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Republic of Mali
République du Mali
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Un peuple, un but, une foi"
"One people, one goal, one faith"
AnthemLe Mali
"Mali"[1]
Capital
(and largest city)
Bamako
12°39′N 8°0′W / 12.65°N 8°W / 12.65; -8
Official language(s) French
Vernacular languages Bambara
Demonym Malian
Government Semi-presidential republic
 -  President Amadou Toumani Touré
 -  Prime Minister Modibo Sidibé
Independence from France 
 -  Declared September 22, 1960 
Area
 -  Total 1,240,192 km2 (24th)
478,839 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.6
Population
 -  April 2009 census 14,517,176[2] (67th)
 -  Density 11.7/km2 (215th)
30.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $15.084 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $1,129[3] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $8.774 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $656[3] 
Gini (1994) 50.5 (high
HDI (2007) 0.371 (low) (178rd)
Currency West African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+0)
Drives on the right[4]
Internet TLD .ml
Calling code 223
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (French: République du Mali), is a landlocked country in Western Africa. Mali is the seventh largest country in Africa, bordering Algeria on the north, Niger on the east, Burkina Faso and the Côte d'Ivoire on the south, Guinea on the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania on the west. Its size is just over 1,240,000 km² with a population more than 14 million. Its capital is Bamako.
Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara, while the country's southern region, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Sénégal rivers. The country's economic structure centers around agriculture and fishing. Some of Mali's natural resources include gold, uranium, and salt. Mali is considered to be one of the poorest nations in the world.
Present-day Mali was once part of three West African empires that controlled trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (from which Mali is named), and the Songhai Empire. In the late 1800s, Mali fell under French control, becoming part of French Sudan. Mali gained independence in 1959 with Senegal, as the Mali Federation. A year later, the Mali Federation became the independent nation of Mali. After a long period of one-party rule, a 1991 coup led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. About half the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.[5]

Contents

History

Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, slaves, and other precious commodities.[6] These Sahelian kingdoms had neither rigid geopolitical boundaries nor rigid ethnic identities.[6] The earliest of these empires was the Ghana Empire, which was dominated by the Soninke, a Mande-speaking people.[6] The nation expanded throughout West Africa from the 8th century until 1078, when it was conquered by the Almoravids.[7]
The extent of the Mali Empire's peak
The Mali Empire later formed on the upper Niger River, and reached the height of power in the fourteenth century.[7] .Under the Mali Empire, the ancient cities of Djenné and Timbuktu were centers of both trade and Islamic learning.^ From the city of Mopti in the centre of Mali come the traditional group 'Kanaga' and although they play instruments both traditional and modern its almost impossible to hear any modern sounds what so ever!

[7] The empire later declined as a result of internal intrigue, ultimately being supplanted by the Songhai Empire.[7] The Songhai people originated in current northwestern Nigeria. The Songhai had long been a major power in West Africa subject to the Mali Empire's rule.[7]
In the late 14th century, the Songhai gradually gained independence from the Mali Empire and expanded, ultimately subsuming the entire eastern portion of the Mali Empire.[7] The Songhai Empire's eventual collapse was largely the result of a Moroccan invasion in 1591, under the command of Judar Pasha.[7] The fall of the Songhai Empire marked the end of the region's role as a trading crossroads.[7] Following the establishment of sea routes by the European powers, the trans-Saharan trade routes lost significance.[7] The worst recorded famine occurred between 1738 and 1756, killing about half of the population of Timbuktu.[8]
In the colonial era, Mali fell under the control of the French beginning in the late 19th century.[7] By 1905, most of the area was under firm French control as a part of French Sudan.[7] In early 1959, Mali (then the Sudanese Republic) and Senegal united to become the Mali Federation. The Mali Federation gained independence from France on June 20, 1960.[7] Senegal withdrew from the federation in August 1960, which allowed the Sudanese Republic to form the independent nation of Mali on September 22, 1960. Modibo Keïta was elected the first president.[7] Keïta quickly established a one-party state, adopted an independent African and socialist orientation with close ties to the East, and implemented extensive nationalization of economic resources.[7]
In November 1968, following progressive economic decline, the Keïta regime was overthrown in a bloodless military coup led by Moussa Traoré.[9] The subsequent military-led regime, with Traoré as president, attempted to reform the economy. However, his efforts were frustrated by political turmoil and a devastating drought between 1968 to 1974,[9] which killed thousands of people from famine.[10] The Traoré regime faced student unrest beginning in the late 1970s and three coup attempts. However, the Traoré regime repressed all dissenters until the late 1980s.[9]
The government continued to attempt economic reforms, and the populace became increasingly dissatisfied.[9] In response to growing demands for multi-party democracy, the Traoré regime allowed some limited political liberalization, but refused to usher in a full-fledged democratic system.[9] In 1990, cohesive opposition movements began to emerge, and was complicated by the turbulent rise of ethnic violence in the north following the return of many Tuaregs to Mali.[9]
Anti-government protests in 1991 led to a coup, a transitional government, and a new constitution.[9] In 1992, Alpha Oumar Konaré won Mali's first democratic, multi-party presidential election. Upon his reelection in 1997, President Konaré pushed through political and economic reforms and fought corruption. In 2002, he was succeeded in democratic elections by Amadou Toumani Touré, a retired general, who had been the leader of the military aspect of the 1991 democratic uprising.[11] Today, Mali is one of the most politically and socially stable countries in Africa.[12]

Geography

Satellite image of Mali
Landscape in Hombori
Mali is a landlocked nation in West Africa, located southwest of Algeria. At 1,240,000 square kilometres (478,767 sq mi), Mali is the world's 24th-largest country and is comparable in size to South Africa or Angola. Most of the country lies in the southern Sahara, which produces a hot, dust-laden Sudanian savanna zone.[13] Mali is mostly flat, rising to rolling northern plains covered by sand. The Adrar des Ifoghas lies in the northeast.
The country's climate ranges from tropical in the south to arid in the north.[13] Most of the country receives negligible rainfall; droughts are frequent.[13] Late June to early December is the rainy season. During this time, flooding of the Niger River is common, creating the Inner Niger Delta.[13] The nation has considerable natural resources, with gold, uranium, phosphates, kaolinite, salt and limestone being most widely exploited. Mali faces numerous environmental challenges, including desertification, deforestation, soil erosion, and inadequate supplies of potable water.[13] Martin, p. 134.</ref> Each region has a governor.[14] Since Mali's regions are very large, the country is subdivided into 49 cercles, totaling 288 arrondissements.[15] Mayors and elected members of the city councils officiate the arrondissements.[14]
The regions and districts are:

Politics and government

Mali President Amadou Toumani Touré
Mali is a constitutional democracy governed by the constitution of January 12, 1992, which was amended in 1999.[16] The constitution provides for a separation of powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.[16] The system of government can be described as "semi-presidential."[16]
Executive power is vested in a president, who is elected to a five-year term by universal suffrage and is limited to two terms.[16][17] The president serves as chief of state and commander in chief of the armed forces.[16][18] A prime minister appointed by the president serves as head of government and in turn appoints the Council of Ministers.[16][19] The unicameral National Assembly is Mali’s sole legislative body, consisting of deputies elected to five-year terms.[20][21] Following the 2007 elections, the Alliance for Democracy and Progress held 113 of 160 seats in the assembly.[22] The assembly holds two regular sessions each year, during which it debates and votes on legislation that has been submitted by a member or by the government.[20][23] Democracy-wise things looked positive after the local elections at the end of April 2009, though significant shortcomings and attempts at manipulation still existed. Philip Kusch sees the challenges Mali still faces. Compulsory and meaningful event
Mali’s constitution provides for an independent judiciary,[20][24] but the executive continues to exercise influence over the judiciary by virtue of power to appoint judges and oversee both judicial functions and law enforcement.[20] Mali's highest courts are the Supreme Court, which has both judicial and administrative powers, and a separate Constitutional Court that provides judicial review of legislative acts and serves as an election arbiter.[20][25] Various lower courts exist, though village chiefs and elders resolve most local disputes in rural areas.[20]

Foreign relations and military

Malian President Amadou Toumani Touré with former U.S. President George W. Bush
Mali's foreign policy orientation has become increasingly pragmatic and pro-Western over time.[26] Since the institution of a democratic form of government in 2002, Mali’s relations with the West in general and with the United States in particular have improved significantly.[26] Mali has a longstanding yet ambivalent relationship with France, a former colonial ruler.[26] Mali is active in regional organizations such as the African Union.[26] Working to control and resolve regional conflicts, such as in Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, is one of Mali’s major foreign policy goals.[26] Mali feels threatened by the potential for the spillover of conflicts in neighboring states, and relations with those neighbors are often uneasy.[26] General insecurity along borders in the north, including cross-border banditry and terrorism, remain troubling issues in regional relations.[26]
Mali’s military forces consist of an army, which includes land forces and air force,[27] as well as the paramilitary Gendarmerie and Republican Guard, all of which are under the control of Mali's Ministry of Defense and Veterans, headed by a civilian.[28] The military is underpaid, poorly equipped, and in need of rationalization.[28] Organization has suffered from the incorporation of Tuareg irregular forces into the regular military following a 1992 agreement between the government and Tuareg rebel forces.[28] The military has generally kept a low profile since the democratic transition of 1992. The incumbent president, Amadou Toumani Touré, is a former army general and as such reportedly enjoys widespread military support.[28] In the annual human rights report for 2003, the U.S. Department of State rated civilian control of security forces as generally effective but noted a few "instances in which elements of the security forces acted independently of government authority."[28]

