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In Roman times, the Vestal Virgins remained celibate for 30 years on penalty of death.

A virgin (or maiden) originally meant a woman who has never had sexual intercourse. Virginity is the state of being a virgin. It is derived from the Latin virgo, which means "sexually inexperienced woman", but also of older women, and even goddesses.[citation needed]

As in Latin, the English word is also often used with wider reference, by relaxing the age, gender or sexual criteria.[1] Hence, more mature women can be virgins (The Virgin Queen), men can be virgins, and potential initiates into many fields can be colloquially termed virgins, for example a skydiving "virgin". In the last usage, virgin simply means uninitiated.

Also by extension from its primary sense, the idea that a virgin has a sexual "blank slate",[2] unchanged by any past intimate connection or experience,[2] leads to the abstraction of unadulterated purity (see below). Hence, virgin can even be used with non-human referents. Unalloyed metal is sometimes described as virgin.[1] Some cocktails can be described as virgin, when lacking the alcoholic admixture.[1] Similarly, olive oil may be called virgin if it contains no refined oil and has an acidity below 2%, or extra-virgin if it comes from a cold pressing with an acidity below 0.08%.[1]

The last instance also incorporates yet another association of virginity—the notability of its loss. More properly, the association is with the significance of the addition of a new status, rather than a loss. Hence this association is typically found in references to the first instance of a potentially extended series of like events. Just as extra-virgin olive oil is from the first pressing, so a maiden or virgin speech is an incumbent's first address. The same metaphor, using the synonym maiden, is applied to the first or maiden voyage of a ship. A woman's maiden name is the surname she had when she was (presumed to be) a virgin—her first surname. In cricket, a maiden over is an over from which no runs were scored. Maiden Castles are those with the reputation of never having been captured.

Wool,[1] computer systems,[3] and unfertilized gametes can be virgin.[1] Females of various species, by analogy with Homo sapiens, if they have never mated, can also be called virgin.[1]

Chastity does not imply virginity. Chastity derives from the Latin ‘castitas’, meaning ‘cleanliness’ or ‘purity’ — and does not necessarily mean the renunciation of all sexual relations, but rather the temperate sexual behavior of legitimately married spouses, for the purpose of procreation, or the sexual continence of the unmarried.[4]

Contents

Etymology

The word virgin comes via Old French virgine from the root form of Latin virgo, genitive virgin-is, meaning literally "maiden" or "virgin"—a sexually intact young woman.[5] The Latin word probably arose by analogy with a suit of lexemes based on vireo, meaning "to be green, fresh or flourishing", mostly with botanic reference—in particular, virga meaning "strip of wood".[6] The first known use of virgin in English comes from an Anglo-Saxon manuscript held at Trinity College, Cambridge.

  • c. 1200: Ðar haueð ... martirs, and confessors, and uirgines maked faier bode inne to women. — Trinity College Homilies 185 [ms B.15.34 (369)]

In this, and many later contexts, the reference is specifically Christian, alluding to members of the order of virgins known to have existed since the early church from the writings of the Church Fathers.[7] However, within about a century, the word was expanded to apply also to Mary, the mother of Jesus, hence to sexual virginity explicitly.

  • c. 1300: Conceiud o þe hali gast, born o þe virgine marie. — Cursor Mundi 24977

Further expansion of the word to include virtuous (or naïve) young women, irrespective of religious connection, occurred over about another century.

These are just three of the eighteen definitions of virgin from the first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED1, pages 230-232). Most of the OED1 definitions, however, are very similar.

Frank Harris (1923) claims to have given the following humorous etymology in a lecture, " 'vir,' as everyone knows, is Latin for a man, while 'gin' is good old English for a trap; virgin is therefore a mantrap."[8] Other, serious, but unsupported etymologies exist in print.

The German for "virgin" is Jungfrau. Although Jungfrau literally means "young woman", a standard formal German word for a young woman, without implications regarding sexuality, is Fräulein. Fräulein can be used in German, as a title of respect, equivalent to current usage of Miss in English. Jungfrau is the word reserved specifically for sexual inexperience. As Frau means "woman", it suggests a female referent. Unlike English, German has a specific word for a male virgin Jüngling ("Youngling"). It is, however, rarely used in this sense. Jungfrau, with some masculine modifier, is more typical, as evidenced by the film, The 40-Year-Old Virgin, about a 40 year-old male virgin, titled in German, "Jungfrau (40), männlich, sucht…".[9] German also distinguishes between young women and girls, who are denoted by the word Mädchen. The English cognate "maid" was often used to imply virginity, especially in poetry. German is not the only language to have a specific name for male virginity; in French, male virgins are called "puceau" or "Joseph" whereas a number of indigenous Bolivians, males presenting with phimosis who injure their frenulum during first penetration are said to be "uncartridged" as opposed to "cartridged" before first intercourse.[10]

