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Maltese people
Maltin
Maltese people.png
Rużar Briffa • Maria Adeodata Pisani • Edward de Bono • Gerald Strickland • Dun Karm Psaila • Enrico Mizzi
Total population
Maltese
c. 740,000 worldwide
Regions with significant populations
Malta Malta 400,000
(Maltese descent only)
 Australia (2006) 92,332 [1]
 United States (2008) 50,691 [2]
 Brazil 58,000
 Canada (2006) 37,125 [3]
 United Kingdom (Malta-born) 30,178 [4]
 Ireland (2006) 285 [5]
 Gibraltar 100
Languages

Maltese and English
Significant historical languages: Punic, Greek, Latin, Sicilian, Siculo-Arabic, Italian, French

Religion

Christianity (Roman Catholic) predominantly (95.34% of Malta's population[6]), other faiths

The Maltese (Maltese: Maltin) are an ethnic group associated with the Southern European nation of Malta, and with the Maltese language. Malta is an island in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. Included within the ethnic group defined by the Maltese people are the Gozitans (Maltese: Għawdxin) who inhabit Malta's sister island, Gozo.

Contents

History

Malta has been inhabited from around 5200 BC, since the arrival of settlers from the island of Sicily.[7] A significant prehistoric Neolithic culture marked by Megalithic structures, which date back to c. 3600 BC, existed on the islands, as evidenced by the temples of Mnajdra, Ggantija and others. The Phoenicians colonized Malta from about 1000 BC, bringing their Semitic language and culture, and becoming the direct male-line ancestors of about a half of the modern Maltese population. They used the islands as an outpost from which they expanded sea explorations and trade in the Mediterranean until their successors, the Carthaginians, were ousted by the Romans in 216 BC with the help of the Maltese inhabitants, under whom Malta became a municipium.[8]

After a period of Byzantine rule (4th to 9th century) and a probable sack by the Vandals,[9] the islands were invaded by the Fatimids in AD 870. The Arabs generally tolerated the population's Christianity, and their language subsequently shifted to Siculo-Arabic.[10]

The Muslim rulers were expelled from the islands by the Normans in 1090, and their leader Roger I of Sicily was welcomed by the native Christians.[8] The islands were part of the Kingdom of Sicily until 1530, and were briefly controlled by the Capetian House of Anjou. In 1530 Charles I of Spain gave the Maltese islands to the Order of Knights of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem in perpetual lease.

The French under Napoleon took hold of the Maltese islands in 1798, although with the aid of the British the Maltese were able to oust French control two years later. The inhabitants subsequently asked Britain to assume sovereignty over the islands under the conditions laid out in a Declaration of Rights,[11] stating that "his Majesty has no right to cede these Islands to any power...if he chooses to withdraw his protection, and abandon his sovereignty, the right of electing another sovereign, or of the governing of these Islands, belongs to us, the inhabitants and aborigines alone, and without control." As part of the Treaty of Paris (1814) Malta became a British colony, ultimately rejecting an attempted integration with the United Kingdom in 1956.

Malta became independent on September 21, 1964 (Independence Day). Under its 1964 constitution Malta initially retained Queen Elizabeth II as Queen of Malta, with a Governor-General exercising executive authority on her behalf. On December 13, 1974 (Republic Day) it finally became a republic within the Commonwealth, with the President as head of state. On March 31, 1979 Malta saw the withdrawal of the last British troops and the Royal Navy from Malta. This day is known as Freedom Day and Malta declared itself as a neutral military base. Malta joined the European Union on May 1, 2004 and joined the Eurozone on January 1, 2008.

Culture

The culture of Malta is a reflection of various cultures that have come into contact with the Maltese Islands throughout the centuries, including neighbouring Mediterranean cultures, and the cultures of the nations that ruled Malta for long periods of time prior to its independence in 1964.

The temple complex of Mnajdra (4th mi-3200 BCE)

The earliest inhabitants of the Maltese Islands are believed to have crossed over from nearby Sicily sometime before 5000 BCE. The culture of modern Malta has been described as a "rich pattern of traditions, beliefs and practices," which is the result of "a long process of adaptation, assimilation and cross fertilization of beliefs and usages drawn from various conflicting sources." It has been subjected to the same complex, historic processes that gave rise to the linguistic and ethnic admixture that defines who the people of Malta and Gozo are today.[12]

Maltese culture has both Semitic and Latin European origins; however, the Latin European element is more readily apparent in modern Malta for two key reasons: the fact that Latin European cultures have had more recent, and virtually continuous impact on Malta over the past eight centuries through political control; and the fact that Malta shares the religious beliefs, traditions and ceremonies of its Sicilian neighbor.