Economy

Market scene in Kati
Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world.[29] The average worker's annual salary is approximately US$1,500.[30] Between 1992 and 1995, Mali implemented an economic adjustment program that resulted in economic growth and a reduction in financial imbalances. The program increased social and economic conditions, and led to Mali joining the World Trade Organization on May 31, 1995.[31] The gross domestic product (GDP) has risen since. In 2002, the GDP amounted to US$3.4 billion,[32] and increased to US$5.8 billion in 2005,[30] which amounts to an approximately 17.6% annual growth rate.
Mali's key industry is agriculture. Cotton is the country's largest crop export and is exported west throughout Senegal and the Ivory Coast.[33][34] During 2002, 620,000 tons of cotton were produced in Mali but cotton prices declined significantly in 2003.[33][34] In addition to cotton, Mali produces rice, millet, corn, vegetables, tobacco, and tree crops. Gold, livestock and agriculture amount to eighty percent of Mali's exports.[30] Eighty percent of Malian workers are employed in agriculture while fifteen percent work in the service sector.[34] However, seasonal variations lead to regular temporary unemployment of agricultural workers.[35] Mali's resource in livestock consists of millions of cattle, sheep, and goats. Approximately 40% of Mali's herds were lost during the Sahel drought in 1972-74.[36]
A porter hauling hay
In 1991, with the assistance of the International Development Association, Mali relaxed the enforcement of mining codes which led to renewed foreign interest and investment in the mining industry.[37] Gold is mined in the southern region and Mali has the third highest gold production in Africa (after South Africa and Ghana).[33] The emergence of gold as Mali’s leading export product since 1999 has helped mitigate some of the negative impact of the cotton and Côte d’Ivoire crises.[38] Other natural resources include kaolin, salt, phosphate, and limestone.[30]
Electricity and water are maintained by the Energie du Mali, or EDM, and textiles are generated by Industry Textile du Mali, or ITEMA.[30] Mali has made efficient use of hydroelectricity, consisting of over half of Mali's electrical power. In 2002, 700 GWh of hydroelectric power were produced in Mali.[34]
The Malian government participates in foreign involvement, concerning commerce and privatization. Mali underwent economic reform, beginning in 1988 by signing agreements with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.[30] During 1988 to 1996, Mali's government largely reformed public enterprises. Since the agreement, sixteen enterprises were privatized, twelve partially privatized, and twenty liquidated.[30] In 2005, the Malian government conceded a railroad company to the Savage Corporation, which is based in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.[30] Two major companies, Societé de Telecommunications du Mali (SOTELMA) and the Cotton Ginning Company (CMDT), are expected to be privatized in 2008.[30]

Demographics

A Bozo girl in Bamako
In July 2009, Mali's population was an estimated 13 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.7%.[29] The population is predominantly rural (68% in 2002), and 5–10% of Malians are nomadic.[40] More than 90% of the population lives in the southern part of the country, especially in Bamako, which has over 1 million residents.[40]
In 2007, about 48% of Malians were less than fifteen years old, 49% were 15–64 years old, and 3% were 65 and older.[29] The median age was 15.9 years.[29] The birth rate in 2007 was 49.6 births per 1,000, and the total fertility rate was 7.4 children per woman.[29] The death rate in 2007 was 16.5 deaths per 1,000.[29] Life expectancy at birth was 49.5 years total (47.6 for males and 51.5 for females).[29] Mali has one of the world's highest rates of infant mortality,[40] with 106 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2007.[29]
Mali’s population encompasses a number of sub-Saharan ethnic groups, most of which have historical, cultural, linguistic, and religious commonalities.[40] The Bambara are by far the largest single ethnic group, making up 36.5% of the population.[40] Collectively, the Bambara, Soninké, Khassonké, and Malinké, all part of the broader Mandé group, constitute 50% of Mali's population.[29] Other significant groups are the Peul (17%), Voltaic (12%), Songhai (6%), and Tuareg and Moor (10%).[29] Mali historically has enjoyed reasonably good inter-ethnic relations; however, some hereditary servitude relationships exist,[41] as do ethnic tensions between the Songhai and the Tuareg.[40] Over the past 40 years, persistent drought has forced many Tuareg to give up their nomadic way of life.[42]
Mali’s official language is French, but numerous (40 or more) African languages also are widely used by the various ethnic groups.[40] About 80% of Mali’s population can communicate in Bambara, which is the country’s principal lingua franca and marketplace language.[40]

Religion

Religion in Mali[43]
religion percent
Islam
  
90%
Christianity
  
5%
Indigenous
  
5%
An estimated 90% of Malians are Muslim (mostly Sunni), approximately 5% are Christian (about two-thirds Roman Catholic and one-third Protestant) and the remaining 5% adhere to indigenous or traditional animist beliefs.[43] Atheism and agnosticism are believed to be rare among Malians, most of whom practice their religion on a daily basis.[44] Islam as practiced in Mali is moderate, tolerant, and adapted to local conditions; relations between Muslims and practitioners of minority religious faiths are generally amicable.[44] The constitution establishes a secular state and provides for freedom of religion, and the government largely respects this right.[44]

Health and education

Mali faces numerous health challenges related to poverty, malnutrition, and inadequate hygiene and sanitation.[44] Mali's health and development indicators rank among the worst in the world.[44] In 2000, only 62–65 percent of the population was estimated to have access to safe drinking water and only 69 percent to sanitation services of some kind.[44] In 2001, the general government expenditures on health totaled about US$4 per capita at an average exchange rate.[45] Medical facilities in Mali are very limited, and medicines are in short supply.[45] Malaria and other arthropod-borne diseases are prevalent in Mali, as are a number of infectious diseases such as cholera and tuberculosis.[45] Mali’s population also suffers from a high rate of child malnutrition and a low rate of immunization.[45] An estimated 1.9 percent of the adult and children population was afflicted with HIV/AIDS that year, among the lowest rates in Sub-Saharan Africa.[45]
High school students in Kati, Mali
Public education in Mali is in principle provided free of charge and is compulsory for nine years between the ages of seven and 16.[44] The system encompasses six years of primary education beginning at age seven, followed by six years of secondary education.[44] However, Mali’s actual primary school enrollment rate is low, in large part because families are unable to cover the cost of uniforms, books, supplies, and other fees required to attend.[44] In the 2000–01 school year, the primary school enrollment rate was 61% (71% of males and 51% of females); in the late 1990s, the secondary school enrollment rate was 15% percent (20% of males and 10% of females).[44] The education system is plagued by a lack of schools in rural areas, as well as shortages of teachers and materials.[44] Estimates of literacy rates in Mali range from 27–30% to 46.4%, with literacy rates significantly lower among women than men.[44]

Culture

Malian musical duo Amadou et Mariam are known internationally for their music combining Malian and international influences.
Malian musical traditions are derived from the griots, who are known as "Keeper of Memories".[46] Malian music is diverse and has several different genres. Some famous Malian influences in music are kora virtouso musician Toumani Diabaté, the late roots and blues guitarist Ali Farka Touré, the Tuareg band Tinariwen, and several Afro-pop artists such as Salif Keita, the duo Amadou et Mariam, Oumou Sangare, and Habib Koité.
Though Mali's literature is less famous than its music,[47] Mali has always been one of Africa's liveliest intellectual centers.[48] Mali's literary tradition is passed mainly by word of mouth, with jalis reciting or singing histories and stories known by heart.[48][49] Amadou Hampâté Bâ, Mali's best-known historian, spent much of his life writing these oral traditions down for the world to remember.[49] The best-known novel by a Malian writer is Yambo Ouologuem's Le devoir de violence, which won the 1968 Prix Renaudot but whose legacy was marred by accusations of plagiarism.[48][49] Other well-known Malian writers include Baba Traoré, Modibo Sounkalo Keita, Massa Makan Diabaté, Moussa Konaté, and Fily Dabo Sissoko.[48][49]
The varied everyday culture of Malians reflects the country's ethnic and geographic diversity.[50] .Most Malians wear flowing, colorful robes called boubous that are typical of West Africa.^ In 1994 I had Sekou's album 'Diagneba' in stock which you may remember featured most of the Kouyate family and was a big hit across West Africa.

