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Male pregnancy refers to the incubation of one or more embryos or fetuses by the male of any species. All pregnancies in the animal kingdom, besides seahorses, whose males carry the young until birth, are carried by female organisms. In all heterogamous species, the males produce the spermatozoa and rarely, if ever, host the zygote (the pipefish and seahorse are notable exceptions).[1]

Contents

The seahorse and related species

The Syngnathidae family of fish has the unique characteristic where females lay their eggs in a brood pouch on the male's chest, and the male incubates the eggs. Fertilization may take place in the pouch or before implantation in the water. Included in Syngnathidae are seahorses, the pipefish, and the weedy and leafy sea dragons. Syngnathidae is the only family in the animal kingdom to which the term "male pregnancy" has been applied.[2]

Self-identified male transgender pregnancy

Some trans men (female-to-male transgender people) who interrupt hormone treatments can become pregnant, while still identifying and living as men. This is possible for individuals who still have functioning ovaries.[3] Although these individuals are biologically female, from the standpoint of gender identity they are pregnant "transgender men".[4][5]

For example, Matt Rice, a transgender man, bore a child in 1999 by artificial insemination during his relationship with writer Patrick Califia.[6]

Thomas Beatie, another transgender man, chose to become pregnant because his wife was infertile; he wrote an article about the experience in The Advocate.[5] The Washington Post further broadened the story on March 25 when blogger Emil Steiner called Beatie the first "legally" pregnant man on record,[7] in reference to the state of Oregon recognizing Beatie as a man.[4][5] He gave birth to a girl on June 29, 2008.[8][9] Barbara Walters announced Beatie's second pregnancy on The View,[10] and he gave birth to a boy on June 9, 2009.[11].Beatie is expecting a third baby in 2010. Previously the couple told Barbara Walters that they ordered sperm and used a standard turkey baster at home to impregnate Beatie each time.

Scott Moore, a transgender man, will give birth to a child in March 2010.[12]

Male pregnancy by ectopic implantation

Robert Winston, a pioneer of in-vitro fertilization, told London’s Sunday Times that “male pregnancy would certainly be possible.”[13][14][15] Ectopic implantation of the embryo along the abdominal wall, and resulting placenta growth would, however, be very dangerous and potentially fatal for the host, and is therefore unlikely to be studied in humans.[16] Gillian Lockwood, medical director of Midland Fertility Services, a British fertility clinic, noted that the abdomen is not designed to separate from the placenta during delivery, hence the danger of an ectopic pregnancy. “The question is not ’Can a man do it?’ ” says bioethicist Glenn McGee. “It’s ’If a man does have a successful pregnancy, can he survive it?’ ”[13]

The theoretical issue of male ectopic pregnancy in mammals by implantation (in biological males) was popularized by a 1985 article[citation needed] in Omni Magazine. In response, experts in the field of fertility medicine stress that the concept of ectopic implantation, while theoretically plausible, has never been attempted and would be difficult to justify even for women lacking a uterus, owing to the extreme health risks to both the parent and child.[17][18]

Since 2000, several hoax web sites have appeared on the Internet[16] purporting to describe the world's first pregnant man. While sometimes relying on legitimate scientific claims, in reality, no such experiment has ever been attested. Fertility clinician Cecil Jacobson claimed to have transplanted a fertilized egg from a female baboon to the omentum in the abdominal cavity of a male baboon in the mid-1960s, which then carried the fetus for four months; however Jacobson did not publish his claims in a scientific journal, and was subsequently convicted on several counts of fraud for ethical misconduct.[18]

The first uterine transplant was performed in Saudi Arabia in 2000, from one woman to another. This advance drew speculation about the possibility of a male receiving a womb transplant, and bearing a child from the transplanted womb.[19]

Fetus in fetu

An extremely rare condition in which a fetus can grow inside the body is called "fetus in fetu". This is a developmental abnormality in which a fertilised egg splits as if to form identical twins, but one half becomes enveloped by the other, and an entire living organ system with torso and limbs can develop inside the host.[20] The abnormality occurs in 1 in 500,000 live births in humans.[21]