By contrast, the Greek word for "virgin" is parthenos (παρθένος, see Parthenon). Although typically applied to women, like English, it is also applied to men, in both cases specifically denoting absence of sexual experience. When used of men, it does not carry a strong association of "never-married" status. However, in reference to women, historically, it was sometimes used to refer to an engaged woman—parthenos autou (παρθένος αὐτού, his virgin) = his fiancée as opposed to gunē autou (γυνή αὐτού, his woman) = his wife. This distinction is necessary due to there being no specific word for wife (or husband) in Greek.

Despite such definitions cited above, an alternative definition and understanding of the word 'virgin' has been discussed by Queer theorists. Kitzinger and Wilkinson write that Marilyn Frye, a lesbian feminist scholar described that the term 'virgin' "originally meant not women without experience of heterosexual intercourse but rather 'females who are willing to engage in chosen connections with males, [women] who are wild females, undomesticated females, [and] thoroughly defiant of patriarchal female heterosexuality'".[11]

In culture

In a cross-cultural study, At what age do women and men have their first sexual intercourse? (2003) Michael Bozon of the French Institut national d'études démographiques found that contemporary cultures to fall into three broad categories.[12]

In the first group, the data indicated families arranging marriage for daughters as close to puberty as possible, with significantly older men. Age of men at sexual initiation in these societies is at later ages than that of women, but is often extra-marital. This group included sub-Saharan Africa (the study listed Mali, Senegal and Ethiopia). The study considered the Indian subcontinent also fell into this group, although data were only available from Nepal.

In the second group, the data indicated families encouraged daughters to delay marriage, but to abstain from sexual activity prior to it. However, sons are encouraged to gain experience with older women or prostitutes prior to marriage. Age of men at sexual initiation in these societies is at lower ages than that of women. This group includes Latin cultures, both from southern Europe (Portugal, Greece and Romania are noted) and from Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Dominican Republic). The study considered many Asian societies also fell into this group, although matching data were only available from Thailand.

In the third group, age of men and women at sexual initiation was more closely matched. There were two sub-groups, however. In non-Latin, Catholic countries (Poland and Lithuania are mentioned), age at sexual initiation was higher, suggesting later marriage and reciprocal valuing of male and female virginity. The same pattern of late marriage and reciprocal valuing of virginity was reflected in Singapore and Sri Lanka. The study considered China and Vietnam also fell into this group, although data were not available.

Finally, in northern and eastern European countries, age at sexual initiation was lower, with both men and women involved in sexual activity prior to any union formation. The study listed Switzerland, Germany and the Czech Republic as members of this group.

Consistent with the northern European findings above, a more recent sex education survey of UK teenagers between the ages of 14 and 17 in 2008 (conducted by YouGov for Channel 4), showed that only 6% of these teenagers intended waiting until marriage before having sex.[13]

Perceived value and "technical virginity"

The state of virginity often has special significance, usually as something to be respected or valued. This is especially true in societies where there are traditional or religious views associating sexual exclusiveness with marriage.

Female virginity is closely interwoven with personal or even family honor in many cultures, especially those known as shame societies, in which the loss of virginity before marriage is a matter of deep shame. For example, among the Bantu of South Africa, virginity testing or even the suturing of the labia majora (called infibulation) has been commonplace. Traditionally, Kenuzi girls (of the Sudan) are married before puberty (Godard, 1867), by adult men who inspect them manually for virginity (Kenedy, 1970). Female circumcision is later performed at puberty to ensure chastity (Barclay, 1964).