^ The 'Red' album is the pivotal set that launched Ali's career in the west, and the 'Green' album confirmed his status as one of Africa's most important artists.

^ In fact I think this album is one of the most beautiful of all the traditional albums that I've ever heard from West Africa, not just Mali.

Malians frequently participate in traditional festivals, dances, and ceremonies.[50] Rice and millet are the staples of Malian cuisine, which is heavily based on cereal grains.[51][52] Grains are generally prepared with sauces made from leaves such spinach or baobab leaves, with tomato, or with peanut sauce, and may be accompanied by pieces of grilled meat (typically chicken, mutton, beef, or goat).[51][52] Malian cuisine varies regionally.[51][52]

Sport

Malian children playing football in a Dogon village.
.The most popular sport in Mali is football (soccer),[53][54] which became more prominent after Mali hosted the 2002 African Cup of Nations.^ One of the first African records I bought back in the early 80's which I was told came from Cameroon although now I am more inclined now to say Mali.

^ A little gem here from Hadja named after the national football team who are known as the 'Eagles of Mali'.

[53][55] Most towns have regular games;[55] the most popular teams nationally are Djoliba AC, Stade Malien, and Real Bamako, all based in the capital.[54] Informal games are often played by youths using a bundle of rags as a ball.[54] The country has produced several notable players for French teams, including Salif Keita and Jean Tigana. Frédéric "Fredi" Kanouté, named 2007 African Footballer of the Year, currently plays for Sevilla FC in Spain's La Liga. Also playing for major clubs in Spain are Mahamadou Diarra, captain of the Mali national squad, for Real Madrid and Seydou Keita for FC Barcelona. Other notable players currently on European squads include, Mamady Sidibe (Stoke City), Mohammed Sissoko (Juventus), Sammy Traore (Paris Saint-Germain), Adama Coulibaly (AJ Auxerre), Kalifa Cisse and Jimmy Kebe (Reading F.C.), and Dramane Traoré (Lokomotiv Moscow).[53][54] Basketball is another major sport;[54][56] the Mali women's national basketball team, led by Hamchetou Maiga, competed at the 2008 Beijing Olympics.[57] Traditional wrestling (la lutte) is also somewhat common, though popularity has declined in recent years.[55] The game wari, a mancala variant, is a common pastime.[54]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Presidency of Mali: Symboles de la République, L’Hymne National du Mali
  2. ^ "Mali preliminary 2009 census". Institut National de la Statistique. http://instat.gov.ml/voir_actu.aspx?lactu=44. Retrieved January 12, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Mali". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=678&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=45&pr.y=14. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  4. ^ Which side of the road do they drive on? Brian Lucas. August 2005. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
  5. ^ Human Development Indices, Table 3: Human and income poverty, p. 35. Retrieved on 1 June 2009
  6. ^ a b c Mali country profile, p. 1.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Mali country profile, p. 2.
  8. ^ Len Milich: Anthropogenic Desertification vs ‘Natural’ Climate Trends
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Mali country profile, p. 3.
  10. ^ "Mali's nomads face famine". BBC News. August 9, 2005.
  11. ^ Mali country profile, p. 4.
  12. ^ USAID Africa: Mali. USAID. Last accessed: May 15, 2008. Retrieved on: June 3, 2008.
  13. ^ a b c d e Mali country profile, p. 5.
  14. ^ a b DiPiazza, p. 37.
  15. ^ Imperato, Gavin (2006). "From Here to Timbuctoo: A story of discovery in West Africa". Haverford. http://www.haverford.edu/publications/Fall%2006/Timbuctoo.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f Mali country profile, p. 14.
  17. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 30.
  18. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 29 & 46.
  19. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 38.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Mali country profile, p. 15.
  21. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 59 & 61.
  22. ^ (French) Koné, Denis. Mali: "Résultats définitifs des Législatives". Les Echos (Bamako) (August 13, 2007). Retrieved on June 24, 2008.
  23. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 65.
  24. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 81.
  25. ^ Constitution of Mali, Art. 83-94.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g Mali country profile, p. 17.
  27. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Mali
  28. ^ a b c d e Mali country profile, p. 18.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Central Intelligence Agency (2009). "Mali". The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ml.html. Retrieved January 12, 2010. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Mali". U.S. State Department. May 2008. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2828.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  31. ^ "Mali". U.S. State Department. 2008-05. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2828.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  32. ^ Mali country profile, p. 9.
  33. ^ a b c Hale, Briony (1998-05-13). "Mali's Golden Hope". BBC News (BBC). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/1945588.stm. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  34. ^ a b c d Cavendish, p. 1367.
  35. ^ May, p. 291.
  36. ^ "Mali". U.S. Department of State.
  37. ^ Campbell, p. 43.
  38. ^ African Development Bank, p. 186.
  39. ^ OHADA.com: The business law portal in Africa, http://www.ohada.com/index.php, retrieved 2009-03-22 
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h Mali country profile, p. 6.
  41. ^ "Kayaking to Timbuktu, Writer Sees Slave Trade". National Geographic News. December 5, 2002.
  42. ^ "Drought Forces Desert Nomads to Settle Down". NPR: National Public Radio. July 2, 2007.
  43. ^ a b International Religious Freedom Report 2008: Mali
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Mali.pdf, p. 7.
  45. ^ a b c d e http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Mali.pdf Mali country profile, p. 8.
  46. ^ Michelle Crabill and Bruce Tiso. Mali Resource Website. Fairfax County Public Schools. January 2003. Retrieved on June 4, 2008.
  47. ^ Velton, p. 29.
  48. ^ a b c d Milet & Manaud, p. 128.
  49. ^ a b c d Velton, p. 28.
  50. ^ a b Pye-Smith & Drisdelle, p. 13.
  51. ^ a b c Velton, p. 30.
  52. ^ a b c Milet & Manaud, p. 146.
  53. ^ a b c Milet & Manaud, p. 151.
  54. ^ a b c d e f DiPiazza, p. 55.
  55. ^ a b c Hudgens et al., p. 320.
  56. ^ "Malian Men Basketball". Africabasket.com. Retrieved June 3, 2008.
  57. ^ Chitunda, Julio. "Ruiz looks to strengthen Mali roster ahead of Beijing". FIBA.com (March 13, 2008). Retrieved June 24, 2008.

References

  • African Development Bank (2001). African Economic Outlook. OECD Publishing. ISBN 9264197044. 
  • Campbell, Bonnie (2004). Regulating Mining in Africa: For Whose Benefit?. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordic African Institute. ISBN 978-0761475712. 
  • Cavendish, Marshall (2007). World and Its Peoples: Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0761475712. 
  • Constitution of Mali. (French) A student-translated English version is also available.
  • DiPiazza, Francesca Davis (2006). Mali in Pictures. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Learner Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0822565918. 
  • Hudgens, Jim, Richard Trillo, and Nathalie Calonnec. The Rough Guide to West Africa. Rough Guides (2003). ISBN 1-84353-118-6.
  • Mali country profile. Library of Congress Federal Research Division (January 2005). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  • Martin, Phillip L. (2006). Managing Migration: The Promise of Cooperation. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0739113417. 
  • May, Jacques Meyer (1968). The Ecology of Malnutrition in the French Speaking Countries of West Africa and Madagascar. New York, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0028489605. 
  • Mwakikagile, Godfrey. Military Coups in West Africa Since The Sixties, Huntington, New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2001.
  • Milet, Eric & Jean-Luc Manaud. Mali. Editions Olizane (2007). ISBN 2-88086-351-1. (French)
  • Pye-Smith, Charlie & Rhéal Drisdelle. Mali: A Prospect of Peace? Oxfam (1997). ISBN 0-85598-334-5.
  • Velton, Ross. Mali. Bradt Travel Guides (2004). ISBN 1-84162-077-7.

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Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:ml-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Bamako
Government Republic
Currency Communauté Financière Africaine Franc (XOF)
Area total: 1.24 million km2
water: 20,000 km2
land: 1.22 million km2
Population 11,716,829 (July 2006 est.)
Language French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Religion Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%
Electricity 220V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +223
Internet TLD .ml
Time Zone UTC
Travel Warning
.WARNING: A number of large regions of Mali are extremely unsafe for travel.^ Mali Travel Warnings .

^ Recent Embassy Notices for American Citizens Travel Warning for Mali .

Particular concerns include:
.
  • Mali-Niger border, where Tuareg rebels have kidnapped many Westerners over the past couple of years.^ During the year Tuareg bandits attacked military units, kidnapped soldiers, and placed land mines that resulted in civilian casualties.
    • Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Most cities—many of which already existed well before Mali colonization—are located along Mali's rivers: the Niger, the Bani (a tributary of the Niger), and the Senegal.
    • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ AQIM kidnapped four European tourists on January 22, 2009, along the Mali-Niger border near the northern Malian town of Anderamboukane.