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Language

Maltese people speak the Maltese language, a Semitic language written in the Latin alphabet in its standard form. The language is descended from Siculo-Arabic, a dialect of Arabic spoken in Sicily and surrounding Southern Italy from the ninth century.[13] In the course of Malta's history, the language has adopted large amounts of vocabulary from Sicilian, Italian, English, and to a smaller degree, French. The official languages of Malta are English and Maltese, with Italian also widely spoken.

Maltese became an official language of Malta in 1934, replacing Italian and joining English. There are an estimated 371,900 speakers in Malta of the language, with statistics citing that 100% of the people are able to speak Maltese, 88% English, 66% Italian, and 17% French, showing a greater degree of linguistic capabilities than most other European countries.[14] In fact multilingualism is a common phenomenon in Malta, with English, Maltese and Italian, used in everyday life. Whilst Maltese is the national language, it has been suggested that with the ascendancy of English language shift may begin,[15] however this has been discredited by contemporary studies.[16]

Religion

The Constitution of Malta provides for freedom of religion but establishes Roman Catholicism as the state religion.

The Church in Malta is described in the Book of Acts (Acts 27:39-42; Acts 28:1-11) to have been founded by its patrons Saint Paul the Apostle and Saint Publius, who was its first bishop.[17] The Islands of St. Paul (or St. Paul's Islets), are traditionally believed to be the site where Saint Paul was shipwrecked in the year 60 CE, on his way to trial and eventual martyrdom in Rome.

Freedom House and the World Factbook report that 98% of the Maltese are Roman Catholic, making the nation one of the most Catholic countries in the world.

National symbols

Various symbols have identified the island over its history, the most common is the Maltese cross, the symbol used by the Knights of Malta and now a symbol of the Maltese nation. It appears on the reverse of the Maltese 1 euro and 2 euro coins introduced in January 2008.[18]

Maltese emigration

The Maltese diaspora gained traction in the 1800s (although older Maltese communities had been long established in the Spanish city of Valencia, and elsewhere) and greatly increased after World War II and well into the 1960s as a result of economic hardship. The mass exodus of Maltese stopped in the 1970s as the economic situation in Malta greatly improved. Many Maltese left the island for the United Kingdom, Australia, America and lesserly Canada, where sizable expatriate communities exist. Successive generations of Maltese-Australians, British-Maltese and Maltese-Americans maintain a link with their ancestral home, visiting Malta or being visited abroad by local musicians and public personalities. The Maltese language is still spoken by many expatriates, and is often taught to their children.[19]

Thriving Maltese communities existed in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt, however these were either expelled by the Arab nationalistic administrations of the second half of the 20th century or their existence was made practically impossible by the same administrations and the local popullations. Most of these communities moved either to France, Britain, North America or Malta. However, very small Maltese communtiies still exist in parts of North Africa (namely Tunisia). Large Maltese communities also exist in Latin America, even if these can be said to be the lost children of Malta as little if any contact with Malta still exists (in part due to the reluctance of Maltese administrations to keep such contact). Maltese communities also existed in parts of the Ottoman Empire, in both nowadays Greece and Turkey. It must be said that eventually most of these communities assimilated within the local populations or were expelled. A Maltese community also exists on the island of Corfu, a former British possession. Attempts were made by Maltese farmers to colonise uninhabited parts of Cyprus, however this project failed as the lands they had colonised were infested by malaria.

Andrea Debono, the person to discover the source of the White Nile was a member of the Maltese community of Alexandria.

Amadeo Preziosi, a famous painter, was part of the Maltese community in Istanbul.

Laurent Ropa, the French writer, had Gozitan parents and formed part of the Maltese community in Algeria.

Genetics

Y-Dna haplogroups are found at the following frequencies in Malta : R1 (35.55% including 32.2% R1b), J (28.90% including 7.80% J1), I (12.20%), E (11.10% including 8.9% E1b1b), F (6.70%), K (4.40%), P (1.10%)[20]. J, K, F and E1b1b haplogroups consist of lineages with differential distribution within Middle East, North Africa and Europe while R1 and I are typical in West European populations.

