Mahomet could refer to:
|This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.|
Muhammad (Arabic: محمد) (c. 570 – 8 June 632) full name: Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abd al-Muttalib was a political, military, and religious leader. Muslim religious belief holds that he is the Seal of the prophets, and that the Qur'an is the message of Allah revealed to him by the angel Jibreel (Gabriel). Archaic spellings of his name in English include: Mohammed, Muhammed, and Mahomet.
The Last Sermon of Muhammad delivered on the Ninth Day of Dhul Hijjah 10 A.H (c. 630 AD)
Authentic Sunni Islamic Hadith
|This is a disambiguation page, which lists works which share the same title. If an article link referred you here, please consider editing it to point directly to the intended page.|
http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/prophet/prophetdescription.html http://www.submission.org/miracle/ Muhammad (Arabic محمد muḥammad; also Mohammed, Mohamet, and other variants  ) 570-632 C.E., was an Arab religious and political leader who preached a religion he called Islam.  He united the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula under a state governed by Islamic law with its capital in Medina. By 750, his successors had conquered Persia, the Levant, North Africa, Sicily and Iberia and introduced Islam to the newly acquired territories.
Muhammad taught his followers, Muslims, that he was the last prophet of God (Allah). According to his teachings, the true monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham and other prophets had been corrupted by man over time, and Islam was its authentic restoration.  
For the last 23 years of his life, beginning at age forty, Muhammad reported receiving revelations from God delivered through the angel Gabriel. The content of these revelations, known as the Qur'an, was memorized by his followers and compiled into a single volume shortly after his death. The Qur'an, along with the details of Muhammad’s life as recounted by his biographers and his contemporaries, forms the basis of Islamic doctrine.
Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 Historical view of Muhammad 3 Overview 4 Sources for Muhammad's life 5 Life based on Islamic traditions 5.1 Before Medina 5.1.1 Genealogy 5.1.2 Childhood 5.1.3 Middle years 5.1.4 The first reported revelations 5.1.5 Rejection 5.1.6 Isra and Miraj 5.2 In Medina 5.2.1 Hijra 5.2.2 War 5.2.3 Rule consolidated 5.2.4 Continued warfare 5.2.5 The truce of Hudaybiyya 5.2.6 Muhammad's letters to the Heads of State 5.3 After the conquest 5.3.1 The conquest of Mecca 5.3.2 Unification of Arabia 5.3.3 Death 5.4 Muhammad as a military leader 5.5 Family life 5.6 Companions 6 Muhammad the reformer 6.1 Social security and family structure 6.2 Slavery 6.3 Women's rights 6.4 Other reforms 7 Miracles in the Muslim biographies 8 Legacy 8.1 Historical impact 8.2 Descendants 8.3 Views on Muhammad 8.3.1 Seal of the Prophets 8.3.2 Islamic view 18.104.22.168 More traditions 22.214.171.124 Depictions of Muhammad 126.96.36.199 Muslim veneration of Muhammad 8.3.3 Muhammad in other religious traditions 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 12.1 Additional Reading 13 External links
Prophet "Muhammad" in Arabic calligraphy.The name Muhammad etymologically means "the praised one" in Arabic. Within Islam, Muhammad is known as "The Prophet" and "The Messenger". Although the Qur'an sometimes declines to make distinction among prophets, in verse 33:40 it singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets" (33:40) . The Qur'an also refers to Muhammad as "Ahmad" (61:6) (Arabic :احمد), Arabic for "more praiseworthy".
 Historical view of Muhammad See also: Non-Muslim view of Muhammad See also: Historical Muhammad
11th century Persian Qur'an folio page in kufic scriptThe major source of information on Muhammad's life is the Qur'an. In addition the traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad and quotes attributed to him (the sira and hadith literature) provide further information on Muhammad's life.  The surviving sources are part of the oral traditions, the compilation of the Qur'an was completed early after the death of Muhammad while the earliest surviving written sira dates to 150 years after Muhammad, and the compilation and analysis of the hadith literature took place even later. Thus, historians as well as Islamic scholars (Ulema) have attached varying degrees of skepticism to these accounts. 
Most historians agree that Muhammad lived during the 7th century and adopted various monotheistic traditions in an effort to replace the common polytheistic religions of the Arabian Peninsula, eventually gaining wide acceptance as a prophet. Modern historians do not readily accept the medieval western conception of Muhammad that "so great and significant a movement was started by a self-seeking impostor."  Academic scholars such as Montgomery Watt, Sprenger, Noldeke, Weil, Muir, Koelle, Grimme and Margoliouth agree that Muhammad was sincere and had a profound belief in himself and his mission as nothing else could explain "Muhammad's readiness to endure hardship and persecution during the Meccan period when from the secular point of view there was no prospect of success."    However, there are differing views as to whether he remained sincere later in the Medinian period. 
Several scholars hold that Muhammad’s ideas developed gradually: Some traditions were taken from the Bible (some apocryphal) and included in the Qur’an in order to win over followers from Christianity and Judaism.  Welch states that it is difficult to determine that to what extent Muhammad was influenced by various monotheistic ideas and movements existed in Arabia at that time and presents views of different scholars, however he asserts that one thing is certain: "that something happened that transformed his whole consciousness and filled him with a spiritual strength that decided the whole course of his life. He felt himself compelled to proclaim the revelations that were communicated to him in a mysterious way."
Muhammad's phenomenal success in attracting followers and establishing a community state that dominated Arabia was because of his shrewd military strategies, unusual steadfastness and loyalty despite persecution and oppression, and being found by his followers as a righteous, trustworthy, pious, compassionate and honest man.  To people around Muhammad, the most convincing evidence for the superhuman origin of Muhammad's inspirations must have been his mysterious seizures at the moments of inspiration. Welch states that graphic descriptions of Muhammad's condition at these moments may be regarded as genuine, since they are unlikely to have been invented by later Muslims. Muhammad's enemies however accused him as one possessed, a soothsayer, or a magician since these experiences made an impression similar to those soothsayer figures well known in ancient Arabia. Welch states it remains uncertain whether Muhammad had such experiences before he began to see himself as a prophet and if so how long did he have such experiences. 
