Abdulla & Co., an Indian firm, to a post in the Colony of Natal, South Africa, then part of the British Empire.
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^ I do not think this comparison did more than justice to the Indians, seeing that if the whole might of the British Empire was ranged against the hundreds of thousands of able Europeans in America, here in South Africa a helpless body of 13,000 Indians had challenged the powerful Government of the Transvaal.

^ And Joe, yes, Nazis were certainly known in India – Indians fought and died for the Allied side (they were part of the British empire), they read the newspapers and listened to the radio.
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[4]

Civil rights movement in South Africa (1893–1914)

Gandhi in South Africa (1895)
M.K. Gandhi while serving in the Ambulance Corps during the Boer War.
.In South Africa, Gandhi faced discrimination directed at Indians.^ In South Africa, Gandhi faced discrimination directed at Indians.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gandhi and South Africa, 1914-1948.

^ Gandhi and South Africa 1914 to 1948.

.He was thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg after refusing to move from the first class to a third class coach while holding a valid first class ticket.^ He was thrown off a train at Pietermaritzburg after refusing to move from the first class to a third class coach while holding a valid first class ticket.
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[11] .Traveling farther on by stagecoach he was beaten by a driver for refusing to travel on the foot board to make room for a European passenger.^ Traveling farther on by stagecoach he was beaten by a driver for refusing to travel on the foot board to make room for a European passenger.
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[12] .He suffered other hardships on the journey as well, including being barred from several hotels.^ He suffered other hardships on the journey as well, including being barred from several hotels.
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^ If I value the life of others and I see it to be in my best interest to invest in the well being of others, then I should be able to CHOOSE to do so.
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^ On the other hand new jobs were being created in the city, and labour rights were developing in the cities as well.

.In another incident, the magistrate of a Durban court ordered Gandhi to remove his turban - which he refused to do.^ In another incident, the magistrate of a Durban court ordered Gandhi to remove his turban - which he refused to do.
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^ The year 1924 gave Mr. Gandhi another opportunity to push forth his campaign for the removal of Untouchability and make it effective.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The turban that I had insisted on wearing in the District Magistrate's Court I took off in obedience to the order of the Supreme Court.

[13] .These events were a turning point in his life, awakening him to social injustice and influencing his subsequent social activism.^ These events were a turning point in his life, awakening him to social injustice and influencing his subsequent social activism.
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^ Hinduism for him was not merely a way of life as some Hindu leaders have started saying these days.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was through witnessing firsthand the racism, prejudice and injustice against Indians in South Africa that Gandhi started to question his people's status within the British Empire, and his own place in society.^ Gandhi in South Africa, British imperialism and the Indian question, 1860-1914 / by Robert A. Huttenback.

^ In South Africa, Gandhi faced discrimination directed at Indians.
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^ Mohandas Gandhi is a good place to start.
  • MAHATMA GANDHI COMMUNITY FORUM • View topic - MOHANDAS GANDHI IS A GOOD PLACE TO START 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.gandhiserve.org [Source type: Original source]

.Gandhi extended his original period of stay in South Africa to assist Indians in opposing a bill to deny them the right to vote.^ In South Africa, Gandhi faced discrimination directed at Indians.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gandhi and South Africa : perspectives and prospects.

^ Gandhi extended his original period of stay in South Africa to assist Indians in opposing a bill to deny them the right to vote.
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.Though unable to halt the bill's passage, his campaign was successful in drawing attention to the grievances of Indians in South Africa.^ Though unable to halt the bill's passage, his campaign was successful in drawing attention to the grievances of Indians in South Africa.
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^ In 1908 he was attacked and wounded by an Indian Pathan for reaching a settlement with General Smuts, the leader of South Africa.

^ In South Africa he successfully developed a special form of non-violent protest that led to the removal of discriminatory laws against Indians in the early Twentieth Century.

.He helped found the Natal Indian Congress in 1894,[4][11] and through this organization, he molded the Indian community of South Africa into a homogeneous political force.^ Founded the Natal Indian Congress, 1894.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From 1894 to 1915, he was in South Africa.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was in this climate that, in April 1893, he accepted a year-long contract from Dada Abdulla & Co., an Indian firm, to a post in the Colony of Natal, South Africa, then part of the British Empire.
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.In January 1897, when Gandhi landed in Durban he was attacked by a mob of white settlers and escaped only through the efforts of the wife of the police superintendent.^ In January 1897, when Gandhi landed in Durban he was attacked by a mob of white settlers and escaped only through the efforts of the wife of the police superintendent.
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^ On landing attacked by the mob and narrowly escaped death; led an Indian Ambulance Corps in the Anglo-Boer War 1899 ; Returned to India in 1901 to recoup his health.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Oddly, Gandhi invited him to be a steward of his house in Durban in 1896 only for Mehtab to be caught in flagrante with a prostitute.
  • The Gandhi Foundation 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC gandhifoundation.org [Source type: Original source]

.He, however, refused to press charges against any member of the mob, stating it was one of his principles not to seek redress for a personal wrong in a court of law.^ He, however, refused to press charges against any member of the mob, stating it was one of his principles not to seek redress for a personal wrong in a court of law.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have made it a rule not to go to court in respect of any personal grievance So I do not intend to proceed against him."

^ Again one would be inclined to refuse an objectionable advertisement, and yet be constrained to accept it, say because the advertiser was a leading member of the community and might take it ill if his advertisement was rejected.

[4]
.In 1906, the Transvaal government promulgated a new Act compelling registration of the colony's Indian population.^ In 1906, the Transvaal government promulgated a new Act compelling registration of the colony's Indian population.
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^ In the preceding year, the British government had appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon, which did not include any Indian as its member.
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^ The colonial British government there is opposed to Indian home rule, which would allow Indian citizens to have a voice in running their own country.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At a mass protest meeting held in Johannesburg on 11 September that year, Gandhi adopted his still evolving methodology of satyagraha (devotion to the truth), or non-violent protest, for the first time, calling on his fellow Indians to defy the new law and suffer the punishments for doing so, rather than resist through violent means.^ At a mass protest meeting held in Johannesburg on 11 September that year, Gandhi adopted his still evolving methodology of satyagraha (devotion to the truth), or non-violent protest, for the first time, calling on his fellow Indians to defy the new law and suffer the punishments for doing so, rather than resist through violent means.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cooperation and self-reliance were the basis of Gandhis ashrams, and were twin cornerstones in Gandhis foundational principles of satyagraha from two Sanskrit words, satya, meaning truth and love, plus agraha, meaning force or firmness.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Deena Meetzger -- Personal Disarmament John Dear, SJ -- A Journey towards Love Audios used w/ permission of New Dimensions Radio -- over 800 hours of thoughtful conversation Satish Kumar on Nonviolence & the Spirit of Ecology Iran: new audience for US scholar's protest guide Gene Sharp: "From Dictatorship to Democracy" John Dear protesting war & nuclear weapons Satyagraha 100 Years Later: Gandhi Launches Modern Non-Violent Resistance Movement on Sept.
  • Gandhian nonviolence: Mahatma Gandhi and the refusal to cooperate with social injustice 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.lysistrataproject.org [Source type: Original source]

.This plan was adopted, leading to a seven-year struggle in which thousands of Indians were jailed (including Gandhi), flogged, or even shot, for striking, refusing to register, burning their registration cards or engaging in other forms of non-violent resistance.^ This plan was adopted, leading to a seven-year struggle in which thousands of Indians were jailed (including Gandhi), flogged, or even shot, for striking, refusing to register, burning their registration cards or engaging in other forms of non-violent resistance.
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^ Gregg extolled the "non-violent strike."
  • Joseph Kip Kosek | Richard Gregg, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Strategy of Nonviolence | The Journal of American History, 91.4 | The History Cooperative 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially, Gandhi favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort, but other Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war, without consultation of the people's representatives.
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.While the government was successful in repressing the Indian protesters, the public outcry stemming from the harsh methods employed by the South African government in the face of peaceful Indian protesters finally forced South African General Jan Christiaan Smuts to negotiate a compromise with Gandhi.^ In South Africa, Gandhi faced discrimination directed at Indians.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the government was successful in repressing the Indian protesters, the public outcry stemming from the harsh methods employed by the South African government in the face of peaceful Indian protesters finally forced South African General Jan Christiaan Smuts to negotiate a compromise with Gandhi.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What were Gandhi and his Indian followers protesting at the rally?
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Gandhi's ideas took shape and the concept of satyagraha matured during this struggle.^ Gandhi's ideas took shape and the concept of satyagraha matured during this struggle.
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^ Gandhi first employed non-violent civil disobedience while an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, during the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To review some of the significant ideas and concepts that have arisen from watching the film, Gandhi; 2.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

Racism and Controversy

.Some of Gandhi's early South African articles are controversial.^ Some of Gandhi's early South African articles are controversial.
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^ Gandhi in South Africa (1895) Main article: Gandhi's work in South Africa M.K. Gandhi while serving in the Ambulance Corps during the Boer War.
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^ In a Chicago bookstore, he came across "an article about Gandhi which gave some quotations from him."
  • Joseph Kip Kosek | Richard Gregg, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Strategy of Nonviolence | The Journal of American History, 91.4 | The History Cooperative 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 7 March 1908, Gandhi wrote in the Indian Opinion of his time in a South African prison: "Kaffirs are as a rule uncivilized - the convicts even more so.^ On 7 March 1908, Gandhi wrote in the Indian Opinion of his time in a South African prison: "Kaffirs are as a rule uncivilized - the convicts even more so.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the government was successful in repressing the Indian protesters, the public outcry stemming from the harsh methods employed by the South African government in the face of peaceful Indian protesters finally forced South African General Jan Christiaan Smuts to negotiate a compromise with Gandhi.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They focus in Chapter 1, "Gandhi, Africans and Indians in Colonial Natal" on the relationship between the African and Indian communities under "White rule" and policies which enforced segregation (and, they argue, inevitable conflict between these communities).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are troublesome, very dirty and live almost like animals."^ They are troublesome, very dirty and live almost like animals."
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^ Gandhiji: I would say that the Oxford Group may change the lives of as many as they like, but not their religion.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To me they are just nice people very much like myself and my brothers and sisters and friends.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

[14] .Writing on the subject of immigration in 1903, Gandhi commented: "We believe as much in the purity of race as we think they do...^ Writing on the subject of immigration in 1903, Gandhi commented: "We believe as much in the purity of race as we think they do...
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When they were originally nominated, The Gandhi Foundation did not know much about them, but after a few weeks of research we were truly amazed at the breadth and scope of their work.
  • The Gandhi Foundation 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC gandhifoundation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi, she writes, “was too much of a realist to set much store by either an original Alpha ground or an Omega point of ultimate convergence.” .
  • The Gandhi Foundation 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC gandhifoundation.org [Source type: Original source]

.We believe also that the white race in South Africa should be the predominating race."^ We believe also that the white race in South Africa should be the predominating race."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gandhiji came in contact with some believing Christians during his stay in South Africa and had an opportunity to reflect on Christian theology.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 1985 Port Elizabeth, South Africa boycott of white-owned businesses, led by Mkhuseli Jack, spread throughout the Eastern Cape Province.
  • Gandhian nonviolence: Mahatma Gandhi and the refusal to cooperate with social injustice 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.lysistrataproject.org [Source type: Original source]

[15] .During his time in South Africa, Gandhi protested repeatedly about the social classification of blacks with Indians, who he described as "undoubtedly infinitely superior to the Kaffirs".[16] It is worth noting that during Gandhi's time, the term Kaffir had a different connotation than its present-day usage.^ It is worth noting that during Gandhi's time, the term Kaffir had a different connotation than its present-day usage .
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^ Gandhi and South Africa : perspectives and prospects.

^ During his time in South Africa, Gandhi protested repeatedly about the social classification of blacks with Indians, who he described as "undoubtedly infinitely superior to the Kaffirs".
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.Remarks such as these have led some to accuse Gandhi of racism.^ Remarks such as these have led some to accuse Gandhi of racism.
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^ Without some such thing it is not possible to understand, much less to appreciate, the C.M.S. 188 appeal from which I reproduced in these columns some revealing extracts the other day.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

[17]
.Two professors of history who specialize in South Africa, Surendra Bhana and Goolam Vahed, examined this controversy in their text, The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914. (New Delhi: Manohar, 2005).^ Two professors of history who specialize in South Africa, Surendra Bhana and Goolam Vahed, examined this controversy in their text, The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914.
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^ Surendra Bhana and Goolam Vahed, 2005: p.44 ^ The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914.
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^ Making of a political reformer : Gandhi in South Africa, 1893-1914 / Surendra Bhana, Goolam Vahed.

.They focus in Chapter 1, "Gandhi, Africans and Indians in Colonial Natal" on the relationship between the African and Indian communities under "White rule" and policies which enforced segregation (and, they argue, inevitable conflict between these communities).^ They focus in Chapter 1, "Gandhi, Africans and Indians in Colonial Natal" on the relationship between the African and Indian communities under "White rule" and policies which enforced segregation (and, they argue, inevitable conflict between these communities).
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^ Nonetheless, they accepted Gandhi's offer to let a detachment of Indians volunteer as a stretcher bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers.
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^ Gandhi lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn he had hand spun on a charkha .
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.Of this relationship they state that, "the young Gandhi was influenced by segregationist notions prevalent in the 1890s."^ Of this relationship they state that, "the young Gandhi was influenced by segregationist notions prevalent in the 1890s."
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^ They feared that reading the Bible to young boys was likely to influence them in favour of Christianity.
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[18] .At the same time, they state, "Gandhi's experiences in jail seemed to make him more sensitive to their plight...the later Gandhi mellowed; he seemed much less categorical in his expression of prejudice against Africans, and much more open to seeing points of common cause.^ At the same time, they state, "Gandhi's experiences in jail seemed to make him more sensitive to their plight...the later Gandhi mellowed; he seemed much less categorical in his expression of prejudice against Africans, and much more open to seeing points of common cause.
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^ For three and a half years, from the age of 37, Gandhi refused to read newspapers, claiming that the tumultuous state of world affairs caused him more confusion than his own inner unrest.
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^ On Gandhi's place in discussions of colonialism among African Americans, see Von Eschen, Race against Empire , 31–32, 162–63.
  • Joseph Kip Kosek | Richard Gregg, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Strategy of Nonviolence | The Journal of American History, 91.4 | The History Cooperative 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His negative views in the Johannesburg jail were reserved for hardened African prisoners rather than Africans generally."^ The "speech" of the State is also aimed to generate and foster endless economic growth in support of a corporate – rather than human – based economy.
  • MAHATMA GANDHI COMMUNITY FORUM • View topic - MOHANDAS GANDHI IS A GOOD PLACE TO START 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.gandhiserve.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I generally applaud buddhism for preaching acceptance, rather than the nebulous “tolerance”, but i suppose some people are just THAT CRAZY! .
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^ To be sure they are oppressed and illiterate, even unkempt, but they are thoughtful, spiritual-minded, generous, kindly; in character they seem to me above, rather than below, the average of mankind.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

[19]
.Former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela is a follower of Gandhi,[20] despite efforts in 2003 on the part of Gandhi's critics to prevent the unveiling of a statue of Gandhi in Johannesburg.^ Gandhi and South Africa, 1914-1948.

^ Gandhi and South Africa 1914 to 1948.

^ Gandhi and South Africa : perspectives and prospects.

[17] .Bhana and Vahed commented on the events surrounding the unveiling in the conclusion to The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914.^ Civil rights movement in South Africa (1893–1914) .
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^ Two professors of history who specialize in South Africa, Surendra Bhana and Goolam Vahed, examined this controversy in their text, The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914.
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^ Bhana and Vahed commented on the events surrounding the unveiling in the conclusion to The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914 .
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.In the section "Gandhi's Legacy to South Africa," they note that "Gandhi inspired succeeding generations of South African activists seeking to end White rule.^ Gandhi and South Africa, 1914-1948.

^ Gandhi and South Africa 1914 to 1948.

^ Gandhi and South Africa : perspectives and prospects.

This legacy connects him to Nelson Mandela...in a sense Mandela completed what Gandhi started."[21]

Role in Zulu War of 1906

.In 1906, after the British introduced a new poll-tax, Zulus in South Africa killed two British officers.^ Main article: Bambatha Rebellion In 1906, after the British introduced a new poll-tax, Zulus in South Africa killed two British officers.
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^ Gandhi in South Africa, British imperialism and the Indian question, 1860-1914 / by Robert A. Huttenback.

^ What happens to Gandhi to introduce him to racial separation (apartheid) in South Africa?
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

In response, the British declared a war against the Zulus. .Gandhi actively encouraged the British to recruit Indians.^ Gandhi actively encouraged the British to recruit Indians.
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^ Nonetheless, they accepted Gandhi's offer to let a detachment of Indians volunteer as a stretcher bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers.
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^ Gandhi criticized both the actions of the British Raj and the retaliatory violence of Indians.
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.He argued that Indians should support the war efforts in order to legitimize their claims to full citizenship.^ He argued that Indians should support the war efforts in order to legitimize their claims to full citizenship.
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^ And then, toward the end of his life, he argued that the marriage laws of the Republic of India should provide for non-religious weddings in order to "clear the way for inter-religious marriages": .

^ I believe that the entire effort of modern society should be concentrated on the endeavor to outlaw war as a method of the solution of problems between nations.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.The British, however, refused to commission Indians as army officers.^ The British, however, refused to commission Indians as army officers.
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^ Gandhi refused to back down when British soldiers threatened to arrest him if he would not cease collecting and burning the discriminatory passes which were so hated by the Indian people.
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^ In the preceding year, the British government had appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon, which did not include any Indian as its member.
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.Nonetheless, they accepted Gandhi's offer to let a detachment of Indians volunteer as a stretcher bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers.^ Gandhiji said that they could certainly accept help not only from Christian missionaries but from others also, if such help was offered sincerely and in a spirit of service to the country.
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^ Not only do Congressmen all over India hold out Mr. Gandhi as a real saviour but they go forth to persuade the Untouchables to accept the fact that he is their only saviour.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

.This corps was commanded by Gandhi.^ This corps was commanded by Gandhi.
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On 21 July 1906, Gandhi wrote in Indian Opinion: "The corps had been formed at the instance of the Natal Government by way of experiment, in connection with the operations against the Natives consists of twenty three Indians".[22] Gandhi urged the Indian population in South Africa to join the war through his columns in Indian Opinion: “If the Government only realized what reserve force is being wasted, they would make use of it and give Indians the opportunity of a thorough training for actual warfare.”[23]
.In Gandhi's opinion, the Draft Ordinance of 1906 brought the status of Indians below the level of Natives.^ In Gandhi's opinion, the Draft Ordinance of 1906 brought the status of Indians below the level of Natives.
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^ I fear you may no longer be the right person to run Indian Opinion [which Manilal had been editing ever since Gandhi had left South Africa].

^ On 7 March 1908, Gandhi wrote in the Indian Opinion of his time in a South African prison: "Kaffirs are as a rule uncivilized - the convicts even more so.
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.He therefore urged Indians to resist the Ordinance along the lines of satyagraha by taking the example of "Kaffirs". In his words, "Even the half-castes and kaffirs, who are less advanced than we, have resisted the government.^ He therefore urged Indians to resist the Ordinance along the lines of satyagraha by taking the example of " Kaffirs ".
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^ In his words, "Even the half-castes and kaffirs, who are less advanced than we, have resisted the government.
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^ Foreign companies chose to fly in their own technicians and engineers for a huge salary, and pay the remaining Brazilian employees (those who were not sacked) even less.

.The pass law applies to them as well, but they do not take out passes."^ The pass law applies to them as well, but they do not take out passes."
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[24]
.In 1927 Gandhi wrote of the event: "The Boer War had not brought home to me the horrors of war with anything like the vividness that the [Zulu] 'rebellion' did.^ In 1927 Gandhi wrote of the event: "The Boer War had not brought home to me the horrors of war with anything like the vividness that the [Zulu] 'rebellion' did.
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^ Gandhi in South Africa (1895) Main article: Gandhi's work in South Africa M.K. Gandhi while serving in the Ambulance Corps during the Boer War.
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^ The events of those years brought Gandhi unprecedented exposure in the United States.
  • Joseph Kip Kosek | Richard Gregg, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Strategy of Nonviolence | The Journal of American History, 91.4 | The History Cooperative 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was no war but a man-hunt, not only in my opinion, but also in that of many Englishmen with whom I had occasion to talk."^ This was no war but a man-hunt, not only in my opinion, but also in that of many Englishmen with whom I had occasion to talk."
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^ Man is the only animal of which I am thoroughly and cravenly afraid...There is no harm in a well-fed lion.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ah!” replied the Indian, referred to as the savage in the original script, “but this man so rich of whom you talk about, does he not die?” .

[25]

Struggle for Indian Independence (1915–1945)

.In 1915, Gandhi returned from South Africa to live in India.^ Gandhi and South Africa, 1914-1948.

^ Gandhi and South Africa 1914 to 1948.

^ See also: Indian Independence Movement In 1915, Gandhi returned from South Africa to live in India.
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.He spoke at the conventions of the Indian National Congress, but was primarily introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a respected leader of the Congress Party at the time.^ Yet, as Gregg's bookstore epiphany illustrates, the Indian leader's novel methods of political protest had already brought him his first widespread international attention.
  • Joseph Kip Kosek | Richard Gregg, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Strategy of Nonviolence | The Journal of American History, 91.4 | The History Cooperative 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And just the other day, here near Bombay in Thana District, when about fifty hill people returned to Hinduism, the leaders in making them Hindus were Congress leaders of Thana District.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What plan of Gandhis do the other Indian political leaders agree to put into effect?
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

Role in World War I

.In April 1918, during the latter part of World War I, Gandhi was invited by the Viceroy to a War Conference in Delhi.^ A rare instance of this during World War II is depicted in the "Oscar"-award-winning film (1993), "Schindler's List."