Population links

The first settlers of Malta were from the island of Sicily.[7] However, the result of the influences on the population after this have been fiercely debated among historians and geneticists. The origins question is complicated by numerous factors, including Malta's turbulent history of invasions and conquests, with long periods of depopulation followed by periods of immigration to Malta and intermarriage with the Maltese by foreigners from the Mediterranean, Western and Southern European countries that ruled Malta.

The many demographic influences on the island include:

  • The Phoenician colonisation around 1000 BC.
  • The exile to Malta of the entire male population of the town of Celano (Italy) in 1223
  • The stationing of Norman French and Sicilian Italian troops on Malta in 1240
  • The removal of all remaining Arabs from Malta in 1224[21]
  • The arrival of several hundred Catalan (Spain) soldiers in 1283
  • Further waves of European repopulation throughout the 13th century[22]
  • The settlement in Malta of noble families from Sicily (Italy) and Aragon (Spain) between 1372 and 1450
  • The arrival of several thousand Greek Rhodian sailors, soldiers and slaves with the Knights of St. John
  • The introduction of several thousand Sicilian laborers in 1551 and again in 1566
  • The emigration of some 891 Italian exiles to Malta during the Risorgimento in 1849
  • The posting of some 22,000 British servicemen in Malta from 1807 to 1979,[23] as well as other British and Irish that settled in Malta over the decades
  • The mass Maltese diaspora occurring after World War II and well into the 1960s and 70s. Many Maltese left the island for the United Kingdom, Australia and USA, with many regularly returning to their ancestral home.

Present views

Confirming the idea that the first settlers on Malta were Sicilian, studies on the Y-chromosomes of men have indicated that the Maltese population has Southern Italian origins, with little genetic input from the Eastern Mediterranean.[24] However, a study carried out by geneticists Spencer Wells and Pierre Zalloua of the American University of Beirut showed that more than 50% of Y-chromosomes from Maltese men could have Phoenecian origins.[25]

Historical accounts

Over time, the various rulers of Malta published their own view of the ethnicity of the population.[26] The Knights of Malta promoted the idea of a continuous Roman Catholic presence,[27] and the British colonial rule disregarded a genetic and cultural connection between the Maltese and Italians in an attempt to counteract growing Fascist power in the area.[28]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ Australian 2006 Census
  2. ^ 2008 American Community Survey
  3. ^ Statistics Canada, 2006 Census: Ethnic Origin
  4. ^ http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/18/23/34792376.xls
  5. ^ CSO Ireland - 2006 Census
  6. ^ http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2003/24422.htm
  7. ^ a b "Gozo". IslandofGozo.org. 7 October 2007. http://www.islandofgozo.org/history.htm.  
  8. ^ a b Castillo, Dennis Angelo. The Maltese Cross: A Strategic History of Malta. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313323291. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=i5ns5LNtoiUC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=MALTA+sEMPRONIUS&source=web&ots=JHcfabryVa&sig=cXCtKu3apl5Y2y7OEhaMvt1CMM0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPA25,M1.
  9. ^ Borg, Victor Paul. The Rough Guide to Malta & Gozo. Rough Guides. ISBN 1858286808. http://books.google.com/books?id=o1QO1Tk-FsMC&pg=PA331&dq=byzantine+malta&lr=&as_brr=3&sig=ACfU3U38b0XhbN8wTPyxs2tPEX0RbyVg9w.
  10. ^ The Official Tourism Site for Malta, Gozo and Comino : What to See & Do : Holiday Ideas : Culture and Heritage : Timeline : :Arab Occupation
  11. ^ Holland, James (2003). Fortress Malta: An Island Under Siege, 1940-1943. Miramax Books. ISBN 1-4013-5186-7.
  12. ^ J. Cassar Pullicino, "Determining the Semitic Element in Maltese Folklore", in Studies in Maltese Folklore, Malta University Press (1992), p. 68.
  13. ^ MED Magazine
  14. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_en.pdf
  15. ^ European Commission, "Malta: Country Profile", Euromosaic Study (September 2004). Available online, at http://ec.europa.eu/[1] Europeans and Language
  16. ^ ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_237.en.pdf
  17. ^ Kendal, James (1910). "Malta". The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09574a.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-18.  
  18. ^ http://finance.gov.mt/
  19. ^ http://www.translation-services-usa.com/languages/maltese.php
  20. ^ (n=90), Population structure in the Mediterranean basin: a Y chromosome perspective, Capelli et al. 2005
  21. ^ Debattista, Martin; Timeline of Malta History; retrieved on [2008-05-14]
  22. ^ Constantiae Imperatricis et Reginae Siciliae Diplomata: 1195-1198, ed. T.K.Slzer (Vienna, 1983), 237-240.
  23. ^ Joseph M. Brincat, "Language and Demography in Malta: The Social Foundations of the Symbiosis between Semitic and Romance in Standard Maltese," in Malta: A Case Study in International Cross-Currents. Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on the history of the Central Mediterranean held at the University of Malta, 13-17 December 1989. Ed: S. Fiorini and V. Mallia-Milanes (Malta University Publications, Malta Historical Society, and Foundation for International Studies, University of Malta) at 91-110.] Last visited August 5, 2007.
  24. ^ C. Capelli, N. Redhead, N. Novelletto, L. Terrenato, P. Malaspina, Z. Poulli, G. Lefranc, A. Megarbane, V. Delague, V. Romano, F. Cali, V.F. Pascali, M. Fellous, A.E. Felice, and D.B. Goldstein; "Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective," Annals of Human Genetics, 69, 1-20, 2005. Last visited August 8, 2007.
  25. ^ In the Wake of the Phoenicians: DNA study reveals a Phoenician-Maltese link
  26. ^ Anthony Luttrell, "Medieval Malta: the Non-written and the Written Evidence", in Malta: A Case Study in International Cross-Currents. Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on the history of the Central Mediterranean held at the University of Malta, 13-17 December 1989. Ed: S. Fiorini and V. Mallia-Milanes (Malta University Publications, Malta Historical Society, and Foundation for International Studies, University of Malta) at 33-45. Last visited August 5, 2007.
  27. ^ Anthony T. Luttrell, "Girolamo Manduca and Gian Francesco Abela: Tradition and invention in Maltese Historiography," in Melita Historica, 7 (1977) 2 (105-132). Last visited August 5, 2007.
  28. ^ See, e.g.: "Malta: Civil History," in The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX. Published 1910. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Remy Lafort, Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York. Last visited August 6, 2007.