Persian illustration showing Muhammad. From a manuscript in the collection of the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris (Manuscrits Arabe 1489 fol. 5v)Born to ‘Abdu’llah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib, Muhammad initially adopted the occupation of a merchant. The Islamic sources indicate that he was a charismatic person known for his integrity.  The sources frequently say that he, in his youth, was called with the nickname "Al-Amin" (Arabic: الامين ), a common Arab name, meaning "faithful, trustworthy" and even was sought out as an impartial arbitrator.   . Muhammad often retreated to a cave on a mountain outside Mecca called Hira for contemplation. In the year 610, when Muhammad was about forty, he said he had been been visited in the cave by the Angel Gabriel who commanded him to recite verses sent by God. These revelations purportedly continued for the next twenty-three years, until his death. The collection of these verses is known as the Qur'an.
He expanded his mission as a prophet, publicly preaching strict monotheism and warning of a Day of Judgment when all humans shall be held responsible for their deeds. He did not wholly reject Judaism and Christianity, two other monotheistic faiths known to the Arabs, but said that he had been sent by God in order to complete and perfect those teachings.
Many in Mecca resented his preaching and persecuted him and his followers. Eventually, in 622, he was forced to move out of Mecca in a journey known to Muslims as the Hijra (the Migration). He settled in the area of Yathrib (now known as Medina) with his followers, where he was the leader of the first avowedly Muslim community.
The Meccans started attacking Medina. Even though the attacking armies were several times stronger in numbers and in weaponry, Muslims defeated these invaders every time they attacked. After eight years of exile, Muslims marched on Mecca and took control of the city. Not a single drop of blood was shed in the process of taking over Mecca. The Muslims subsequently removed all pre-Muslim religious objects, which they considered idols, from the Kaaba. Most of the townspeople accepted Islam. Deputations began to come in from other Arabian tribes. The conditions for their adherence were: the acceptance of Islam, the destruction of all idols, and the payment of the 'zakat' (tax) for the support of the poor community. In March 632, Muhammad led the pilgrimage known as the Hajj. On returning to Medina he fell ill and died after a few days, on June 8.
Under the caliphs who assumed authority after his death, the Islamic empire expanded into Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, North Africa, much of the Iberian Peninsula, and Anatolia. Later conquests, commercial contact between Muslims and non-Muslims, and missionary activity spread Islam over much of the Eastern Hemisphere, including China and Southeast Asia.
 Sources for Muhammad's life Main article: Historiography of early Islam
The Tomb of Imam Bukhari, who compiled Sahih Bukhari, the most authoritative source for Sunni Muslims concerning the life of MuhammadFollowing the death of Muhammad, verses of Qur'an were collected by the first Caliph Abu Bakr into a book form. The Qur'an which literally translates as "Recitation", was also originally maintained by the "Hafiz", people who memorised the entire document. Similarly, for some time, the immediate or contemporary biographical records of Muhammad, his "Sunnah", were passed on orally.
The earliest surviving biographical sources of Muhammad's life were written by Muslims and were recorded within a century of his death. Only fragmentary references in non-Muslim historical records from the seventh century are available, and few inscriptions or archaeological remains survive from that time.
One of very few known non-Islamic contemporary accounts of this time and place is the Doctrina Iacobi. It records a Prophet, presumed by most scholars to be Muhammad, as a Judeo-Arab preacher proclaiming the advent of a Jewish Messiah, and states that the Jews and Arabs were allies against the Byzantines. Musailama al-Kazzab and Aswad Ansi also proclaimed their Prophethood in the Mideastern world at the time of Muhammad and led ultimately unsuccessful military campaigns, it is possible that the unnamed Messiah figure in the Doctrina Iacobi relates to one of these.
The hadith are the written collection of the Arab oral traditions concerning Muhammad. The dates often given for Muhammad's life are 570-632 CE. The most authoritative hadiths in Sunni Islam are compiled in the "Sahih Bukhari" or "Sahih Muslim", while in Shia'ism more emphasis is placed on the "Usul al-Kafi".
The earliest known biography of Muhammad is a collection of "hadith" called the Sirah Rasul Allah or, the Life of the Apostle of God, by Ibn Ishaq who was born in approximately 717 and died in 767. He thus wrote his biography well over one hundred years after Muhammad died and would not have been able to speak to any eyewitnesses but does reference other biographies of which no texts have survived. Ibn Ishaq's work is contained in fragments quoted in a compilation of anecdotes and traditions composed by Islamic historian Ibn Hisham (d. 834) and al-Tabari (838-923).
Other sources for biographies of Muhammad are:
the military chronicles of Waqidi (745-822) the biographies of Ibn Sa'd (783-845), a student of Waqidi later histories Qur'anic commentaries collections of Prophetic hadith These texts were recorded more than a century, and often several centuries, after the death of Muhammad. Some passages in the Qur'an are believed to shed some light on Muhammad's biography; however, they require a great deal of interpretation to be useful.
Bernard Lewis states that "the collection and scrutiny of Hadiths didn't take place until several generations" after Muhammad's death and that "during that period the opportunities and motives for falsification were almost unlimited." In addition to the problem of oral transmission for over a hundred years, there existed motives for deliberate distortion. The Muslims themselves at an early date realized that many Hadiths were fabricated and thus developed a whole science of criticism to distinguish between genuine Hadiths and pious or impious frauds. However modern critics have pointed out many defects in their approach.  Some skeptical scholars (Wansbrough, Cook, Crone, and others) have raised doubts about the reliability of the Islamic sources, especially the hadith collections. They note for instance that the earliest biography of Muhammad by Ibn Ishaq does not contain any dates or explicit details; yet, later Islamic narratives have progressively more dates, with minute details of Muhammad's life being inserted into their accounts as successive generations of scholars relay the story, such that by the time we arrive at contemporary renditions of Muhammad's story, dates and details have exploded exponentially without explanation. These skeptics believe that many hadith and other traditions were manufactured, or doctored, to support one or another of the many political or doctrinal factions that had developed within Islam in its first century or later. The life of Muhammad was believed to be the exemplar for all Muslims; hence the importance of showing that Muhammad said or did something proving that a particular faction was right. If the skeptics are right, and if much of the early material cannot really be trusted, then all that is factually known is what is contained in the summary above. Patricia Crone has since revised her position and accepts that while there exists a difficulty in the handling of the hadith because of their "amorphous nature" and purpose as documentary evidence for deriving religious law rather than as historical narrative, Muslim historical accounts cannot be totally discounted and are in her judgement "more or less correct".