History evidences laws and customs that required a man who seduced or raped a virgin to take responsibility for the consequences of his offense by marrying the girl or by paying compensation to her father on her behalf.[14] In some countries until the late 20th century, if a man did not marry a woman whose virginity he had taken, the woman was allowed to sue the man for money, in some languages named "wreath money".[15]

Emphasizing the monetary value of female virginity, some women have offered their virginity for sale. In 2004, a lesbian student from the University of Bristol was said to have sold her virginity online for £8,400, and Londoner Rosie Reid, 18, reportedly slept with a 44-year-old BT engineer in a Euston hotel room against payment for her virginity.[16] In 2008, Italian model Raffaella Fico, then 20 years old, offered her virginity for 1 million Euros.[17] In that same year, an American using the pseudonym Natalie Dylan announced she would accept bids for her virginity through a Nevada brothel's web site.[18][19]

Some historians and anthropologists note that many societies that place a high value on virginity before marriage, before the sexual revolution, actually have a large amount of premarital sexual activity that does not involve vaginal penetration: for example, oral sex, anal sex and mutual masturbation. This is considered by some people "technical" virginity, as vaginal intercourse has not occurred but the participants are sexually active.[20][21][22][23] In recent years, "technical" virginity has become popular among teenagers.[22][23] In 1999, a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association which examines the definition of sex based on a 1991 random sample of 599 college students from 29 states found that sixty percent said oral-genital contact did not constitute having sex. "That's the 'technical virginity' thing that's going on," said Stephanie Sanders, associate director of the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction at Indiana University. Sanders, as the co-author of the study, and along with other researchers, titled the findings "Would You Say You 'Had Sex' If ...?"[23] According to a study published in 2001 in The Journal of Sex Research, over half of respondents considered that virginity could only be lost through having consensual sex.[24]

Loss of virginity

The act of losing one's virginity, that is, of a first sexual experience, is commonly considered within many cultures to be an important life event and a rite of passage. The loss of virginity can be viewed as a milestone in a person's life.

In human females, the hymen is a membrane, part of the vulva, which partially occludes the entrance to the vagina, and which stretches, or is sometimes torn, when the woman first engages in sexual intercourse. Throughout history, the presence of an intact membrane has been seen by many as physical evidence of virginity in the broader technical sense. The presence of a hymen is a possible indication, but no guarantee, of virginity, given that some degree of sexual activity may occur without rupturing the hymen, the hymen may be broken through means other than sexual, and because there may exist varying definitions as to the type and extent of sexual activity that is considered by a person to terminate the state of "virginity". This is further complicated by the availability of hymenorrhaphy surgical procedures to repair or replace the hymen. It is a common belief that some women simply lack a hymen, but doubt has been cast on this by a recent study.[25]

In the majority of women, the hymen is sufficiently vestigial as to pose no obstruction to the entryway of the vagina. The presence of a broken hymen may therefore indicate that the vagina has been penetrated but also that it was broken via physical activity or the use of a tampon or dildo. Many women possess such thin, fragile hymens, easily stretched and already perforated at birth, that the hymen can be broken, or merely disappear, in childhood, without the woman even being aware of it.

In contrast to the common cases of an absent or partial hymen, in rare cases a woman may possess an imperforate hymen, such as prevents the release of menstrual discharge. A surgical procedure known as hymenotomy, which creates an opening in the hymen, is sometimes required to avert deleterious health effects. The playwright Ben Jonson claimed that Queen Elizabeth I of England, the Virgin Queen, had a "membranum" that made her "incapable of Man", and that a friend of hers, a "chirurgeon", had offered to remedy the problem with his scalpel and that Elizabeth had demurred.

Analogies relating to virginity

The sexual partner during the loss of virginity is sometimes colloquially said to "take" the virginity of the virgin partner. In some places, this colloquialism is only used when the partner is not a virgin, but in other places, the virginity of the partner does not matter. The term "deflower" is sometimes used to also describe the act of the virgin's partner, and the clinical term "defloration" is another way to describe the event.

One slang term used for virginity is "cherry" (often, this term refers to the hymen, but can refer to virginity in males or females) and for a virgin, deflowering is said to "pop their cherry," a reference to destruction of the hymen during first intercourse.

A curious term often seen in English translations of the works of the Marquis de Sade is to depucelate. This word is apparently a literal translation of dépuceler, a French verb derived from pucelle (n.f.), which means "virgin". Joan of Arc was commonly called "la Pucelle" by her admirers.

Cultural anthropology

Cultural anthropologists have discovered that romantic love and sexual jealousy are universal features of human relationships.[26] Social values related to virginity reflect both sexual jealousy and ideals of romantic love, and appear to be deeply embedded in human nature.

Social psychology

Psychology explores the connection between thought and behavior. Seeking understanding of social (or anti-social) behaviors includes sexual behavior. Joan Kahn and Kathryn London studied U.S. women married between 1965 and 1985 to see if virginity at marriage influenced risk of divorce.