The case of Sanju Bhagat, a man from Nagpur, India, attracted attention in 1999 for the length of time (36 years) he had carried his parasitic twin inside his body, and the size of the growth. Since Bhagat had no placenta, the growth had connected directly to his blood supply. [22]

Mythology

Various mythologies feature male characters giving birth, but such events typically take place in an entirely different fashion than an ordinary female pregnancy, such as Athena springing fully-formed from Zeus's forehead, or Dionysus being born from his thigh. In Hindu mythology, Lord Vishnu gives birth to Lord Brahma thus: a lotus emerges from his navel, like an external placenta and womb, carrying Brahma within. Male mythological figures may become pregnant when rendered female in some way, such as the shapeshifter Loki turning into a mare to distract a stallion and ending up giving birth to Sleipnir.

In popular culture

Thematically, pregnancy can be related to the issues of parasitism and gender. Some science fiction writers have picked up on these issues, in "cross-gender" themes — e.g., Octavia E. Butler's Bloodchild. Ursula K. Le Guin's award-winning The Left Hand of Darkness, which contains the sentence "The king was pregnant", explores a society in which pregnancy can be experienced by anyone, since gender is variable within each person's lifetime. Lois McMaster Bujold's Ethan of Athos features an all-male society in which men use artificial wombs, but experience many of the psychological effects of pregnancy (anticipation, anxiety, etc.). In Marge Piercy's feminist utopian novel Woman on the Edge of Time, neither men nor women get pregnant, leaving that to artificial wombs, but both sexes may lactate and nurse the infant; the specifically female experiences of pregnancy and nursing were opened to men in the cause of gender equality.[23]

The concept of male implanted pregnancy was explored in the science fiction comedy/drama Junior, a 1994 film starring Arnold Schwarzenegger whose screenplay was inspired by the Omni article.[18]

The subject of male pregnancy was also explored in the 1990 BBC television comedy drama Frankenstein's Baby in which a Dr Eva Frankenstein helps a male patient to become the world's first pregnant man.[24]

In the music industry, male pregnancy can be seen in the Mexican rock band Fobia's music video for "2 corazones" (2 hearts) and in English singer Will Young's music video for "Hopes & Fears", where Young himself appears heavily pregnant.