Other academic scholars, such as Montgomery Watt and Wilferd Madelung, have been much more willing to trust the Islamic sources. Their accounts of the life of Muhammad are similar to those held by most believing Muslims. These historical "traditionalists," both Muslim and non-Muslim, present a much more detailed picture of Muhammad's life.
There is a great deal of possibly unreliable material available on the life of Muhammad, but very little that is accepted by all academics. In a 2003 article, Gregor Schoeler summarizes it thus:
The current research on the life of Muhammad is characterized by the fact that two groups of researchers stand directly opposed to one another: The one group advocates, somewhat aggressively, the conviction that all transmitted traditions, in part because of great inner contradictions, legendary forms, and so forth, are to be rejected. The other group is opposed to that view. According to these researchers, the Islamic transmission, despite all these defects, has at least a genuine core, which can be recognized using the appropriate source-critical methods. The difficulty certainly consists of finding criteria by which the genuine is to be differentiated from spurious.
This second group of academics is more willing to accept the traditional Muslim accounts, shorn of hagiography and supernatural traditions, and based on the earliest accounts rather than later traditions.
Muslims had developed an extensive science of critical analysis of these sources that developed into schools of thought (mathaheb) and have accepted fuller accounts of Muhammad's life including traditions not credited by non-Muslim scholars. However, Muslims are not united on the subject; some accept "naturalistic" versions pared of most supernatural elements; some Muslims believe in versions of Muhammad's life full of miracles. There are versions of Muhammad's life favoring different traditions within Islam. There are also significant differences between Sunni versions of Muhammad's life and Shi'a versions. It is impossible to present one Muslim version. However, a few of the most common traditions which are not accepted by academics but widely believed by Muslims are covered below.
 Life based on Islamic traditions Part of a series of articles on
History of Islam
Beliefs and practices Oneness of God Profession of Faith Prayer • Fasting Charity • Pilgrimage
Major figures Muhammad Abu Bakr • Ali Household of Muhammad Companions of Muhammad Prophets of Islam
Texts & Laws Qur'an • Sunnah • Hadith Jurisprudence • Theology Biographies of Muhammad Sharia
Branches of Islam Sunni • Shi'a • Kharijite
Societal aspects Academics • History Philosophy • Science Art • Architecture • Cities Calendar • Holidays Women • … in the Qu'ran Leaders • Politics • Islamism Salafism • Sufism
See also Vocabulary of Islam
This box: view • talk • edit Most Muslims, and Western academics who trust Islamic traditions, accept a much more detailed version of Muhammad's life.
 Before Medina Main article: Muhammad before Medina  Genealogy Muhammad traced his genealogy as follows:
Muhammad was born into the Quresh tribe. He is the son of Abd Allah, who is son of Abd al-Muttalib (Shaiba) son of Hashim (Amr) ibn Abd Manaf (al-Mughira) son of Qusai (Zaid) ibn Kilab ibn Murra son of Ka`b ibn Lu'ay son of Ghalib ibn Fahr (Quraish) son of Malik ibn an-Nadr (Qais) the son of Kinana son of Khuzaimah son of Mudrikah (Amir) son of Ilyas son of Mudar son of Nizar son of Ma`ad ibn Adnan, whom the northern Arabs believed to be their common ancestor. Adnan in turn is said to have been a descendant of Ishmael, son of Abraham, though the exact genealogy is disputed. (ibn means "son of" in Arabic; alternate names of people with two names are given in parentheses.) 
He was also called Abu-Qaasim (meaning "father of Qaasim") by some, after his short-lived first son.
 Childhood Muhammad was born into a well-to-do family settled in the northern Arabian town of Mecca. Some calculate his birthdate as having been 20 April 570, while Shi'a Muslims believe it to have been 26 April 570. Other sources calculate the year of his birth to have been 571; tradition places it in the Year of the Elephant. Muhammad's father, Abdullah, had died almost six months before he was born and the young boy was brought up by his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quresh (Quraish) tribe. At the age of six, Muhammad lost his mother Amina. When he was eight years of age, his grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, who had become his guardian, also died. Muhammad now came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib, the new leader of the Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe, the most powerful in Mecca.
Mecca was a thriving commercial centre, due in great part to a stone shrine (now called the Kaaba) that housed statues of many Arabian gods. Merchants from various tribes would visit Mecca during the pilgrimage season, when all inter-tribal warfare was forbidden and they could trade in safety. While still in his teens, Muhammad began accompanying his uncle on trading journeys to Syria. He thus became well-travelled and knowledgeable about foreign ways.
 Middle years Muhammad became a merchant. One of his employers was Khadijah, a forty-year-old widow. She was impressed with Muhammad's character and intelligence and proposed to him in the year 595. Muhammad consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one.
Ibn Ishaq records that Khadijah bore Muhammad six children: two sons named Al Qasem and Abdullah (who is also called Al Tayeb and Al Taher) and four daughters. All of Khadija's children were born before Muhammad received his first revelation. His son Qasim died at the age of two. The four daughters are said to be Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Fatima.
The Shi'a say that Muhammad had only the one daughter, Fatima, and that the other daughters were either children of Khadijah by her previous marriage, or children of her sister.
 The first reported revelations
The mountain of Hira, where Muhammad said he had his first revelations.According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad would spend many nights in a cave (Hira) near Mecca in meditation and reflection. Around the year 610, Muhammad was then visited by the Angel Gabriel while meditating.
His wife Khadijah and her Christian cousin Waraqah ibn Nawfal were the first to believe that Muhammad was a prophet. They were soon followed by Muhammad's ten-year-old cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib, close friend Abu Bakr and adopted son Zaid bin Haarith.
Until his death, Muhammad said he received frequent revelations, although there was a relatively long gap after the first revelation.
Around 613, Muhammad began to spread his message amongst the people. Most of those who heard his message ignored it. A few mocked him. Others believed and joined him.
The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.