This article examines the relationship between premarital sexual activity and the long-term risk of divorce among U.S. women married between 1965 and 1985. Simple cross-tabulations from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth indicate that women who were sexually active prior to marriage faced a considerably higher risk of marital disruption than women who [sic] were virgin brides. A bivariate probit model is employed to examine three possible explanations for this positive relationship: (a) a direct causal effect, (b) an indirect effect through intervening "high risk" behaviors (such as having a premarital birth or marrying at a young age), and (c) a selectivity effect representing prior differences between virgins and non-virgins (such as family background or attitudes and values). After a variety of observable characteristics are controlled, non-virgins still face a much higher risk of divorce than virgins. However, when the analysis controls for unobserved characteristics affecting both the likelihood of having premarital sex and the likelihood of divorce, the differential is no longer significant. These results suggest that the positive relationship between premarital sex and the risk of divorce can be attributed to prior unobserved differences (e.g., the willingness to break traditional norms) rather than to a direct causal effect.[27]

This study makes no recommendation, it simply notes that the women most likely to exercise freedom to enter sexual relationships prior to marriage, overlap significantly with the women most likely to exercise freedom to leave a relationship after marriage. Men were not the subject of this study.

Religion

Hinduism

In Sanskrit a virgin is called akṣata-yoni. Kṣata means "diminished", a is the negating prefix and yoni refers to female reproductive organs generically — used freely for womb or vulva as context requires. Hence akṣata-yoni suggests something like "undefiled womb" or "unspoiled vulva", but could be understood specifically as "unruptured hymen". Common related words are kanyā and kumārī, which refer to a young, unmarried girl, a bride or a daughter in general. Whilst virginity is not strictly implied by the words, it is generally presumed. These are also names of the goddess Durga, who is a virgin in some of her aspects or manifestations (see avatar).

a Purāṇa text:

The sun-god said: O beautiful Pṛthā, your meeting with the demigods cannot be fruitless. Therefore, let me place my seed in your womb so that you may bear a son. I shall arrange to keep your virginity intact, since you are still an unmarried girl."[28]

a legal text attributed to Manu:

The nuptial texts pertaining to unmarried virgins are applied solely to unmarried virgins, (and) nowhere among men to unmarried females who have lost their virginity, for such (females) are excluded only from (those) nuptial religious ceremonies."[29]

Contemporary Hinduism

In conservative Hindu societies in Nepal and India, any form of premarital sexual intercourse is still frowned upon and is considered an act destined to bring great dishonour and disrespect to the family. It is practically impossible for a non-virgin girl to find a partner from a traditional family in rural areas. No legal statutes exist that explicitly require virginity as a requirement for marriage.

Sikhism

In Sikhism, sexual activity must occur only between married individuals (under control) for the purpose of procreation. Before marriage it is said to be sin, as it is a part of kaam (lust or sexual desire). If a person loses virginity before marriage, it is taken as to satisfy his/her sexual needs and hence is considered sinful. Virginity being lost through masturbation is also considered sinful.

ਖਿੰਥਾ ਕਾਲੁ ਕੁਆਰੀ ਕਾਇਆ ਜੁਗਤਿ ਡੰਡਾ ਪਰਤੀਤਿ ॥

Let the remembrance of death be the patched coat you wear, let the purity of virginity be your way in the world, and let faith in the Lord be your walking stick. (Guru Nanak Dev Ji, 6-16)

ਕੁਆਰ ਕੰਨਿਆ ਜੈਸੇ ਸੰਗਿ ਸਹੇਰੀ ਪ੍ਰਿਅ ਬਚਨ ਉਪਹਾਸ ਕਹੋ ॥ ਜਉ ਸੁਰਿਜਨੁ ਗ੍ਰਿਹ ਭੀਤਰਿ ਆਇਓ ਤਬ ਮੁਖੁ ਕਾਜਿ ਲਜੋ ॥੧॥

The virgin speaks with her friends about her husband and they laugh together;but when he comes home, she becomes shy, and modestly covers her face. ||1|| (Guru Arjan Dev Ji, 1203-7)

Judaism

Virginity first appears in the Jewish scriptures in Genesis, where Eliezer is seeking a wife for his master's son. He meets Rebekah, and the narrative tells us, "the damsel was very fair to look upon, a virgin, neither had any man known her" (Genesis 24:16). Virginity is a recurring theme in the Bible — the nation is frequently personified as the virgin daughter of Israel in the prophetic poetry. It is a wistful phrase, since Genesis also says that Israel's (Jacob's) only daughter Dinah was, in fact, raped as she entered the promised land. The Torah also contains laws governing betrothal, marriage and divorce, with particular provisions regarding virginity in Deuteronomy 22.