    On 1 June 2009, a Briton—kidnapped after attending a nomadic festival in Anderamboukane in January—was executed by Al Qaeda.
  • Mali-Algeria border, which is the southern expanse of Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb's domain.
  • Kidal and Gao regions, and most of the area north of Timbuktu are also rather unsafe.
.Southern Mali, including most tourist attractions are safe, however.^ A common meal in southern Mali including the Dogon country is called 'TO'.
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

Consult your embassy for current info and travel warnings.
.Mali is a landlocked country in West Africa, bordered by Algeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Senegal, and Mauritania.^ West Africa and each of the countries covered: Burkina Faso, Togo, Niger, Mali , Sénégal.

^ Emphasis is upon the countries of Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, and Cte d'Ivoire."

^ Seventy historical postcards of former French West Africa (Senegal, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Burkina Faso) from the Archives Nationales du Senegal.

.Mali is a developing nation, and remains one of the poorest countries in the world.^ According to official statistics, Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mali is one of the world's poorest countries economically, and infrastructure is rough, so be ready to enjoy an amazing ride!
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

^ Perception of corruption is widespread within Mali and governance remains ineffective Enforcement of the rule of law is ineffective and not universally applied within Mali, ranking the nation 59th, globally on this variable.
  • The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.prosperity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it has some incredible sights, including four UNESCO World-Heritage sites.^ On the way, we will take a short several hours to visit one of the largest earthen structures in the world and World Heritage Site - the mosqe of Djenne.
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

^ Jenn is the earliest known urban settlement south of the Sahara and a UNESCO World Heritage site.

And, of course, there's Timbuktu!

Understand

.The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France on 22 September 1960 as the Mali Federation.^ The Sudanese Republic and Senegal gained independence from France on June 20, 19 60 as the Mali Federation.
  • GlobaLex - Guide to Legal Research in Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Independence: September 22, 1960.
  • Mali (08/09) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Senegal CFA Francs (both Senegal & Mali).
  • Train travel from Dakar (Senegal) to Bamako (Mali) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Senegal withdrew after only a few months, and the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali.^ When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali.

^ That same year, the Sudanese Republic, renamed the Republic of Mali, obtained full independence from France and severed ties with the French Community.
  • Medieval Africa: the kingdom of Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.leolibros.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation.

.The country was then governed by dictatorship until 1991. In 1992 the country's first democratic presidential elections were held.^ President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first democratic presidential election in 1992 and was reelected in 1997.

^ Exports declined in 2002, mainly because most government contracts were frozen before the presidential election.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The democratization of state institutions started under the transition period (1991–1993) with the organization of a national assembly during which a new constitution was drafted and was formally adopted via popular referendum in 1992, and the organization of free and democratic elections (1993).
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Just under half the population is less than 15 years old.^ At this time, these are only for people who live and work in Africa, and make less than the equivalent of 2000 US per year.
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

^ Penalties increase significantly if a minor, defined as someone less than 15 years of age, is involved.
  • Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jewish population was estimated at less than 50, and there were no reports of anti-Semitic acts.
  • Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The great majority of Malians are Muslim, some also practice indigenous beliefs, and a tiny number are Christian.^ The majority of the Malian population is Muslim, and foreign travelers, both men and women, are encouraged to be sensitive to the local dress code (e.g.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An estimated 80 percent of the Malian population is Muslim, with the others practicing Christianity (1 percent) or following traditional religious practices (19 percent).
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1% .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Around 10% of the population is nomadic.^ About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most Malians work in agriculture and fishing.^ Most Malians work in the so-called informal sector and rely on alternative welfare strategies, such as the development of reliable social networks among kin, friends, neighbors, and coworkers.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Festival in the Desert takes place in January (7-9th in 2010).^ It is recommended that Canadians not participate in the Festival au désert in Essakane, in the Timbuktu region, which will take place from January 7 to 9, 2010.
  • Mali Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ January 9th - 25th, 2010 - Dogon Country, Mali .
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

It is held on the sand northwest of Timbuktu. Three days of amazing music, under the stars and the moon, tiny tents, camel races, and more music and dancing.

Kayes
Koulikoro
By far Mali's most populous province, owing to the fact that it houses the capital, Bamako
Mopti
Most of Mali's travel riches are concentrated in this region: unique rock formations at Hombori, the architecture of Djenné, and the unbelievable escarpment villages of Dogon Country
Segou
Sikasso
Gao
Mali's most remote Saharan region, with a small population of Tuareg nomads
Kidal
Mali's most remote Saharan region, with a small population of Tuareg nomads, and the incredibly remote annual Saharan Nights festival in Essouk
Timbuktu (Tombouctou)
The name isn't the only reason to visit; the town itself is a unique Tuareg desert trading center, and nearby is the magical Festival of the Desert in Essakane
  • Bamako — the booming capital and largest city by far, fastest growing city in Africa, with a good claim to be the music capital of West Africa
  • Gao — small city on the Niger in the far east of the country, one time capital of the Songhai Empire, and home to the Tomb of Askia
  • Kayes — Mali's westernmost big city, by the border with Senegal, and best known for being the hottest continuously inhabited location in Africa
  • Kidal — a remote Tuareg city, with notoriety as a center of the Tuareg rebel movement and for Al Qaeda activity
  • Koulikoro — satellite city just 50 kilometers east of Bamako
  • Mopti — a city across three islands in the middle of the Niger; gateway to Dogon Country
  • Ségou — Mali's third largest city and one-time capital of the Bamana Empire
  • Sikasso — Mali's second largest city and one-time capital of the Kénédougou Empire
  • Timbuktu — the city with the name; the most famous of Saharan desert cities, major stop on the still important salt trade from Taoudenni, and center of Tuareg culture

Other destinations

In addition to Timbuktu, Mali has three other UNESCO World Heritage sites:

Get in

Visas are not required for citizens of Algeria, Andorra, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Mauritania, Monaco, Morocco, &Tunisia. .For all other countries, a visa must be obtained before arrival to enter Mali.^ Obtain a Visa by contacting the Mali consulate in your respective country.
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

^ To find information about obtaining a visa for Mali, see the Department of States Country Specific Information .

^ Travel advisory and visas : U.S. travelers to Mali must obtain a visa in advance from a Malian Embassy or Consulate.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An invitation is required (copy of hotel reservations or company letter explaining purpose of trip) to obtain the visa. .For US citizens the fee is $131 regardless of the length of stay (up to 5 years).^ Marriage is the most important ritual of the life cycle and entails numerous celebrations that are spread throughout a period of variable length, up to ten years.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For other citizens, a visa costs: US$80 (3 month, single entry), US$110 (3 month, multiple entry), US$200 (6 mo., multiple entry), US$370 (1 year, multiple entry).^ When asked, the government assisted with international trafficking investigations and the extradition of citizens accused of trafficking in other countries, but there were no such cases during the year.
  • Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By plane

Air France flies daily non-stop from Paris-Charles de Gaulle to Bamako (and return). Royal Air Maroc is a little cheaper than Air France and has daily flights from Europe and New York via Casablanca in Morocco. .There are also smaller companies, such as Point Afrique [1], who fly cheaply to & from Mali in the busy tourist season.^ In October 2008 AQIM released two Austrian tourists in northern Mali who had been kidnapped in February 2008 in Tunisia.

.Both Air France and RAM unfortunately arrive and depart in the middle of the night - so even if you are planning a budget trip it may be worth splurging for a nice hotel the first night where you can make real reservations and maybe even get picked up at the airport.^ If you want to make international calls to Mali, first dial the IDD, then country code, any area code, and the local number.
  • Mali Country Code 223 Country Code ML 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC countrycode.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To make an international call to Mali, you may also need a city or area code.
  • Mali Country Code 223 Country Code ML 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC countrycode.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Registration will make your presence and whereabouts known in case it is necessary to contact you in an emergency and will enable you to receive up-to-date information on security conditions.
  • Mali (08/09) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many African and pan-African airlines fly into Mali, for example: Air Mauritania, Tunisair [2] Air Afriqiyah [3] and numerous others. Some of these airlines also have feature connections to Mopti.
The airport is about twenty minutes drive from the centre of Bamako. There are fixed rates for taxis to different parts of town: to find them, cross the roadway in front of the airport and go the the right-hand end of the block of kiosks. You will see a group of taxi drivers and a board with prices. As at August 2007, the price was 7500 CFA Francs (around USD$15). .However, if you know the local language enough, you might be able to bargain the official price down to 4000 or even 3000 CFA Francs, especially if you arrive during the day.^ The CFA franc was devalued in January 1994 and, according to officials from the central bank BCEAO, another devaluation in the short term is unlikely.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of September 2003 the U.S. Embassy purchased local currency at a rate of approximately CFA franc 570 per one U.S. dollar.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Make sure you board an official taxi though (see the Stay Safe section below). .There is even well-hidden restaurant: follow the exit road past the barrier and you'll see it on the right, surrounded by trees, about 50 metres from the terminal building.^ If you want to come early, contact me about this right away.
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

^ Dogon culture is surrounded in mysticism and intrigue, for example, they had unexplainable knowledge about stars invisible to the naked eye long before there were telescopes.
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

They're very friendly and serve basic but filling and tasty snacks. For getting back to the airport from Bamako, try negotiating hard and you may get a rate significantly cheaper than the set rates for the airport to Bamako.
If you fly Royal Air Maroc beware that Casablanca airport is notorious for opening checked-in bags and removing valuables. Also luggage can arrive late.
.As is common with many airports there will be people trying to push you into unauthorised taxis and to change money some are even allowed into the airport terminal itself, they are best avoided.^ Even though official economic indexes show some economic growth, there has also been a neocolonial return of foreign capital.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By train

.There's just one railroad line, between Bamako and Dakar (the capital of Senegal), running once a week.^ There are sporadic reports of nighttime robberies occurring on the roads outside of the capital; tourists should not drive outside of Bamako at night.