As the ranks of Muhammad's followers swelled, he became a threat to the local tribes and the rulers of the city. Their wealth, after all, rested on the Kaaba, the focal point of Meccan religious life. If they were to throw out statues of their gods who reperesented the tribes the pilgrims belonged to, due to the preachings of Muhammad, the tribal and city leaders feared, there would be no more pilgrims, no more trade, and no more wealth. Muhammad’s denunciation of the Meccan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe, the Quraysh, as they were the guardians of the Ka'aba. Muhammad and his followers were persecuted. Some of them fled to the Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksum and founded a small colony there under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian king (called Al-Negashi, or "The King").
Several suras and parts of suras are said to date from this time, and reflect its circumstances: see for example al-Masadd, al-Humaza, parts of Maryam and al-Anbiya, al-Kafirun, and Abasa.
In 619, both Muhammad's wife Khadijah and his uncle Abu Talib died; it was known as aamul hazn ("the year of sorrows.") Muhammad's own clan withdrew their protection of him. Muslims patiently endured persecution: ostracism, an economic embargo and consequent poverty and hunger, even beatings and death threats.
 Isra and Miraj
A 16th century Persian miniature painting celebrating Muhammad's ascent into the Heavens, a journey known as the Miraj. Muhammad's face is veiled, a common practice in Islamic art.Some time in 620, Muhammad told his followers that he had experienced the Isra and Miraj, a miraculous journey said to have been accomplished in one night along with Angel Gabriel. In the first part of the journey, the Isra, he is said to have travelled from Mecca to the furthest mosque, in Jerusalem, presently known as Masjid al Aqsa. In the second part, the Miraj, Muhammad is said to have toured Heaven and Hell, and spoken with earlier prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.
Muslims believe that the Dome of the Rock is the site from which Muhammad ascended to Heaven.
Timeline of Muhammad Important dates and locations in the life of Muhammad c. 569 Death of his father, `Abd Allah c. 570 Possible date of birth, April 20: Mecca 570 Legendary unsuccessful Ethiopian attack on Mecca 576 Death of Mother 578 Death of Grandfather c. 583 Takes trading journeys to Syria c. 595 Meets and marries Khadijah 610 First reports of Qur'anic revelation: Mecca c. 610 Appears as Prophet of Islam: Mecca c. 613 Begins spreading message of Islam publicly: Mecca c. 614 Begins to gather following: Mecca c. 615 Emigration of Muslims to Ethiopia 616 Banu Hashim clan boycott begins c. 618 Medinan Civil War: Medina 619 Banu Hashim clan boycott ends 619 The year of sorrows: Khadijah and Abu Talib dies c. 620 Isra and Miraj 622 Emigrates to Medina (Hijra) 624 Battle of Badr Muslims defeat Meccans 624 Expulsion of Banu Qaynuqa 625 Battle of Uhud Meccans battle Muslims 625 Expulsion of Banu Nadir 626 Attack on Dumat al-Jandal: Syria 627 Battle of the Trench 627 Destruction of Banu Qurayza 627 Bani Kalb subjugation: Dumat al-Jandal 628 Treaty of Hudaybiyya c. 628 Gains access to Mecca shrine Kaaba 628 Conquest of the Khaybar oasis 629 First hajj pilgrimage 629 Attack on Byzantine empire fails: Battle of Mu'tah 630 Attacks and bloodlessly captures Mecca c. 630 Battle of Hunayn c. 630 Siege of Taif 630 Establishes theocracy: Conquest of Mecca c. 631 Rules most of the Arabian peninsula c. 632 Attacks the Ghassanids: Tabuk 632 Farewell hajj pilgrimage 632 Death (June 8): Medina  In Medina Main article: Muhammad in Medina  Hijra By 622, life in the small Muslim community of Mecca was becoming not only difficult, but dangerous. Muslim traditions say that there were several attempts to assassinate Muhammad. Muhammad then resolved to emigrate to Medina, then known as Yathrib, a large agricultural oasis where there were a number of Muslim converts. By breaking the link with his own tribe, Muhammad demonstrated that tribal and family loyalties were insignificant compared to the bonds of Islam, a revolutionary idea in the tribal society of Arabia. This Hijra or emigration (traditionally translated into English as "flight") marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. The Muslim calendar counts dates from the Hijra, which is why Muslim dates have the suffix AH (After Hijra).
Muhammad came to Medina as a mediator, invited to resolve the feud between the Arab factions of Aws and Khazraj. He ultimately did so by absorbing both factions into his Muslim community, forbidding bloodshed among Muslims. However, Medina was also home to a number of Jewish tribes (whether they were ethnically as well as religiously Jewish is an open question, as is the depth of their "Jewishness"). Islamic tradition refers to the conversion to Islam of one of the leaders of the Jews named Ibn Salam. Muhammad had hoped that his conversion would be emulated by the other Jews, and that those others would also recognize him as a prophet, but they did not do so.
Some academic historians attribute the change of qibla, the Muslim direction of prayer, from the site of the former Temple in Jerusalem to the Kaaba in Mecca, which occurred during this period, to Muhammad's abandonment of hope of recruiting Jews as allies or followers. According to Muslims, the change of qibla was seen as a command from God both reflecting the independence of the Muslims as well as a test to discern those who truly followed the revelation and those who were simply opportunistic.
Muhammad and his followers are said to have negotiated an agreement with the other Medinans, a document now known as the Constitution of Medina (date debated), which laid out the terms on which the different factions, specifically the Jews and other "Peoples of the Book" could exist within the new Islamic State.
 War Relations between Mecca and Medina rapidly worsened (see surat al-Baqara). Meccans confiscated all the property that the Muslims had left in Mecca. In Medina, Muhammad signed treaties of alliance and mutual help with neighboring tribes.
Muhammad turned to raiding caravans bound for Mecca. Caravan-raiding was an old Arabian tradition and according to Watt was "a kind of sport rather than war" and that the object of the raids was to take animals and other goods but killing was carefully avoided. By engaging in this old Arabian tradition, Muhammad was deliberately challenging and provoking the Meccans.. Muslims justified the raids by the Meccans' confiscation of the property they had left at Mecca and the state of war deemed to exist between the Meccans and the Muslims.