Sex in Judaism is not seen as dirty or undesirable — in fact, sex within marriage is considered a mitzvah, or desirable virtue (literally a 'commandment'). Jewish law contains rules related to and protecting female virgins and dealing with consensual and non-consensual pre-marital sex. The thrust of Jewish law's guidance on sex is effectively that it should not be rejected, but should be lived as a wholesome part of life.

Although there is a provision in Judaism for sex outside of marriage, the idea of a pilegesh, is it very seldom used, partially because of the emphasis placed on marriage and other social pressures, and partially because some prominent Rabbis have been opposed to it, for example Maimonides.

While a child born of certain forbidden relationships, such as adultery or incest, is considered a mamzer, approximately translated as illegitimate, who can only marry another mamzer, a child born out of wedlock is not considered a mamzer unless also adulterous or incestuous.

Greece and Rome

Virginity has been often considered to be a virtue denoting purity and physical self-restraint and is an important characteristic of Greek goddesses Athena, Artemis, and Hestia. The Vestal Virgins were strictly celibate priestesses of Vesta. The constellation Virgo is said to represent various mythological figures known for virginity.

Christianity

The New Testament, a core Christian text, views sex within marriage positively, in fact, it is encouraged in 1 Corinthians 7. Just as this chapter is against sex without marriage, so it is against marriage without sex. Self control is valued, however it is considered unrealistic for most, and therefore allows for sexual expression in the safe boundaries of marriage.

Some have theorized that the New Testament was not against sex before marriage.[30] The discussion turns on two Greek words — moicheia (μοιχεία, adultery) and porneia (el:πορνεία, fornication see also pornography). The first word is restricted to contexts involving sexual betrayal of a spouse, however the second word is used as a generic term for illegitimate sexual activity. As such it is not specific about which particular behaviours are considered illegitimate. Elsewhere in 1 Corinthians , incest, homosexual intercourse[31] and prostitution are all explicitly forbidden by name. Paul is preaching about activities based on levitical sexual prohibitions in the context of achieving holiness while the (non-canonical) Acts of Thomas use porneia as only those activities outside of a monogamous sexual relationship such as adultery and multiple partners which implies he does not see premarital sex as a hindrance to holiness. The theory suggests it is these, and only these behaviours that are intended by Paul's prohibition in chapter seven.[32] The strongest argument against this theory is that the modern interpretation of the New outside Corinthians, speaks against pre-marital sex;[33]

As in Judaism, the interpretation of Genesis is that it describes sex as a gift from God to be celebrated within the context of marriage. The New Testament also speaks of the Christian's body as a holy temple that the Spirit of God comes to dwell in. (1 Corinthians 3:16) Purity in general is deeply threaded throughout the entire Bible.

Christian orthodoxy accepts the New Testament claim that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was a virgin at the time Jesus was conceived, based on the accounts in the gospels of Matthew and Luke. The Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox denominations, additionally hold to the dogma of the perpetual virginity of Mary. However, some Protestant denominations cite evidence against this including Mark 6:3: "Isn't this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and the brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon? And aren't His sisters here with us?". The Catholic Church holds[34] that in Semitic usage the terms "brother," "sister" are applied not only to children of the same parents, but to nephews, nieces, cousins, half-brothers, and half-sisters. Some Christians may refer to her as the Virgin Mary or the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Catholic theology

Virgo inter Virgines (The Blessed virgin Mary with other holy virgins), anonymous, Bruges, last quarter of the 15th Century.

The Catholic Encyclopedia says: "There are two elements in virginity: the material element, that is to say, the absence, in the past and in the present, of all complete and voluntary delectation, whether from lust or from the lawful use of marriage; and the formal element, that is the firm resolution to abstain forever from sexual pleasure." And, "Virginity is irreparably lost by sexual pleasure, voluntarily and completely experienced."[35] However, for the purposes of consecrated virgins and nuns it is canonically enough that they have never been married or lived in open violation of chastity.