Virgil Wong, a performance artist, created a hoax site[16][25] featuring a fictitious male pregnancy, claiming to detail the pregnancy of his friend Lee Mingwei.[26][27]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Male pregnancy". ScienceDirect. 2003-10-14. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-49SN5B1-5&_user=10&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WD-MsSAYWW-UUA-U-AAZAEZDBBD-AACECVYABD-ACYAVUUBU-WD-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=10%2F14%2F2003&_rdoc=18&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243%232003%23999869979%23464936!&_cdi=6243&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=08311121da42f6825bc092a851bda224. 
  2. ^ Jones, Adam G.; Avise, John C. (2003-10-14). "Male Pregnancy". Current Biology 13 (20): R791. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2003.09.045. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-49SN5B1-5&_user=10&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WD-MsSAYWW-UUA-U-AAZAEZDBBD-AACECVYABD-ACYAVUUBU-WD-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=10%2F14%2F2003&_rdoc=18&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243%232003%23999869979%23464936!&_cdi=6243&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=08311121da42f6825bc092a851bda224. 
  3. ^ FTM Transgender. - FAMILY/Hormone guide for FTM, "Question 2" (geocities) last accessed 2008-07-02
  4. ^ a b Labor of Love website.
  5. ^ a b c Thomas Beattie, "Labor of Love: Is society ready for this pregnant husband?", The Advocate, April 8, 2008, p. 24.
  6. ^ Califia-Rice, Patrick (2000-06-20). "Two Dads With a Difference — Neither of Us Was Born Male". Village Voice. http://www.villagevoice.com/news/0025,califia-rice,15833,1.html. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  7. ^ Thomas Beatie: The First Man to Give Birth? washingtonpost.com OFF/beat blog March 25, 2008
  8. ^ The Pregnant Man Gives Birth people.com, Originally posted Thursday July 03, 2008 02:55 PM EDT
  9. ^ 'Pregnant man' gives birth to baby girl named Susan Juliette Beatie at guardian.co.uk.
  10. ^ "Pregnant man pregnant for second time". www.meeja.com.au. 2008-11-14. http://www.meeja.com.au/articles/pregnant-man-pregnant-for-second-time. Retrieved 2008-10-11. 
  11. ^ "'Pregnant Man' Gives Birth Again". People Magazine. 2009-06-09. http://www.people.com/people/article/0,,20284188,00.html. 
  12. ^ "Second pregnant man Scott Moore due to give birth to baby boy". Daily Mail. 2010-01-27. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1246153/Second-pregnant-man-Scott-Moore-birth-baby-boy-month.html. 
  13. ^ a b Meryl Rothstein (2005-07-31). "Male Pregnancy: A Dangerous Proposition". Popular Science Magazine. http://www.popsci.com/popsci/futurebody/0a6d9371b1d75010vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.html. 
  14. ^ Men can have babies; Study still in infancy though: Expert
  15. ^ "Babies borne by men 'possible'". The Independent. 1999-02-22. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19990222/ai_n14206683. 
  16. ^ a b c "A Womb Of His Own". Snopes.com. 2008-05-09. http://www.snopes.com/pregnant/malepreg.asp. 
  17. ^ William Leith (2008-04-10). "Pregnant men: hard to stomach?". Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/men_shealth/3354220/Pregnant-men-hard-to-stomach.html. 
  18. ^ a b c Dick Teresi (1994-11-27). "How To Get A Man Pregnant". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1994/11/27/magazine/how-to-get-a-man-pregnant.html. 
  19. ^ First U.S. Uterus Transplant Planned - The Washington Post, January 15, 2007
  20. ^ Chua, JHY; Chui CH, Sai Prasad TR et al. (2005). "Fetus-in-fetu in the pelvis" (PDF). Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore 34: 646–649. http://annals.edu.sg/pdf/34VolNo10200511/V34N10p646.pdf. 
  21. ^ Grant P, Pearn JH Foetus-in-foetu. Med J Aust. 1969; 1:1016-1020 — source not consulted; cited here following Hoeffel CC, Nguyen KQ, Phan HT, Truong NH, Nguyen TS, Tran TT, Fornes P. Fetus in fetu: a case report and literature review. Pediatrics. 2000 Jun;105(6):1335-44. PubMed free full text
  22. ^ "ABC News: A Pregnant Man?". i.abcnews.com. http://i.abcnews.com/Health/Story?id=2346476&page=1. Retrieved 2008-03-27. 
  23. ^ Piercy, Marge (1985-11-12). Woman on the Edge of Time. Fawcett. ISBN 0-449-21082-0. 
  24. ^ "Frankenstein's Baby". BFI. http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/title/436040. 
  25. ^ "Virgil Wong website". http://www.virgilwong.com. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  26. ^ Hoax website: "POP! The First Human Male Pregnancy". http://www.malepregnancy.com. Retrieved 2008-03-27. 
  27. ^ Lee Mingwei. Mingwei Refers to hoax as "Male Pregnancy Project, Centre d’Art Santa Monica, Barcelona, Spain"

Male pregnancy refers to the incubation of one or more embryos or fetuses by the male of any species. All pregnancies in the animal kingdom, besides seahorses, whose males carry the young until birth, are carried by female organisms. In all heterogamous species, the males produce the spermatozoa and rarely, if ever, host the zygote (the pipefish and seahorse are notable exceptions).[1]

Contents

Male pregnancy in non-human animals

The seahorse and related species

The Syngnathidae family of fish has the unique characteristic where females lay their eggs in a brood pouch on the male's chest, and the male incubates the eggs. Fertilization may take place in the pouch or before implantation in the water. Included in Syngnathidae are seahorses, the pipefish, and the weedy and leafy sea dragons. Syngnathidae is the only family in the animal kingdom to which the term "male pregnancy" has been applied [2]