In March of 624, Muhammad led some three hundred warriors in a raid on a Meccan merchant caravan. The Meccans successfully defended the caravan and then decided to teach the Medinans a lesson. They sent a small army against Medina. On March 15, 624 near a place called Badr, the Meccans and the Muslims clashed. Though outnumbered more than three times (one thousand to three hundred) in the battle, the Muslims met with success, killing at least forty-five Meccans and taking seventy prisoners for ransom; only fourteen Muslims died. This marked the real beginning of Muslim military achievement. John Esposito writes that Muhammad's use of warfare in general was alien neither to Arab custom nor to that of the Hebrew prophets, as both believed that God had sanctioned battle with the enemies of the Lord.
 Rule consolidated To his followers, the victory in Badr apparently seemed a divine authentication of Muhammad's prophethood. Following this victory, the victors expelled a local Jewish clan, the Banu Qainuqa, whom they accused of having broken a treaty by conspiring with the attacking Meccan forces. Muhammad and his followers were now a dominant force in the oasis of Yathrib (Medina).
After Khadija's death, Muhammad had married Aisha, the daughter of his friend Abu Bakr (who would later emerge as the first leader of the Muslims after Muhammad's death). In Medina, he married Hafsah, daughter of Umar (who would eventually become Abu Bakr's successor).
Muhammad's daughter Fatima married Ali, Muhammad's cousin. According to the Sunni, another daughter, Umm Kulthum, married Uthman. Each of these men, in later years, would emerge as successors to Muhammad and political leaders of the Muslims. Thus, all four caliphs were linked to Muhammad by marriage. Sunni Muslims regard these caliphs as the Rashidun, or Rightly Guided. (See Succession to Muhammad for more information on the controversy on the succession to the caliphate).
 Continued warfare
Muhammad's swordIn 625 the Meccan general Abu Sufyan marched on Medina with three thousand men. The ensuing Battle of Uhud took place on March 23 and ended in a stalemate. The Meccans claimed victory, but they had lost too many men to pursue the Muslims into Medina.
In April 627, Abu Sufyan led another strong force against Medina. But Muhammad had dug a trench around Medina and successfully defended the city in the Battle of the Trench.
Many of the Muslims believed that Abu Sufyan had been aided by sympathizers among the Medinans, being the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza, with whom the Muslims had a treaty. They attacked and defeated the Banu Qurayza, and subsequently executed hundreds of the adult men of the tribe, after trying them for treason.This execution has been the subject of some controversy.
Following the Muslims' victory at the Battle of the Trench, the Muslims were able, through conversion and conquest, to extend their rule to many of the neighboring cities and tribes.
 The truce of Hudaybiyya Main article: Treaty of Hudaybiyya Although verses (2:196-2:210) about the performing of Hajj had already come,, Muhammad and Muslims did not perform it due to the enmity of the Quraish. It was the month of Shawwal 6 A.H. when Muhammad saw in a vision that he was shaving his head after the Hajj.  Muhammad therefore decided to perform the Haj in the following month. Hence around the 13th of March, 628 with 1400 Companions he went towards Mecca without the least intention of giving a battle. But the Quraish were determined to offer resistance to Muslims and they posted themselves outside Mecca, closing all access to the city. . In order to settle the dispute peacefully Muhammad halted at a place called Hudaybiyya. Hence after series of talks a treaty was signed. The main points of treaty were the following.
They have agreed to lay down the burden of war for ten years  Muhammad, should not perform Hajj this year   They may come next year to perform Haj (unarmed) but shall not stay in Mecca for more than three days   Any Muslim living in Mecca cannot settle in Medina but Medina Muslim may come and join Meccans (and will not be returned).  Many of Muslims were not satisfied with the terms of the treaty. However, on the way to Medina, God revealed the Prophet a new chapter of Qur'an named "Al-Fath" (The victory) 48:1-48:29. The new Revelation left no doubt in Muslims' minds that the expedition from which they were now returning must be considered a victorious one. . With the passage of time it became more and more apparent why the Qur'an had declared the truce a victory. The men of Mecca and Medina could now meet in peace and discuss Islam hence during the following two years the community of Islam was more than doubled.  
 Muhammad's letters to the Heads of State
"Muhammad Original Letter to Heraclius".After the truce signed by the Hudaybiyya, Muhammad decided to send letters to many rulers of the world, inviting them to Islam.   Hence he sent messengers (with letters) to Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire (The eastern Roman Empire), Chosroes of Persia, the chief of Yemen and to some others.  
 After the conquest Main article: Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca  The conquest of Mecca
The Kabaa im Mecca held a major economic and religious role for the area, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for SalatMain article: Conquest of Mecca The truce of Hudaybiyya had been in force since two years. . The tribe of Khuz'aah was in friendly relationship with Muhammad, while on the other hand their enemies, Banu Bakr had aliance with Meccans. A clan of Bakr made a night raid against Khuz'aah, killing few of them . Meccans helped their allies (i.e. Banu Bakr) with weapons and according to some sources few Meccans also took part in the fighting . After the fighting Muhammad offered Meccans following three conditions.
The Meccans were to pay blood-money for those slain among Khuza'ah tribe. Or They should have nothing to do with Banu Bakr. Or They should declare the truce of Hudaybiyya null. The Meccans replied that they would accept only the third condition. However, soon they realized their mistake and sent Abu Safyan to renew the Hudaybiyya treaty, but now his request was declined by Muhammad. Muhammad began to prepare for a campaign. .
In 630, Muhammad marched on Mecca with an enormous force, said to number more than ten thousand men. After some scattered skirmishes, in which only twenty-four Meccans were killed, the Muslims seized Mecca. Muhammad promised a general amnesty to all but a few of the Meccans. Most Meccans converted to Islam, and Muhammad subsequently destroyed all of the statues of Arabian gods in and around the Kaaba. Henceforth the pilgrimage would be a Muslim pilgrimage and the shrine was converted to a Muslim shrine.
 Unification of Arabia The capitulation of Mecca and the defeat of an alliance of enemy tribes at Hunayn effectively brought the greater part of the Arabian peninsula under Muhammad's authority. However, this authority was not enforced by a regular government, as Muhammad chose instead to rule through personal relationships and tribal treaties. The Muslims were clearly the dominant force in Arabia, and most of the remaining tribes and states hastened to convert to Islam.