Aquinas, emphasizing that acts other than copulation destroy virginity, but also clarifying that involuntary sexual pleasure or pollution does not destroy virginity says in his Summa Theologica, "Pleasure resulting from resolution of semen may arise in two ways. If this be the result of the mind's purpose, it destroys virginity, whether copulation takes place or not. Augustine, however, mentions copulation, because such like resolution is the ordinary and natural result thereof. On another way this may happen beside the purpose of the mind, either during sleep, or through violence and without the mind's consent, although the flesh derives pleasure from it, or again through weakness of nature, as in the case of those who are subject to a flow of semen. On such cases virginity is not forfeit, because such like pollution is not the result of impurity which excludes virginity."[36]

Some female saints and blesseds are indicated by the church as Virgin. These were consecrated virgins, nuns or unmarried women known for a life in chastity. Being referred to as Virgin can especially mean being a member of the Ordo Virginum (Order of virgins), which applies to the consecrated virgins living in the world or in monastic orders.

Christian Mysticism and Gnostic Christianity

In Christian mysticism, Gnosticism, as well as some Hellenistic religions, there is a female spirit or Goddess named Sophia that is said to embody wisdom and who is sometimes described as a virgin. In Roman Catholic mysticism, Hildegard of Bingen celebrated Sophia as a cosmic figure both in her writing and art. Within the Protestant tradition in England, 17th Century Christian Mystic, Universalist and founder of the Philadelphian Society Jane Leade wrote copious descriptions of her visions and dialogues with the "Virgin Sophia" who, she said, revealed to her the spiritual workings of the Universe. Leade was hugely influenced by the theosophical writings of 16th Century German Christian mystic Jakob Böhme, who also speaks of the Sophia in works such as The Way to Christ.[37] Jakob Böhme was very influential to a number of Christian mystics and religious leaders, including George Rapp and the Harmony Society. The Harmony Society was a religious pietist group that lived communally, were pacifistic, and advocated celibacy among its membership.

Islam

Qur'an 17:32 says "And come not near to the unlawful sexual intercourse. Verily, it is a Fâhishah [i.e. anything that transgresses its limits (a great sin)], and an evil way (that leads one to Hell unless Allâh forgives him)."[Qur'an 17:32]: Unlawful sexual intercourse zina (الزنا) refers both to adultery and fornication.[38]

Medicine and biology

In early modern Europe, prolonged virginity in women was believed to cause the disease of chlorosis or "green sickness".

For cross breedings of some laboratory animals, females are needed that have not already copulated in order to ensure that the offspring possess the intended genotype. To do this in Drosophila flies for example, females are used that are maximally 6 to 8 hours old (at 25 °C); only after this period has elapsed do inseminations begin.