Male pregnancy in humans

Male pregnancy by ectopic implantation

Robert Winston, a pioneer of in-vitro fertilization, told London’s Sunday Times that “male pregnancy would certainly be possible.”[3][4][5] Ectopic implantation of the embryo along the abdominal wall, and resulting placenta growth would, however, be very dangerous and potentially fatal for the host, and is therefore unlikely to be studied in humans.[6] Gillian Lockwood, medical director of Midland Fertility Services, a British fertility clinic, noted that the abdomen is not designed to separate from the placenta during delivery, hence the danger of an ectopic pregnancy. “The question is not ’Can a man do it?’ ” says bioethicist Glenn McGee. “It’s ’If a man does have a successful pregnancy, can he survive it?’ ”[3]

The theoretical issue of male ectopic pregnancy in mammals by implantation (in biological males) was popularized by a 1985 article[citation needed] in Omni Magazine. In response, experts in the field of fertility medicine stress that the concept of ectopic implantation, while theoretically plausible, has never been attempted and would be difficult to justify even for women lacking a uterus, owing to the extreme health risks to both the parent and child.[7][8]

Since 2000, several hoax web sites have appeared on the Internet[6] purporting to describe the world's first pregnant man. While sometimes relying on legitimate scientific claims, in reality, no such experiment has ever been attested. Fertility clinician Cecil Jacobson claimed to have transplanted a fertilized egg from a female baboon to the omentum in the abdominal cavity of a male baboon in the mid-1960s, which then carried the fetus for four months; however Jacobson did not publish his claims in a scientific journal, and was subsequently convicted on several counts of fraud for ethical misconduct.[8]

The first uterine transplant was performed in Saudi Arabia in 2000, from one woman to another. This advance drew speculation about the possibility of a male receiving a womb transplant, and bearing a child from the transplanted womb.[9]

Pregnancy in female-to-male transgender persons

Some "trans men" (female-to-male transgender people) who interrupt hormone treatments can become pregnant, while still identifying and living as men. This is possible for individuals who still have functioning ovaries.[10] Although these individuals were assigned female at birth, from the standpoint of gender identity they are pregnant transgender men.[11][12]

For example, Matt Rice, a transgender man, bore a child in 1999 by artificial insemination during his relationship with writer Patrick Califia.[13]

Thomas Beatie, another transgender man, chose to become pregnant because his wife was infertile; he wrote an article about the experience in The Advocate.[12] The Washington Post further broadened the story on March 25 when blogger Emil Steiner called Beatie the first "legally" pregnant man on record,[14] in reference to the state of Oregon recognizing Beatie as a man.[11][12] He gave birth to a girl on June 29, 2008.[15][16] Barbara Walters announced Beatie's second pregnancy on The View,[17] and Beatie gave birth to a boy on June 9, 2009.[18] In Beatie's third pregnancy, a boy was born on August 3rd, 2010.[19] Previously, the couple told Barbara Walters that they ordered sperm and used a standard turkey baster at home to impregnate Beatie each time.

Scott Moore, a transgender man, gave birth to a child on March 9, 2010.[20]

Fetus in fetu

An extremely rare condition in which a fetus can grow inside the body is called "fetus in fetu". This is a developmental abnormality in which a fertilised egg splits as if to form identical twins, but one half becomes enveloped by the other, and an entire living organ system with torso and limbs can develop inside the host.[21] The abnormality occurs in 1 in 500,000 live births in humans.[22]

The case of Sanju Bhagat, a man from Nagpur, India, attracted attention in 1999 for the length of time (36 years) he had carried his parasitic twin inside his body, and the size of the growth. Since Bhagat had no placenta, the growth had connected directly to his blood supply. [23]