The Al-Masjid al-Nabawi is Islams second most sacred site, and the Green dome to the background indicates the burial tomb of MuhammadOne day, upon returning from a visit to a cemetery, Muhammad became very ill. He suffered for several days with head pain and weakness. According to hadith mentioned in Sahih Bukhari 5.59.713 possible cause of death could be poisoning of the food he tasted more than three years ago after Khayber war, though muslims believe that death comes from Allah, irrespective of what we think as a possible cause. Muhammad finally succumbed to his malady around noon on Monday, June 8, 632, in the city of Madina, at the age of sixty-three. He is buried in the Mosque of the Prophet in Medina.
According to Shi'a Islam, Muhammad had appointed his son-in-law Ali as his successor in a public sermon at Ghadir Khumm. Shi'a believe that Muhammad's companions Abu Bakr and Umar conspired to oust Ali and make Abu Bakr the leader or caliph. Sunni Muslims dispute this, and say that the leaders of the community conferred and freely chose Abu Bakr, who was among the followers of Muhammad. The matter is further discussed in the article Succession to Muhammad.
 Muhammad as a military leader Main article: Muhammad as a general For most of the sixty-three years of his life, Muhammad was a merchant, then a religious leader. He took up the sword late in his life. He was an active military leader for ten years.
This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it.  Family life Main article: Muhammad's marriages From 595 to 619, Muhammad had only one wife, Khadijah. After her death, it was suggested to Muhammad by Khawla bint Hakim, that he should marry Sawda bint Zama, a Muslim widow, or Aisha. 'Muhammad said to have asked her to arrange for him to marry both. It had already been agreed that Aisha should marry another man, whose father, though still pagan, was friendly to the Muslims. By common consent, however, this agreement was set aside and Aisha was betrothed to Muhammad.'  Later Muhammad married more wives, to make for a total of eleven, of whom nine or ten were living at the time of his death. The status of Maria al-Qibtiyya is disputed; she may have been a slave, a freed slave, or a wife. Watt in Encyclopedia of Islam states that 'Muhammad had a political aim in nearly all his marriages' and for example Muhammad in his marriage to Aisha 'must have seen ... a means of strengthening the ties between himself and Abu Bakr, his chief follower.' Watt believes Aisha 'cannot have been more than ten years old when marriage was consummated, while Spellberg writes that Aisha's youth might have been deliberately emphasized by scholars during the Abbasid caliphate to reject Shi'a political claims for the descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib.
Muhammad had children by only two of these unions. Khadijah is said to have borne him four daughters and a son; only one daughter, Fatima, survived her father. Shi'a Muslims dispute the number of Muhammad's children, stating that he had only one daughter, and that the other "daughters" were step-daughters. Maria al-Qibtiyya bore him a son, but the child died when he was ten months old.
Muhammad's marriages have been the subject of some criticism. Some consider it wrong that he had more wives than the four generally allowed by the Qur'an (although one Qur'anic verse makes an exception for Muhammad). They question the circumstances of some of his marriages, such as those to Zaynab bint Jahsh, his adopted son's ex-wife, and to Aisha, who according to Hadith was nine years old when the marriage was consummated.  (though there is reason to believe that she was in fact older and that the hadiths that state she was nine are weak). 
Muhammad's household included not only his wives and children but also several slaves that Muhammad owned according to numerous hadiths. Muhammad owned both white and black, male and female slaves. His wives owned several slaves as well.
 Companions Main articles: Sahaba and Salaf .
Abu Bakr Umar ibn al-Khattab Uthman ibn Affan Ali ibn Abi Talib The term Sahaba (companion) refers to anyone who met three criteria. First, he must have been a contemporary of Muhammad. Second, he must have seen or heard Muhammad speak on at least one occasion. Third, he must have converted to Islam. Companions are considered the ultimate sources for the oral traditions, or hadith, on which much of Muslim law and practice are based. There were many other companions in addition to the ones listed here.
List in alphabetic order:
Abdullah ibn Abbas Abu Bakr Abu Dharr Ali ibn Abi Talib Ammar
Hamza Al-Miqdad Sa'd Zayd
Salman the Persian
Talha Umar Uthman Zubair
 Muhammad the reformer The Islamic law transformed the nature of society and family.  Bernard Lewis, a distinguished Islamic historian, believes the advent of Islam in a sense was a revolution which only partially succeeded after long struggles due to tensions between the new religion and very old societies in the countries that the Muslims conquered. He thinks that one such area of tension was a consequence of what he sees as the egalitarian nature of Islamic doctrine. Lewis believes that "the equality of Islam is limited to free adult male Muslims," but according to him "even this represented a very considerable advance on the practice of both the Greco-Roman and the ancient Iranian world. Islam from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents."
John Esposito, professor of Islamic Studies at Georgetown University, sees Muhammad as a reformer who did away with many of the terrible practices of the pagan Arabs. He states that Muhammad's "insistence that each person was personally accountable not to tribal customary law but to an overriding divine law shook the very foundations of Arabian society... Muhammad proclaimed a sweeping program of religious and social reform that affected religious belief and practices, business contracts and practices, male-female and family relations.". Esposito holds that the Qur'an's reforms consists of 'regulations or moral guidance that limit or redefine rather than prohibit or replace existing practices.' He cites slavery and women's status as two examples.
 Social security and family structure William Montgomery Watt, an eminent scholar of Islamic studies, states that Muhammad was both a social and moral reformer in his day and generation. He asserts that Muhammad created a "new system of social security and a new family structure, both of which were a vast improvement on what went before. By taking what was best in the morality of the nomad and adapting it for settled communities, he established a religious and social framework for the life of many races of men."
 Slavery Main article: Islam and Slavery The Qur'an makes numerous references to slavery, regulates it and thus implicitly accepts it (2:178, 16:75, 30:28). Bernard Lewis states, "Slavery existed in all the ancient civilizations of Asia, Africa, Europe, and pre-Columbian America and had been accepted and even endorsed by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, as well as other religions of the world." Lewis, however, states that Islam brought two major changes to ancient slavery which were to have far-reaching consequences. "One of these was the presumption of freedom; the other, the ban on the enslavement of free persons except in strictly defined circumstances," Lewis continues. The position of the Arabian slave was "enormously improved": The Arabian slave "was now no longer merely a chattel but was also a human being with a certain religious and hence a social status and with certain quasi-legal rights." 