^ During World War II, Gandhi penned an open letter to the British people, urging them to surrender to the Nazis.
  • The American Spectator : Gandhi for Capitalists 16 January 2010 6:41 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As an admission of Englands helplessness to oppose Gandhis popularity, they invited Gandhi to England to participate in the 1931 Conference on India as the Indian Congress representative.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

[26] .Perhaps to show his support for the Empire and help his case for India's independence,[27] Gandhi agreed to actively recruit Indians for the war effort.^ Gandhi believed that hand spinning, combined with weaving on hand looms, was the only logical way for the people of India to become self-sufficient and independent.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi is invited to go to England to represent India for discussions about independence.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Are there cases where someone might get the support of an organization they dont agree with?
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[28] .In contrast to the Zulu War of 1906 and the outbreak of World War I in 1914, when he recruited volunteers for the Ambulance Corps, this time Gandhi attempted to recruit combatants.^ During World War II, Gandhi penned an open letter to the British people, urging them to surrender to the Nazis.
  • The American Spectator : Gandhi for Capitalists 16 January 2010 6:41 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Consider the fact that at the time Gandhi returned to India in 1914 most of Indias farmers were idle for four months of the year, a factor which greatly contributed to their poverty and hopelessness.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The World War II noncooperation of Denmark's citizens during the Nazi occupation undermined Nazi attempts to exploit Denmark for war supplies and labor.
  • Gandhian nonviolence: Mahatma Gandhi and the refusal to cooperate with social injustice 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.lysistrataproject.org [Source type: Original source]

.In a June 1918 leaflet entitled "Appeal for Enlistment", Gandhi wrote "To bring about such a state of things we should have the ability to defend ourselves, that is, the ability to bear arms and to use them...If we want to learn the use of arms with the greatest possible despatch, it is our duty to enlist ourselves in the army."^ In a June 1918 leaflet entitled "Appeal for Enlistment", Gandhi wrote "To bring about such a state of things we should have the ability to defend ourselves, that is, the ability to bear arms and to use them...If we want to learn the use of arms with the greatest possible despatch, it is our duty to enlist ourselves in the army."
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^ Gregg relied on this same ironic premise in defending Gandhi's use of nonviolence.
  • Joseph Kip Kosek | Richard Gregg, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Strategy of Nonviolence | The Journal of American History, 91.4 | The History Cooperative 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We tried our utmost to secure the attendance of as many high-class people as possible, and thank God we could get what we wanted....

[29] He did however stipulate in a letter to the Viceroy's private secretary that he "personally will not kill or injure anybody, friend or foe."[30] Gandhi's war recruitment campaign brought into question his consistency on nonviolence as his friend Charlie Andrews confirms, "Personally I have never been able to reconcile this with his own conduct in other respects, and it is one of the points where I have found myself in painful disagreement."[31] Gandhi's private secretary also acknowledges that "The question of the consistency between his creed of 'Ahimsa' (non-violence) and his recruiting campaign was raised not only then but has been discussed ever since."[28]

Champaran and Kheda

Gandhi in 1918, at the time of the Kheda and Champaran satyagrahas.
.Gandhi's first major achievements came in 1918 with the Champaran agitation and Kheda Satyagraha, although in the latter it was indigo and other cash crops instead of the food crops necessary for their survival.^ Main article: Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha Gandhi in 1918, at the time of the Kheda and Champaran satyagrahas.
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^ Gandhi's first major achievements came in 1918 with the Champaran agitation and Kheda Satyagraha , although in the latter it was indigo and other cash crops instead of the food crops necessary for their survival.
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^ Although Mahatama Gandhi was not the originator of the principle of non-violence, he was the first to apply it in the political field on a huge scale.
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.Suppressed by the militias of the landlords (mostly British), they were given measly compensation, leaving them mired in extreme poverty.^ Suppressed by the militias of the landlords (mostly British), they were given measly compensation, leaving them mired in extreme poverty.
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The villages were kept extremely dirty and unhygienic; and alcoholism, untouchability and purdah were rampant. .Now in the throes of a devastating famine, the British levied a tax which they insisted on increasing.^ Now in the throes of a devastating famine, the British levied a tax which they insisted on increasing.
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^ The second thing they did is that they hurt the government in both reduced tax revenue and increased costs for policing the angry protesters.
  • The American Spectator : Gandhi for Capitalists 16 January 2010 6:41 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The British responded by jailing Gandhi, a technique that they would employ over and over with little effect, other than to increase Gandhis popularity and influence.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

The situation was desperate. In Kheda in Gujarat, the problem was the same. .Gandhi established an ashram there, organizing scores of his veteran supporters and fresh volunteers from the region.^ Gandhi established an ashram there, organizing scores of his veteran supporters and fresh volunteers from the region.
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^ Another point of irritation with Kasturba was Gandhis practice of giving away or selling his own possessions and hers as well for the support of the ashram.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Are there cases where someone might get the support of an organization they dont agree with?
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He organized a detailed study and survey of the villages, accounting for the atrocities and terrible episodes of suffering, including the general state of degenerate living. Building on the confidence of villagers, he began leading the clean-up of villages, building of schools and hospitals and encouraging the village leadership to undo and condemn many social evils, as accounted above.
.But his main impact came when he was arrested by police on the charge of creating unrest and was ordered to leave the province.^ But his main impact came when he was arrested by police on the charge of creating unrest and was ordered to leave the province.
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.Hundreds of thousands of people protested and rallied outside the jail, police stations and courts demanding his release, which the court reluctantly granted.^ By "we" I mean the hundreds of thousands of people in this country who know that the old ways of interacting with the world are not working any more.
  • Gandhian nonviolence: Mahatma Gandhi and the refusal to cooperate with social injustice 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.lysistrataproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You find also cities of two to three hundred thousand people who also have favelas”.

.Gandhi led organized protests and strikes against the landlords who, with the guidance of the British government, signed an agreement granting the poor farmers of the region more compensation and control over farming, and cancellation of revenue hikes and its collection until the famine ended.^ Gandhi led organized protests and strikes against the landlords who, with the guidance of the British government, signed an agreement granting the poor farmers of the region more compensation and control over farming, and cancellation of revenue hikes and its collection until the famine ended.
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^ Judge Broomfield, who presided over the trial, was very respectful of Gandhi, and, contrary to all legal precedent, the judge rose as the prisoner, Gandhi, was led in to testify.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Suppressed by the militias of the landlords (mostly British), they were given measly compensation, leaving them mired in extreme poverty.
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.It was during this agitation, that Gandhi was addressed by the people as Bapu (Father) and Mahatma (Great Soul).^ Mahatma Gandhi, a great life in brief.

^ It was during this agitation, that Gandhi was addressed by the people as Bapu (Father) and Mahatma (Great Soul).
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^ Great Soul; the growth of Gandhi.

.In Kheda, Sardar Patel represented the farmers in negotiations with the British, who suspended revenue collection and released all the prisoners.^ In Kheda, Sardar Patel represented the farmers in negotiations with the British, who suspended revenue collection and released all the prisoners.
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^ Gandhi led organized protests and strikes against the landlords who, with the guidance of the British government, signed an agreement granting the poor farmers of the region more compensation and control over farming, and cancellation of revenue hikes and its collection until the famine ended.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can a general amnesty be organized and declared, enabling people to put down their weapons once and for all, with the release of all political prisoners?
  • Gandhian nonviolence: Mahatma Gandhi and the refusal to cooperate with social injustice 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.lysistrataproject.org [Source type: Original source]

As a result, Gandhi's fame spread all over the nation. .He is also now called as "Father of the nation" in Indian.^ Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of our nation, is no more.
  • 98.03.05: Mohandas Gandhi: The Art of Nonviolence 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

Non-cooperation

.Gandhi employed non-cooperation, non-violence and peaceful resistance as his "weapons" in the struggle against British.^ Non-violence in peace & war.

^ Gandhi and Non-violence / by William Borman.

^ Gandhi against Machiavellism; non-violence in politics.

.In Punjab, the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of civilians by British troops (also known as the Amritsar Massacre) caused deep trauma to the nation, leading to increased public anger and acts of violence.^ In Punjab , the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of civilians by British troops (also known as the Amritsar Massacre ) caused deep trauma to the nation, leading to increased public anger and acts of violence.
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^ Gandhi feared that instability and insecurity in Pakistan would increase their anger against India, and violence would spread across the borders.
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.Gandhi criticized both the actions of the British Raj and the retaliatory violence of Indians.^ Gandhi has put into action this weapon of satyagraha many a times against the British Government for the removal of political wrongs.
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^ He had to defy the British government by making injustices visible both to millions of Indians and to world opinion.
  • The American Spectator : Gandhi for Capitalists 16 January 2010 6:41 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After World War II Richard Gregg's The Power of Non-Violence became both a textbook and a symbol for practitioners of militant nonviolent action.
  • Joseph Kip Kosek | Richard Gregg, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Strategy of Nonviolence | The Journal of American History, 91.4 | The History Cooperative 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He authored the resolution offering condolences to British civilian victims and condemning the riots which, after initial opposition in the party, was accepted following Gandhi's emotional speech advocating his principle that all violence was evil and could not be justified.^ He authored the resolution offering condolences to British civilian victims and condemning the riots which, after initial opposition in the party, was accepted following Gandhi's emotional speech advocating his principle that all violence was evil and could not be justified.
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^ Initially, Gandhi favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort, but other Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war, without consultation of the people's representatives.
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^ In accordance with these views, in 1940, when invasion of the British Isles by Nazi Germany looked imminent, Gandhi offered the following advice to the British people ( Non-Violence in Peace and War ): [ 59 ] .
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[32] .But it was after the massacre and subsequent violence that Gandhi's mind focused upon obtaining complete self-government and control of all Indian government institutions, maturing soon into Swaraj or complete individual, spiritual, political independence.^ But it was after the massacre and subsequent violence that Gandhi's mind focused upon obtaining complete self-government and control of all Indian government institutions, maturing soon into Swaraj or complete individual, spiritual, political independence.
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^ Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati : મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી , pronounced [moːɦənˈdaːs kəɾəmˈtʂənd ˈɡaːndʱiː] ( listen ) ; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement .
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^ The leader argues with the Indian scientists, who insist on continuing their studies into alternative means of government, when there are other matters the leader considers more pressing.
  • RBD Succession game 1 - Ghandi Tales - Page 3 - Civilization Fanatics' Forums 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC forums.civfanatics.com [Source type: General]

Mahatma Gandhi's room at Sabarmati Ashram
Sabarmati Ashram, Gandhi's home in Gujarat
.In December 1921, Gandhi was invested with executive authority on behalf of the Indian National Congress.^ Mahatma Gandhi's room at Sabarmati Ashram Sabarmati Ashram , Gandhi's home in Gujarat In December 1921, Gandhi was invested with executive authority on behalf of the Indian National Congress .
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^ After assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease poverty, expand women's rights, build religious and ethnic amity, end untouchability , and increase economic self-reliance.
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^ Statewise Election history of Congress Party · Nehru-Gandhi family · Congress Radio · 10 Janpath · The Emergency · Bofors scandal · INA Defence Committee · Indian National Congress (Organisation) · Breakaway parties .
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.Under his leadership, the Congress was reorganized with a new constitution, with the goal of Swaraj.^ Under his leadership, the Congress was reorganized with a new constitution, with the goal of Swaraj .
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^ In the preceding year, the British government had appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon, which did not include any Indian as its member.
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.Membership in the party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a token fee.^ Membership in the party was opened to anyone prepared to pay a token fee.
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.A hierarchy of committees was set up to improve discipline, transforming the party from an elite organization to one of mass national appeal.^ A hierarchy of committees was set up to improve discipline, transforming the party from an elite organization to one of mass national appeal.
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.Gandhi expanded his non-violence platform to include the swadeshi policy — the boycott of foreign-made goods, especially British goods.^ Gandhi and Non-violence / by William Borman.

^ Gandhi expanded his non-violence platform to include the swadeshi policy — the boycott of foreign-made goods, especially British goods.
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^ In accordance with these views, in 1940, when invasion of the British Isles by Nazi Germany looked imminent, Gandhi offered the following advice to the British people ( Non-Violence in Peace and War ): [ 59 ] .
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.Linked to this was his advocacy that khadi (homespun cloth) be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles.^ Linked to this was his advocacy that khadi (homespun cloth) be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles.
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^ While Indian workers were often idle due to unemployment, they had often bought their clothing from industrial manufacturers owned by British interests.
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^ It was Gandhi's view that if Indians made their own clothes, it would deal an economic blow to the British establishment in India.
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.Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement.^ Gandhi and the emancipation of Indian women / by S. Shridevi.

^ Indian independence movement .
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^ Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement.
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[33] .This was a strategy to inculcate discipline and dedication to weed out the unwilling and ambitious, and to include women in the movement at a time when many thought that such activities were not respectable activities for women.^ This was a strategy to inculcate discipline and dedication to weed out the unwilling and ambitious, and to include women in the movement at a time when many thought that such activities were not respectable activities for women.
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^ J.M: How many missionaries and Christians in general help in constructive activities like the village industries movement, the new educational movement, and so on?
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^ In fact the government at the time doesn’t even acknowledge the existence of large sections of the populations, such as many of those in favelas or communities deep in the country.

.In addition to boycotting British products, Gandhi urged the people to boycott British educational institutions and law courts, to resign from government employment, and to forsake British titles and honours.^ In addition to boycotting British products, Gandhi urged the people to boycott British educational institutions and law courts, to resign from government employment, and to forsake British titles and honours .
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^ Gandhi has put into action this weapon of satyagraha many a times against the British Government for the removal of political wrongs.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, the British musician John Lennon referred to Gandhi when discussing his views on non-violence.
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."Non-cooperation" enjoyed widespread appeal and success, increasing excitement and participation from all strata of Indian society.^ "Non-cooperation" enjoyed widespread appeal and success, increasing excitement and participation from all strata of Indian society.
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^ These rights include giving access to civil society to the system of governance in order to increase participation by otherwise excluded sections of the population.

^ Reply Kinseth says: September 21, 2009 at 6:09 pm Ghandi was a Nazi sympathizer who was racist toward all non-Indians.
  • WIN « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yet, just as the movement reached its apex, it ended abruptly as a result of a violent clash in the town of Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, in February 1922. Fearing that the movement was about to take a turn towards violence, and convinced that this would be the undoing of all his work, Gandhi called off the campaign of mass civil disobedience.^ Fearing that the movement was about to take a turn towards violence, and convinced that this would be the undoing of all his work, Gandhi called off the campaign of mass civil disobedience.
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^ Top P Patil, V.T. Mahatma Gandhi and the civil disobedience movement : a study in the dynamics of the mass movement.

^ Yet, just as the movement reached its apex, it ended abruptly as a result of a violent clash in the town of Chauri Chaura , Uttar Pradesh , in February 1922.
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[34] .Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment.^ On 19th March 1922, Mr. Gandhi was tried for sedition and sentenced to six years' imprisonment.
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^ Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment.
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^ He began his sentence on 18 March 1922.
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.He began his sentence on 18 March 1922. He was released in February 1924 for an appendicitis operation, having served only 2 years.^ Inauguration of the Non-Co-operation campaign, 1920; Interview with Lord Reading May 1921 ; appointed sole executive authority of the Congress in 1921 Session of the Congress; Civil Disobedience Programme, February 1922; Suspension of Civil Disobedience campaign on account of Chauri Chaura riots, February 1922; Arrested on March 10, 1922 tried and sentenced to six years simple imprisonment."
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On 19th March 1922, Mr. Gandhi was tried for sedition and sentenced to six years' imprisonment.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While he was in Sabarmati Jail he was interviewed by a representative of The Manchester Guardian some time before March 18, 1922.
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.Without Gandhi's uniting personality, the Indian National Congress began to splinter during his years in prison, splitting into two factions, one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favouring party participation in the legislatures, and the other led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, opposing this move.^ Without Gandhi's uniting personality, the Indian National Congress began to splinter during his years in prison, splitting into two factions, one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru favouring party participation in the legislatures, and the other led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel , opposing this move.
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^ Initially, Gandhi favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort, but other Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war, without consultation of the people's representatives.
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^ Gandhi's war recruitment campaign brought into question his consistency on nonviolence as his friend Charlie Andrews confirms, "Personally I have never been able to reconcile this with his own conduct in other respects, and it is one of the points where I have found myself in painful disagreement."
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.Furthermore, cooperation among Hindus and Muslims, which had been strong at the height of the non-violence campaign, was breaking down.^ Furthermore, cooperation among Hindus and Muslims, which had been strong at the height of the non-violence campaign, was breaking down.
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^ Gandhi's private secretary also acknowledges that "The question of the consistency between his creed of 'Ahimsa' (non-violence) and his recruiting campaign was raised not only then but has been discussed ever since."
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^ Hindu, Muslim and Sikh community leaders, including the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Mahasabha assured him that they would renounce violence and call for peace.
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.Gandhi attempted to bridge these differences through many means, including a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924, but with limited success.^ Gandhi attempted to bridge these differences through many means, including a three-week fast in the autumn of 1924, but with limited success.
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^ There are many stories told through the length and breadth of India about these noble untouchables.
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^ In the summer of 1934, three unsuccessful attempts were made on Gandhi's life.
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[35]

Salt Satyagraha (Salt March)

Gandhi at Dandi, 5 April 1930, at the end of the Salt March.
.Gandhi stayed out of active politics and, as such, the limelight for most of the 1920s.^ Gandhi stayed out of active politics and, as such, the limelight for most of the 1920s.
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^ Gandhi returned to active politics again in 1936, with the Nehru presidency and the Lucknow session of the Congress.
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^ In his wide-ranging studies and interpretations of Gandhi and India, he had aimed to set out the characteristics of a new civilization, not simply to write a handbook for a new political technology.
  • Joseph Kip Kosek | Richard Gregg, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Strategy of Nonviolence | The Journal of American History, 91.4 | The History Cooperative 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He focused instead on resolving the wedge between the Swaraj Party and the Indian National Congress, and expanding initiatives against untouchability, alcoholism, ignorance and poverty.^ Several NGOs turn their attention to combat Brazil’s extreme inequality, by initiating a movement called ‘Citizen’s action against hunger, poverty and for life’.

.He returned to the fore in 1928. In the preceding year, the British government had appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon, which did not include any Indian as its member.^ In the preceding year, the British government had appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon, which did not include any Indian as its member.
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^ He returned to the fore in 1928.
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^ Gandhi pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-cooperation with complete independence for the country as its goal.
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.The result was a boycott of the commission by Indian political parties.^ The result was a boycott of the commission by Indian political parties.
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^ He spoke at the conventions of the Indian National Congress , but was primarily introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people by Gopal Krishna Gokhale , a respected leader of the Congress Party at the time.
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.Gandhi pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-cooperation with complete independence for the country as its goal.^ Gandhi has put into action this weapon of satyagraha many a times against the British Government for the removal of political wrongs.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi in 1982 threatened the British Government with dire consequences if the Governor-General did not give permission to Mr. Ranga Iyer to introduce his Temple-entry Bill on behalf of the Congress Party in the Central Legislature.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As I recall, congress just passed a resolution in the last week or so that would block Acorn from any of the so-called stimulus money.
  • WIN « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gandhi had not only moderated the views of younger men like Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru, who sought a demand for immediate independence, but also reduced his own call to a one year wait, instead of two.^ Swaraj in one year [by] Mahatma Gandhi.

^ To a Gandhian capitalist : correspondence between Mahatma Gandhi and Jamnalal Bajaj and members of his family / edited by Kaka Kalelkar ; foreword by Jawaharlal Nehru.

^ Freedom from fear : reflections on the personality and teachings of Gandhi / by Jawaharlal Nehru ; selected and edited from his speeches and writings by T.K. Mahadevan.

[36] .The British did not respond.^ The British did not respond.
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.On 31 December 1929, the flag of India was unfurled in Lahore.^ On 31 December 1929, the flag of India was unfurled in Lahore.
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.26 January 1930 was celebrated as India's Independence Day by the Indian National Congress meeting in Lahore.^ January 1930 was celebrated as India's Independence Day by the Indian National Congress meeting in Lahore.
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^ He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation ; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti , a national holiday , and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence .
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^ See also: Indian Independence Movement In 1915, Gandhi returned from South Africa to live in India.
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This day was commemorated by almost every other Indian organization. .Gandhi then launched a new satyagraha against the tax on salt in March 1930. This was highlighted by the famous Salt March to Dandi from 12 March to 6 April, where he marched 388 kilometres (241 miles) from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat to make salt himself.^ Main article: Salt Satyagraha Gandhi at Dandi, 5 April 1930, at the end of the Salt March .
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^ This was highlighted by the famous Salt March to Dandi from 12 March to 6 April, where he marched 388 kilometres (241 miles) from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat to make salt himself.
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^ Gandhi then launched a new satyagraha against the tax on salt in March 1930.
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.Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea.^ Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea.
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.This campaign was one of his most successful at upsetting British hold on India; Britain responded by imprisoning over 60,000 people.^ His campaigns involved him in conflict not only with the British Government of India but also with Hindu orthodoxy.
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^ Unfortunately, Christianity in India has been inextricably mixed up for the last one hundred years with the British rule.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

The government, represented by Lord Edward Irwin, decided to negotiate with Gandhi. .The Gandhi–Irwin Pact was signed in March 1931. The British Government agreed to free all political prisoners, in return for the suspension of the civil disobedience movement.^ The British Government agreed to free all political prisoners, in return for the suspension of the civil disobedience movement.
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^ The Gandhi–Irwin Pact was signed in March 1931.
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^ It was launched by Mr. Gandhi because he believed that both the Untouchables and the British Government would quake before his threat of fast unto death, and surrender to his demand.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Also as a result of the pact, Gandhi was invited to attend the Round Table Conference in London as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress.^ In 1980 came the Round Table Conference.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Also as a result of the pact, Gandhi was invited to attend the Round Table Conference in London as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress.
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^ After assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease poverty, expand women's rights, build religious and ethnic amity, end untouchability , and increase economic self-reliance.
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.The conference was a disappointment to Gandhi and the nationalists, because it focused on the Indian princes and Indian minorities rather than on a transfer of power.^ The conference was a disappointment to Gandhi and the nationalists, because it focused on the Indian princes and Indian minorities rather than on a transfer of power.
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^ At the end of the war, the British gave clear indications that power would be transferred to Indian hands.
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^ September 11 rather than going to war, a powerful transformation could have occurred."
  • Gandhian nonviolence: Mahatma Gandhi and the refusal to cooperate with social injustice 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.lysistrataproject.org [Source type: Original source]

Furthermore, Lord Irwin's successor, Lord Willingdon, began a new campaign of controlling and subduing the nationalist movement. .Gandhi was again arrested, and the government tried to negate his influence by completely isolating him from his followers.^ Gandhi was again arrested, and the government tried to negate his influence by completely isolating him from his followers.
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^ Secondly Mr. Gandhi says the money collected by him is given by the Hindus and not by the Untouchables and as the money is not of t he Untouchables, the Untou chables have no right to be on the Governing Body.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival in 2007, former U.S. Vice-President and environmentalist Al Gore spoke of Gandhi's influence on him.
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But this tactic failed.
Mahadev Desai (left) reading out a letter to Gandhi from the viceroy at Birla House, Bombay, 7 April 1939
.In 1932, through the campaigning of the Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar, the government granted untouchables separate electorates under the new constitution.^ Mahadev Desai (left) reading out a letter to Gandhi from the viceroy at Birla House, Bombay, 7 April 1939 In 1932, through the campaigning of the Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar , the government granted untouchables separate electorates under the new constitution.
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^ Gandhi pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-cooperation with complete independence for the country as its goal.
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^ In the preceding year, the British government had appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon, which did not include any Indian as its member.
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.In protest, Gandhi embarked on a six-day fast in September 1932. The resulting public outcry successfully forced the government to adopt a more equitable arrangement via negotiations mediated by the Dalit cricketer turned political leader Palwankar Baloo.^ In protest, Gandhi embarked on a six-day fast in September 1932.
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^ The resulting public outcry successfully forced the government to adopt a more equitable arrangement via negotiations mediated by the Dalit cricketer turned political leader Palwankar Baloo.
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^ The leader argues with the Indian scientists, who insist on continuing their studies into alternative means of government, when there are other matters the leader considers more pressing.
  • RBD Succession game 1 - Ghandi Tales - Page 3 - Civilization Fanatics' Forums 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC forums.civfanatics.com [Source type: General]

.This was the start of a new campaign by Gandhi to improve the lives of the untouchables, whom he named Harijans, the children of God.^ This was the start of a new campaign by Gandhi to improve the lives of the untouchables, whom he named Harijans, the children of God.
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^ At the outset of his campaign for Swaraj Mr. Gandhi told the Untouchables not to side with the British.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi's first argument is that the Harijan Sevak Sangh it an a ct of penance on the part of the Hindus for the sin of observing Untouchability.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

.On 8 May 1933, Gandhi began a 21-day fast of self-purification to help the Harijan movement.^ It is said that there have been altogether 21 fasts to the credit of Mr. Gandhi.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The present movement, he said is automatically helping Christian Harijans, but I should be surprised if advantage is not being taken of the movement to drive out untouchability from the Church.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The other movement which Mr. Gandhi sponsored in 1933 was the establishment of the Harijan Sevak Sangh [f.7] with a net-work of branches all over India.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

[37] .This new campaign was not universally embraced within the Dalit community, as prominent leader B. R. Ambedkar condemned Gandhi's use of the term Harijans as saying that Dalits were socially immature, and that privileged caste Indians played a paternalistic role.^ This new campaign was not universally embraced within the Dalit community, as prominent leader B. R. Ambedkar condemned Gandhi's use of the term Harijans as saying that Dalits were socially immature, and that privileged caste Indians played a paternalistic role.
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^ Leaders Conference,an authentic account of the Leaders Conference held at New Delhi on 19th and 20th February 1943 in respect of Mahatma Gandhi's fast.