^ Passenger rail service exists between Bamako and Dakar, Senegal; however, the trip requires a minimum of 36 hours and is subject to significant delays.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Individuals traveling on the Bamako-Dakar railroad are advised to be vigilant for pickpockets, especially at night.

.See also this page: [4] for more info.^ See www.ginnadotours.org for more info & preregistration.
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

^ For more information on overseas scams and their impact on the security of Canadians, see our Global Issues page.
  • Mali Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

From Europe
From Europe one has to cross the straits of Gibraltar, Morocco, Western Sahara and Mauritania. There are no longer any problems crossing Western Sahara along the coastal road. .You will need to have your car and passport information ready to hand over at the various checkpoint however.^ Based on your individual risk assessment, a health care professional can determine your need for immunizations and/or preventive medication and advise you on precautions to avoid disease.
  • Mali Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Mali country codes are listed here for your reference, along with other information you may find useful.
  • Mali Country Code 223 Country Code ML 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC countrycode.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Registration will make your presence and whereabouts known in case it is necessary to contact you in an emergency and will enable you to receive up-to-date information on security conditions.
  • Mali (08/09) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is now tarmaced roads all the way from Europe to Nioro du Sahel (apart from 3 km at the border between Western Sahara and Mauritania).^ Major road construction projects funded either by the World Bank or the European Community are underway in the western Kayes region and the southern border with Guinea.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There should soon (within the next few months) be tarmac all the way to Bamako.^ We will take a moment to ground ourselves, sleep, or see a few sights in Bamako before beginning our journey to Mopti bright and early the next morning.
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

^ In preparation for the elections, the government completed a new voter's list after a general census was administered a few months earlier with the support of all political parties.
  • Mali (08/09) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are several ways to get to Mali by car.^ There are no elements of insurrection in Mali, and the country maintains good relations with each of its several neighbors.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From Senegal or Mauritania, there are no asphalted roads into Mali so a 4x4 is strongly recommended.^ Housing : there are no top-class hotels in Mali, but adequate lodging is available in most urban areas.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are no elements of insurrection in Mali, and the country maintains good relations with each of its several neighbors.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members are Mali, Mauritania , and Senegal .

.In the past the most-used road route was the asphalted road from the port of Abidjan in Ivory Coast.^ In addition, the 2002-2003 closure of the main import/export route to the port of Abidjan increased the pressure on the fragile Malian economy.
  • Mali (08/09) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But since a rebellion in September 2002 the north of that country has been in rebel control.^ Military forces have been extensively deployed in the North to control the Tuareg rebellion.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In April 2004, the road was in poor repair, and frequent rebellion roadblocks made the journey risky. Most roadblocks could be passed with good humour and a 100F CFA "present", but the dangers of unsupervised young men with automatic weapons far from authority are obvious.
There are also decent land crossings from Burkina Faso, Guinea, & Ghana

By bus

.It is possible to reach Mali by bus, from a variety of African cities.^ As one of 14 African nations that have reached the HIPC completion point, Mali will benefit from multilateral debt forgiveness under the G8 Gleneagles debt forgiveness agreement.
  • Mali (08/09) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These include, but are not limited to: Abidjan in Cote d'Ivoire, Accra in Ghana, Lomé in Togo, and Dakar in Senegal.^ WAEMU's eight member states include Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote D'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo and, most recently, Guinea-Bissau.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will be the first museum designed to preserve the heritage of the balafon , an African xylophene played in Mali, Burkina Faso, Cote-d’Ivoire, Togo, Benin and Ghana.

There is public transport almost all the way from Europe to Mali be it buses or bush-taxis. The only exception is from Dakhla, Western Sahara, to Noudhibou, Mauritania where you can easily get a ride with a Mauritanian trader.

By boat

.Mali has two large rivers that are navigatable at least part of the year, both of which cross into neighboring countries.^ Atime and Scott met in Terelli, Mali two years ago, and have co-organized this event.
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

^ Small children, up to two or three years, receive much affectionate attention from both family and nonfamily members and are rarely disciplined.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two large private investments in gold mining: Anglo-American ($250 million) and Randgold ($140 million), both multinational South African companies located respectively in the western and southern part of the country.
  • Mali (08/09) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • The Senegal River crosses into Mali from Guinea in the south and follows a northwest course into Senegal.
  • The Niger crosses into, appropriately enough, Niger.^ WAEMU's eight member states include Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote D'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo and, most recently, Guinea-Bissau.
    • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As photographer and publisher of postcards, he visited Senegal and Guinea, Mali in 1906, Ivory- coast, Benin and Lagos in 1908..."

    ^ During the past three years, Mali has signed investment protection agreements with South Africa, Algeria, Senegal, and Libya.
    • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Note that large boats are only active August-November and do not continue far past the border due to rapids.

Get around

By bus

.The main cities along the paved road into the north are connected via bus (Bamako, Segou, San, Mopti, Gao).^ Travel to these regions by road is advised against in particular between the cities of Gao and Kidal.
  • Mali Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Welcome centers in Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, and Bamako assisted in returning trafficked children to their families.
  • Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infrastructure situation regarding goods/services distribution : paved two-lane roads connect some of Mali's major urban centers.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A separate paved loop runs through the south (Bamako, Bougouni, Sikasso, Koutiala, Segou) There are many different companies with different schedules but they all have more or less the same prices.^ Outside of Bamako, there were a few sites where the Internet was available for public use, but many towns in the country had no Internet access.
  • Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Welcome centers in Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, and Bamako assisted in returning trafficked children to their families.
  • Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Special and diplomatic passport holders should verify all visa requirements for this and other destinations, as they may differ from those that apply to regular passport holders.
  • Mali Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.Normally a ride to Mopti (600km, half the way up), endures approximately nine hours; a ride to Gao at least 12. All times are very rough, however, and few bus companies will even give you an estimated arrival time as different drivers drive different speeds and it is not improbable that the bus breaks down and needs a repair or stops to help another bus.^ Enjoy an evening of free time to do what you like in the village.
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

^ The bus ride to Mopti is long, scenic, and will give us plenty of opportunity to talk with African people traveling the in same direction (approx.
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

^ For the first time since 1997, all parties participated in the general elections that took place in the first half of 2002.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is usually possible to make a reservation several days before, recommended during the tourist season, though one rarely has a problem just showing up 30-60 minutes before the bus leaves.^ It is recommended that you arrive in the country just before the workshop and take advantage of easy traveling with the entire group to the Dogon Country.
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

^ Children 14 to 16 may work up to 4.5 hours per day with the permission of a labor inspector, but not during nights, on Sundays, or on holidays.
  • Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most businesses can be set up within 30-45 days after submission of required documents.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

More reliable companies include Bittar, Bani and Banimonotie (Sikasso region) among others.
Bus companies:
  • Bittar Transportation: [5]

By taxi brousse

To get around one can take the "Taxi - Brousse", the bush taxis. They are the main connection between towns which aren't connected via bus. .They are very slow and they sometimes break down or stop to help other broken down taxis.^ Among the Mande, relationships between mothers and their children are very intense and affectionate, and children of the same mother tend to rely on each other for help over the years.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

So sometimes the ride takes longer than expected. .Unlike the buses, these rarely run on a set schedule, so you generally just need to show up at the station (in a larger town) or sit by the roadside (in smaller villages) and wait for the next to come along - locals may be able to give you some idea what to expect.^ Bring any toiletries and medicines you may need - wetwipes are useful for cleaning one's face and hands in desert climates, among other uses.
  • Earthenhand Mali Workshop 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC earthenhand.com [Source type: General]

By taxi

.In any larger city, taxis will be plentiful and are usually an easy way for the tourist to get where they are going without trying to figure out the local public transport system (if one even exists).^ Tourists should avoid purchasing medications in local markets which may turn out to be counterfeit products.
  • Mali Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.Be prepared to bargain, as they will generally try to overcharge you - in Bamako 1000 CFA should get you anywhere in the city during the day (or up to 1500 CFA at night), while crossing the river will be 1500-2000 CFA. Also, tell the driver clearly if you do not know the location of the place you want to go, as they are rarely forthcoming about admitting that they don't know it and will often expect you to give directions, especially if it is not a popular or common destination.^ Although the available statistical data are often not reliable, they do give a general picture of labor distribution in Mali.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don't know why this should be, as both albums were recorded at the same time and with the same line-up, but this album is slightly more guitar orientated?