In popular culture

Thematically, pregnancy can be similar to the issues of parasitism and gender. Some science fiction writers have picked up on these issues, in "cross-gender" themes — e.g., Octavia E. Butler's Bloodchild. Ursula K. Le Guin's award-winning The Left Hand of Darkness, which contains the sentence "The king was pregnant", explores a society in which pregnancy can be experienced by anyone, since gender is variable within each person's lifetime. Lois McMaster Bujold's Ethan of Athos features an all-male society in which men use artificial wombs, but experience many of the psychological effects of pregnancy (anticipation, anxiety, etc.). In Marge Piercy's feminist utopian novel Woman on the Edge of Time, neither men nor women get pregnant, leaving that to artificial wombs, but both sexes may lactate and nurse the infant; the specifically female experiences of pregnancy and nursing were opened to men in the cause of gender equality.[24]

The concept of male implanted pregnancy was explored in the science fiction comedy/drama Junior, a 1994 film starring Arnold Schwarzenegger whose screenplay was inspired by the Omni article.[8]

The subject of male pregnancy was also explored in the 1990 BBC television comedy drama Frankenstein's Baby in which a Dr. Eva Frankenstein helps a male patient to become the world's first pregnant man.[25]

In Monty Python's 1979 film, Life of Brian, there is a political satire scene in which the character of Stan (played by Eric Idle) wants to be granted the right to be a woman and to have babies, asserting that "It's every man's right to have babies if he wants them." As the film takes place long before sex changes were even remotely possible, the character of Reg (played by John Cleese) points out the futility of such a civil rights campaign, quipping "You haven't got a womb! Where's the fetus going to gestate? You going to keep it in a box?"

In the music industry, male pregnancy can be seen in the Mexican rock band Fobia's music video for "2 Corazones" and in English singer Will Young's music video for "Hopes & Fears", where Young himself appears heavily pregnant.

Virgil Wong, a performance artist, created a hoax site[6][26] featuring a fictitious male pregnancy, claiming to detail the pregnancy of his friend Lee Mingwei.[27][28]

In the Star Trek prequel Enterprise episode "Unexpected", a human male becomes pregnant with the offspring of a female of another species, and the event is described as being the first interspecies pregnancy in humans.

In the BBC science fiction comedy series Red Dwarf, Dave Lister becomes pregnant after having sex in an alternate universe. In this alternate universe, all the characters meet alternate versions of themselves, mostly of opposite gender. Dave Lister gets pregnant after having sex with his female counterpart because they are in the female's universe, so the males get pregnant.

In the popular web series Red vs Blue, a soldier named Lavernius Tucker is impregnated by an alien.

In the SyFy (then SciFi) miniseries, Farscape: The Peacekeeper Wars, Rygel becomes impregnated with John and Aeryn's baby.