^ Their system encourages creativity and entrepreneurship on a fair playing field, with the objective of self-sufficiency and sustainability within their environment and community.

.Ambedkar and his allies also felt Gandhi was undermining Dalit political rights.^ Ambedkar and his allies also felt Gandhi was undermining Dalit political rights.
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^ Indeed, without any compunction they tell the Untouchables that whatever political rights the Untouchables have got under the Poona Pact, they are the result of Mr. Gandhi's efforts.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Muhammad Ali Jinnah and contemporary Pakistanis condemned Gandhi for undermining Muslim political rights.
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.Gandhi, although born into the Vaishya caste, insisted that he was able to speak on behalf of Dalits, despite the presence of Dalit activists such as Ambedkar.^ Gandhi, although born into the Vaishya caste, insisted that he was able to speak on behalf of Dalits, despite the presence of Dalit activists such as Ambedkar.
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^ This new campaign was not universally embraced within the Dalit community, as prominent leader B. R. Ambedkar condemned Gandhi's use of the term Harijans as saying that Dalits were socially immature, and that privileged caste Indians played a paternalistic role.
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^ Ambedkar and his allies also felt Gandhi was undermining Dalit political rights.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the summer of 1934, three unsuccessful attempts were made on Gandhi's life.
.When the Congress Party chose to contest elections and accept power under the Federation scheme, Gandhi resigned from party membership.^ When the Congress Party chose to contest elections and accept power under the Federation scheme, Gandhi resigned from party membership.
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^ Statewise Election history of Congress Party · Nehru-Gandhi family · Congress Radio · 10 Janpath · The Emergency · Bofors scandal · INA Defence Committee · Indian National Congress (Organisation) · Breakaway parties .
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^ As fresh elections to the Central Legislature were announced the Congress Party withdrew its support to the Bill and Mr. Ranga lyer had to drop it.
  • 41K.What Congress and Gandhi CHAPTER X 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.ambedkar.org [Source type: Original source]

.He did not disagree with the party's move, but felt that if he resigned, his popularity with Indians would cease to stifle the party's membership, that actually varied from communists, socialists, trade unionists, students, religious conservatives, to those with pro-business convictions and that these various voices would get a chance to make themselves heard.^ You and I would be dishonest if we did not make clear to one another what we stand for.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These people are trying to shake the will of the Iraqi citizens, and they want us to leave...I think the world would be better off if we did leave...
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They did not mix with Indians, and Europeans would not mix with them.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.Gandhi also wanted to avoid being a target for Raj propaganda by leading a party that had temporarily accepted political accommodation with the Raj.^ Gandhi also wanted to avoid being a target for Raj propaganda by leading a party that had temporarily accepted political accommodation with the Raj.
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^ After long deliberations, Gandhi declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom, while that freedom was denied to India itself.
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^ When the Congress Party chose to contest elections and accept power under the Federation scheme, Gandhi resigned from party membership.
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[38]
.Gandhi returned to active politics again in 1936, with the Nehru presidency and the Lucknow session of the Congress.^ Towards non-violent politics and the relation of constructive work to ahimsa, discourses at the five sessions of the Gandhi Seva Sangh from 1936 to 1940 / by Mahatma Gandhi.

^ Reply moe says: September 21, 2009 at 4:22 pm Gandhi was politically highly active until india became independent which is 1947.
  • WIN « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indian triumvirate, a political biography of Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel, and Pandit Nehru / [by] V. B. Kulkarni.

.Although Gandhi wanted a total focus on the task of winning independence and not speculation about India's future, he did not restrain the Congress from adopting socialism as its goal.^ Although Gandhi wanted a total focus on the task of winning independence and not speculation about India's future, he did not restrain the Congress from adopting socialism as its goal.
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^ He told Gandhiji about a book, India in the Dark Wood , which he had recently read and which wanted the main framework of the dominant Hindu philosophy to be shattered.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ See also: Indian Independence Movement In 1915, Gandhi returned from South Africa to live in India.
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.Gandhi had a clash with Subhas Bose, who had been elected president in 1938. Their main points of contention were Bose's lack of commitment to democracy, and lack of faith in non-violence.^ Their main points of contention were Bose's lack of commitment to democracy, and lack of faith in non-violence.
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^ Gandhi had a clash with Subhas Bose , who had been elected president in 1938.
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^ Although Mahatama Gandhi was not the originator of the principle of non-violence, he was the first to apply it in the political field on a huge scale.
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.Bose won his second term despite Gandhi's criticism, but left the Congress when the All-India leaders resigned en masse in protest of his abandonment of the principles introduced by Gandhi.^ At this point, he was coincidentally introduced to the life of Mohandas K. Gandhi in a sermon by Mordecai Johnson, president of Howard University, who had just returned from a trip to India.
  • Gandhian nonviolence: Mahatma Gandhi and the refusal to cooperate with social injustice 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.lysistrataproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi was called to the bar on June 10, 1891 and left London for India on June 12, 1891,[4] where he learned that his mother had died while he was in London, his family having kept the news from him.
  • WIN « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All men are brothers : life and thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi as told in his own words / compiled and edited by Krishna Kripalani ; introduced by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.

[39]

World War II and Quit India

Jawaharlal Nehru sitting next to Gandhi at the AICC General Session, 1942.
.World War II broke out in 1939 when Nazi Germany invaded Poland.^ World War II broke out in 1939 when Nazi Germany invaded Poland .
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^ The World War II noncooperation of Denmark's citizens during the Nazi occupation undermined Nazi attempts to exploit Denmark for war supplies and labor.
  • Gandhian nonviolence: Mahatma Gandhi and the refusal to cooperate with social injustice 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.lysistrataproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The greatest crime since World War II has been US foreign policy.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.Initially, Gandhi favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort, but other Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war, without consultation of the people's representatives.^ Initially, Gandhi favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort, but other Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war, without consultation of the people's representatives.
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^ Nonetheless, they accepted Gandhi's offer to let a detachment of Indians volunteer as a stretcher bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers.
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^ In accordance with these views, in 1940, when invasion of the British Isles by Nazi Germany looked imminent, Gandhi offered the following advice to the British people ( Non-Violence in Peace and War ): [ 59 ] .
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.All Congressmen resigned from office.^ All Congressmen resigned from office.
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[40] .After long deliberations, Gandhi declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom, while that freedom was denied to India itself.^ After long deliberations, Gandhi declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom, while that freedom was denied to India itself.
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^ No protracted war can fail to endanger the freedom of a democratic country.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress and the freedom struggle : Gandhi and the Congress Socialist Party, 1934-48 : an analysis of their interaction / K.C. Mahendru.

.As the war progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, drafting a resolution calling for the British to Quit India.^ As the war progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, drafting a resolution calling for the British to Quit India .
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^ Initially, Gandhi favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort, but other Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war, without consultation of the people's representatives.
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^ Gandhi pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion status or face a new campaign of non-cooperation with complete independence for the country as its goal.
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.This was Gandhi's and the Congress Party's most definitive revolt aimed at securing the British exit from India.^ Congress and the freedom struggle : Gandhi and the Congress Socialist Party, 1934-48 : an analysis of their interaction / K.C. Mahendru.

^ The 1930 Salt March in western India, led by Mohandas Gandhi, father of nonviolent civil disobedience, challenged the British monopoly and tax on salt.
  • Gandhian nonviolence: Mahatma Gandhi and the refusal to cooperate with social injustice 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.lysistrataproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mahatma Gandhi, the Congress and partition of India / D.C. Jha.

[41]
Gandhi's handwriting, on a note preserved at Sabarmati Ashram
.Gandhi was criticized by some Congress party members and other Indian political groups, both pro-British and anti-British.^ Congress and the freedom struggle : Gandhi and the Congress Socialist Party, 1934-48 : an analysis of their interaction / K.C. Mahendru.

^ Gandhi in South Africa, British imperialism and the Indian question, 1860-1914 / by Robert A. Huttenback.

^ I have several other similar articles, some from Christian Indians.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some felt that not supporting Britain more in its life or death struggle against the evil of Nazism was unethical.^ If the KKK says it’s part of the green party, I don’t think ill of the green party, I just hate the KKK more for giving some unsuspecting party leader the kiss of death by endorsing them.
  • WIN « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others felt that Gandhi's refusal for India to participate in the war was insufficient and more direct opposition should be taken, while Britain fought against Nazism yet continued to contradict itself by refusing to grant India Independence.^ Others felt that Gandhi's refusal for India to participate in the war was insufficient and more direct opposition should be taken, while Britain fought against Nazism yet continued to contradict itself by refusing to grant India Independence.
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^ Initially, Gandhi favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort, but other Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war, without consultation of the people's representatives.
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^ What steps should be taken to eradicate the foreign prejudice against us?
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.Quit India became the most forceful movement in the history of the struggle, with mass arrests and violence on an unprecedented scale.^ Quit India became the most forceful movement in the history of the struggle, with mass arrests and violence on an unprecedented scale.
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^ Main article: Quit India Movement Jawaharlal Nehru sitting next to Gandhi at the AICC General Session, 1942.
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^ He described this mass movement as a miracle, one of the great miracles of Christian history.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

[42] .Thousands of freedom fighters were killed or injured by police gunfire, and hundreds of thousands were arrested.^ Thousands of freedom fighters were killed or injured by police gunfire, and hundreds of thousands were arrested.
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^ Hundreds of thousands of people protested and rallied outside the jail, police stations and courts demanding his release, which the court reluctantly granted.
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.Gandhi and his supporters made it clear they would not support the war effort unless India were granted immediate independence.^ Reply Joe says: September 20, 2009 at 6:38 am Technically, Gandhi died in 1948, India became independent in 1947, and WWII ended in 1945.
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^ The first question was if Christian missionaries would be asked to quit after India became independent.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They probably would have won the war if the weren’t so friggin’ frugal.
  • WIN « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He even clarified that this time the movement would not be stopped if individual acts of violence were committed, saying that the "ordered anarchy" around him was "worse than real anarchy." He called on all Congressmen and Indians to maintain discipline via ahimsa, and Karo Ya Maro ("Do or Die") in the cause of ultimate freedom.^ He called on all Congressmen and Indians to maintain discipline via ahimsa , and Karo Ya Maro ("Do or Die") in the cause of ultimate freedom.
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^ Fail all around, I say.
  • WIN « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KFA is even worse than I thought).

.Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee were arrested in Bombay by the British on 9 August 1942. Gandhi was held for two years in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune.^ Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee were arrested in Bombay by the British on 9 August 1942.
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^ Gandhi was held for two years in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922, tried for sedition, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment.
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.It was here that Gandhi suffered two terrible blows in his personal life.^ It was here that Gandhi suffered two terrible blows in his personal life.
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^ Gandhi earnestly believed that a person involved in public service should lead a simple life .
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.His 50-year old secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack 6 days later and his wife Kasturba died after 18 months imprisonment in 22 February 1944; six weeks later Gandhi suffered a severe malaria attack.^ His 50-year old secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack 6 days later and his wife Kasturba died after 18 months imprisonment in 22 February 1944; six weeks later Gandhi suffered a severe malaria attack.
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^ Story of my experiments with truth / by M. K. Gandhi ; translated from the original in Gujarati by Mahadev Desai.

^ Gandhi spent one day of each week in silence.
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.He was released before the end of the war on 6 May 1944 because of his failing health and necessary surgery; the Raj did not want him to die in prison and enrage the nation.^ Did Billy Mays die or something?
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^ The pertinent question: if Americans did not want these wars should they have been compelled to fight them?
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When a movie is released in more places, viewership may increase because resistance to a long drive comes down.

.Although the Quit India movement had moderate success in its objective, the ruthless suppression of the movement brought order to India by the end of 1943. At the end of the war, the British gave clear indications that power would be transferred to Indian hands.^ Although the Quit India movement had moderate success in its objective, the ruthless suppression of the movement brought order to India by the end of 1943.
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^ At the end of the war, the British gave clear indications that power would be transferred to Indian hands.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Quit India Movement Jawaharlal Nehru sitting next to Gandhi at the AICC General Session, 1942.
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.At this point Gandhi called off the struggle, and around 100,000 political prisoners were released, including the Congress's leadership.^ At this point Gandhi called off the struggle, and around 100,000 political prisoners were released, including the Congress's leadership.
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^ South Africa's freedom struggle : statements, speeches and articles including correspondence with Mahatma Gandhi / Yusuf Mohamed Dadoo ; with a foreword by Shri R. Venkataraman.

^ The multifunctional aspect of family farming, with its critical impact on the world around it, calls for ‘political’ decisions to be made in light of their possible effects on this crucial sector of society.

Freedom and partition of India

Caricature of Gandhi by Gosławski (1932)
.As a rule, Gandhi was opposed to the concept of partition as it contradicted his vision of religious unity.^ As a rule, Gandhi was opposed to the concept of partition as it contradicted his vision of religious unity.
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^ Gandhi was vehemently opposed to any plan that partitioned India into two separate countries.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] Of the partition of India to create Pakistan, he wrote in Harijan on 6 October 1946:
[The demand for .Pakistan] as put forth by the Moslem League is un-Islamic and I have not hesitated to call it sinful.^ [The demand for Pakistan] as put forth by the Moslem League is un-Islamic and I have not hesitated to call it sinful.
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.Islam stands for unity and the brotherhood of mankind, not for disrupting the oneness of the human family.^ Islam stands for unity and the brotherhood of mankind, not for disrupting the oneness of the human family.
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.Therefore, those who want to divide India into possibly warring groups are enemies alike of India and Islam.^ Therefore, those who want to divide India into possibly warring groups are enemies alike of India and Islam.
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^ All those who seek to destroy the liberties of a democratic nation ought to know that war is the surest and shortest means to accomplish it.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ India observes January 30, the day of his assassination, as Martyr's Day , to commemorate those who gave up their lives in service of the Indian nation.
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.They may cut me into pieces but they cannot make me subscribe to something which I consider to be wrong [...] we must not cease to aspire, in spite of [the] wild talk, to befriend all Moslems and hold them fast as prisoners of our love.^ We must make our choice; we cannot have both.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The start being wrong all that follows must be necessarily so.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Where we love is home - home that our feet may leave, but not our hearts.
  • Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.handcraftedcollectibles.com [Source type: Original source]

[44]
However, as Homer Jack notes of Gandhi's long correspondence with Jinnah on the topic of Pakistan: "Although Gandhi was personally opposed to the partition of India, he proposed an agreement...which provided that the Congress and the Moslem League would cooperate to attain independence under a provisional government, after which the question of partition would be decided by a plebiscite in the districts having a Moslem majority."[45]
.These dual positions on the topic of the partition of India opened Gandhi up to criticism from both Hindus and Muslims.^ These dual positions on the topic of the partition of India opened Gandhi up to criticism from both Hindus and Muslims.
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^ Gandhi and the partition of India / Sandhya Chaudhri.

^ While inviting these agencies to work in subordination to Hindu agencies set up for Harijan uplift, he said, You may choose to work independently.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.Muhammad Ali Jinnah and contemporary Pakistanis condemned Gandhi for undermining Muslim political rights.^ Ambedkar and his allies also felt Gandhi was undermining Dalit political rights.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muhammad Ali Jinnah and contemporary Pakistanis condemned Gandhi for undermining Muslim political rights.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally Muhammad Ali Jinnah , the leader of the Muslim League, commanded widespread support in West Punjab , Sindh , North-West Frontier Province and East Bengal .
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.Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and his allies accused him of politically appeasing Muslims while turning a blind eye to their atrocities against Hindus, and for allowing the creation of Pakistan, despite having publicly declared that "before partitioning India, my body will have to be cut into two pieces".[46] This continues to be politically contentious: some, like Pakistani-American historian Ayesha Jalal argue that Gandhi and the Congress's unwillingness to share power with the Muslim League hastened partition; others, like Hindu nationalist politician Pravin Togadia indicated that excessive weakness on Gandhi's part led to the division of India.^ Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and his allies accused him of politically appeasing Muslims while turning a blind eye to their atrocities against Hindus, and for allowing the creation of Pakistan, despite having publicly declared that "before partitioning India, my body will have to be cut into two pieces".
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^ This continues to be politically contentious: some, like Pakistani-American historian Ayesha Jalal argue that Gandhi and the Congress's unwillingness to share power with the Muslim League hastened partition; others, like Hindu nationalist politician Pravin Togadia indicated that excessive weakness on Gandhi's part led to the division of India.
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^ Of the partition of India to create Pakistan , he wrote in Harijan on 6 October 1946: .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gandhi also expressed his dislike for partition during the late 1930s in response to the topic of the partition of Palestine to create Israel.^ Gandhi also expressed his dislike for partition during the late 1930s in response to the topic of the partition of Palestine to create Israel .
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^ These dual positions on the topic of the partition of India opened Gandhi up to criticism from both Hindus and Muslims.
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He stated in Harijan on 26 October 1938:
.Several letters have been received by me asking me to declare my views about the Arab-Jew question in Palestine and persecution of the Jews in Germany.^ Several letters have been received by me asking me to declare my views about the Arab-Jew question in Palestine and persecution of the Jews in Germany .
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^ Reply No1askedme says: September 21, 2009 at 5:18 pm I’m not asking you to support me, I’m just stating my views on the subject.
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^ The first question they asked him was, There are several religions in the world.
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.It is not without hesitation that I venture to offer my views on this very difficult question.^ It is not without hesitation that I venture to offer my views on this very difficult question.
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^ Indeed, this would pose some very difficult political, legal, and social questions, to say nothing of the technical problems.
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^ Several letters have been received by me asking me to declare my views about the Arab-Jew question in Palestine and persecution of the Jews in Germany .
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.My sympathies are all with the Jews.^ My sympathies are all with the Jews.
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.I have known them intimately in South Africa.^ I have known them intimately in South Africa.
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Some of them became life-long companions. Through these friends I came to learn much of their age-long persecution. .They have been the untouchables of Christianity [...] But my sympathy does not blind me to the requirements of justice.^ But my sympathy does not blind me to the requirements of justice.
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^ And why does a Christian go to a Church and when he is required to take an oath swear by the Bible?
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Peacock stating that he was an Indian Christian who wanted to work for the removal of untouchability in Andhra without surrendering my Christ...
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.The cry for the national home for the Jews does not make much appeal to me.^ The cry for the national home for the Jews does not make much appeal to me.
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^ Its freedom from dogma makes a forcible appeal to me in as much as it gives the votary the largest scope for self-expression.
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^ A highwayman is as much a robber when he plunders in a gang as when single; and a nation that makes an unjust war is only a great gang.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

The sanction for it is sought in the Bible and the tenacity with which the Jews have hankered after return to Palestine. .Why should they not, like other peoples of the earth, make that country their home where they are born and where they earn their livelihood?^ And just the other day, here near Bombay in Thana District, when about fifty hill people returned to Hinduism, the leaders in making them Hindus were Congress leaders of Thana District.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Why should you want him to pass through your university and no other?
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The main mistake that people make who want to make social change is that they never get around to actually acting.
  • Gandhian nonviolence: Mahatma Gandhi and the refusal to cooperate with social injustice 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.lysistrataproject.org [Source type: Original source]

.Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English or France to the French.^ Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English or France to the French.
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It is wrong and inhuman to impose the Jews on the Arabs. What is going on in Palestine today cannot be justified by any moral code of conduct.[47]
.Gandhi advised the Congress to reject the proposals the British Cabinet Mission offered in 1946, as he was deeply suspicious of the grouping proposed for Muslim-majority states—Gandhi viewed this as a precursor to partition.^ Gandhi advised the Congress to reject the proposals the British Cabinet Mission offered in 1946, as he was deeply suspicious of the grouping proposed for Muslim-majority states—Gandhi viewed this as a precursor to partition.
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^ In accordance with these views, in 1940, when invasion of the British Isles by Nazi Germany looked imminent, Gandhi offered the following advice to the British people ( Non-Violence in Peace and War ): [ 59 ] .
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^ Nonetheless, they accepted Gandhi's offer to let a detachment of Indians volunteer as a stretcher bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers.
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.However, this became one of the few times the Congress broke from Gandhi's advice (though not his leadership), as Nehru and Patel knew that if the Congress did not approve the plan, the control of government would pass to the Muslim League.^ However, this became one of the few times the Congress broke from Gandhi's advice (though not his leadership), as Nehru and Patel knew that if the Congress did not approve the plan, the control of government would pass to the Muslim League .
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^ However, one night, Gandhi's uncle came to relieve Gandhi for a while.
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^ If I did not do so, you would always be patronizing me, as many Christians do now, saying, How nice it would be if Gandhi accepted Christianity, and Muslims would be doing the same, saying, How nice it would be if Gandhi accepted Islam!
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.Between 1946 and 1948, over 5,000 people were killed in violence.^ Between 1946 and 1948, over 5,000 people were killed in violence.
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.Gandhi was vehemently opposed to any plan that partitioned India into two separate countries.^ Gandhi and the partition of India / Sandhya Chaudhri.