^ You could tell this was going to be a good album simply by the beautiful soft singing and lovely music.

By private car

A good option for a larger group or travelers who value comfort over economy is to rent a private car. A 4x4 is strongly recommended if you will be leaving the main highways (this includes the trip to Timbuktu). .There are very few asphalt roads, and they are all single-carriageway outside towns, though most are in good condition.^ Outside of Bamako, there were a few sites where the Internet was available for public use, but many towns in the country had no Internet access.
  • Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women often lived under harsh conditions, particularly in rural areas, where they performed difficult farm work and did most of the childrearing.
  • Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One leads into the North of the country (Bamako, Segou, San, Mopti, Gao), another branches off after Segou to cross the Niger at the Markala dam and goes as far as Niono, while another goes from Bamako to Sikasso and on into Ivory Coast.^ In addition, the construction of stadiums in Bamako, Sikasso, Kayes, Ségou and Mopti were completed in early 2002.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On December 20, 2008, a military base in Nampala in the north of Segou, 500 km north-east of Bamako, was attacked by armed rebels.
  • Mali Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The largest concentrations of cattle are in the areas north of Bamako and Ségou extending into the Niger delta, but herding activity is gradually shifting southward, due to the effects of previous droughts.
  • Mali (08/09) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are private people who rent out their 4x4 cars for a ride (in which case make sure you've got insurance and a carnet de passage, and plenty of petrol), but generally renting a car means renting a car and driver.^ On the trad side you've got ngoni, various drums, flutes, balafon and percussion while on the modern side there are guitars, drums and a bit of background keyboard.

^ The canned cheering was probably great stuff back in 1970 but it does make you jump when it spontaniously erupts out of nowhere.

^ Registration will make your presence and whereabouts known in case it is necessary to contact you in an emergency and will enable you to receive up-to-date information on security conditions.
  • Mali (08/09) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is strongly recommended as Malian roads and drivers can be unpredictable and the vehicles unreliable (better to have the driver figure out what that loud rattle is or why the engine started smoking!).
.Travel within Bamako can be difficult for the business traveler and leisure tourist alike.^ Tourist Visa: Required Business Visa: Required Student Visa: Required Travellers are required to carry evidence of a yellow fever vaccination.
  • Mali Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

One of the best options is to rent a car with a chauffeur. This can be done on a by-day basis and is an enormous help for someone that is new to the city. When trying to visit numerous places in one day, it becomes difficult to rely on the local taxi system. The chauffeur is a local resident and will know most of the names of the places that you need to go. There is no hassle in finding a parking spot as the chauffeur can wait for you while you attend to the business at hand. For the tourist, this option can be your solution to seeing the city of Bamako in a care-free manner. Trips out of the city are available as well, although the fare can be somewhat higher than intra-city rates. Gas is an additional cost to the renter. A distinguished man by the name of Aldiouma (pronounced al-jew-ma) Togo runs a classy operation is open to negotiation for rates. Usually around 25-30 thousand CFA per day for intra-city use. Slightly less than double that fee for extra-city travel. His info: Aldiouma Togo: Cell: (+223)642-6500 Home: (+223)222-1624 togoaldiouma@yahoo.fr

By plane

.It is possible to travel across Mali by plane, as numerous companies have sprung up in recent years.^ It is the traveller's responsibility to check with the Embassy of the Republic of Mali and its consulates for up-to-date information .
  • Mali Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Production of cotton, Mali's second biggest export and major contributor to GNP has been expanding in recent years.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is possible to fly (usually from Bamako) to cities such as: Mopti, Timbuktu, Kayes, Yelimané, Gao, Kidal, Sadiola, and others.^ The sole railway, connecting Bamako with Dakar, provides an alternative to freight shipment by truck from Abidjan or other transshipment centers such as Lome.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Travel to these regions by road is advised against in particular between the cities of Gao and Kidal.
  • Mali Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The National Assembly had 14 members of historically marginalized pastoralist and nomadic ethnic minorities representing the northern regions of Gao, Timbuktu, and Kidal.
  • Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The planes, typically, are Czech turboprops (LET-410s) and small Russian jetliners (Yakovlev YAK-40s). Air travel in Mali is fast but, compared to a bus ride, expensive. It is not, however, foolproof - often you are at the mercy of the carrier, who may choose not to fly on a certain day if too few passengers show up! .You can generally get tickets at the airport before flights, however the best bet is to book a ticket in advance.^ However you have to listen to the fuse fizzing before the dynamite blows your rear end off....and this album is no exception.

Société Transport Aerienne (STA) and Société Avion Express (SAE) are the two most popular, and most reliable, carriers.

By boat

It is possible to travel around Mali by boat, however this is very seasonal. The most common option, only really possible in the wet season, is a barge to/from Timbuktu. There are also very small boats, "pirogues" in French, which are available to be hired almost anywhere - they are essentially large canoes. When the big boats are not running you can still charter a pinasse (like a big, motorised pirogue). Or use one of the public pinasses. These will run for another 3 months or so before the water levels being too low for them as well. .You can navigate the river all the way from near Bamako to Gao, though the level drops more rapidly in the portion between Bamako and Mopti.^ Is there any way I can get more information on the etiquette though?
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most productive agricultural area lies along the banks of the Niger River between Bamako and Mopti and extends south to the borders of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso.
  • Mali (08/09) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Talk

.French is the official language, but Bambara (or Bamanakan in the language itself), along with numerous other African languages (Peulh/Fula, Dogon, and Tamashek, the language of the Tuareg people), are spoken by 80% of the population.^ The Bambara, Malinke, and Dogon are farmers; the Fulani, Maur, and Tuareg are herders; the Soninkés or Saracolés are traders; while the Bozo are fishers.
  • Mali (08/09) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although each ethnic group speaks a separate language, nearly 80% of Malians communicate in Bambara, the common language of the marketplace.
  • Mali (08/09) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Radio and television advertisements in French and local languages are often more effective because most people are illiterate.
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.Few people speak French outside bigger towns, and even Bambara gets rare in some regions.^ Major roadblocks to doing business : business is conducted in French and few Malians speak English.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few Tuareg people outside Timbuktu during a dust storm.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Outside of Bamako, there were a few sites where the Internet was available for public use, but many towns in the country had no Internet access.
  • Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Very few people speak English.^ Major roadblocks to doing business : business is conducted in French and few Malians speak English.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Buy

There are plenty of great crafts in Mali. .Various ethnic groups have their own, trademark masks.^ Three different forms of marriage can be distinguished in Mali today: traditional (which varies greatly from region to region and across ethnic groups), civil, and religious (mostly Muslim).
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are some great musical instruments; blankets; bogolas (a type of blanket); silver jewelry, and leather goods. The Touareg people, in particular, craft great silver and leather goods, including jewelery, daggers, spears, swords, and boxes. .Buying some local music makes also a good souvenir -- some of the world's best musicians are from Mali.^ Infrastructure situation regarding goods/services distribution : paved two-lane roads connect some of Mali's major urban centers.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

ATMs are difficult to find in Bamako. BDM banks have ATMs for VISA cards. The only ATM for Maestro/Mastercard is Banque Atlantique, across the river, on the eastern bridge.

Eat

.The most universal Malian dish is rice with sauce (often peanut "tiga diga na," tomato/onion/oil, or leaf/okra based - usually with some fish or meat if purchased or prepared for guests).^ Food : the Malian diet is based on rice, millet, and sorghum served with meat, fish, and various sauces.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Malian economy is principally based on the cultivation of cotton (Mali is the second largest producer of cotton in Africa), food crops (rice, millet, sorghum, fonio, peanuts, and corn), and livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats).
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the cities, rice is the preferred dish (40 percent of the daily food intake), followed by cereals (sorghum and millet, 35 percent), peanuts, sugar, and oil (20 percent).
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."To," a gelatinous corn or millet food served with sauce, is another Malian classic, though more a village food than something most tourists would encounter.^ The Malian economy is principally based on the cultivation of cotton (Mali is the second largest producer of cotton in Africa), food crops (rice, millet, sorghum, fonio, peanuts, and corn), and livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats).
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of all, Malians were drawn to the city because of its greater job opportunities—indeed, most administrative headquarters and more than half of all Malian factories and enterprises are concentrated in Bamako.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gospel Missionary Union "an international faith mission with more than 400 missionaries serving on four continents."