In Muslim lands, in contrast to the ancient and colonial systems, slaves had certain legal status and had obligations as well as rights to the slave owner, Bernard Lewis states. Lewis speculates that it was for this reason that "the position of the domestic slave in Muslim society was in most respects better than in either classical antiquity or the nineteenth-century Americas."  The pressure from the European opponents of slavery on the Ottoman empire to abolish slavery was not because of the sitution of slaves in Muslim lands (as it was no worse than, and even in some cases better than that of the free poors) but because the processes of acquisition and transportation of slaves to Muslim lands often imposed appalling hardships although "once the slaves were settled in Islamic culture they had genuine opportunities to realize their potential. Many of them became merchants in Mecca, Jedda, and elsewhere."  Lewis states that the practice of slavery in the Islamic empire represented a "vast improvement on that inherited from antiquity, from Rome, and from Byzantium." Although slavery was not abolished, Annemarie Schimmel asserts that as the reforms seriously limited the supply of new slaves, slavery would be theoretically abolished with the expansion of Islam.
 Women's rights Under the Arabian pre-Islamic law of status, women had virtually no rights. Islamic law, however, provided women with a number of rights.  John Esposito, professor of Islamic Studies at Georgetown University, states that the reforms affected marriage, divorce, and inheritance.  Under the Arabian pre-Islamic law, no limitations were set on men's rights to marry or to obtain a divorce.  Islamic law however restricted the polygamy (4:3) 'Women were given inheritance rights in a patriarchal society that had previously restricted inheritance to male relatives.'  The Quran and Muhammad's example were more favorable to the security and status of women than the history and later Muslim practice might suggest. For example the Quran doesn't require women to wear veils but rather, it was a social habits picked up with the expansion of Islam. In fact, since it was impractical for working women to wear veils, "A veiled woman silently announced that her husband was rich enough to keep her idle." 
The institution of marriage, characterized by unquestioned male superiority in the pre-Islamic law of status, was redefined and changed into one in which the woman was somewhat of an interested partner. 'For example, the dowry, previously regarded as a bride-price paid to the father, became a nuptial gift retained by the wife as part of her personal property'   Under the Islamic law, the marriage was no longer viewed as a "status" but rather as a "contract". The essential elements of the marriage contract were now an offer by the man, an acceptance by the woman, and the performance of such conditions as the payment of dowry. The woman's consent was imperative. Furthermore, the offer and acceptance must be made in the presence of at least two witnesses. 
Watt believes that Islam is still, in many ways, a man’s religion. However, he states that Muhammad, in the historical context of his time, can be seen as a figure who testified on behalf of women’s rights and improved things considerably. Watt explains the historical context surrounding women's rights at the time of Muhammad: "it appears that in some parts of Arabia, notably in Mecca, a matrilineal system was in the process of being replaced by a patrilineal one at the time of Muhammad. Growing prosperity caused by a shifting of trade routes was accompanied by a growth in individualism. Men were amassing considerable personal wealth and wanted to be sure that this would be inherited by their own actual sons, and not simply by an extended family of their sisters’ sons. This led to a deterioration in the rights of women. At the time Islam began, the conditions of women were terrible - they had no right to own property, were supposed to be the property of the man, and if the man died everything went to his sons." Muhammad, however, by "instituting rights of property ownership, inheritance, education and divorce, gave women certain basic safeguards." 
Haddad and Esposito state that 'although Islam is often criticized for the low status it has ascribed to women, many scholars believe that it was primarily the interpretation of jurists, local traditions, and social trends which brought about a decline in the status of Muslim women. In this view Muhammad granted women rights and privileges in the sphere of family life, marriage, education, and economic endeavors, rights that help improve women's status in society.' However, 'the Arab Bedouins were dedicated to custom and tradition and resisted changes brought by the new religion.' Haddad and Esposito state that in this view 'The inequality of Muslim women happened because of the preexisting habits of the people among whom Islam took root. The economics of these early Muslim societies were not favorable to comfortable life for women. More important, during Islam's second and third centuries the interpretation of the Qur'an was in the hands of deeply conservative scholars, whose decisions are not easy to challenge today. The Qur'an is more favorable to women than is generally realized. In principle, except for a verse or two, the Qur'an grants women equality. For example, Eve was not the delayed product of Adam’s rib (as in the tradition for Christians and Jews); the two were born from a single soul. It was Adam, not Eve, who let the devil convince them to eat the forbidden fruit. Muslim women are instructed to be modest in their dress, but only in general terms. Men are also told to be modest. Many Muslims believe the veiling and seclusion are later male inventions, social habits picked up with the conquest of the Byzantine and Persian Empires.' 
 Other reforms Islam reduced the devastating effect of blood feuds, which was common among Arabs, by encouraging compensation in money rather than blood. In case the affrieved party insisted on blood, unlike the pre-Islamic Arab tradition in which any male relative could be slained, only the culprit himself could be slain. 
 Miracles in the Muslim biographies Main article: Islamic view of miracles The pre-modern Muslim biographies of Muhammad envisions Muhammad as a cosmic figure, invested with superhuman qualities. Modern Muslim biographies of Muhammad however portray him as a progressive social reformer, a political leader and a model of human virtue. The view of these modern biographies is that Muhammad's real miracle, as Daniel Brown states modern historians would probably agree, 'was not a moon split or a sighing palm tree, but the transformation of the Arabs from marauding bands of nomads into world conquerors.' 
Carl Ernst believes that this main shift in the treatment of Muhammad has been a response to the stridently negative depictions of Muhammad created by European authors.  Daniel Brown adds two more reasons: First, Muslims in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were faced with social and political turmoil. The need for the restoration of the Muslim community encouraged them to view Muhammad as a model for social and political reform. And lastly, 'the ongoing challenge of reforming or reviving Islamic law perpetuated concern for the life of Muhammad as a normative model for human behavior.'  Ernst states that this main shift reflects the growth of bourgeois scientific rationalism in Muslim countries. 