^ Gandhi and the partition of India : a new perspective / Kamran Shahid.

^ Gandhi vs Jinnah : the debate over the partition of India / Allen Hayes Merriam.

.But an overwhelming majority of Muslims living in India, alongside Hindus and Sikhs, favoured partition.^ But an overwhelming majority of Muslims living in India, alongside Hindus and Sikhs, favoured partition.
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^ For a Christian to become a Hindu or a Muslim or a Sikh is a fate worse than death.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The partition plan was approved by the Congress leadership as the only way to prevent a wide-scale Hindu-Muslim civil war.
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.Additionally Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the Muslim League, commanded widespread support in West Punjab, Sindh, North-West Frontier Province and East Bengal.^ Additionally Muhammad Ali Jinnah , the leader of the Muslim League, commanded widespread support in West Punjab , Sindh , North-West Frontier Province and East Bengal .
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^ Muhammad Ali Jinnah and contemporary Pakistanis condemned Gandhi for undermining Muslim political rights.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He conducted extensive dialogue with Muslim and Hindu community leaders, working to cool passions in northern India, as well as in Bengal .
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.The partition plan was approved by the Congress leadership as the only way to prevent a wide-scale Hindu-Muslim civil war.^ The partition plan was approved by the Congress leadership as the only way to prevent a wide-scale Hindu-Muslim civil war.
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^ The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But an overwhelming majority of Muslims living in India, alongside Hindus and Sikhs, favoured partition.
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.Congress leaders knew that Gandhi would viscerally oppose partition, and it was impossible for the Congress to go ahead without his agreement, for Gandhi's support in the party and throughout India was strong.^ Congress leaders knew that Gandhi would viscerally oppose partition, and it was impossible for the Congress to go ahead without his agreement, for Gandhi's support in the party and throughout India was strong.
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^ Initially, Gandhi favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort, but other Congressional leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war, without consultation of the people's representatives.
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^ However, as Homer Jack notes of Gandhi's long correspondence with Jinnah on the topic of Pakistan: "Although Gandhi was personally opposed to the partition of India, he proposed an agreement...which provided that the Congress and the Moslem League would cooperate to attain independence under a provisional government, after which the question of partition would be decided by a plebiscite in the districts having a Moslem majority."
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.Gandhi's closest colleagues had accepted partition as the best way out, and Sardar Patel endeavoured to convince Gandhi that it was the only way to avoid civil war.^ Gandhi's closest colleagues had accepted partition as the best way out, and Sardar Patel endeavoured to convince Gandhi that it was the only way to avoid civil war.
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^ Gandhi also wanted to avoid being a target for Raj propaganda by leading a party that had temporarily accepted political accommodation with the Raj.
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^ The partition plan was approved by the Congress leadership as the only way to prevent a wide-scale Hindu-Muslim civil war.
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.A devastated Gandhi gave his assent.^ A devastated Gandhi gave his assent.
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.He conducted extensive dialogue with Muslim and Hindu community leaders, working to cool passions in northern India, as well as in Bengal.^ He conducted extensive dialogue with Muslim and Hindu community leaders, working to cool passions in northern India, as well as in Bengal .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally Muhammad Ali Jinnah , the leader of the Muslim League, commanded widespread support in West Punjab , Sindh , North-West Frontier Province and East Bengal .
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^ Hindu, Muslim and Sikh community leaders, including the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Mahasabha assured him that they would renounce violence and call for peace.
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.Despite the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, he was troubled when the Government decided to deny Pakistan the 55 crores (550 million Indian rupees) due as per agreements made by the Partition Council.^ Despite the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 , he was troubled when the Government decided to deny Pakistan the 55 crores (550 million Indian rupees ) due as per agreements made by the Partition Council.
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^ The immediate result was the domination and extermination of millions of Indians by war, slavery and disease 1 .

^ He launched his last fast-unto-death on January 12, 1948, in Delhi , [ 49 ] asking that all communal violence be ended once and for all, Muslims homes be restored to them and that the payment of 550 million rupees be made to Pakistan.
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.Leaders like Sardar Patel feared that Pakistan would use the money to bankroll the war against India.^ War against a foreign country only happens when the moneyed classes think they are going to profit from it.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Governments use national animosities, foreign wars and the glamour of empire-making, in order to...divert rising sentiment against domestic abuses.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This would bring humanity back to the markets where it belongs, turning money back into a useful tool for triangular exchange, back from its current status as master.

.Gandhi was also devastated when demands resurged for all Muslims to be deported to Pakistan, and when Muslim and Hindu leaders expressed frustration and an inability to come to terms with one another.^ Gandhi was also devastated when demands resurged for all Muslims to be deported to Pakistan, and when Muslim and Hindu leaders expressed frustration and an inability to come to terms with one another.
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^ These dual positions on the topic of the partition of India opened Gandhi up to criticism from both Hindus and Muslims.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All mankind...being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[48] .Gandhi's arrival in Delhi, turned out to an important intervention in ending the rioting, he even visited Muslims mohallas to restore faith of the Muslim populace.^ Gandhi's arrival in Delhi, turned out to an important intervention in ending the rioting, he even visited Muslims mohallas to restore faith of the Muslim populace.
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^ I even come a cross a favela in Paqueta, on a chilled out week-end brake to a small island 25 minutes away from Rio.

^ It turns out that in this case, even bending over to IMF conditions isn’t enough to attract capital back to Brazil, and capital flight continues, threatening Brazilian solvency.

.He launched his last fast-unto-death on January 12, 1948, in Delhi,[49] asking that all communal violence be ended once and for all, Muslims homes be restored to them and that the payment of 550 million rupees be made to Pakistan.^ He launched his last fast-unto-death on January 12, 1948, in Delhi , [ 49 ] asking that all communal violence be ended once and for all, Muslims homes be restored to them and that the payment of 550 million rupees be made to Pakistan.
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^ Despite the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 , he was troubled when the Government decided to deny Pakistan the 55 crores (550 million Indian rupees ) due as per agreements made by the Partition Council.
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^ A week later, on June 9, near the end of the all-night ride home from South Carolina, the Continental Trailwaysbus stopped in Winona, Mississippi.
  • Gandhian nonviolence: Mahatma Gandhi and the refusal to cooperate with social injustice 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.lysistrataproject.org [Source type: Original source]

.Gandhi feared that instability and insecurity in Pakistan would increase their anger against India, and violence would spread across the borders.^ Gandhi feared that instability and insecurity in Pakistan would increase their anger against India, and violence would spread across the borders.
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^ He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation ; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti , a national holiday , and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence .
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^ It was Gandhi's view that if Indians made their own clothes, it would deal an economic blow to the British establishment in India.
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.He further feared that Hindus and Muslims would renew their enmity and that this would precipitate open civil war.^ He further feared that Hindus and Muslims would renew their enmity and that this would precipitate open civil war.
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^ Hindu, Muslim and Sikh community leaders, including the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Mahasabha assured him that they would renounce violence and call for peace.
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^ Branch had come to believe that there were many secret followers of Jesus in India who were not coming out in the open because they feared persecution from Hindu society.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

After emotional debates with his life-long colleagues, Gandhi refused to budge, and the Government rescinded its policy and made the payment to Pakistan. .Hindu, Muslim and Sikh community leaders, including the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Mahasabha assured him that they would renounce violence and call for peace.^ Hindu, Muslim and Sikh community leaders, including the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Mahasabha assured him that they would renounce violence and call for peace.
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^ For a Christian to become a Hindu or a Muslim or a Sikh is a fate worse than death.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He did not feel that he was being communal when he called himself a Hindu.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.Gandhi thus broke his fast by sipping orange juice.^ Gandhi thus broke his fast by sipping orange juice.
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[50]

Assassination

Raj Ghat: Gandhi's ashes at Aga Khan Palace (Pune, India).
.On 30 January 1948, Gandhi was shot while having his nightly public walk on the grounds of the Birla Bhavan (Birla House) in New Delhi.^ Leaders Conference,an authentic account of the Leaders Conference held at New Delhi on 19th and 20th February 1943 in respect of Mahatma Gandhi's fast.

^ Gandhi was called to the bar on June 10, 1891 and left London for India on June 12, 1891,[4] where he learned that his mother had died while he was in London, his family having kept the news from him.
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^ Ibid., Volume 30, New Delhi, 1968, p.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.The assassin, Nathuram Godse, was a Hindu nationalist with links to the extremist Hindu Mahasabha, who held Gandhi responsible for weakening India by insisting upon a payment to Pakistan.^ His father, Karamchand Gandhi (1822-1885), who belonged to the Hindu Modh community, was the diwan (Prime Minister) of the eponymous Porbander state, a small princely state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India.
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^ We have long held, proclaimed the Conference, that the one serious rival for the spiritual supremacy of India that Christianity has to face is resurgent Hinduism, and recent happenings have deepened the conviction.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Branch had come to believe that there were many secret followers of Jesus in India who were not coming out in the open because they feared persecution from Hindu society.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

[51] .Godse and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were later tried and convicted; they were executed on 15 November 1949. Gandhi's memorial (or Samādhi) at Rāj Ghāt, New Delhi, bears the epigraph "Hē Ram", (Devanagari: हे !^ Gandhi's memorial (or Samādhi ) at Rāj Ghāt , New Delhi, bears the epigraph "Hē Ram", ( Devanagari : हे !
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^ Godse and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were later tried and convicted; they were executed on 15 November 1949.
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^ Leaders Conference,an authentic account of the Leaders Conference held at New Delhi on 19th and 20th February 1943 in respect of Mahatma Gandhi's fast.

राम
or, .He Rām), which may be translated as "Oh God". These are widely believed to be Gandhi's last words after he was shot, though the veracity of this statement has been disputed.^ These are widely believed to be Gandhi's last words after he was shot, though the veracity of this statement has been disputed.
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^ Nor do I regard the New as the last word of God...
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God-botherers and other true believers : Gandhi, Hitler, and the religious right / F. G. Bailey.

[52] Jawaharlal Nehru addressed the nation through radio:[53]
."Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives, and there is darkness everywhere, and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it.^ Reply Semperfidd says: September 21, 2009 at 11:44 am So by your logic then it doesnt matter who you hang out with?
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^ He quoted Christ about Preach and Teach and said, The whole Christian religion is the religion of sharing our life, and how can we share without supplementing our lives with words.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He is as much a seeker after truth as you and I are, possibly more so I tell you there are many such huts belonging to the untouchables where you will certainly find God.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more.^ Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more.
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^ He is also now called as "Father of the nation" in Indian.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hindu, Muslim and Sikh community leaders, including the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Mahasabha assured him that they would renounce violence and call for peace.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Perhaps I am wrong to say that; nevertheless, we will not see him again, as we have seen him for these many years, we will not run to him for advice or seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not only for me, but for millions and millions in this country."^ Perhaps I am wrong to say that; nevertheless, we will not see him again, as we have seen him for these many years, we will not run to him for advice or seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not only for me, but for millions and millions in this country."
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^ (G.) Then you will say to him, Have you seen your own doctor?
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When a Christian preacher goes and says to a Harijan that Jesus was the only begotten son of God, he will give him a blank stare.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

- Jawaharlal Nehru's address to Gandhi
.Gandhi's ashes were poured into urns which were sent across India for memorial services.^ Gandhi's ashes were poured into urns which were sent across India for memorial services.
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^ Gandhi feared that instability and insecurity in Pakistan would increase their anger against India, and violence would spread across the borders.
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^ Gandhi was vehemently opposed to any plan that partitioned India into two separate countries.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most were immersed at the Sangam at Allahabad on 12 February 1948 but some were secretly taken away.^ Most were immersed at the Sangam at Allahabad on 12 February 1948 but some were secretly taken away.
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^ In 1997, Tushar Gandhi immersed the contents of one urn, found in a bank vault and reclaimed through the courts, at the Sangam at Allahabad.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .In 1997, Tushar Gandhi immersed the contents of one urn, found in a bank vault and reclaimed through the courts, at the Sangam at Allahabad.^ In 1997, Tushar Gandhi immersed the contents of one urn, found in a bank vault and reclaimed through the courts, at the Sangam at Allahabad.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tushar Gandhi went to court to gain custody of the ashes after newspapers reported in 1995 that they were at the bank."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most were immersed at the Sangam at Allahabad on 12 February 1948 but some were secretly taken away.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54][55] On 30 January 2008 the contents of another urn were immersed at Girgaum Chowpatty by the family after a Dubai-based businessman had sent it to a Mumbai museum.[54] .Another urn has ended up in a palace of the Aga Khan in Pune[54] (where he had been imprisoned from 1942 to 1944) and another in the Self-Realization Fellowship Lake Shrine in Los Angeles.^ Another urn has ended up in a palace of the Aga Khan in Pune [ 54 ] (where he had been imprisoned from 1942 to 1944) and another in the Self-Realization Fellowship Lake Shrine in Los Angeles.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gandhi was held for two years in the Aga Khan Palace in Pune .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See also: Assassination of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Raj Ghat : Gandhi's ashes at Aga Khan Palace (Pune, India).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .The family is aware that these enshrined ashes could be misused for political purposes but does not want to have them removed because it would entail breaking the shrines.^ The family is aware that these enshrined ashes could be misused for political purposes but does not want to have them removed because it would entail breaking the shrines.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While there, he was unhappy, in part because his family wanted him to become a barrister .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (P.C.) Do you think that because of what you call the mental reservation, the work that one could accomplish would suffer?
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

[54]

Gandhi's principles

Truth

.Gandhi dedicated his life to the wider purpose of discovering truth, or Satya.^ Gandhi dedicated his life to the wider purpose of discovering truth , or Satya .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jewel of humanity, life of Mahatma Gandhi, and Light of truth: his teachings.

^ Gandhi explains his philosophy and way of life in his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth .
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.He tried to achieve this by learning from his own mistakes and conducting experiments on himself.^ He tried to achieve this by learning from his own mistakes and conducting experiments on himself.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He called his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth.^ Autobiography: the story of my experiments with truth .
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^ Gokhale's Charity , My Experiments with Truth , M.K. Gandhi.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Rowlatt Bills and my Dilemma , My Experiments with Truth , M.K. Gandhi.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gandhi stated that the most important battle to fight was overcoming his own demons, fears, and insecurities.^ Gandhi stated that the most important battle to fight was overcoming his own demons, fears, and insecurities.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gandhi feared that instability and insecurity in Pakistan would increase their anger against India, and violence would spread across the borders.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ War is a quarrel between two thieves too cowardly to fight their own battle.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

Gandhi summarized his beliefs first when he said "God is Truth". He would later change this statement to "Truth is God". Thus, Satya (Truth) in Gandhi's philosophy is "God".

Nonviolence

.Although Mahatama Gandhi was not the originator of the principle of non-violence, he was the first to apply it in the political field on a huge scale.^ Although Mahatama Gandhi was not the originator of the principle of non-violence, he was the first to apply it in the political field on a huge scale.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gandhi and Non-violence / by William Borman.

^ Gandhi against Machiavellism; non-violence in politics.

[57] .The concept of nonviolence (ahimsa) and nonresistance has a long history in Indian religious thought and has had many revivals in Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, Jewish and Christian contexts.^ The concept of nonviolence ( ahimsa ) and nonresistance has a long history in Indian religious thought and has had many revivals in Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, Jewish and Christian contexts.
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^ It is only one of the many specimens of contempt which Christians have shown for Hindus.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Think of the caricature of Hinduism, which one finds in so many publications of the Christian Literature Society.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.Gandhi explains his philosophy and way of life in his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth.^ Autobiography: the story of my experiments with truth .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Story of my experiments with truth / by M. K. Gandhi ; translated from the original in Gujarati by Mahadev Desai.

^ Autobiography; or the story of my experiments with truth by M. K. Gandhi; translated from the original in Gujarati by Mahadev Desai.

He was quoted as saying:
."When I despair, I remember that all through history the way of truth and love has always won.^ The Planet will be here long after the People have depleted all the People-consumable resources (think: Soylent…) and passed on into the fogs of non-history (without people to remember, there won’t be any history) .
  • WIN « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There have been tyrants and murderers and for a time they seem invincible, but in the end, they always fall — think of it, always."^ There have been tyrants and murderers and for a time they seem invincible, but in the end, they always fall — think of it, always."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were told that, unless they wore the cross at all times and believed in the truth and efficacy of Christianity, there would not be any good effect in the case of diseased patients.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

."What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans, and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty and democracy?"^ "What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans, and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty and democracy?"
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^ What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans, and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty and democracy?
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our media of approach are different, but that does not make Him different.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

."An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind."^ An eye for eye only ends up making the whole world blind.
  • Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.handcraftedcollectibles.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An eye for an eye makes us all blind.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

."There are many causes that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for."^ "There are many causes that I am prepared to die for but no causes that I am prepared to kill for."
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^ There's no difference between one's killing and making decisions that will send others to kill.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The executive has no right, in any case, to decide the question, whether there is or is not cause for declaring war.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.In applying these principles, Gandhi did not balk from taking them to their most logical extremes in envisioning a world where even government, police and armies were nonviolent.^ In applying these principles, Gandhi did not balk from taking them to their most logical extremes in envisioning a world where even government, police and armies were nonviolent.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Mahatama Gandhi was not the originator of the principle of non-violence, he was the first to apply it in the political field on a huge scale.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Government of India awards the annual Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizens.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The quotations below are from the book "For Pacifists."^ The quotations below are from the book "For Pacifists."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58]
.The science of war leads one to dictatorship, pure and simple.^ The science of war leads one to dictatorship, pure and simple.
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The science of non-violence alone can lead one to pure democracy...Power based on love is thousand times more effective and permanent than power derived from fear of punishment....It is a blasphemy to say non-violence can be practiced only by individuals and never by nations which are composed of individuals...The nearest approach to purest anarchy would be a democracy based on non-violence...A society organized and run on the basis of complete non-violence would be the purest anarchy
.I have conceded that even in a non-violent state a police force may be necessary...Police ranks will be composed of believers in non-violence.^ Science of the soul force or Mahatma Gandhi's doctrine of truth & non-violence.

^ I do not believe any policy which has behind it the threat of military force is justified as part of the basic foreign policy of the United States except to defend the liberty of our own people.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.The people will instinctively render them every help and through mutual cooperation they will easily deal with the ever decreasing disturbances...Violent quarrels between labor and capital and strikes will be few and far between in a non-violent state because the influence of the non-violent majority will be great as to respect the principle elements in society.^ The people will instinctively render them every help and through mutual cooperation they will easily deal with the ever decreasing disturbances...Violent quarrels between labor and capital and strikes will be few and far between in a non-violent state because the influence of the non-violent majority will be great as to respect the principle elements in society.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A systematic solution to this roller-coaster tearing economies and societies to bits at every loop has been proposed and is supported by millions of people and civil society organisations all over the world.

^ It was stated that the Bishop of Dornakal in the Telegu region reckons that about a million people in his diocese are moving Christward and among the Ezhavas 850,000 have waited on the Bishop in Travancore, because they are anxious that their entire community should become Christians.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.Similarly, there will be no room for communal disturbances....^ As there is no interest on the loan, and no loan shark exploiting the vulnerability of the poor, this system offers an honest path to the development of this community.

^ There is no better communism on earth, and I have illustrated it with one verse from the Upanishads which means: God pervades all - animate and inanimate.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only was it too far from work, impersonal with no communal areas or community atmosphere, but they were expected to pay rent to live there.

.A non-violent army acts unlike armed men, as well in times of peace as in times of disturbances.^ A non-violent army acts unlike armed men, as well in times of peace as in times of disturbances.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply No1askedme says: September 20, 2009 at 8:37 pm I believe that there is indeed a time and place for both peaceful resistance and violent resistance.
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.Theirs will be the duty of bringing warring communities together, carrying peace propaganda, engaging in activities that would bring and keep them in touch with every single person in their parish or division.^ Theirs will be the duty of bringing warring communities together, carrying peace propaganda, engaging in activities that would bring and keep them in touch with every single person in their parish or division.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The great armies, accumulated to provide security and preserve the peace, carried the nations to war by their own weight.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Every government has as much of a duty to avoid war as a ship's captain has to avoid a shipwreck.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such an army should be ready to cope with any emergency, and in order to still the frenzy of mobs should risk their lives in numbers sufficient for that purpose.^ Such an army should be ready to cope with any emergency, and in order to still the frenzy of mobs should risk their lives in numbers sufficient for that purpose.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

...Satyagraha .(truth-force) brigades can be organized in every village and every block of buildings in the cities.^ Satyagraha (truth-force) brigades can be organized in every village and every block of buildings in the cities.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without exception, every single building is protected from the city by a large iron gate.