In the north, couscous is also quite common.
In the largest cities, decent "western" restaurants can be found, charging near western prices. .Bamako even has good Chinese, Vietnamese, Italian, Lebanese and more.^ French, Vietnamese, Chinese, Indian, continental, Italian, and Lebanese restaurants are also located in Bamako.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In smaller places, the standard Malian restaurant serves chicken or beef with fries and/or salad - usually edible and affordable, but boring and not particularly Malian. The better places in the more touristy areas may also have some local specialities. ."Street food" is a lot more fun (and super cheap) - breakfast will be omelet sandwiches, lunch is usually rice with a couple sauces to choose from, and dinner presents many options including beans, spaghetti cooked in oil and a little tomato, potatoes, fried rice, chicken, meatballs, beef kebabs, fish, and salad.^ Food : the Malian diet is based on rice, millet, and sorghum served with meat, fish, and various sauces.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polygyny is legal, and couples have the option of choosing between monogamy and polygyny when they enter into a civil marriage (although this is not necessarily binding).
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

You can find little table along the road sides and near transport centers.
Snacks you may find for sale include little cakes (especially in bus stations), various fried doughs (either sweet or with hot sauce), peanuts, roasted corn if in season, sesame sticks, and frozen juices in little plastic sacks. Fresh fruit is widely available and always delicious. Some of the best are mangoes, papaya, watermelon, guavas, bananas and oranges - the particular selection depends on the season.
Of course, as in any tropical, underdeveloped country, food borne disease is a major concern for the traveler. .The main culprits for diarrhea are untreated water (especially in rural areas) and fruits and vegetables which have not been peeled or soaked in bleach water - salads (even in fancy restaurants!^ In addition, scarce opportunities for employment in the formal sector of the economy, especially in rural areas, may demotivate families and pupils from investing resources and time in formal schooling.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) are likely to cause problems. .You should also be sure any food (especially meat) is thoroughly cooked - generally more of a problem with Western food in restaurants than with Malian foods (which are usually cooked for hours).^ In general, women are less represented than men in the more lucrative sectors of the economy; that is state employment, private enterprises, and long-distance trade.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Western materials require less maintenance, but they are more expensive and make for a much hotter space than traditional clay architecture.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Malian families invest more than half of their household income in food expenditures.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Drink bottled water, and talk to your doctor about bringing an antibiotic like cipro to treat diarrhea that is severe or does not improve over a couple days.

Drink

Treat tap water with suspicion. It is often so heavily chlorinated that one suspects few bugs could possibly survive in it. But short-term visitors will be safer with bottled water. .There are several cheap local brands, but be warned that they are only drunk by foreigners and wealthy Malians: don't rely on finding bottled water in shops patronised by "ordinary" Malians.^ The blossoming of foreign and local NGOs in recent years is in part the result of the implementation of structural adjustment programs and the privatization of the Malian economy.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of the Malian population is Muslim, and foreign travelers, both men and women, are encouraged to be sensitive to the local dress code (e.g.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soft drinks such as Coca-Cola or Fanta are more widely available and safe.^ Franchising : limited franchising exists in Mali such as soft drink bottling, courier service, and gasoline service stations.
  • Commercial Guide - U.S. Embassy Bamako, Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.usembassy.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But remember that Coke will make you want to go to the toilet, and so may leave you more dehydrated than before you drank it - a serious problem in this stunningly hot country.^ Western materials require less maintenance, but they are more expensive and make for a much hotter space than traditional clay architecture.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Street vendors sell water and home-made ginger and berry drinks in little plastic bags. They are often iced which makes them very refreshing in the heat. Generally, you shouldn't drink these without treating them first. However, one which is called "bissap" in French and "dabileni" ("red hybiscus") in Bambara, is made from hibiscus leaves that are boiled during preparation, and so generally is safe to drink. In Bamako, it is possible to purchase at most corner stores treated water in small plastic bags for 50 CFA; these are much cheaper, and of course more environmentally friendly, than bottles. The bags are marked with a brand name; be careful not to mistake them for the tap water that is sold in unmarked plastic bags by street vendors. Also widely sold in this way is sweet milk and yogurt, which are normally clean because the bags are industrially filled. Fresh milk can also be bought from buckets at the roadside in some villages, although it should always be thoroughly boiled before drinking as it can carry tuberculosis bacteria (often Malians do this before selling, but it is safer to do it yourself or at least ask).

Sleep

There are various types of accommodation options of various prices and qualities. .You will pay $60-$100 per night (and up) for a what would be a decent to nice hotel by western standards.^ As you would expect it's keyboards and guitar up front but the drummers also get the chance here and there to remind you that they can belt it out as well.

At the other end of the spectrum you can pay about $5-$10 per night for a bed or mattress (usually with mosquito net and sheets) in a room or on the roof. Such places will usually have toilets and showers in a shared facility (think campsite camping with less gear). All tourist areas have hotels or auberges and many places will also have homestays. Sleeping on the roof terrace, if available, is not only the cheapest option but also usually the coolest and gives you the pleasure of sleeping under the stars (which are incredibly bright outside of Bamako because there is so little light pollution) - just use your mosquito net and be prepared to wake to prayer call at 5AM.

Learn

Mali has numerous musical instruments you can learn. .In particular it is a popular place to learn how to play various drums (Bongo, Djembe...^ The band, twelve stong on the cover photo, play flute, balafons, ngoni and kora's as well as the various drums.

)

Stay safe

.Mali is generally a safe country with low rates of violent crime, however, you should always be aware of your belongings and never carry valuables in a backpack in a crowded area like the market as petty theft in such areas is not uncommon.^ However, crime is considered to be low compared to other countries in the region.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The train between Bamako and Kayes is notorious for theft - if taking the train you should exercise extreme caution, be sure to carry a pocket flashlight, and keep your belongings with you and valuables directly on your person at all times. You also have a good chance of encountering the police. .They are generally mostly concerned with directing traffic and fining people for improper papers, so you have little to fear from them but should always at least carry a copy of your passport and visa (and preferably the original provided you keep it secure).^ Original, signed Canada passport with at least 6 months of remaining validity.
  • Mali Visa, Canada: Application for Malian Visa for Canadians. 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.visahq.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ Registration will make your presence and whereabouts known in case it is necessary to contact you in an emergency and will enable you to receive up-to-date information on security conditions.
  • Mali (08/09) 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They symbolize an individual's education and his or her concern and respect for others, with younger people typically expected to initiate the greeting as a sign of respect for their elders.
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Only carrying a driving license is not sufficient and might lead to a ride to the police office - if you're not prepared to bribe your way out. .Notice that the police in Bamako often stop taxis, although this can be somewhat avoided by never putting more than 4 passengers in the car and by only taking "official" cabs (the ones with the red plates only - in Bamako a car with white plates is not an official taxi even if it has a taxi sign on top, regardless of what the driver may tell you!^ In order for Malians to provide for their families, they are often forced to take on several jobs at the same time, a situation rarely expressed by official statistics.
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).

Stay healthy

Vaccinations

.You are technically required to have an international vaccination card showing immunization against yellow fever, although customs officials do not often check that you have the card.^ Yellow Fever Vaccination.
  • Mali Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Malian Visas Online. 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mali Visa, Canada: Application for Malian Visa for Canadians. 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.visahq.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ Copy of International Certificate of Vaccination for Yellow Fever.
  • Mali Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Malian Visas Online. 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mali Visa, Canada: Application for Malian Visa for Canadians. 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC mali.visahq.ca [Source type: Reference]

It is also recommended to get Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, typhoid, and meningitis vaccinations. .You may also consider getting a polio vaccination due to the recent outbreak of polio in Northern Nigeria that has spread around the region.^ In the northern regions people often entertain visitors on their roofs, where they spread colored blankets to take advantage of the occasional breeze.
  • Culture of Mali - traditional, history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress, marriage, men, life, population, religion, rituals, History and ethnic relations 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Malaria

Mali is highly endemic for malaria, including s. falciparum malaria, the most accute variety. .All travelers should plan to take a malaria prophylaxis throughout their time in Mali (mephloquine and Malarone are the most common).^ Then its hot foot to the dance floor with the superb Mali Senekelaw and once you've settled into the swinging rhythm the vocals will take over big time.

^ In fact I think this album is one of the most beautiful of all the traditional albums that I've ever heard from West Africa, not just Mali.

.The other main precautions are to use insect repellent in the evenings and to sleep under a mosquito net in all but the fancy, sealed, air-conditioned hotels.^ A simply stupendous album of Malian praise singing that should be used as the benchmark against which all the others are measured.

This will significantly lower your exposure to malaria as the mosquitos that carry the parasite are only active at night, but you would want to take these precautions even without the risk of malaria simply to avoid being covered in itchy mosquito bites! You will almost never see or be bothered by mosquitos during the day.