This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it.  Legacy  Historical impact Main articles: Muslim conquests and Muslim culture After Muhammad, a rapid creation of an empire under the Umayyads established a new polity from the Atlantic to the Indus River. Within a few decades after his death, his successors had united all of Arabia under an Islamic empire, which essentially became the successor to the Sassanid, Byzantine, and ultimately Roman empires. With a historically unprecedented swiftness, they conquered present-day Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Armenia, and most of North Africa. By 750, Islam was as fully established as the two great earlier monotheistic belief systems, Judaism and Christianity, and had become the world's greatest military power. The rest of North Africa came under Muslim rule, as well as most of the Iberian Peninsula, much of Central Asia, and Sindh). As of 2006, Islam is estimated to be the religion of 1.3 billion people. 
 Descendants Muhammad was survived by his daughter Fatima and her children. Some say that he had a daughter Zainab, who had borne a daughter, Amma or Umama, who survived him as well.
Descendants of Muhammad are known by sharifs شريف (plural: ِأشراف Ashraaf) or sayyid. Many rulers and notables in Muslim countries, past and present have professed such descent, with various degrees of credibility, such as the Fatimid dynasty of North Africa, the Idrisids, and the current royal families of Jordan and Morocco. In various Muslim countries, there are societies of varying credibility that authenticate claims of descent.
In the Islamic prayer, Muslims end with the second tashahhud asking God to bless Muhammad and his descendants just as Abraham and his descendants were blessed.
 Views on Muhammad  Seal of the Prophets
The Muslim Profession of faith, the Shahada, makes clear Muhammads importance - "There is no deity but God, and Muhammad is Gods messenger". As shown on the Flag of Saudi ArabiaThe Qur'an specifically refers to Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets", which is taken by most Muslims to believe him to be the last and greatest of the prophets.  Scholars such as Welch however hold that this Muslim belief is most likely a later interpretation of the Seal of the Prophets. Carl Ernst considers this phrase to mean that Muhammad's "imprint on history is as final as a wax seal on a letter".  Wilferd Madelung states that the meaning of this term is not certain. 
 Islamic view Muslim beliefs concerning Muhammad upon some aspects can vary widely between the sects of Islam. This article focuses on the more common beliefs about Muhammad. For how different sects differ in their views see : Islamic views of Muhammad.
 More traditions
The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.
Image made in 1315 of Pre-Prophethood Muhammad re-dedicating the Black Stone at the Kaaba. From Tabriz, Persia and can be found in Rashid al-Dins Jami' al-Tawarikh ("The Universal History" or "Compendium of Chronicles"), held in the University of Edinburgh.There are Muslim traditions that are believed by many Muslims, but may be questionable to non-Muslim academic historians. 
Muslims believe that as an infant Muhammad was placed with a Bedouin wet nurse, Halima Sadia, as desert life was believed to be safer and healthier for children. Many stories are told of his life in the desert. After he returned to Mecca, he is said to have been beloved by all around him because he was such a polite and honest child. As a youth, he was called upon to solve a vexing political problem for his Meccan neighbors. They were rebuilding the Kaaba and feuding over which clan should have the honor of raising the Black Stone into place. Muhammad suggested that the heads of each clan raise the Black Stone on a cloth, so that all had the honor of lifting it. Muhammad then put the stone into its place. As a young man and a merchant, Muhammad was known to be trustworthy and honest. The other Meccans called him "Al-Amin", the trustworthy one or the honest one.  After he proclaimed his prophethood, however, his neighbors turned against him.  Depictions of Muhammad Main article: Depictions of Muhammad Oral and written descriptions are readily accepted by all traditions of Islam, while Muslims differ as to whether or not visual depictions of Muhammad are permissible: Some Muslims believe that to prevent idolatry and shirk, or ascribing partners to Allah, visual depictions of Muhammad and other prophets of Islam should be prohibited. Other Muslims believe respectful depictions should be allowed . Both sides have produced Islamic art — the aniconists through calligraphy and arabesque, the pictorialists through book illustration and architectural decoration . Negative portrayal of Muhammad, whether spoken, written, drawn, or filmed, may be taken as a great offense by Muslims, see Muslim veneration for Muhammad.
 Muslim veneration of Muhammad See also: Muslim veneration for Muhammad, Praise of Muhammad in poetry, Depiction of Muhammad, Islamic music, and Qawwali
Muhammads name, engraved in gold, adorning the walls of the Hagia Sophia in TurkeyIt is traditional for Muslims to illustrate and express love and veneration for Muhammad. This is observed in a number of different ways. Most notably, when Muslims say or write Muhammad's name, they usually follow it with Peace be upon him or its Arabic equivilent, sallalahu alayhi wasallam, and for Shias this is extended to Peace be upon him and his descendants. In English this is often abbreviated to "(pbuh)", "(saw)" and "pbuh&hd" for Shias, or even just simply as "p". His contemporaries gave him the title Apostle of God (Arabic: Rasul-Allah or Rasulallah), which is also used by Muslims today, as well as the more obvious title "Prophet". Concerts of Muslim, and especially Sufi, devotional music include songs praising Muhammad. There are Musicless songs called Nasheeds which regularly praise Muhammad.
Conversely, criticism of Muhammad is often equated with blasphemy, which is punishable by death in Pakistan. The position of the four main Sunni Muslim Maddhabs is that Islam prohibits depicting the prophet Muhammad in art; some non-maddhab groups, such as the Salafi movement, take a similar line. The Shia and others have historically taken a much less restrictive view of such depictions, allowing them if they are to praise Muhammad, while a school of Sufi'ism uses calligraphy of the name of Muhammad, Ali, Hussein and other important people in Muslim History to create images of the people.
 Muhammad in other religious traditions Muhammad is also a prophet in the Zikri, and the Ahmadiyya traditions. These are sects closely related to Islam, and are considered by their followers to be sects thereof, but mainstream Muslims (Shias and Sunnis) see them as separate religions. The Druze, who accept most but not all Qur'anic revelations, also consider him a prophet. Bahá'ís venerate Muhammad as one of a number of prophets or "Manifestations of God", but consider his teachings to have been superseded by those of Bahá'u'lláh.