[If the non-violent society is attacked from without] there are two ways open to non-violence. .To yield possession, but non-cooperate with the aggressor...prefer death to submission.^ To yield possession, but non-cooperate with the aggressor...prefer death to submission.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second way would be non-violent resistance by the people who have been trained in the non-violent way...The unexpected spectacle of endless rows upon rows of men and women simply dying rather than surrender to the will of an aggressor must ultimately melt him and his soldiery...A nation or group which has made non-violence its final policy cannot be subjected to slavery even by the atom bomb....^ Even this was seen by him as a Jewish rather than a Christian contribution.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The second way would be non-violent resistance by the people who have been trained in the non-violent way...The unexpected spectacle of endless rows upon rows of men and women simply dying rather than surrender to the will of an aggressor must ultimately melt him and his soldiery...A nation or group which has made non-violence its final policy cannot be subjected to slavery even by the atom bomb....
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation ; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti , a national holiday , and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The level of non-violence in that nation, if that even happily comes to pass, will naturally have risen so high as to command universal respect.^ The level of non-violence in that nation, if that even happily comes to pass, will naturally have risen so high as to command universal respect.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation ; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti , a national holiday , and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had not yet emerged as the Mahatma, nor risen to the supreme command of the national movement for freedom from British rule.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

In accordance with these views, in 1940, when invasion of the British Isles by Nazi Germany looked imminent, Gandhi offered the following advice to the British people (Non-Violence in Peace and War):[59]
."I would like you to lay down the arms you have as being useless for saving you or humanity.^ "I would like you to lay down the arms you have as being useless for saving you or humanity.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s like trying to read them on my Blackberry so by the time you get further down in a thread, it’s one letter per line.
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^ Under India’s caste system, the darker you are the lower your caste with black people being barely human and not deserving of any respect.
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.You will invite Herr Hitler and Signor Mussolini to take what they want of the countries you call your possessions...If these gentlemen choose to occupy your homes, you will vacate them.^ You will invite Herr Hitler and Signor Mussolini to take what they want of the countries you call your possessions...If these gentlemen choose to occupy your homes, you will vacate them.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pertinent question: if Americans did not want these wars should they have been compelled to fight them?
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why should you want him to pass through your university and no other?
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.If they do not give you free passage out, you will allow yourselves, man, woman, and child, to be slaughtered, but you will refuse to owe allegiance to them."^ If they do not give you free passage out, you will allow yourselves, man, woman, and child, to be slaughtered, but you will refuse to owe allegiance to them."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you have come to give rich treasures of experiences, open your hearts out to receive the treasures of this land, and you will not be disappointed, neither will you have misread the message of the Bible.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You may be able give solitary instances of men here and there, but they do not count.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

In a post-war interview in 1946, he offered a view at an even further extreme:
"Hitler," Gandhi said, "killed five million Jews. .It is the greatest crime of our time.^ It is the greatest crime of our time.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But the Jews should have offered themselves to the butcher’s knife. .They should have thrown themselves into the sea from cliffs… It would have aroused the world and the people of Germany… As it is they succumbed anyway in their millions."^ They should have thrown themselves into the sea from cliffs… It would have aroused the world and the people of Germany… As it is they succumbed anyway in their millions."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If, therefore, you go on serving people and ask them also to serve, then they would understand.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A systematic solution to this roller-coaster tearing economies and societies to bits at every loop has been proposed and is supported by millions of people and civil society organisations all over the world.

[60]
.However, Gandhi was aware that this level of nonviolence required incredible faith and courage, which he realized not everyone possessed.^ However, Gandhi was aware that this level of nonviolence required incredible faith and courage, which he realized not everyone possessed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He therefore advised that everyone need not keep to nonviolence, especially if it were used as a cover for cowardice:
."Gandhi guarded against attracting to his satyagraha movement those who feared to take up arms or felt themselves incapable of resistance.^ Gandhi, Rowlatt satyagraha, and British imperialism : emergence of mass movements in Punjab & Delhi / Hari Singh.

^ Those who give up essential liberties for temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What we need is reform that can help people get on their feet without taking from those who can already stand.
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.'I do believe,' he wrote, 'that where there is only a choice between cowardice and violence, I would advise violence.'"^ 'I do believe,' he wrote, 'that where there is only a choice between cowardice and violence, I would advise violence.'"
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If India used violence then it would only given the British Raj more authority in their eyes.
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^ And may I ask you, is there any amalgamation between Islam and Christianity, though both are said to believe in one God?
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

[61]
."At every meeting I repeated the warning that unless they felt that in non-violence they had come into possession of a force infinitely superior to the one they had and in the use of which they were adept, they should have nothing to do with non-violence and resume the arms they possessed before.^ "At every meeting I repeated the warning that unless they felt that in non-violence they had come into possession of a force infinitely superior to the one they had and in the use of which they were adept, they should have nothing to do with non-violence and resume the arms they possessed before.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nothing good ever comes of violence.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are back every second or third night though, evidently attracted by the quiet and safe street of one of the most expensive neighbourhoods in town.

.It must never be said of the Khudai Khidmatgars that once so brave, they had become or been made cowards under Badshah Khan's influence.^ It has never been my wish that the freedom of India should mean the ruin of Christians here or that they should become Hindus or Muslims or Sikhs.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhiji said, I agree that the Arya Samaj represents a type of militant Hinduism, but they never believed in the cult of the sword.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Once the voters are at the ballots, they must have the abilities and information to weigh up the alternatives.

.Their bravery consisted not in being good marksmen but in defying death and being ever ready to bare their breasts to the bullets."^ Their bravery consisted not in being good marksmen but in defying death and being ever ready to bare their breasts to the bullets."
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[62]
.Gandhi also came under some political fire for his criticism of those who attempted to achieve independence through more violent means.^ All those who seek to destroy the liberties of a democratic nation ought to know that war is the surest and shortest means to accomplish it.
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^ He came for two more rounds some years later.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is only those who have neither fired a shot nor heard the shrieks and groans of the wounded who cry aloud for blood...War is hell.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.His refusal to protest against the hanging of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Udham Singh and Rajguru were sources of condemnation among some parties.^ His refusal to protest against the hanging of Bhagat Singh , Sukhdev , Udham Singh and Rajguru were sources of condemnation among some parties.
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[citation needed]
.Of this criticism, Gandhi stated, "There was a time when people listened to me because I showed them how to give fight to the British without arms when they had no arms...but today I am told that my non-violence can be of no avail against the [Hindu–Moslem riots] and, therefore, people should arm themselves for self-defense."^ There is joy in my soul today.
  • Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.handcraftedcollectibles.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi and Non-violence / by William Borman.

^ Gandhi against Machiavellism; non-violence in politics.

[63]
.Winston Churchill said that it was "nauseating" to see Gandhi, "a seditious Middle Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well-known in the Middle East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace .^ Gandhi and the Middle East : Jews, Arabs and imperial interests / Simone Panter-Brick.

. . to parley on equal terms with the representative of the King-Emperor".[64]
He continued this argument in a number of articles reprinted in Homer Jack's The Gandhi Reader: A Sourcebook of His Life and Writings. In the first, "Zionism and Anti-Semitism," written in 1938, .Gandhi commented upon the 1930s persecution of the Jews in Germany within the context of Satyagraha.^ In the first, "Zionism and Anti-Semitism," written in 1938, Gandhi commented upon the 1930s persecution of the Jews in Germany within the context of Satyagraha .
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^ Gandhi commented upon the 1930s persecution of the Jews in Germany within the context of Satyagraha .
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^ Several letters have been received by me asking me to declare my views about the Arab-Jew question in Palestine and persecution of the Jews in Germany .
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He offered non-violence as a method of combating the difficulties Jews faced in Germany, stating,
.If I were a Jew and were born in Germany and earned my livelihood there, I would claim Germany as my home even as the tallest Gentile German might, and challenge him to shoot me or cast me in the dungeon; I would refuse to be expelled or to submit to discriminating treatment.^ If I were a Jew and were born in Germany and earned my livelihood there, I would claim Germany as my home even as the tallest Gentile German might, and challenge him to shoot me or cast me in the dungeon; I would refuse to be expelled or to submit to discriminating treatment.
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^ But if there can be no war against Germany, even for such a crime as is being committed against the Jews, surely there can be no alliance with Germany.
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^ Why should they not, like other peoples of the earth, make that country their home where they are born and where they earn their livelihood?
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.And for doing this I should not wait for the fellow Jews to join me in civil resistance, but would have confidence that in the end the rest were bound to follow my example.^ And for doing this I should not wait for the fellow Jews to join me in civil resistance, but would have confidence that in the end the rest were bound to follow my example.
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^ Rather than ask them to join my prayer, I would join their prayer.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When I was in jail, I got, from three separate sources, no less than three copies of the Life of Sister Therese , in the hope that I should follow her example and accept Jesus as the only begotten son of God and my Saviour.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.If one Jew or all the Jews were to accept the prescription here offered, he or they cannot be worse off than now.^ If one Jew or all the Jews were to accept the prescription here offered, he or they cannot be worse off than now.
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^ Nonetheless, they accepted Gandhi's offer to let a detachment of Indians volunteer as a stretcher bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers.
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^ Gandhiji said, No, not shocked either I do not believe at all that one individual can wash off the sins of some other and grant him redemption.
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.And suffering voluntarily undergone will bring them an inner strength and joy...the calculated violence of Hitler may even result in a general massacre of the Jews by way of his first answer to the declaration of such hostilities.^ And suffering voluntarily undergone will bring them an inner strength and joy...the calculated violence of Hitler may even result in a general massacre of the Jews by way of his first answer to the declaration of such hostilities.
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^ But if the Jewish mind could be prepared for voluntary suffering, even the massacre I have imagined could be turned into a day of thanksgiving and joy that Jehovah had wrought deliverance of the race even at the hands of the tyrant.
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^ And yet the very first proposition has not ceased to puzzle the brains of some of the most intellectual and philosophical persons even in the present generation.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.But if the Jewish mind could be prepared for voluntary suffering, even the massacre I have imagined could be turned into a day of thanksgiving and joy that Jehovah had wrought deliverance of the race even at the hands of the tyrant.^ But if the Jewish mind could be prepared for voluntary suffering, even the massacre I have imagined could be turned into a day of thanksgiving and joy that Jehovah had wrought deliverance of the race even at the hands of the tyrant.
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^ And suffering voluntarily undergone will bring them an inner strength and joy...the calculated violence of Hitler may even result in a general massacre of the Jews by way of his first answer to the declaration of such hostilities.
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.For to the God-fearing, death has no terror.^ For to the God-fearing, death has no terror.
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^ I have no fear of death, it’s more of a resentment, the prospect is unpleasant, but I do not really fear it.
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[65]
.Gandhi was highly criticized for these statements and responded in the article "Questions on the Jews" with "Friends have sent me two newspaper cuttings criticizing my appeal to the Jews.^ It was a great solace to the Christian theologian and missionary that in the aftermath of Mahatma Gandhi he could silence all Hindu criticism of Christianity by merely mentioning these two magic names Jesus and the Sermon.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reply charro the Floydist says: September 20, 2009 at 2:10 pm Two of my bestest friends ever are big queers.
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^ Mahatma Gandhis recognition of these ideologies as dharmas as good as Sanatana Dharma leads only to two conclusions.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.The two critics suggest that in presenting non-violence to the Jews as a remedy against the wrong done to them, I have suggested nothing new...what I have pleaded for is renunciation of violence of the heart and consequent active exercise of the force generated by the great renunciation.^ The two critics suggest that in presenting non-violence to the Jews as a remedy against the wrong done to them, I have suggested nothing new...what I have pleaded for is renunciation of violence of the heart and consequent active exercise of the force generated by the great renunciation.
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^ "At every meeting I repeated the warning that unless they felt that in non-violence they had come into possession of a force infinitely superior to the one they had and in the use of which they were adept, they should have nothing to do with non-violence and resume the arms they possessed before.
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^ In the November 1938 article on the Nazi persecution of the Jews quoted above, he offered non-violence as a solution: .
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[66]
Gandhi's statements regarding Jews facing the impending Holocaust have attracted criticism from a number of commentators.[67] .Martin Buber wrote a sharply critical open letter to Gandhi on 24 February 1939. Buber asserted that the comparison between British treatment of Indian subjects and Nazi treatment of Jews was inappropriate; moreover, he noted that when Indians were the victims of persecution, Gandhi had, on occasion, supported the use of force.^ Martin Buber wrote a sharply critical open letter to Gandhi on 24 February 1939.
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^ Buber asserted that the comparison between British treatment of Indian subjects and Nazi treatment of Jews was inappropriate; moreover, he noted that when Indians were the victims of persecution, Gandhi had, on occasion, supported the use of force.
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^ Gandhi's letters on Indian affairs.

[68]
.Gandhi commented upon the 1930s persecution of the Jews in Germany within the context of Satyagraha.^ In the first, "Zionism and Anti-Semitism," written in 1938, Gandhi commented upon the 1930s persecution of the Jews in Germany within the context of Satyagraha .
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^ Gandhi commented upon the 1930s persecution of the Jews in Germany within the context of Satyagraha .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several letters have been received by me asking me to declare my views about the Arab-Jew question in Palestine and persecution of the Jews in Germany .
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In the November 1938 article on the Nazi persecution of the Jews quoted above, he offered non-violence as a solution:
.The German persecution of the Jews seems to have no parallel in history.^ The German persecution of the Jews seems to have no parallel in history.
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.The tyrants of old never went so mad as Hitler seems to have gone.^ The tyrants of old never went so mad as Hitler seems to have gone.
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.And he is doing it with religious zeal.^ And he is doing it with religious zeal.
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.For he is propounding a new religion of exclusive and militant nationalism in the name of which any inhumanity becomes an act of humanity to be rewarded here and hereafter.^ For he is propounding a new religion of exclusive and militant nationalism in the name of which any inhumanity becomes an act of humanity to be rewarded here and hereafter.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Let us form a new religion, that which would be called 'humanity', with 'peace' as its prophet.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.The crime of an obviously mad but intrepid youth is being visited upon his whole race with unbelievable ferocity.^ The crime of an obviously mad but intrepid youth is being visited upon his whole race with unbelievable ferocity.
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.If there ever could be a justifiable war in the name of and for humanity, a war against Germany, to prevent the wanton persecution of a whole race, would be completely justified.^ The time has come to stop beating our heads against stone walls under the illusion that we have been appointed policeman to the human race.
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^ If we let people see that kind of thing, there would never again be any war.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ War would end if the dead could return.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

But I do not believe in any war. A discussion of the pros and cons of such a war is therefore outside my horizon or province. .But if there can be no war against Germany, even for such a crime as is being committed against the Jews, surely there can be no alliance with Germany.^ In war, there are no winners.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But if there can be no war against Germany, even for such a crime as is being committed against the Jews, surely there can be no alliance with Germany.
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^ But there was no such thing.

.How can there be alliance between a nation which claims to stand for justice and democracy and one which is the declared enemy of both?"^ And may I ask you, is there any amalgamation between Islam and Christianity, though both are said to believe in one God?
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are others in the field also, but as a devotee of truth I say that, if there is any difference between their methods, it is one of degree and not of kind.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

[69][70]

Vegetarianism

.As a young child, Gandhi experimented with meat-eating.^ As a young child, Gandhi experimented with meat-eating.
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This was due partially to his inherent curiosity as well as his rather persuasive peer and friend Sheikh Mehtab. .The idea of vegetarianism is deeply ingrained in Hindu and Jain traditions in India, and, in his native land of Gujarat, most Hindus are vegetarian and so are almost all Jains.^ The idea of vegetarianism is deeply ingrained in Hindu and Jain traditions in India, and, in his native land of Gujarat , most Hindus are vegetarian and so are almost all Jains.
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^ Gandhi was born a Hindu and practised Hinduism all his life, deriving most of his principles from Hinduism.
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^ But I hope you are here also in a receptive mood and, if there is anything that India has to give, you will not stop your ears, you will not close your eyes and steel your hearts, but open up your ears, eyes and, most of all, your hearts to receive all that may be good in the land.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

[71][72] .The Gandhi family was no exception.^ The Gandhi family was no exception.
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.Before leaving for his studies in London, Gandhi made a promise to his mother, Putlibai and his uncle, Becharji Swami that he would abstain from eating meat, taking alcohol, and engaging in promiscuity.^ Before leaving for his studies in London, Gandhi made a promise to his mother, Putlibai and his uncle, Becharji Swami that he would abstain from eating meat, taking alcohol, and engaging in promiscuity.
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^ His time in London, the Imperial capital, was influenced by a vow he had made to his mother in the presence of the Jain monk Becharji, upon leaving India, to observe the Hindu precepts of abstinence from meat, alcohol, and promiscuity.
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^ Gandhi was called to the bar on June 10, 1891 and left London for India on June 12, 1891,[4] where he learned that his mother had died while he was in London, his family having kept the news from him.
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.He held fast to his promise and gained more than a diet: he gained a basis for his life-long philosophies.^ It was more than I could believe that Jesus was the only incarnate son of God, and that only he who believed in him would have everlasting life.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The maintenance of the right of criticism in the long run will do the country...more good than it will do the enemy.
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^ As long as mankind shall bestow more liberal applause on their destroyers than on their benefactors, the thirst for military glory will remain the vice of the most exalted characters.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.As Gandhi grew into adulthood, he became a strict vegetarian.^ As Gandhi grew into adulthood, he became a strict vegetarian .
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^ During this period, the young Gandhi became inspired by many great minds and was befriended by the chairman of the London Vegetarian Society, Dr. Josiah Oldfield.
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.He wrote the book The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism[73] and several articles on the subject, some of which were published in the London Vegetarian Society's publication, The Vegetarian.^ I have several other similar articles, some from Christian Indians.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the vegetarians he met were members of the Theosophical Society, which had been founded in 1875 to further universal brotherhood, and which was devoted to the study of Buddhist and Hindu literature.
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^ Influenced by Salt’s book, he joined the Vegetarian Society, was elected to its executive committee[10], and started a local Bayswater chapter.
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[74] During this period, the young Gandhi became inspired by many great minds and was befriended by the chairman of the London Vegetarian Society, Dr. Josiah Oldfield.
.Having also read and admired the work of Henry Stephens Salt, the young Mohandas met and often corresponded with the vegetarian campaigner.^ Having also read and admired the work of Henry Stephens Salt , the young Mohandas met and often corresponded with the vegetarian campaigner.
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.Gandhi spent much time advocating vegetarianism during and after his time in London.^ Gandhi spent much time advocating vegetarianism during and after his time in London.
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^ It is worth noting that during Gandhi's time, the term Kaffir had a different connotation than its present-day usage .
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^ Madeleine Slade (known as "Mirabehn") was the daughter of a British admiral who spent much of her adult life in India as a devotee of Gandhi.
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.To Gandhi, a vegetarian diet would not only satisfy the requirements of the body, it would also serve an economic purpose as meat was, and still is, generally more expensive than grains, vegetables, and fruits.^ Only I wanted to say that the London Missionary Society was a liberal body and would not make an irresponsible statement.
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^ It was more than I could believe that Jesus was the only incarnate son of God, and that only he who believed in him would have everlasting life.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An idea that is developed and put into action is more important than an idea that exists only as an idea.
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.Also, many Indians of the time struggled with low income, thus vegetarianism was seen not only as a spiritual practice but also a practical one.^ Also, many Indians of the time struggled with low income, thus vegetarianism was seen not only as a spiritual practice but also a practical one.
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^ And as one Nation under God, we know that many times our most powerful tool is prayer.
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^ I am one of the multitudes having practically travelled more than half a dozen times all over India and have not seen any transformation on the scale described by Dr. Pickett, and certainly none of recent date.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.He abstained from eating for long periods, using fasting as a form of political protest.^ As a pacifist he used fasting as a protest, as well as to attempt to unite opposing factions.
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.He refused to eat until his death or his demands were met.^ He refused to eat until his death or his demands were met.
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.It was noted in his autobiography that vegetarianism was the beginning of his deep commitment to Brahmacharya; without total control of the palate, his success in Bramacharya would likely falter.^ It was noted in his autobiography that vegetarianism was the beginning of his deep commitment to Brahmacharya ; without total control of the palate, his success in Bramacharya would likely falter.
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.For much of his adult life, Gandhi was a fruitarian, stating in his autobiography, "I decided to live on a pure fruit diet, and that too composed of the cheapest fruit possible ...^ Anyone who WANTS to “live” off of nothing but welfare gets the life they deserve, and it’s not much of one.
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^ To live a pure unselfish life, one must count nothing as one's own in the midst of abundance.
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Raw groundnuts, bananas, dates, lemons and olive oil composed our usual diet."[75] .However, late in life he broke his discipline and started taking goat's milk on the advice of his doctor.^ Every man, however wise, needs the advice of some sagacious friend in the affairs of life.
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.This lapse of discipline bothered him to his dying day, and he wrote, "The memory of this action even now rankles my breast and fills me with remorse, and I am constantly thinking how to give up goat's milk."^ The Father persisted, But if Indians begin to believe in one God and give up idolatry, dont you think the whole difficulty will be solved?
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^ I don’t see a need to justify my actions, nor do I even need a reason to do things at times, sometimes I just do something because I can.
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^ (William Tecumseh Sherman) God grant me the courage not to give up what I think is right even though I think it is hopeless.
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.He never took dairy products obtained from cows because of his view initially that milk is not the natural diet of man, disgust for cow blowing,[76] and, specifically, because of a vow to his late mother.^ Service Affirmations Man can never be a woman's equal in the spirit of selfless service with which nature has endowed her.
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^ (Ghandi) Man can never be a woman's equal in the spirit of selfless service with which nature has endowed her.
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Brahmacharya

.When Gandhi was 16 his father became very ill.^ When Gandhi was 16 his father became very ill.
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.Being very devoted to his parents, he attended to his father at all times during his illness.^ Being very devoted to his parents, he attended to his father at all times during his illness.
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.However, one night, Gandhi's uncle came to relieve Gandhi for a while.^ However, one night, Gandhi's uncle came to relieve Gandhi for a while.
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He retired to his bedroom where carnal desires overcame him and he made love to his wife. .Shortly afterward a servant came to report that Gandhi's father had just died.^ In 1885, when Gandhi was 15, the couple’s first child was born, but survived only a few days; Gandhi’s father, Karamchand Gandhi, had died earlier that year.
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.Gandhi felt tremendous guilt and never could forgive himself.^ I have never felt a feeling of guilt in my life, regret yes, but not guilt.
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He came to refer to this event as "double shame." The incident had significant influence in Gandhi becoming celibate at the age of 36, while still married.[77]
.This decision was deeply influenced by the philosophy of Brahmacharya — spiritual and practical purity — largely associated with celibacy and asceticism.^ In the many essays he wrote on the principles and practices of Hinduism, we find him affirming not only the fundamentals of Hindu spirituality but also the framework of Hindu culture and social philosophy.
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.Gandhi saw Brahmacharya as a means of becoming close with God and as a primary foundation for self realization.^ Gandhi saw Brahmacharya as a means of becoming close with God and as a primary foundation for self realization.
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In his autobiography he tells of his battle against lustful urges and fits of jealousy with his childhood bride, Kasturba. He felt it his personal obligation to remain celibate so that he could learn to love, rather than lust. .For Gandhi, Brahmacharya meant "control of the senses in thought, word and deed."^ For Gandhi, Brahmacharya meant "control of the senses in thought, word and deed."
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^ According to Gandhi active-celibacy meant perfect self control in the presence of opposite sex.
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^ All men are brothers : life and thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi as told in his own words / compiled and edited by Krishna Kripalani ; introduced by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.