The term "coitarche" is used in medical context to describe first coitus.[39]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g 'virgin' in American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.
  2. ^ a b "The emotional stress of serial non-marriage plays havoc with the possibility of partnering for life." Angela Shanahan, 'Sex revolution robbed us of fertility', The Australian 15 September, 2007.
  3. ^ Denis Howe, 'Virgin', The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, 1993-2007.
  4. ^ Chastity
  5. ^ Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short, 'virgo', in A Latin Dictionary.
  6. ^ 'Virgin', Online Etymology Dictionary.
  7. ^ 'Consecrated virgins and widows', Catechism of the Catholic Church 922–24.
  8. ^ Frank Harris, My Life and Loves, volume 3, (1923).
  9. ^ Release dates for The 40-Year-Old Virgin at the Internet Movie Database
  10. ^ Phimosis-circumcision.com
  11. ^ Kitzinger and Wilkinson, "Virgins and Queers: Rehabilitating Heterosexuality?" /Gender & Society/ 1994; 8; 446. McGill University Library, 27 November 2008 Sagepub.com
  12. ^ Bozon 2003
  13. ^ "Teen Sex Survey". Channel 4. 2008. http://sexperienceuk.channel4.com/teen-sex-survey. Retrieved 2008-09-11. 
  14. ^ Deuteronomy 22, see also Shotgun wedding.
  15. ^ Brockhaus 2004, Kranzgeld
  16. ^ Thesun.co.uk
  17. ^ Squires, Nick (2008-09-16). "Italian model plans to sell virginity for 1m euros". United Kingdom: Telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/2971511/Italian-model-plans-to-sell-virginity-for-1m-euros.html. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  18. ^ "Shock jock to auction off girl's virginity: Howard Stern announces his most controversial stunt yet". United Kingdom: Daily Mail. 2008-09-09. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1053953/Shock-jock-auction-girls-virginity-Howard-Stern-announces-controversial-stunt-yet.html. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  19. ^ "Calif. College Grad Sells Virginity For Tuition". Baltimore: WJZ-TV (CBS). 2008-09-10. http://wjz.com/watercooler/Natalie.Dylan.selling.2.814381.html. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
  20. ^ Frederic C. Wood (1968, Digitized July 23, 2008). Sex and the new morality. Association Press, 1968/Original from the University of Michigan. pp. 157 pages. http://books.google.com/books?id=sIpqAAAAMAAJ&q=Technical+virginity&dq=Technical+virginity&lr=. 
  21. ^ Richard D. McAnulty, M. Michele Burnette (2000). Exploring human sexuality: making healthy decisions. Allyn and Bacon. pp. 692 pages. ISBN 0205195199, 9780205195190. 
  22. ^ a b Mark Regnerus (2007). "The Technical Virginity Debate: Is Oral Sex Really Sex?". Forbidden fruit: sex & religion in the lives of American teenagers. Oxford University Press US. pp. 290 pages. ISBN 0195320948, 9780195320947. http://books.google.com/books?id=F-Qu-FCNHBYC&pg=PA167&dq=Technical+virginity#v=onepage&q=Technical%20virginity&f=false. 
  23. ^ a b c Jayson, Sharon (2005-10-19). "'Technical virginity' becomes part of teens' equation". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2005-10-19-teens-technical-virginity_x.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  24. ^ Carpenter, Laura M. (2001). "The Ambiguity of "Having Sex": The Subjective Experience of Virginity Loss in the United States - Statistical Data Included". United States: The Journal of Sex Research. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2372/is_2_38/ai_79439403/pg_8/?tag=content;col1. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  25. ^ The Marks of Childhood or the Marks of Abuse?, The New York Times
  26. ^ Donald Brown, Human Universals, 1991.
  27. ^ Joan R. Kahn, Kathryn A. London, 'Premarital Sex and the Risk of Divorce', Journal of Marriage and the Family 53 (1991): 845-855.
  28. ^ Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.24.34, trans. by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda.
  29. ^ Manu-smṛti 8.226, translated by Georg Bühler, (Oxford, 1886).
  30. ^ "As a Christian pastor who has faced this problem with people many times, I would say that the following guidelines are absolutely essential. Sex between unmarried adults might be inside that gray area between the ideal and the immoral if, first, no one’s marriage is being violated by either party; second, if it is a union of love and caring, not just a union of convenience and desire; third, if sex is shared only after other things have been shared, other things such as time, values, friendship, communication and a sense of deep trust and emotional responsibility; fourth, if it is both loving and discreet, private, shielded from those who would not or could not understand; if it is valued as a bond between the two people involved and between them alone, never violating the sacredness of the exclusive quality of that moment." John Shelby Spong, The Living Commandments.
  31. ^ arsenokoitēs (masc. noun of fem. 1st declention), literally a man who shares a bed with other men (see LSJ and BDAG).
  32. ^ Syriac- Christian and Rabbinic Notions of Holy Community and Sexuality Naomi Koltun-Fromm April 2006 pdf
  33. ^ Modern interpretation of the significance of "wrong his brother" in 1 Thessalonians 4:6, includes sleeping with the brother's future wife. However, 1 Thessalonians 4:3 only specifically prohibits Fornication. This word originally meant prostitution only and the first recorded use of the word in its modern meaning of intercourse between partners who are not married to each other was in the 14th century AD.
  34. ^ New American Bible
  35. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia, 'Virginity'
  36. ^ Aquinas. Summa Theologica, Second Part of the Second Part, Question 152.
  37. ^ Passtheword.org
  38. ^ "هل " مارية القبطية " من أمهات المؤمنين ؟" (in Arabic). http://www.islamqa.com/ar/ref/47572. Retrieved 2008-12-31. 
  39. ^ Doerfler D, Bernhaus A, Kottmel A, Sam C, Koelle D, Joura EA (May 2009). "Human papilloma virus infection prior to coitarche". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 200 (5): 487.e1–5. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2008.12.028. PMID 19268884. 

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Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to A Maiden article)

From Wikisource

A Maiden
by Sara Teasdale
From Helen of Troy and Other Poems Part II

Oh if I were the velvet rose
      Upon the red rose vine,
I'd climb to touch his window
      And make his casement fine.

And if I were the little bird
      That twitters on the tree,
All day I'd sing my love for him
      Till he should harken me.

But since I am a maiden
      I go with downcast eyes,
And he will never hear the songs
      That he has turned to sighs.

And since I am a maiden
      My love will never know
That I could kiss him with a mouth
      More red than roses blow.

PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.