Food and water

Stay away from dirty food and water. The rule "cook it peel it or forget it" should be followed. Also water should only be drunk out of sealed bottles or after it is sterilized through boiling or chemical utensils. The food is another issue. It's sometimes difficult to know if it's cooked long enough. Also the, to Westerners, unusual spices are sometimes the cause for sickness, especially diarrhea. Also expect little stones or bits of grit in the meal, especially the local couscous (this doesn't mean it's unsafe though, as it has been cooked long and thoroughly). For the traveler the main danger is diarrhea. For mild diarrhea you should be sure to get lots of rest, drink lots of clean water and eat soft plain foods. If the diarrhea is severe or lasts several days, be prepared to take antibiotics. During the illness the body will lose a lot of water and salt. Coca Cola (sugar and water) and pretzel sticks (salt) are available everywhere and do a good job of getting travelers back to full strength. There are also instant powders that have the necessary glucose and salts available to purchase.

Respect

Greeting people is very important. You should get familiar with the greetings in French or, better, in Bambara. Vendors should be treated in a proper way, even when you buy just fruit or bread. .It's very important to show a general interest in the other person, so it's polite to ask about family, work, kids, and so on.^ [CA] http://www.parena.org.ml:8105/index.html Peace Corps, Kids World - Mali A page for children about the U.S. Peace Corps' work in Mali.

^ Whilst the music retains its Malian roots connections, trying to work out the other influences is more difficult, but I'd reckon he has an interest in rock music!

The answer is simple: "ça va" (everything is okay). The interlocutor should not answer in a negative way! Example: "Bonjour (good morning), ça va (how are you)?" "Et la famille?" (...and the family?) "Et les enfants?" (...and the kids?) "Et le travail?" (...and your job?).
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also mali

Contents

English

Etymology

.Inherits its name from the Mali Empire.^ Formerly French Sudan, the country is named after the Empire of Mali.
  • Flickr: Discussing Mali in worldwidewandering - a travel atlas 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mali was the name of a former empire, extinct from the 17th century.
  • Mali - definition from Biology-Online.org 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sundjata, who ruled Mali from 1230-1255, began as a royal slave and magician among the Soso who had inherited the Ghanaian empire.
  • Civilizations in Africa: Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.wsu.edu:8080 [Source type: Original source]

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Mali
.
  1. Country in Western Africa.^ It is the biggest country in Western Africa.
    • GlobaLex - Guide to Legal Research in Mali 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC www.nyulawglobal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Polio outbreaks were reported in several previously polio-free countries in Central, Eastern, and Western Africa beginning in 2003.
    • Health Information for Mali | CDC Travelers' Health 14 January 2010 1:27 UTC wwwnc.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Maps: Maps of Mali Mali, or Republic of Mali, a country of western Africa.

    Official name: Republic of Mali.

Translations

See also

Anagrams


Croatian

Proper noun

Mali m.
  1. Mali

Czech

Proper noun

Mali n.
  1. Mali

Finnish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Mali
Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Mali
  1. Mali

Declension

Derived terms


German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
Mali
Wikipedia de

Proper noun

Mali n.
  1. Mali

Derived terms


Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Mali
Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Mali m.
  1. Mali

Derived terms

Anagrams


Norwegian

Proper noun

Mali
  1. Mali

Related terms


Polish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˈmali/

Proper noun

Mali n.
  1. Mali

Derived terms

  • Malijczyk m., Malijka f.
  • adjective: malijski

Swedish

Proper noun

Mali
  1. Mali

Simple English

Republic of Mali

French: République du Mali

File:Flag of File:Coat of arms of Mali.gif
Official flag Coat of Arms
National information
National motto: "Un peuple, un but, une foi"
"One people, one goal, one faith"
National anthem: Pour l'Afrique et pour toi, Mali
"For Africa and for you, Mali"
About the people
Official languages: French
Population: (# of people)
  - Total: 13,518,000 (ranked 65)
  - Density: 11 per km²
Geography / Places
[[Image:|250px|none|country map]] Here is the country on a map.
Capital city: Bamako
Largest city: Bamako
Area
  - Total: 1,240,192 km² (ranked 24)
Politics / Government
Established: September 22 1960
Leaders: President:
Amadou Toumani Touré

Prime Minister:

Modibo Sidibé
Economy / Money
Currency:
(Name of money)
CFA franc
International information
Time zone:
Telephone dialing code: 223
Internet domain: .ml

Mali is a country in the west of Africa. It is the seventh largest country in Africa by amount of land. It is between Algeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Senegal and Mauritania. The north of Mali is in the Sahara Desert. The Niger River and Sénégal River are in the south of Mali. Mali has a population of 13,518,000 people. Most of the people live in the southern part of the country. The old name for Mali was French Sudan. The name Mali is from the word for hippopotamus in the Bambara language. The capital of Mali is Bamako. This means "crocodile swamp" in the Bambara language.[1]

Contents

History

The Mandé people founded several kingdoms in Sahel. This was a big area that includes Mali. These kingdoms included the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, and the Songhai Empire. Timbuktu was an important city in these empires because a lot of trade across the Sahara Desert went there. Timbuktu was also a good place for learning. The Songhai Empire became smaller after a Moroccan attack in 1591.

France invaded Mali in 1880. After that, France owned Mali. The colony's names were French Sudan and the Sudanese Republic. At some times it also included other nearby countries. In early 1959, Mali and Senegal united and they became the Mali Federation. This became independent from France on June 20, 1960. Senegal left the Mali Federation a few months later. The Republic of Mali, with Modibo Keïta as the first president, left the French Community on September 22, 1960.

There was a coup in Mali in 1968. Modibo Keïta lost his job and was put in prison. Mali was then ruled by Moussa Traoré until 1991. There was another coup in 1991 after protests against the government, and a new constitution was made. The leader of the country was then Amadou Toumani Touré. In 1992, Alpha Oumar Konaré won Mali's first democratic election. President Konaré won again in 1997 and he made big political and economic changes. In 2002, Amadou Toumani Touré won the election and he started his second term as head of state. He was a retired general and he had been the military leader of the 1991 coup. Today, Mali is one of the most politically and socially stable countries in Africa.

Regions and cercles

Mali is divided into 8 regions and 1 district, and these are divided into 49 cercles, containing 288 "arrondissements".

The regions and district are:


Geography

File:Mali
Map of Mali

Mali is the world's 24th-largest country. It has 1,240,000 km² (478,734 mi²) of land. It has a similar size to South Africa, and it is two times bigger than Texas.

Mali is landlocked; it has no access to sea. It has dry weather. It does not have many mountains. There are flat areas in the north, which are covered by sand, and there is savanna around the Niger River in the south. Most of Mali is in the Sahara Desert, so there is a hot, dusty haze in dry seasons. There are many natural resources in Mali, including Gold, uranium, phosphates, kaolinite, salt and limestone.

Economy

Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world. 65% of its land area is desert or something similar. There were several long droughts there over the last hundred years. Therefore, most economic activity is near the Niger River. About 10% of the people are nomads and 80% of workers have jobs in farming and fishing. Industry is mainly to process farm products. Women also do pottery and the pots are bought and taken to markets. Many foreign tourists like the traditional methods which the women use to make the pots. Mali's main export is cotton, so if the price of cotton changes, Mali's economy is affected a lot. Mali also receives a lot of financial help from other countries. In 1997, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) recommended a programme for changing the economy and the government followed this. Several international companies started digging for larger amounts of gold in 1996-1998, and the government thinks that Mali will become an important gold exporter soon.

Demographics

[[File:|thumbnail|250px|Population changes in Mali]] Malinese people are from the racial groups below.

  • Mandé (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke): 50%
  • Peul (Fula/Fulani): 17%
  • Voltaic: 12%
  • Songhai: 6%
  • Tuareg and Moor: 10%
  • Others: 5%

The religions below are followed in Mali.

Culture

About 90% of people from Mali follow Sunni Islam, but they do not always forget their traditional religions. Muslims have their own schooling system. The number of Muslims from Mali who travel to Mecca is increasing and some study in Arab countries. About 1% of the people are Christians. When Mali was under French control, Christian missionaries were sent to Islamic areas.

The language of Mali under French rule was French, but now not many people outside towns can read or write this language. However, about 60% of the people use other languages well. Many people can read and write in Bamanakan (the most popular spoken language). This language has its own alphabet, called N'Ko. Other people can read and write in Arabic, after going to an Islamic school. One of the oldest universities in the world is Sankore University in Timbuktu. It began in the 1400s.

Famous musicians from Mali include kora player Toumani Diabaté, and the guitarist Ali Farka Touré (who has died).

References

Other websites

Government

News

Overviews

Directories

Literature

Tourism

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mali, which are similar to those in the above article.








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