[78].
.Towards the end of his life, it became public knowledge that Gandhi had been sharing his bed for a number of years with young women.^ Towards the end of his life, it became public knowledge that Gandhi had been sharing his bed for a number of years with young women.
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^ Gandhi conducted his experiments with a number of women such as Abha, the sixteen year old wife of his grandnephew Kanu Gandhi.
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^ Gandhi had earlier written to her father, Jaisukhlal Gandhi, that Manu had started to share his bed so that he may "correct her sleeping posture".
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[79][80] .He explained that he did this for bodily warmth at night and termed his actions as "nature cure". Later in his life he started experimenting with brahmacharya in order to test his self control.^ Later in his life he started experimenting with brahmacharya in order to test his self control.
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^ He explained that he did this for bodily warmth at night and termed his actions as "nature cure".
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^ Gandhi explains his philosophy and way of life in his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth .
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.His letter to Birla in April, 1945 referring to 'women or girls who have been naked with me' indicates that several women were part of his experiments.^ His letter to Birla in April, 1945 referring to 'women or girls who have been naked with me' indicates that several women were part of his experiments.
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^ As part of these experiments, he initially slept with his women associates in the same room but at a distance.
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[81] .He wrote five editorials in Harijan discussing the practice of brahmacharya.^ He wrote five editorials in Harijan discussing the practice of brahmacharya.
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[82]
As part of these experiments, he initially slept with his women associates in the same room but at a distance. .Afterwards he started to lie in the same bed with his women disciples and later took to sleeping naked alongside them .^ Afterwards he started to lie in the same bed with his women disciples and later took to sleeping naked alongside them .
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^ Gandhi had earlier written to her father, Jaisukhlal Gandhi, that Manu had started to share his bed so that he may "correct her sleeping posture".
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[83] .According to Gandhi active-celibacy meant perfect self control in the presence of opposite sex.^ According to Gandhi active-celibacy meant perfect self control in the presence of opposite sex.
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^ Main article: Swaraj Gandhi was a self-described philosophical anarchist , [ 95 ] [ 96 ] and his vision of India meant India without an underlying government.
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^ For Gandhi, Brahmacharya meant "control of the senses in thought, word and deed."
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.Gandhi conducted his experiments with a number of women such as Abha, the sixteen year old wife of his grandnephew Kanu Gandhi.^ Gandhi conducted his experiments with a number of women such as Abha, the sixteen year old wife of his grandnephew Kanu Gandhi.
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^ His nineteen year old grandniece, Manu Gandhi, too was part of his experiments.
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^ I admire such wisdom and reflection from a fourteen-year-old.

.Gandhi acknowledged "that this experiment is very dangerous indeed", but thought "that it was capable of yielding great results".[84] His nineteen year old grandniece, Manu Gandhi, too was part of his experiments.^ My regard for the life of Jesus is indeed very great...
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Gandhi had earlier written to her father, Jaisukhlal Gandhi, that Manu had started to share his bed so that he may "correct her sleeping posture".[84] Gandhi saw himself as a mother to these women and would refer to Abha and Manu as "my walking sticks".
.Gandhi called Sarladevi, a married woman with children and a devout follower, his "spiritual wife". He later said that he had come close to having sexual relations with her.^ Gandhi was called to the bar on June 10, 1891 and left London for India on June 12, 1891,[4] where he learned that his mother had died while he was in London, his family having kept the news from him.
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[85] .He had told a correspondent in March, 1945 that "sleeping together came with my taking up of bramhacharya or even before that"; he said he had experimented with his wife "but that was not enough".[84] Gandhi felt satisfied with his experiments and wrote to Manu that "I have successfully practiced the eleven vows taken by me.^ He wrote a foreword to it on March 21, 1945.
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^ Story of my experiments with truth / by M. K. Gandhi ; translated from the original in Gujarati by Mahadev Desai.

^ I cut through my cheese and mushroom pizza and look up while taking a bite.

.This is the culmination of my striving for last thirty six years.^ This is the culmination of my striving for last thirty six years.
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In this yajna I got a glimpse of the ideal truth and purity for which I have been striving".
Gandhi had to take criticism for his experiments by many of his followers and opponents. .His stenographer, R. P. Parasuram, resigned when he saw Gandhi sleeping naked with Manu.^ His stenographer, R. P. Parasuram, resigned when he saw Gandhi sleeping naked with Manu.
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^ Gandhi saw himself as a mother to these women and would refer to Abha and Manu as "my walking sticks".
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^ Gandhi had earlier written to her father, Jaisukhlal Gandhi, that Manu had started to share his bed so that he may "correct her sleeping posture".
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[86] .Gandhi insisted that he never felt aroused while he slept beside her, or with Sushila or Abha.^ Gandhi insisted that he never felt aroused while he slept beside her, or with Sushila or Abha.
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^ Gandhi felt tremendous guilt and never could forgive himself.
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."I am sorry" Gandhi said to Parasuram, "you are at liberty to leave me today."^ Before leaving, the professor said, But I have great respect for you.
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.Nirmal Kumar Bose, another close associate of Gandhi, parted company with him in April, 1947 post Gandhi's tour of Noakhali, where some sort of altercation had taken place between Gandhi and Sushila Nayar in his bedroom at midnight that caused Gandhi to slap his forehead.^ My days with Gandhi / by Nirmal Kumar Bose.

^ My days with Gandhi / Nirmal Kumar Bose.

^ Nirmal Kumar Bose, another close associate of Gandhi, parted company with him in April, 1947 post Gandhi's tour of Noakhali, where some sort of altercation had taken place between Gandhi and Sushila Nayar in his bedroom at midnight that caused Gandhi to slap his forehead.
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Bose had stated that the nature of his experiments in bramhacharya still remained unknown and unstated.[86][87]
.N. K. Bose, who stayed close to Gandhi during his Noakhali tour, testified that "there was no immorality on part of Gandhi.^ N. K. Bose, who stayed close to Gandhi during his Noakhali tour, testified that "there was no immorality on part of Gandhi.
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^ Nirmal Kumar Bose, another close associate of Gandhi, parted company with him in April, 1947 post Gandhi's tour of Noakhali, where some sort of altercation had taken place between Gandhi and Sushila Nayar in his bedroom at midnight that caused Gandhi to slap his forehead.
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^ In April 1918, during the latter part of World War I , Gandhi was invited by the Viceroy to a War Conference in Delhi.
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.Moreover Gandhi tried to conquer the feeling of sex by consciously endeavouring to convert himself into a mother of those who were under his case, whether men or women". Dattatreya Balkrishna Kalelkar, a revolutionary turned disciple of Gandhi, used to say that Gandhi's "relationships with women were, from beginning to end, as pure as mother's milk".[88].^ Converts are those who are born again or should be.
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^ He who turns his enemy into a friend.
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^ Not statistics, but men, women and children, old people, brothers, sisters, fathers, mothers and grand parents.

Simplicity

.Gandhi earnestly believed that a person involved in public service should lead a simple life.^ Gandhiji: If a person wants to believe in the Bible let him say so, but why should he disregard his own religion?
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He first displayed this principle when he gave up wearing western-style clothing, which he associated with wealth and success. .When he returned to India he renounced the western lifestyle he lead in South Africa, where he had enjoyed a successful legal practice.^ When he returned to India he renounced the western lifestyle he lead in South Africa, where he had enjoyed a successful legal practice.
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^ Though unable to halt the bill's passage, his campaign was successful in drawing attention to the grievances of Indians in South Africa.
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^ See also: Indian Independence Movement In 1915, Gandhi returned from South Africa to live in India.
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Gandhi dressed to be accepted by the poorest person in India, advocating the use of homespun cloth (khadi). .He and his followers adopted the practice of weaving their own clothes from thread they themselves spun, and encouraged others to do so.^ He and his followers adopted the practice of weaving their own clothes from thread they themselves spun, and encouraged others to do so.
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^ The practice of giving up unnecessary expenditure, embracing a simple lifestyle and washing his own clothes, Gandhi called "reducing himself to zero".
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^ But by establishing hospitals, schools and other institutions, they attracted our children and men, and our people left their own religion and embraced Christianity.
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.While Indian workers were often idle due to unemployment, they had often bought their clothing from industrial manufacturers owned by British interests.^ An Englishmen defended Bishop Hebers song on the ground that the song did not refer to Indians but to Christians and that they described themselves in their songs very often as the worst of sinners.
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^ If one does so because they see it to be in their own interest, then I do not believe it to be merely altruistic, but egoistic as well.
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.It was Gandhi's view that if Indians made their own clothes, it would deal an economic blow to the British establishment in India.^ It was Gandhi's view that if Indians made their own clothes, it would deal an economic blow to the British establishment in India.
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^ Nonetheless, they accepted Gandhi's offer to let a detachment of Indians volunteer as a stretcher bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers.
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^ The practice of giving up unnecessary expenditure, embracing a simple lifestyle and washing his own clothes, Gandhi called "reducing himself to zero".
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.Consequently, the spinning wheel was later incorporated into the flag of the Indian National Congress.^ Congress ideology and programme, 1920-47; ideological foundations of Indian nationalism during the Gandhian era, by P. D. Kaushik.

^ Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress : studies in Gandhi's contribution to the development of the Indian National Congress / edited by S.L. Malhotra.

.He subsequently wore a dhoti for the rest of his life to express the simplicity of his life.^ He subsequently wore a dhoti for the rest of his life to express the simplicity of his life.
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.The practice of giving up unnecessary expenditure, embracing a simple lifestyle and washing his own clothes, Gandhi called "reducing himself to zero".[89] On one occasion he returned the gifts bestowed to him from the Natals for his diligent service to the community.^ The practice of giving up unnecessary expenditure, embracing a simple lifestyle and washing his own clothes, Gandhi called "reducing himself to zero".
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^ On one occasion he returned the gifts bestowed to him from the Natals for his diligent service to the community.
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^ Forgiveness Affirmations One who is injured ought not to return the injury, for on no account can it be right to do an injustice; and it is not right to return an injury, or to do evil to any man, however much we have suffered from him.
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[90]
.Gandhi spent one day of each week in silence.^ Gandhi spent one day of each week in silence.
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.He believed that abstaining from speaking brought him inner peace.^ He believed that abstaining from speaking brought him inner peace .
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.This influence was drawn from the Hindu principles of mauna (Sanskrit:मौनं — silence) and shanti (Sanskrit:शांति — peace).^ This influence was drawn from the Hindu principles of mauna ( Sanskrit : मौनं — silence) and shanti ( Sanskrit : शांति — peace).
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^ Christian missionaries had been propagating that the Reform Movement in Hinduism as well as Gandhijis doctrine of Satyagraha were influenced by the principles of Christianity.
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.On such days he communicated with others by writing on paper.^ On such days he communicated with others by writing on paper.
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^ It cost about 20000 reals or under £5000, donated by the church and collected from community intiative such as selling shirts and other products.

^ But I was told the other day that the Bible condemns such conduct.
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.For three and a half years, from the age of 37, Gandhi refused to read newspapers, claiming that the tumultuous state of world affairs caused him more confusion than his own inner unrest.^ For three and a half years, from the age of 37, Gandhi refused to read newspapers, claiming that the tumultuous state of world affairs caused him more confusion than his own inner unrest.
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^ Nothing can be more miraculous than the three years of his ministry.
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^ At the same time, they state, "Gandhi's experiences in jail seemed to make him more sensitive to their plight...the later Gandhi mellowed; he seemed much less categorical in his expression of prejudice against Africans, and much more open to seeing points of common cause.
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After reading John Ruskin's Unto This Last, he decided to change his lifestyle and create a commune called Phoenix Settlement.

Faith

.Gandhi was born a Hindu and practised Hinduism all his life, deriving most of his principles from Hinduism.^ Hinduism believes in the oneness not of merely all human life but in the oneness of all that lives.
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^ All men are brothers : life and thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi as told in his own words / compiled and edited by Krishna Kripalani ; introduced by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.

.As a common Hindu, he believed all religions to be equal, and rejected all efforts to convert him to a different faith.^ Crane asked him if he regarded Hinduism as a synthesis of all religions.
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^ As a common Hindu, he believed all religions to be equal, and rejected all efforts to convert him to a different faith.
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^ For us who believe in the equality of all religions, the birth of Jesus Christ is as worthy of veneration as that of Rama, Krishna, etc.
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.He was an avid theologian and read extensively about all major religions.^ He was an avid theologian and read extensively about all major religions.
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^ Reply charro the Floydist says: September 20, 2009 at 12:39 pm I’ve read many things about Sanger and I am not shocked at all.
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^ What has caused confusion and misunderstanding about his Hinduism is the concept of sarva-dharma-samabhAva (equal regard for all religions) which he had developed after deep reflection.
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He had the following to say about Hinduism:
.
Hinduism as I know it entirely satisfies my soul, fills my whole being...When doubts haunt me, when disappointments stare me in the face, and when I see not one ray of light on the horizon, I turn to the Bhagavad Gita, and find a verse to comfort me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming sorrow.^ Hinduism as I know it entirely satisfies my soul, fills my whole being...When doubts haunt me, when disappointments stare me in the face, and when I see not one ray of light on the horizon, I turn to the Bhagavad Gita , and find a verse to comfort me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming sorrow.
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^ Not that I do not prize the ideal presented therein, not that some of the precious teachings in the Sermon on the Mount have not left a deep impression upon me, but I must confess to you that when doubts haunt me, when disappointments stare me in the face, and when I see not one ray of light on the horizon I turn to the Bhagavad Gita, and find a verse to comfort me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming sorrow.
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^ I must tell you in all humility that Hinduism as I know it, entirely satisfies my.
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My life has been full of tragedies and if they have not left any visible and indelible effect on me, I owe it to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita.
Gandhi Smriti (The house Gandhi lodged in the last 4 months of his life has now become a monument, New Delhi)
.Gandhi wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita in Gujarati.^ Gandhi Smriti (The house Gandhi lodged in the last 4 months of his life has now become a monument, New Delhi) Gandhi wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita in Gujarati .
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^ Gandhi usually wrote in Gujarati, though he also revised the Hindi and English translations of his books.
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^ They encouraged Gandhi to join them in reading the Bhagavad Gita both in translation as well as in the original.
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.The Gujarati manuscript was translated into English by Mahadev Desai, who provided an additional introduction and commentary.^ The Gujarati manuscript was translated into English by Mahadev Desai, who provided an additional introduction and commentary.
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^ Translated from the original in Gujarati by Mahadev Desai.

^ Translation of the original in Gujarati, with an additional introduction and commentary, by Mahadev Desai.

It was published with a Foreword by Gandhi in 1946.[91][92]
.Gandhi believed that at the core of every religion was truth and love (compassion, nonviolence and the Golden Rule).^ Gandhi believed that at the core of every religion was truth and love (compassion, nonviolence and the Golden Rule ).
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^ Gandhi's truth; on the origins of militant nonviolence.

^ Gandhi's truth on the origins of militant nonviolence / Erik H. Erikson.

.He also questioned what he saw as hypocrisy, malpractices, and dogma in all religions, including his own, and he was a tireless advocate for social reform in religion.^ He also questioned what he saw as hypocrisy, malpractices, and dogma in all religions, including his own, and he was a tireless advocate for social reform in religion.
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^ One's own religion is after all a matter between oneself and one's Maker and no one else's.
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^ Krzenskis claim that he had studied and compared all religions and found his own to be the best, did not impress Gandhiji for whom religion was not a matter of intellectual examination.
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Some of his comments on various religions are:
.
Thus if I could not accept Christianity either as a perfect, or the greatest religion, neither was I then convinced of Hinduism being such.^ It was impossible for me to regard Christianity as a perfect religion or the greatest of all religions.
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^ Thus if I could not accept Christianity either as a perfect, or the greatest religion, neither was I then convinced of Hinduism being such.
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^ I am convinced that we shall find neither peace nor goodwill among men and women through strife among men of different religions, through disputation among them.
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Hindu defects were pressingly visible to me. .If untouchability could be a part of Hinduism, it could but be a rotten part or an excrescence.^ He could not understand how untouchability could be a part of Hinduism.
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^ If untouchability could be a part of Hinduism, it could but be a rotten part or an excrescence.
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^ One could understand the attack on untouchability and many other errors that have crept into Hindu life.
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I could not understand the raison d'être of a multitude of sects and castes. .What was the meaning of saying that the Vedas were the inspired Word of God?^ A large graffiti covering the wall ahead of us as we enter says “Borelouvando”, which is a play on words meaning ‘praise to the lord’.

^ So, these gooks have twisted the whole meaning of the word God Father into something of a person who is dead and revered for his sacrifices..

.If they were inspired, why not also the Bible and the Koran?^ Gandhiji said that if the questioner believed that these were the inspired words in the Bible, then he was called upon to obey implicitly - why did he ask a non-Christian for his interpretation?
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.As Christian friends were endeavouring to convert me, so were Muslim friends.^ I have friends who are atheist, catholic, christian, jewish, and muslim.
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^ As not only his Christian but also Muslim friends were trying to convert him, he wanted to know more about Hinduism.
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^ The fourth question was as to what should be done with Hindu boys and girls who have been brought up and converted in Christian or Muslim orphanages and who now approach us for shuddhi .
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.Abdullah Seth had kept on inducing me to study Islam, and of course he had always something to say regarding its beauty.
As soon as we lose the moral basis, we cease to be religious.^ Reply PortlandMark says: September 20, 2009 at 6:12 am Well, of course, Nazis were still a few decades in the future for Gandhi.
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^ If I did not do so, you would always be patronizing me, as many Christians do now, saying, How nice it would be if Gandhi accepted Christianity, and Muslims would be doing the same, saying, How nice it would be if Gandhi accepted Islam!
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^ And YES, of course I am saying that giving to charities is morally questionable.
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.There is no such thing as religion over-riding morality.^ But there was no such thing.

^ He concluded, In the spiritual sphere, there is no such thing as right.
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^ There is no religion that is absolutely perfect.
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Man, for instance, cannot be untruthful, cruel or incontinent and claim to have God on his side.
The sayings of Muhammad are a treasure of wisdom, not only for Muslims but for all of mankind.
I like your Christ, I do not like your Christians.
Later in his life, when he was asked whether he was a Hindu, he replied, "Yes I am. I am also a Christian, a Muslim, a Buddhist and a Jew."
.In spite of their deep reverence to each other, Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore engaged in protracted debates more than once.^ Therefore work is of more value than money, and not the other way round.

^ To me all social actions are nothing more than tools and constructs, any other meanings I am incapable of understanding beyond a technical level.
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^ More redistribution of wealth occurred during the Bush administration than during any other presidency I’m aware of.
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These debates exemplify the philosophical differences between the two most famous Indians at the time. On 15 January 1934, an earthquake hit Bihar and caused extensive damage and loss of life. .Gandhi maintained this was because of the sin committed by upper caste Hindus by not letting untouchables in their temples (Gandhi was committed to the cause of improving the fate of untouchables, referring to them as Harijans, people of Krishna).^ Caste must go and the sin of untouchability.

^ This proclamation had opened Hindu temples to Harijans.
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^ He wrote in the Young India of March 18, 1933, that Christian Harijans should be a contradiction in terms because untouchability was regarded as a special curse of Hinduism.
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.Tagore vehemently opposed Gandhi's stance, maintaining that an earthquake can only be caused by natural forces, not moral reasons, however repugnant the practice of untouchability may be.^ He concludes: The foregoing survey substantiates that, however unacknowledged, Gandhi did leave a stamp on missiological thought and practice in his life, for a time at least on the Indian scene.
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^ It was very powerful and the right thing to do in the case of India VS Britian because the only reason the Brits were in India was because they thought they had the moral right to rule.
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[93]
Gandhi took a keen interest in theosophy. He empathized with theosophy's message of "universal brotherhood and consequent toleration", as he put it in 1926.[94]

Swaraj

Gandhi was a self-described philosophical anarchist,[95][96] and his vision of India meant India without an underlying government.[97] He once said that "the ideally nonviolent state would be an ordered anarchy."[98] .While political systems are largely hierarchical, with each layer of authority from the individual to the central government have increasing levels of authority over the layer below, Gandhi believed that society should be the exact opposite, where nothing is done without the consent of anyone, down to the individual.^ I believe that the entire effort of modern society should be concentrated on the endeavor to outlaw war as a method of the solution of problems between nations.
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^ War...should only be declared by the authority of the people...instead of the government which is to reap its fruits.
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^ There is nothing “right” about taking and spending other people’s money without their consent.
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.His idea was that true self-rule in a country means that every person rules his or herself and that there is no state which enforces laws upon the people.^ As for Jesus raising the dead to life, well, I doubt if the men he raised were really dead The laws of Nature are changeless, unchangeable, and there are no miracles in the sense of infringement or interruption of Natures laws.
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^ Gandhiji published the circular letter in the Harijan dated March 9, 1940 and commented, If what is stated here is true, it enforces the argument often advanced by me that Christian missionary effort has been favoured by the ruling power.
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^ But ultimately I came to the deliberate conviction that there was no such thing as only one true religion, every other being false.
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[99][100] This would be achieved over time with nonviolent conflict mediation, as power is divested from layers of hierarchical authorities, ultimately to the individual, which would come to embody the ethic of nonviolence. .Rather than a system where rights are enforced by a higher authority, people are self-governed by mutual responsibilities.^ Reply No1askedme says: September 20, 2009 at 1:52 pm Yeah, you’re completely right, but I can’t help but feel people are protesting his ideology rather than his decisions.
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^ What needs to change is the culture of these politicians, these governments, so that they understand that the people have rights, and that all investments should be made in light of this fact.” .

^ I generally applaud buddhism for preaching acceptance, rather than the nebulous “tolerance”, but i suppose some people are just THAT CRAZY! .
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.On returning from South Africa, when Gandhi received a letter asking for his participation in writing a world charter for human rights, he responded saying, "in my experience, it is far more important to have a charter for human duties."^ Isildo says: September 21, 2009 at 1:12 pm My aunt once put on a resume that she had lots of experience in pubic relations.
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^ The text draws upon both the experience of the international human rights system over the last 50 years, and more recent scholarship by social scientists”.

^ Either way I am denied my basic human rights.

.[101] A free India for him meant the existence of thousands of self sufficient small communities (an idea possibly from Tolstoy) who rule themselves without hindering others.^ His father, Karamchand Gandhi (1822-1885), who belonged to the Hindu Modh community, was the diwan (Prime Minister) of the eponymous Porbander state, a small princely state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India.
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^ We are becoming self-sufficient within our community.

^ Their system encourages creativity and entrepreneurship on a fair playing field, with the objective of self-sufficiency and sustainability within their environment and community.