The author died in 1933, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 75 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MAIDEN, or Maid, a young unmarried girl. "Maid" is a shortened form of "maiden," O. Eng. maegden, which represents a diminutive of a Teutonic word meaning "young person," of either sex. An old English word "may," meaning a kinsman or kinswoman, and also a virgin or girl, represents the original. In early usage "maiden" as meaning "virgin" is frequently applied to the male sex, thus, in Malory's Morte d'Arthur, Sir Percyvale is called a "parfyte clene megden." Apart from the direct applications of the word to the unmarried state, such as "maiden name," "maiden lady," &c., the word is used adjectivally, implying the preservation of the first state of an object, or indicating a first effort of any kind. Probably a "maiden" fortress is one which has never fallen, though the New English Dictionary suggests that the various "maiden castles" in England, usually ancient earthworks, may have been so called from being so strong that they could be defended by maidens, and points out that Edinburgh Castle, called "maiden-castle" by William Drummond of Hawthornden (Speech for Edinburgh to the King), is styled Castrum puellarum, the "castle of the maidens," in Geoffrey of Monmouth. A "maiden" assize, circuit or session is one at which there are no prisoners for trial; a "maiden over" or "maiden" in cricket is an over from which no runs are scored. A "maiden speech" is the first speech made by a member of parliament in the house. In the Annual Register for 1794 (quoted in N.E.D.) the expression, with reference to Canning's first speech, is said to be "according to the technical language of the house." "Maiden" is applied to several objects, to a movable framework or horse for drying and airing of linen, to a washerwoman's "dolly" or wooden beater, to the "kirnbaby" formed of the last sheaf of corn reaped which formerly figured in the Scottish harvest homes, and to the beheading instrument, known as the "Scottish maiden" (see below). "Maid," apart from its primary sense of an unmarried woman, is chiefly used for a domestic female servant, usually with a qualifying word prefixed, such as "housemaid," "parlourmaid," &c.

The title of "Maid Of Honour" is given to an unmarried lady attached to the personal suite of a queen. The custom of sending young girls of noble or good birth to the court of a prince or feudal superior, for the purpose, primarily, of education, goes back to early feudal times, and is parallel with the sending of boys to act as pages and squires to the feudal castles. The regular establishment of maids of honour (fines d'honneur) appears first in the royal court of France. This has usually been attributed to Anne of Brittany, wife of Charles VIII.; she had a group of unmarried girls of high rank at her court as part of her household, in whom she took a lively and parental interest, educating them and bestowing a dowry upon them on their marriage. A slightly earlier instance, however, has been found. When the young Margaret of Austria came to France on her espousal to Charles VIII., broken by his marriage to Anne of Brittany, there were in her train several fines d'honneur, whose names appear in the Cornptes d'argenterie de la reine Marguerite d'Autriche, from1484-1485and1488-1489(Archives de l'empire K.K. 80 and 81 quoted by A. Jal, Dictionnaire critique de biographic et d'histoire). It is from the days of Francis I. that the chroniques scandaleuses begin which circle round the maids of honour of the French court. The maids of Catherine de Medici, celebrated as the "flying squadron," l'escadron volant, are familiar from the pages of Pierre de l'Estoile (1574-1611) and Brantome. Among those whose beauty Catherine used in her political intrigues, the most famous were Isabelle de Limeuil, Mlle de Montmorency-Fosseux, known as la belle Fosseuse, and Charlotte de Baune. The filles d'honneur, as an institution, were suppressed in the reign of Louis XIV., at the instigation of Mme de Montespan - who had been one of them - and their place was taken by the dames de palais. In the English court, this custom of attaching "maids of honour" to the queen's person was no doubt adopted from France. At the present day a queen regnant has eight maids of honour, a queen consort four. They take precedence next after the daughters of barons, and where they have not by right or courtesy a title of their own, they are styled "Honourable." THE Scottish Maiden was an instrument of capital punishment formerly in use in Scotland. It is said to have been invented by the earl of Morton, who is also said to have been its first victim. This, however, could not have been the case, as the maiden was first used at the execution of the inferior agents in the assassination of Rizzio (1561) and Morton was not beheaded till 1581. The maiden was practically an early form of guillotine. A loaded blade or axe moving in grooves was fixed in a frame about ten feet high. The axe was raised to the full height of the frame and then released, severing the victim's head from his body. At least 120 suffered death by the maiden, including the regent Morton, Sir John Gordon of Haddo, President Spottiswood, the marquis and earl of Argyll. In 1710 it ceased to be used; it is now preserved in the museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, in Edinburgh.


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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Joseph Maiden article)

From Wikispecies

(1859-1925)








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