In the American Dad episode, Deacon Stan, Jesus Man, Steve becomes impregnated with Roger's alien baby after giving him mouth to mouth. He then, unwittingly, passes it on to his girlfriend via a kiss.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Male pregnancy". ScienceDirect. 2003-10-14. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-49SN5B1-5&_user=10&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WD-MsSAYWW-UUA-U-AAZAEZDBBD-AACECVYABD-ACYAVUUBU-WD-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=10%2F14%2F2003&_rdoc=18&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243%232003%23999869979%23464936!&_cdi=6243&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=08311121da42f6825bc092a851bda224. 
  2. ^ Jones, Adam G.; Avise, John C. (2003-10-14). "Male Pregnancy". Current Biology 13 (20): R791. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2003.09.045. PMID 14561416. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-49SN5B1-5&_user=10&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WD-MsSAYWW-UUA-U-AAZAEZDBBD-AACECVYABD-ACYAVUUBU-WD-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=10%2F14%2F2003&_rdoc=18&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243%232003%23999869979%23464936!&_cdi=6243&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=08311121da42f6825bc092a851bda224. 
  3. ^ a b Meryl Rothstein (2005-07-31). "Male Pregnancy: A Dangerous Proposition". Popular Science Magazine. http://www.popsci.com/popsci/futurebody/0a6d9371b1d75010vgnvcm1000004eecbccdrcrd.html. 
  4. ^ Men can have babies; Study still in infancy though: Expert
  5. ^ "Babies borne by men 'possible'". The Independent. 1999-02-22. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19990222/ai_n14206683. [dead link]
  6. ^ a b c "A Womb Of His Own". Snopes.com. 2008-05-09. http://www.snopes.com/pregnant/malepreg.asp. 
  7. ^ William Leith (2008-04-10). "Pregnant men: hard to stomach?". London: Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/men_shealth/3354220/Pregnant-men-hard-to-stomach.html. 
  8. ^ a b c Dick Teresi (1994-11-27). "How To Get A Man Pregnant". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1994/11/27/magazine/how-to-get-a-man-pregnant.html. 
  9. ^ First U.S. Uterus Transplant Planned - The Washington Post, January 15, 2007
  10. ^ FTM Transgender. - FAMILY/Hormone guide for FTM, "Question 2" (geocities) last accessed 2008-07-02
  11. ^ a b Labor of Love website.
  12. ^ a b c Thomas Beattie, "Labor of Love: Is society ready for this pregnant husband?", The Advocate, April 8, 2008, p. 24.
  13. ^ Califia-Rice, Patrick (2000-06-20). "Two Dads With a Difference — Neither of Us Was Born Male". Village Voice. http://www.villagevoice.com/news/0025,califia-rice,15833,1.html. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  14. ^ Thomas Beatie: The First Man to Give Birth? washingtonpost.com OFF/beat blog March 25, 2008
  15. ^ The Pregnant Man Gives Birth people.com, Originally posted Thursday July 03, 2008 02:55 PM EDT
  16. ^ 'Pregnant man' gives birth to baby girl named Susan Juliette Beatie at guardian.co.uk.
  17. ^ "Pregnant man pregnant for second time". www.meeja.com.au. 2008-11-14. http://www.meeja.com.au/articles/pregnant-man-pregnant-for-second-time. Retrieved 2008-10-11. 
  18. ^ "'Pregnant Man' Gives Birth Again". People Magazine. 2009-06-09. http://www.people.com/people/article/0,,20284188,00.html. 
  19. ^ "First known transgender man to give birth delivers third child". perth now. 2010-08-03. http://www.perthnow.com.au/news/first-known-transgender-man-to-give-birth-delivers-third-child/story-e6frg12c-1225900419051. 
  20. ^ "Second pregnant man Scott Moore due to give birth to baby boy". Daily Mail. 2010-01-27. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1246153/Second-pregnant-man-Scott-Moore-birth-baby-boy-month.html. 
  21. ^ Chua, JHY; Chui CH, Sai Prasad TR et al. (2005). "Fetus-in-fetu in the pelvis" (PDF). Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore 34: 646–649. http://annals.edu.sg/pdf/34VolNo10200511/V34N10p646.pdf. 
  22. ^ Grant P, Pearn JH Foetus-in-foetu. Med J Aust. 1969; 1:1016-1020 — source not consulted; cited here following Hoeffel CC, Nguyen KQ, Phan HT, Truong NH, Nguyen TS, Tran TT, Fornes P. Fetus in fetu: a case report and literature review. Pediatrics. 2000 Jun;105(6):1335-44. PubMed free full text
  23. ^ "ABC News: A Pregnant Man?". i.abcnews.com. http://i.abcnews.com/Health/Story?id=2346476&page=1. Retrieved 2008-03-27. 
  24. ^ Piercy, Marge (1985-11-12). Woman on the Edge of Time. Fawcett. ISBN 0-449-21082-0. 
  25. ^ "Frankenstein's Baby". BFI. http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/title/436040. 
  26. ^ "Virgil Wong website". http://www.virgilwong.com. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  27. ^ Hoax website: "POP! The First Human Male Pregnancy". http://www.malepregnancy.com. Retrieved 2008-03-27. 
  28. ^ Lee Mingwei. Mingwei Refers to hoax as "Male Pregnancy Project, Centre d’Art Santa Monica, Barcelona, Spain"







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