.It did not mean merely transferring a British established administrative structure into Indian hands which he said was just making Hindustan into Englistan.^ Missionary service institutions, on the other hand, are established with a view to weaning Indians from their ancestral faith even as expounded by Vivekananda and Radha-krishnan.
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^ I must add, he said, that I did not stop at studying the Bible and the commentaries and other books on Christianity that my friends placed in my hands; but I said to myself, if I was to find my satisfaction through reasoning, I must study the scriptures of other religions also and make my choice.
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^ However, I did not encounter any Catholics in positions of power at the time–that doesn’t mean there were none, just none in the areas where I have read.
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[102] .He wanted to ultimately dissolve the Congress Party after independence and establish a system of direct democracy in India,[103] having no faith in the British styled parliamentary system.^ We have a bicameral congress because when the constitution was being written, small states wanted a senate with 2 representatives from each state, while bigger states wanted a true representative democracy with delegates from each state based on population.
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^ The missionary wanted to know whether the freedom they were having under the British regime would be allowed to them under the national Government without any interference.
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^ India stands in no need of conversion from one faith to another.
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[102]

Literary works

Young India, a journal published by Gandhi
Gandhi was a prolific writer. For decades he edited several newspapers including Harijan in Gujarati, Hindi and English; Indian Opinion while in South Africa and, Young India, in English, and Navajivan, a Gujarati monthly, on his return to India. Later Navajivan was also published in Hindi.[104] In addition, he wrote letters almost every day to individuals and newspapers.
.Gandhi also wrote several books including his autobiography, An Autobiography of My Experiments with Truth, Satyagraha in South Africa about his struggle there, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule, a political pamphlet, and a paraphrase in Gujarati of John Ruskin's Unto This Last.^ Story of my experiments with truth / by M. K. Gandhi ; translated from the original in Gujarati by Mahadev Desai.

^ Autobiography, the story of my experiments with truth.

^ Gandhi and South Africa : perspectives and prospects.

[105] This last essay can be considered his program on economics. He also wrote extensively on vegetarianism, diet and health, religion, social reforms, etc. Gandhi usually wrote in Gujarati, though he also revised the Hindi and English translations of his books.
.Gandhi's complete works were published by the Indian government under the name The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi in the 1960s.^ And the tactics Gandhi used would have only worked against a just government.
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^ Footnotes: 1 The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi , Volume 39, New Delhi, 1970, p.
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The writings comprise about 50,000 pages published in about a hundred volumes. .In 2000, a revised edition of the complete works sparked a controversy, as Gandhian followers argue that the government incorporated the changes for political purposes.^ It is argued that such a ‘just system’ of governance would manage public politics in a way that would best meet the demands of its people.

The Indian government later withdrew the revised edition.[106]

Legacy and depictions in popular culture

.The word Mahatma, while often mistaken for Gandhi's given name in the West, is taken from the Sanskrit words maha meaning Great and atma meaning Soul.^ Mahatma Gandhi, a great life in brief.

^ Great Soul; the growth of Gandhi.

^ Sarva-dharma-samabhAva was unknown to mainstream Hinduism before Mahatma Gandhi presented it as one of the sixteen mahAvratas (great vows).
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Rabindranath Tagore is said to have accorded or popularised the title for Gandhi.[107] In his autobiography, Gandhi nevertheless explains that he never valued the title, and was often pained by it.[108]

Followers and influence

Gandhi influenced important leaders and political movements. .Leaders of the civil rights movement in the United States, including Martin Luther King and James Lawson, drew from the writings of Gandhi in the development of their own theories about non-violence.^ He was the one of the leaders and visionaries during the active movements of civil society in the early nineties.

^ Martin Luther King, Jr) A coward is incapable of exhibiting love; it is the prerogative of the brave.
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^ Also, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., looked up to Gandhi and was greatly influenced by his methods.
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[109][110][111] .Anti-apartheid activist and former President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela, was inspired by Gandhi.^ Gandhi and South Africa : perspectives and prospects.

^ Gandhi in South Africa, British imperialism and the Indian question, 1860-1914 / by Robert A. Huttenback.

^ The dialogue started in 1893 when Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi reached South Africa as a barrister and discovered that the Christians who befriended him were looking forward to his conversion.
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[20] Others include Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan,[112] Steve Biko, Aung San Suu Kyi [113] and Philippine opposition leader during the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, Benigno Aquino, Jr.
"Christ gave us the goals and Mahatma Gandhi the tactics." - Martin Luther King Jr, 1955 [114]
.Gandhi's life and teachings inspired many who specifically referred to Gandhi as their mentor or who dedicated their lives to spreading Gandhi's ideas.^ He quoted Christ about Preach and Teach and said, The whole Christian religion is the religion of sharing our life, and how can we share without supplementing our lives with words.
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^ Jewel of humanity, life of Mahatma Gandhi, and Light of truth: his teachings.

^ Anyone who WANTS to “live” off of nothing but welfare gets the life they deserve, and it’s not much of one.
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.In Europe, Romain Rolland was the first to discuss Gandhi in his 1924 book Mahatma Gandhi, and Brazilian anarchist and feminist Maria Lacerda de Moura wrote about Gandhi in her work on pacifism.^ Collected works of Mahatma Gandhi.

^ Day book of thoughts from Mahatma Gandhi, .

^ Selected works of Mahatma Gandhi.

.In 1931, notable European physicist Albert Einstein exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a later writing about him.^ Gandhiji referred him to Bishop Picketts claim about conversions in the Telegu country and Travancore, and the Church Missionary Societys call for funds.
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^ About the quote : as written in a letter to Thomas Jefferson.
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^ Bunch of old letters written mostly to Jawaharlal Nehru and some written by him.

[115] .Lanza del Vasto went to India in 1936 intending to live with Gandhi; he later returned to Europe to spread Gandhi's philosophy and founded the Community of the Ark in 1948 (modeled after Gandhi's ashrams).^ Philosophy Gandhi, Mahatma, 1869-1948.

^ Reply Joe says: September 20, 2009 at 6:38 am Technically, Gandhi died in 1948, India became independent in 1947, and WWII ended in 1945.
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.Madeleine Slade (known as "Mirabehn") was the daughter of a British admiral who spent much of her adult life in India as a devotee of Gandhi.^ His father, Karamchand Gandhi (1822-1885), who belonged to the Hindu Modh community, was the diwan (Prime Minister) of the eponymous Porbander state, a small princely state in the Kathiawar Agency of British India.
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^ Anyone who WANTS to “live” off of nothing but welfare gets the life they deserve, and it’s not much of one.
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^ John 3, 16 says, For God loved the world so much that he sent his only Son so that everyone who believes in him may not die but have eternal life.
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.In addition, the British musician John Lennon referred to Gandhi when discussing his views on non-violence.^ Gandhi and Non-violence / by William Borman.

^ Science of the soul force or Mahatma Gandhi's doctrine of truth & non-violence.

^ Gandhi against Machiavellism; non-violence in politics.

[116] .At the Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival in 2007, former U.S. Vice-President and environmentalist Al Gore spoke of Gandhi's influence on him.^ Gandhi on world affairs; a survey of Gandhian influence on international and intercultural relations.

[117] Finally, prior to becoming President of the United States, then-Senator Barack Obama noted that:
.Throughout my life, I have always looked to Mahatma Gandhi as an inspiration, because he embodies the kind of transformational change that can be made when ordinary people come together to do extraordinary things.^ Mahatma Gandhi, a great life in brief.

^ My appeal to the British / by Mahatma Gandhi ...

^ Sword of gold; a life of Mahatma Gandhi, .

.That is why his portrait hangs in my Senate office: to remind me that real results will come not just from Washington – they will come from the people.^ To me they are just nice people very much like myself and my brothers and sisters and friends.
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^ It is still hard to come to terms with the fact that Ari, who in my eyes is as good a man as can be, who is loved and respected by the people of his community, is a criminal in the eyes of the Law.

^ As a result, he said, high-caste people are now coming into the church, literally by dozens of hundreds, in areas where this transformation of life has occurred among the untouchables.
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[118]
.Obama at the Wakefield High School speech in Sept 2009, said that his biggest inspiration came from Mahatma Gandhi.^ At his middle school in Porbandar and high school in Rajkot, Gandhi remained an average student academically.
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^ Reply Parry137 says: September 20, 2009 at 1:02 pm Mahatma Gandhi ki jai .
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.It was when a question posed on him as 'who was the one person, dead or live, that he would choose to dine with?'^ Gandhiji replied that it would be easier for him if Mr. Paul could formulate some questions to which he could reply.
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^ Forgiveness Affirmations One who is injured ought not to return the injury, for on no account can it be right to do an injustice; and it is not right to return an injury, or to do evil to any man, however much we have suffered from him.
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^ Indeed, this would pose some very difficult political, legal, and social questions, to say nothing of the technical problems.
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and his quick reply was 'Gandhi!'. He continued and said that - "He's somebody I find a lot of inspiration in. He inspired Dr. King with his message of nonviolence. He ended up doing so much and changed the world just by the power of his ethics".

National holidays

.Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is a national holiday in India, Gandhi Jayanti.^ Mahatma Gandhi; essays and reflections on his life and work, presented to him on his seventieth birthday, October 2nd, 1939.

^ Gandhi : pan-Islamism, imperialism, and nationalism in India / B.R. Nanda.

On 15 June 2007, it was announced that the "United Nations General Assembly" has "unanimously adopted" a resolution declaring 2 October as "the International Day of Non-Violence."[119] India observes January 30, the day of his assassination, as Martyr's Day, to commemorate those who gave up their lives in service of the Indian nation.
.On 30 January every year, on the anniversary of the death of Mahatma Gandhi, in schools of many countries is observed the School Day of Non-violence and Peace (DENIP), founded in Spain in 1964. In countries with a Southern Hemisphere school calendar, it can be observed on 30 March or thereabouts.^ Non-violence in peace & war.

^ Day book of thoughts from Mahatma Gandhi, .

^ Mahatma Gandhi: 100 years.

Awards

Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in 1930. Gandhi was also the runner-up to Albert Einstein as "Person of the Century"[120] at the end of 1999. Time Magazine named The 14th Dalai Lama, Lech Wałęsa, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Cesar Chavez, Aung San Suu Kyi, Benigno Aquino, Jr., Desmond Tutu, and Nelson Mandela as Children of Gandhi and his spiritual heirs to non-violence.[121] The Government of India awards the annual Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizens. .Nelson Mandela, the leader of South Africa's struggle to eradicate racial discrimination and segregation, is a prominent non-Indian recipient.^ Gandhi in South Africa, British imperialism and the Indian question, 1860-1914 / by Robert A. Huttenback.

^ South Africa's freedom struggle : statements, speeches and articles including correspondence with Mahatma Gandhi / Yusuf Mohamed Dadoo ; with a foreword by Shri R. Venkataraman.

^ M. K. Gandhi and the South Africa Indian Problem / by P. J. Metha [sic].

.Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace Prize, although he was nominated five times between 1937 and 1948, including the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee,[122] though he made the short list only twice, in 1937 and 1947.[123] Decades later, the Nobel Committee publicly declared its regret for the omission, and admitted to deeply divided nationalistic opinion denying the award.^ Pierre Corneille)  The only service a friend can really render is to keep up your courage by holding up to you a mirror in which you can see a noble image of yourself.
  • Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.handcraftedcollectibles.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only service a friend can really render is to keep up your courage by holding up to you a mirror in which you can see a noble image of yourself.
  • Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.handcraftedcollectibles.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I could not then take much interest in Old Testament which I had certainly read, if only to fulfil a promise I had made to a friend whom I happened to meet in a hotel.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

.October 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Gandhi was nominated in 1948 but was assassinated before nominations closed.^ Assassination Gandhi, Mahatma, 1869-1948.

^ Reply Joe says: September 20, 2009 at 6:38 am Technically, Gandhi died in 1948, India became independent in 1947, and WWII ended in 1945.
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.That year, the committee chose not to award the peace prize stating that "there was no suitable living candidate" and later research shows that the possibility of awarding the prize posthumously to Gandhi was discussed and that the reference to no suitable living candidate was to Gandhi.^ There is no way to peace.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Dalai Lama) Where ignorance is our master, there is no possibility of real peace.
  • Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.handcraftedcollectibles.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mott lived to publish a book, The Larger Evangelism , in 1944 and share the Noble Prize for Peace with Emily Queen Balch in 1946.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

[123] When the 14th Dalai Lama was awarded the Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi."[123]

Film and literature

Mahatma Gandhi has been portrayed in film, literature, and in the theater. Ben Kingsley portrayed Gandhi in the 1982 film Gandhi. Gandhi is also a central theme in the 2006 Bollywood film Lage Raho Munna Bhai. The 2007 film, Gandhi, My Father explores the relationship between Gandhi and his son Harilal. .The 1996 film, The Making of the Mahatma, documents Gandhi's 21 years in South Africa.^ Mahatma Gandhi: 100 years.

^ Swaraj in one year [by] Mahatma Gandhi.

^ Gandhi and South Africa : perspectives and prospects.

Several biographers have undertaken the task of describing Gandhi's life. Among them are: D. G. Tendulkar with his Mahatma. .Life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in eight volumes, and Pyarelal and Sushila Nayar with their Mahatma Gandhi in 10 volumes.^ The dialogue started in 1893 when Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi reached South Africa as a barrister and discovered that the Christians who befriended him were looking forward to his conversion.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Footnotes: 1 The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi , Volume 39, New Delhi, 1970, p.
  • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wolpert, Stanley, Gandhi’s Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi.
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See also

Notes

  1. ^ Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi (1997), The Mahatma and the Poet, New Delhi: National Book Trust, India, p. 1 
  2. ^ Gandhi means "grocer" in Gujarati (L. R. Gala, Popular Combined Dictionary, English-English-Gujarati & Gujarati-Gujarati-English, Navneet), or "perfumer" in Hindi (Bhargava's Standard Illustrated Dictionary Hindi-English).
  3. ^ Fischer, Louis (1954), Gandhi:His life and message for the world, Mentor 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Tendulkar, D. G. (1951), Mahatma volume 1, Delhi: Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India 
  5. ^ Pitirim Aleksandrovich Sorokin, The ways and power of love, 2002
  6. ^ Lloyd I. Rudolph , Gandhi, the traditional roots of charisma, 1983
  7. ^ Gandhi 1940, pp. 5–7
  8. ^ Gandhi 1940, p. 9
  9. ^ Gandhi 1940, pp. 20–22
  10. ^ a b c d e f Brown, Judith M (1989), Gandhi:Prisoner of Hope, New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 22 
  11. ^ a b Fischer, Louis (1962), Essential Gandhi, New York: Random House 
  12. ^ Gandhi 1940, p. 99
  13. ^ Gandhi 1940, p. 93
  14. ^ The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. 8. p. 199. 
  15. ^ The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. 3. p. 255. 
  16. ^ The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. 2. p. 270. 
  17. ^ a b Rory Carroll, "Gandhi branded racist as Johannesburg honours freedom fighter", The Guardian, 17 October 2003.
  18. ^ The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914. Surendra Bhana and Goolam Vahed, 2005: p.44
  19. ^ The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914. Surendra Bhana and Goolam Vahed, 2005: p.45
  20. ^ a b Nelson Mandela, The Sacred Warrior: The liberator of South Africa looks at the seminal work of the liberator of India, Time Magazine, 3 January 2000.
  21. ^ The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914. Surendra Bhana and Goolam Vahed, 2005: p.149
  22. ^ Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi Vol 5 Document#393 from Gandhi: Behind the Mask of Divinity p106
  23. ^ "Sergeant Major Gandhi". Gandhism.net. http://www.gandhism.net/sergeantmajorgandhi.php. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  24. ^ Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi VOL 5 p 410
  25. ^ Gandhi: An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with Truth, trans. Mahaved Desai, (Boston, Beacon Press, 1993) p313
  26. ^ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Chronology_of_Mahatma_Gandhi%27s_life/India_1918 Chronology of Mahatma Gandhi
  27. ^ http://wikilivres.info/wiki/The_Story_of_My_Experiments_with_Truth/Part_V/Recruiting_Campaign Gandhi's Autobiography
  28. ^ a b http://www.wikilivres.info/wiki/Day_to_Day_with_Gandhi/Volume_1/Preface Day to Day with Gandhi by Mahadev Desai
  29. ^ http://www.gandhiserve.org/cwmg/VOL017.PDF 67. APPEAL FOR ENLISTMENT, NADIAD, June 22, 1918
  30. ^ http://www.gandhiserve.org/cwmg/VOL017.PDF 8. LETTER T0 J. L. MAFFEY, NADIAD, April 30, 1918
  31. ^ Gandhi's Ideas Including Selections from His Writings Andrews, C.F. (1930) Mahatma Gandhi's Ideas (Macmillan) P.133 Chapter VII The Teaching of Ahimsa
  32. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, p. 82.
  33. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, p. 89.
  34. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, p. 105.
  35. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, p. 131.
  36. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, p. 172.
  37. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, pp. 230–32.
  38. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, p. 246.
  39. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, pp. 277–81.
  40. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, pp. 283–86.
  41. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, p. 309.
  42. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, p. 318.
  43. ^ reprinted in The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas., Louis Fischer, ed., 2002 (reprint edition) pp. 106–108.
  44. ^ reprinted in The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas.Louis Fischer, ed., 2002 (reprint edition) pp. 308–9.
  45. ^ Jack, Homer. The Gandhi Reader, p. 418.
  46. ^ "The life and death of Mahatma Gandhi", on BBC News, see section "Independence and partition."
  47. ^ reprinted in The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas, Louis Fischer, ed., 2002 (reprint edition) pp. 286-288.
  48. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, p. 462.
  49. ^ Zamindar, Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali (2007). The long partition and the making of modern South Asia: refugees, boundaries, histories. Columbia University Press. pp. 37–38. ISBN 023113846. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=EfhqQLr96VgC&pg=PA34&dq=Purana+Qila. 
  50. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, pp. 464–66.
  51. ^ R. Gandhi, Patel: A Life, p. 472.
  52. ^ Vinay Lal. ‘Hey Ram’: The Politics of Gandhi’s Last Words. Humanscape 8, no. 1 (January 2001): pp. 34–38.
  53. ^ Nehru's address on Gandhi's death. Retrieved on 15 March 2007.
  54. ^ a b c d e "Gandhi's ashes to rest at sea, not in a museum" The Guardian, 16 January 2008
  55. ^ "GANDHI'S ASHES SCATTERED" The Cincinnati Post, 30 January 1997 "For reasons no one knows, a portion of the ashes was placed in a safe deposit box at a bank in Cuttack, 1,100 miles (1,800 km) southeast of New Delhi. Tushar Gandhi went to court to gain custody of the ashes after newspapers reported in 1995 that they were at the bank."
  56. ^ Ferrell, David (2001-09-27). "A Little Serenity in a City of Madness". Los Angeles Times: pp. B 2. 
  57. ^ Asirvatham, Eddy. Political Theory. S.chand. ISBN 8121903467. 
  58. ^ Bharatan Kumarappa, Editor, "For Pacifists," by M.K. Gandhi, Navajivan Publishing House, Ahmedabad, India, 1949.
  59. ^ Gandhi, Mahatma (1972). Non-violence in peace and war, 1942–[1949]. Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8240-0375-6. 
  60. ^ Louis Fischer (1950), The life of Mahatma Gandhi, Harper, p. 348, http://books.google.com/books?id=pHcGAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA348&q=%22cliffs%22 
  61. ^ Bondurant, p. 28.
  62. ^ Bondurant, p. 139.
  63. ^ reprinted in The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas., Louis Fischer, ed., 2002 (reprint edition) p. 311.
  64. ^ http://www.independent.ie/opinion/columnists/kevin-myers/armistice-day-poppycock-threatens-our-free-speech-1925850.html
  65. ^ Jack, Homer. The Gandhi Reader, pp. 319–20.
  66. ^ Jack, Homer. The Gandhi Reader, p. 322.
  67. ^ David Lewis Schaefer. What Did Gandhi Do?. National Review, 28 April 2003. Retrieved 21 March 2006; Richard Grenier. "The Gandhi Nobody Knows". Commentary Magazine. March 1983. Retrieved 21 March 2006.
  68. ^ Hertzberg, Arthur. The Zionist Idea. PA: Jewish Publications Society, 1997, pp. 463-464.; see also Gordon, Haim. "A Rejection of Spiritual Imperialism: Reflections on Buber's Letter to Gandhi." Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 22 June 1999.
  69. ^ Jack, Homer. The Gandhi Reader, Harijan, 26 November 1938, pp. 317–318.
  70. ^ Mohandas K. Gandhi. A Non-Violent Look at Conflict & Violence Published in Harijan on 26 November 1938
  71. ^ Laidlaw, James: Riches and Renunciation. Religion, economy, and society among the Jains, Oxford 1995, p. 166-169.
  72. ^ Jain Society: Some Discrepancies Between Principles And Practice. Retrieved on February 14, 2009.
  73. ^ Gandhi, Mahatma (1959). The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism. Online Books Page. http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/lookupid?key=olbp17620. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  74. ^ "International Vegetarian Union — Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869–1948)". http://www.ivu.org/history/gandhi/. 
  75. ^ Gokhale's Charity, My Experiments with Truth, M.K. Gandhi.
  76. ^ The Rowlatt Bills and my Dilemma, My Experiments with Truth, M.K. Gandhi.
  77. ^ "Time magazine people of the century". Time.com. http://www.time.com/time/time100/poc/magazine/mohandas_gandhi12b.html. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  78. ^ The Story of My Experiments with Truth — An Autobiography, p. 176.
  79. ^ Birkett, Dea; Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, Lloyd I Rudolph. Gandhi: The Traditional Roots of Charisma. Orient Longman, 56. ISBN 0002160056
  80. ^ Caplan, Pat; Patricia Caplan (1987). The Cultural construction of sexuality. Routledge, 278. ISBN 0415040132
  81. ^ a b Parekh, Bhikhu C. (1999). Colonialism, Tradition and Reform: An Analysis of Gandhi's Political Discourse. Sage, 210. ISBN 0761993835.
  82. ^ Kumar, Girja (1997). The Book on Trial: Fundamentalism and Censorship in India. Har-Anand Publications, 98. ISBN 8124105251.
  83. ^ ^ a b Parekh, Bhikhu C. (1999). Colonialism, Tradition and Reform: An Analysis of Gandhi's Political Discourse. Sage, 210. ISBN 0761993835.
  84. ^ a b c ^ a b c Tidrick, Kathryn (2007). Gandhi: A Political and Spiritual Life. I.B.Tauris, 302–304. ISBN 1845111664.
  85. ^ ^ Tidrick, Kathryn (2007). Gandhi: A Political and Spiritual Life. I.B.Tauris, 160. ISBN 1845111664.
  86. ^ a b ^ a b Wolpert, Stanley (2001). Gandhi's Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi. Oxford University Press, 226–227. ISBN 019515634X.
  87. ^ ^ Kumar, Girja (1997). The Book on Trial: Fundamentalism and Censorship in India. Har-Anand Publishers, 73-107. ISBN 8124105251.
  88. ^ ^ Ghose, Sankar (1991). Mahatma Gandhi. Allied Publishers, 356. ISBN 8170232058.
  89. ^ The Story of My Experiments with Truth — An Autobiography, p. 177.
  90. ^ The Story of My Experiments with Truth — An Autobiography, p. 183.
  91. ^ Desai, Mahadev. The Gospel of Selfless Action, or, The Gita According To Gandhi. (Navajivan Publishing House: Ahmedabad: First Edition 1946). Other editions: 1948, 1951, 1956.
  92. ^ A shorter edition, omitting the bulk of Desai's additional commentary, has been published as: Anasaktiyoga: The Gospel of Selfless Action. Jim Rankin, editor. The author is listed as M.K. Gandhi; Mahadev Desai, translator. (Dry Bones Press, San Francisco, 1998) ISBN 1-883938-47-3.
  93. ^ "Overview of debates between Gandhi and Tagore". Indiatogether.org. http://www.indiatogether.org/2003/may/rvw-gndhtgore.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  94. ^ http://www.gandhiserve.org/information/questions_and_answers/faq9/faq9.html What about Gandhi and theosophy?
  95. ^ Snow, Edgar. The Message of Gandhi. SEP, March 27, 1948. "Like Marx, Gandhi hated the state and wished to eliminate it, and he told me he considered himself 'a philosophical anarchist.'"
  96. ^ Articles on and by Gandhi, Retrieved on 7 June 2008.
  97. ^ Jesudasan, Ignatius. A Gandhian theology of liberation. Gujarat Sahitya Prakash: Ananda India, 1987, pp 236–237
  98. ^ From Discussion with BG Kher and others, August 15, 1940. Gandhi's Wisdom Box (1942), edited by Dewan Ram Parkash, p. 67 also in Collected works of Mahatma Gandhi Vol. 79 (PDF), p. 122
  99. ^ Murthy, Srinivas.Mahatma Gandhi and Leo Tolstoy Letters. Long Beach Publications: Long Beach, 1987, pp 13
  100. ^ Murthy, Srinivas.Mahatma Gandhi and Leo Tolstoy Letters. Long Beach Publications: Long Beach, 1987, pp 189.
  101. ^ Easwaran, Eknath. Gandhi, The Man. Nilgiri Press, 1998. Pg. 33.
  102. ^ a b Chapter VI Hind Swaraj by M.K. Gandhi
  103. ^ Bhattacharyya, Buddhadeva. Evolution of the political philosophy of Gandhi. Calcutta Book House: Calcutta, 1969, pp 479
  104. ^ Peerless Communicator by V.N. Narayanan. Life Positive Plus, October–December 2002
  105. ^ Gandhi, M. K. (in English; trans. from Gujarati) (PDF). Unto this Last: A paraphrase. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House. ISBN 81-7229-076-4. http://wikilivres.info/wiki/Unto_This_Last_%E2%80%94_M._K._Gandhi. 
  106. ^ Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi (CWMG) Controversy (gandhiserve)
  107. ^ Dutta, Krishna and Andrew Robinson, Rabindranath Tagore: An Anthology, p. 2.
  108. ^ Desai, Mahadev H. (1983). Autobiography: the story of my experiments with truth. Mineola, N.Y: Dover. pp. [http://books.google.com/books?id=OXoRs7Kxs_YC&pg=PR1&. ISBN 0-486-24593-4. 
  109. ^ King’s Trip to India
  110. ^ King moved, as father was, on trip to Gandhi's memorial
  111. ^ Placido P. D'Souza (2003-01-20). "COMMEMORATING MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.: Gandhi's influence on King". Sfgate.com. http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2003/01/20/ED163673.DTL. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  112. ^ Abdul Ghaffar Khan (February 2002). "A pacifist uncovered". Findarticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1295/is_2_66/ai_83246175/print. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  113. ^ "An alternative Gandhi". Tribuneindia.com. 2004-02-22. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2004/20040222/spectrum/book1.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  114. ^ Life Magazine: Remembering Martin Luther King Jr. 40 Years Later. Time Inc, 2008. Pg 12
  115. ^ "Einstein on Gandhi". Gandhiserve.org. 1931-10-18. http://www.gandhiserve.org/streams/einstein.html. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  116. ^ Lennon Lives Forever. Taken from rollingstone.com. Retrieved on 20 May 2007.
  117. ^ Of Gandhigiri and Green Lion, Al Gore wins hearts at Cannes. Taken from exchange4media.com. Retrieved on 23 June 2007.
  118. ^ "Obama reluctant to seek changes in nuclear deal". The Hindu. 2008-12-07. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2008071260521800.htm&date=2008/07/12/&prd=th&. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  119. ^ Chaudhury, Nilova (15 June 2007). "2 October is global non-violence day". hindustantimes.com (Hindustan Times). http://www.hindustantimes.com/storypage/storypage.aspx?id=54580f5e-15a0-4aaf-baa3-8f403b5688fa&&Headline=October+2+is+Int'l+Non-Violence+Day. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  120. ^ "The Time 100". Time Magazine Online. http://www.time.com/time/time100/leaders/profile/gandhi.html. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  121. ^ The Children Of Gandhi. Time (magazine). Retrieved on 21 April 2007.
  122. ^ AFSC's Past Nobel Nominations.
  123. ^ a b c Tønnesson, Øyvind (1 December 1999). "Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate". nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/articles/gandhi/index.html. 

Further reading

.
  • Bhana, Surendra and Goolam Vahed.^ Making of a political reformer : Gandhi in South Africa, 1893-1914 / Surendra Bhana, Goolam Vahed.

    .The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914. New Delhi: Manohar, 2005.
  • Bondurant, Joan V. Conquest of Violence: The Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict.^ The dialogue started in 1893 when Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi reached South Africa as a barrister and discovered that the Christians who befriended him were looking forward to his conversion.
    • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Political philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi.

    ^ Political philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi / with a foreword by Sir S. Radhakrishnan.

    Princeton UP, 1988 ISBN 0-691-02281-X
  • Chernus, Ira. American Nonviolence: The History of an Idea, chapter 7. ISBN 1-57075-547-7
  • Chadha, Yogesh. .Gandhi: A Life. ISBN 0-471-35062-1
  • Dalton, Dennis (ed).^ Mahatma Gandhi : selected political writings / edited, with introduction, by Dennis Dalton.

    ^ Mahatma Gandhi : nonviolent power in action / Dennis Dalton.

    .Mahatma Gandhi: Selected Political Writings.^ Political philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi.

    ^ Mahatma Gandhi: political saint and unarmed prophet.

    ^ Mohandas Gandhi : essential writings / selected with an introduction by John Dear.

    Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, 1996. ISBN 0-87220-330-1
  • Eswaran, Eknath. Gandhi The Man. ISBN 0-915132-96-6
  • Fischer, Louis. .The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas.^ Life and works of Mahatma Gandhi [electronic resource] / produced by Icon Software.

    ^ Mohandas Gandhi : essential writings / selected with an introduction by John Dear.

    ^ Mahatma Gandhi's ideas, including selections from his writings, by C. F. Andrews.

    Vintage: New York, 2002. (reprint edition) ISBN 1-4000-3050-1
  • Fischer, Louis. .The Life of Mahatma Gandhi.^ Jewel of humanity, life of Mahatma Gandhi, and Light of truth: his teachings.

    ^ Mahatma : life of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi / forward by Jawaharlal Nehru.

    ^ Un-Gandhian Gandhi : the life and afterlife of the Mahatma / Claude Markovits ; translated from the French by the author.

    Harper & Row, New York, 1950. ISBB 0-06-091038-0 (1983 pbk.)
  • .
  • Gandhi, M.K. Satyagraha in South Africa
  • Gandhi, M.K. The Gandhi Reader: A Sourcebook of His Life and Writings.^ Satyagraha in South Africa, by M. K. Gandhi; translated from the Gujarati by Valji Govindji Desai.

    ^ Gandhi in South Africa, British imperialism and the Indian question, 1860-1914 / by Robert A. Huttenback.

    ^ One missionary friend of mine in South Africa still writes to me and asks me, How is it with you?
    • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

    Homer Jack (ed.) .Grove Press, New York, 1956.
  • Gandhi, M.K. (1940), An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments With Truth, Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House.^ Story of my experiments with truth / by M. K. Gandhi ; translated from the original in Gujarati by Mahadev Desai.

    ^ Autobiography; or the story of my experiments with truth by M. K. Gandhi; translated from the original in Gujarati by Mahadev Desai.

    ^ Autobiography : or, The story of my experiments with truth / by M. K. Gandhi ; translated from the original in Gujarati by Mahadev Desai.

    2nd edition. Pp. xii, 404. (also available at wikisource), ISBN 0-8070-5909-9 
  • Gandhi, Mahatma. .The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt.^ Mahatma Gandhi at work; his own story continued; edited by C.F. Andrews.

    ^ The Collected Works , Volume 29, New Delhi, 1968, p.
    • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Collected Works , Volume 26, New Delhi, 1967, pp.
    • Encounter with Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.bharatvani.org [Source type: Original source]

    of India, 1994.
  • Gandhi, Rajmohan. Patel: A Life. Navajivan Publishing House, 1990 ISBN 81-7229-138-8
  • Grenier, Richard. .The Gandhi Nobody Knows.^ Gandhi nobody knows / Richard Grenier.

    Commentary, March 1983
  • Gordon, Haim. .A Rejection of Spiritual Imperialism: Reflections on Buber's Letter to Gandhi. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 22 June 1999.
  • Hunt, James D. Gandhi in London.^ Gandhi was called to the bar on June 10, 1891 and left London for India on June 12, 1891,[4] where he learned that his mother had died while he was in London, his family having kept the news from him.
    • WIN « Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gandhi's editor : the letters of M.H. Nazar, 1902-1903 / [edited by] Surendra Bhana, James D. Hunt.

    ^ Two letters to Gandhi from Martin Buber and J.L. Magnes.

    .New Delhi: Promilla & Co., Publishers, 1978.
  • Mann, Bernhard, The Pedagogical and Political Concepts of Mahatma Gandhi and Paulo Freire. In: Claußen, B. (Ed.^ Political philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi.

    ^ Mahatma Gandhi: political saint and unarmed prophet.

    ^ Political philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi & sarvodaya.

    ) International Studies in Political Socialization and Education. Bd. 8. Hamburg 1996. ISBN 3-926952-97-0
  • Rühe, Peter. Gandhi: A Photo biography. ISBN 0-7148-9279-3
  • Sharp, Gene. Gandhi as a Political Strategist, with Essays on Ethics and Politics. Boston: Extending Horizon Books, 1979.
  • Singh, Col. G. B. Gandhi Behind the Mask of Divinity. Prometheus Books, 2004. ISBN 978-1573929981
  • Singh, Col. G. B. and Watson, Dr. Tim Gandhi Under Cross Examination, Sovereign Star Publishing, 2008. ISBN 0981499201
  • Sofri, Gianni. Gandhi and India: A Century in Focus. (1995) ISBN 1-900624-12-5

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi article)

From Wikiquote

.
Truth alone will endure, all the rest will be swept away before the tide of time.
^ (Redirected from Mahatma Gandhi ) Jump to: navigation , search Truth alone will endure, all the rest will be swept away before the tide of time.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Truth alone will endure; all the rest will be swept away before the tide of time.
  • M.K. Gandhi Institute 16 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.indiaspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Truth alone will endure; all the rest will be swept away before the tide of time….What may appear as truth to one person will often appear as untruth to another person.
  • Mahatma Gandhi : Quest for Freedom 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC samsara.ihostyou.com [Source type: Original source]

.I must continue to bear testimony to truth even if I am forsaken by all.^ I must continue to bear testimony to truth even if I am forsaken by all.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gandhi has declared that there is no such thing as an untouchable in the holy writings, and even if there was, it would conflict with all humanity and therefore could not be divine truth.
  • The Danish Peace Academy, Mohandas Gandhi and Nordiccountries - Terp, Holger: Introduction 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.fredsakademiet.dk [Source type: Original source]

^ To see the universal and all-pervading Spirit of Truth face to face, one must be able to love the meanest [lowest] of creation as oneself.

Mine may today be a voice in the wilderness, but it will be heard when all other voices are silenced, if it is the voice of Truth.
.Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 186930 January 1948), commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi (Sanskrit: महात्मा mahātmā — "Great Soul") and in India as Bapu (Gujarati: બાપુ bāpu—"Father"), was an advocate and pioneer of nonviolent social protest in the form he called Satyagraha.^ How was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi killed?
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mohandas karamchand gandhi .
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: General]

^ India 's " Father of the nation " Mahatma Gandhi .

.He led the struggle for India's independence from British colonial rule.^ He led the struggle for India 's independence from British colonial rule.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His non-violent protests led to independence for India from the British.
  • Famous People Lessons: English Lesson on Mahatma Gandhi 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.famouspeoplelessons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi led the struggle for India's independence from British colonial rule, empowered by tens of millions of common Indians.
  • Philosophy Book: Chapter Twenty Nine: Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi Biography, Ideas, Quotes, Pictures 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Sourced

General

One of the objects of a newspaper is to understand popular feeling and to give expression to it, another is to arouse among the people certain desirable sentiments, and the third is fearlessly to expose popular defects.
.
The weak can never forgive.
^ The weak can never forgive .
  • Gandhi Quotes | Quotes by Mohandas Gandhi 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC quotelicious.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The weak can never forgive.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Inspiring Quotations of Mahatma Gandhi 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mahatma Gandhi Quotes - eQuotes - A Famous Quotes Wiki 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC equotes.wetpaint.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Mohandas Gandhi Quotes 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.brainyquote.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Gandhi’s Top 10 Fundamentals for Changing the World 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.positivityblog.com [Source type: General]
  • Mohandas Gandhi Quotes - Famous Quotations - Word Power 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.wordpower.ws [Source type: Original source]
  • Best Famous Quotes by: Gloria Gaither, John Kenneth Galbraith, Benito Perez Galdos, Galileo Galilei, John Gall, Gallagher, Noah Gallagher, Albert Gallatin, J. G. Gallimore, Pierre Gallois, Charles Galloway, George Gallup, John Galsworthy, Garry Gamble, Indira Gandhi, Indira Nehru Gandhi, Mahatma Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Donald R. Gannon, Marshall Ganz, Jerry Garcia, Lizzy Gardiner, Cindy Gardner, David P Gardner, Ed Gardner, Herbert Gardner, John W. Gardner, Martin Gardner, James A. Garfield, and James Abram Garfield 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.innocentenglish.com [Source type: General]
  • Mohandas Gandhi quotes, quotations, phrases, words 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Mohandas Gandhi Quotes 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC quotes.miraclesalad.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Mohandas Gandhi quotes 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.jittery.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations. Affirmation Jewelry. Positive Affirmations 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.handcraftedcollectibles.com [Source type: Original source]

^ RT @Emmanuelle_LES: "The weak can never forgive.
  • Mahatma Gandhi - Indian Premier League | IPL Cricket Highlights - Times of India 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC iplextra.indiatimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.
.
If India adopted the doctrine of love as an active part of her religion and introduced it in her politics.
^ "A Word of Explanation" on his work Hind Swaraj (1908) in Young India (January 1921) If India adopted the doctrine of love as an active part of her religion and introduced it in her politics.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If India adopted the doctrine of love as an active part of her religion and introduced it in her politics.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indira Gandhi Indira Gandhi was India's first female prime minister and part of a family polit...
  • Biography of Mahatma Gandhi 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Swaraj would descend upon India from heaven.^ Swaraj would descend upon India from heaven.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Gandhi's work focused upon the goal of Swaraj — self-rule for India.

But I am painfully aware that that event is far off as yet.
The cry for peace will be a cry in the wilderness, so long as the spirit of nonviolence does not dominate millions of men and women.
.
The ideally non-violent state will be an ordered anarchy.
^ The ideally non-violent state will be an ordered anarchy.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He once said that "the ideally nonviolent state would be an ordered anarchy."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "To Every Briton" (1940) The ideally non-violent state will be an ordered anarchy.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

That State is the best governed which is governed the least.
.
Religions are different roads converging to the same point.
^ Religions are different roads converging to the same point.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ B.12.1: Explain different points of view on the same historical event, using data .

^ What does it matter that we take different road, so long as we reach the same goal.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.What does it matter that we take different road, so long as we reach the same goal.^ What does it matter that we take different road, so long as we reach the same goal.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The time they think an achievement will require isn’t the same amount of time it usually takes to achieve that goal.
  • Gandhi’s Top 10 Fundamentals for Changing the World 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.positivityblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Religions are different roads converging to the same point.
  • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.Wherein is the cause for quarrelling?
  • One thing we have endeavoured to observe most scrupulously, namely, never to depart from the strictest facts and, in dealing with the difficult questions that have arisen during the year, we hope that we have used the utmost moderation possible under the circumstances. Our duty is very simple and plain.^ Wherein is the cause for quarrelling?
    • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One thing we have endeavoured to observe most scrupulously, namely, never to depart from the strictest facts and, in dealing with the difficult questions that have arisen during the year, we hope that we have used the utmost moderation possible under the circumstances.
    • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our duty is very simple and plain.
    • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .We want to serve the community, and in our own humble way to serve the Empire.^ We want to serve the community, and in our own humble way to serve the Empire.
    • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Caged as we all are in our own exclusive pride of limited truths, we can see the whole truth only if we live the truth as we see it, and such humble and sincere pursuit only can lead us to the whole Truth.

    ^ Many of us would be better served by realizing the hypocrisy of our ways.
    • » “I like your Christ. I do not like your Christians. They are so unlike your Christ.” Ghandi 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.mongoosemom.com [Source type: General]

    .We believe in the righteousness of the cause, which it is our privilege to espouse.^ We believe in the righteousness of the cause, which it is our privilege to espouse.
    • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We should strive to do things in his spirit: not to use violence in fighting for our cause, but by non-participation in anything you believe is evil."
    • Mahatma Gandhi at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Indeed, it is precisely because our ancestors of 1776 believed they, not the British government across the ocean, had the right to autonomy that we got here in the first place.
    • The American Spectator : Gandhi for Capitalists 16 January 2010 6:41 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    .We have an abiding faith in the mercy of the Almighty God, and we have firm faith in the British Constitution.^ Part IV/Miniature Satyagraha One who has faith reads in them the merciful providence of God.
    • Talk:Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One who has faith reads in them the merciful providence of god.
    • Gandhi Quotes - Mohandas Gandhi's MySpace Blog | 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC blogs.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .That being so, we should fail in our duty if we wrote anything with a view to hurt.^ That being so, we should fail in our duty if we wrote anything with a view to hurt.
    • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We should strive to do things in his spirit: not to use violence in fighting for our cause, but by non-participation in anything you believe is evil.” .
    • Mahatma Gandhi: Little known facts most of us don’t know about him 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.theindianblogger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ 'Being a nation of slaves, it is our duty at the present to suspend bringing heirs to our slavery.'
    • Mahatma Gandhi 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Facts we would always place before our readers, whether they are palatable or not, and it is by placing them constantly before the public in their nakedness that the misunderstanding between the two communities in South Africa can be removed.
  • Why, of all places in Johannesburg, the Indian location should be chosen for dumping down all kaffirs of the town, passes my comprehension.^ We may have our private opinions but why should they be a bar to the meeting of hearts?
    • Mahatma Gandhi Quotes - eQuotes - A Famous Quotes Wiki 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC equotes.wetpaint.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Mohandas Gandhi Quotes - Famous Quotations - Word Power 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.wordpower.ws [Source type: Original source]
    • Gandhi Quotes | Quotes by Mohandas Gandhi 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC quotelicious.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Mohandas Gandhi quotes, quotations, phrases, words 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Mohandas Gandhi quotes 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC www.jittery.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My wife should know, she’s an Indian.

    ^ On February 15 1905, Gandhi wrote to Dr. Porter, the Medical Officer of Health, Johannesburg (CW. IV p.244, and "Indian Opinion" 9 April 1904): " Why, of all places in Johannesburg, the Indian location should be chosen for dumping down all kaffirs of the town, passes my comprehension."
    • Trinicenter.com - Gandhi and African Blacks 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.trinicenter.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Of course, under my suggestion, the Town Council must withdraw the Kaffirs from the Location.^ Of course, under my suggestion, the Town Council must withdraw the Kaffirs from the Location.
    • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • The Truth Seeker - The Myth of Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.thetruthseeker.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • Trinicenter.com - Gandhi and African Blacks 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.trinicenter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Indian Opinion (1 October 1903) Why, of all places in Johannesburg, the Indian location should be chosen for dumping down all kaffirs of the town, passes my comprehension.
    • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Come to my town (94043) Change location .
    • Music on Facebook | Propaghandi - free music, pictures, videos 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC apps.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .About this mixing of the Kaffirs with the Indians I must confess I feel most strongly.^ About this mixing of the Kaffirs with the Indians I must confess I feel most strongly.
    • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Trinicenter.com - Gandhi and African Blacks 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.trinicenter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ During his time in South Africa, Gandhi protested repeatedly about the social classification of blacks with Indians, who he described as "undoubtedly infinitely superior to the Kaffirs".
    • Mohandas karamchand gandhi encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 13 January 2010 21:39 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 6 January 2010 8:15 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Most Indians became very concerned about their nation's unity, integrity, and security.

    .I think it is very unfair to the Indian population, and it is an undue tax on even the proverbial patience of my countrymen.^ I think it is very unfair to the Indian population, and it is an undue tax on even the proverbial patience of my countrymen.
    • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Trinicenter.com - Gandhi and African Blacks 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.trinicenter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I think it is very unfair to the Indian population, and it is an undue tax on even the proverbial patience of my countrymen."
    • The Truth Seeker - The Myth of Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.thetruthseeker.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My understanding is that today Indians only pay lip service to the memory and ideals of Gandhi - the Indian elite is so far removed from Gandhi’s ideals, that some even think it’s fashionable to ridicule or even blame Gandhi and his followers for many of India’s problems.
    • Stephen R. Covey » Blog Archive » The Mission Statement That Changed The World 16 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.stephencovey.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Stephen R. Covey » Blog Archive » The Mission Statement That Changed The World 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.stephencovey.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Letter to Dr. Porter, Medical Officer of Health for Johannesburg (15 February 1905); later published in The Indian Opinion.
  • In this instance of the fire-arms, the Asiatic has been most improperly bracketed with the native. .The British Indian does not need any such restrictions as are imposed by the Bill on the natives regarding the carrying of fire-arms.^ The British Indian does not need any such restrictions as are imposed by the Bill on the natives regarding the carrying of fire-arms.
    • Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 16:016 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • The Truth Seeker - The Myth of Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.thetruthseeker.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • Trinicenter.com - Gandhi and African Blacks 12 January 2010 0:26 UTC www.trinicenter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Bill was published regulating the use of fire-arms by Blacks and Indians.
    • The Truth Seeker - The Myth of Mahatma Gandhi 28 January 2010 0:23 UTC www.