Simple English

Maltese
Maltin
Gerald Strickland • Enrico Mizzi • Edward de Bono • Rużar Briffa
Total population

c. 700,000

Regions with significant populations
File:Flag of Malta (bordered).svg:
   400,000 (2006)

:
   180,000 (1995[1])
:
   70,000 (1995[2])
:
   58,000<
:
   33,000 (2001[3])
:
   285 (2006[4])
 Gibraltar:
   100

Languages

Maltese, English, Italian

Religions

Roman Catholic

Related ethnic groups

Italians, Sicilians

The Maltese people, or Maltese, are a nation and ethnic group native to Malta, an island country made of a group of seven islands in the Mediterranean Sea.

Contents

History

People have lived in Malta since around 5200 BC with the first people living there coming from Sicily. An important prehistoric Neolithic culture marked by Megalithic structures was on the islands, which were made a 1000 years before the Pyramids of Giza, which means they were very old. The Phoenicians in the Mediterranean took over Malta from about 1000 BC, using the islands to expand their sea explorations and trade in the Mediterranean, until the Carthaginians took over and also expanded in the Mediterranean, but these were also defeated by the Romans in 216 BC.

Malta was then ruled by Byzantine, a Greek group that took over almost all of the Mediterranean, from the 4th to 9th century. Sometime around this point, the Vandals, a German tribe, ruled the islands. The islands were at one point invaded by the Arabs in AD 870. They allowed the people to believe in Christianity, and did not have children with the population, so they did not change much on the island, but they showed them citrus fruits and cotton, and water-moving systems. They hardly had any effect on the island or its people while they were there, but one thing that they did effect was the language. The Maltese language gained a lot from this.

From the advent of the Normans in 1090 to 1530, Malta was part of the 'Kingdom of Sicily'. This means that from 1091 to 1530, when the Order of St. John came to Malta, the original Sicilian population that moved there from Sicily in the beginning got bigger.

The French under the rule of Napoleon took over Malta in 1798. The British helped the Maltese to stop the French control two years later. The people of Malta were very happy that the British did this, and wanted Britain to rule it. As part of the 'Treaty of Paris' (1814), Malta became a colony in the British Empire.

Malta became a separate country from everyone on 21 September 1964 (Independence Day). Under the 1964 rules, Malta originally kept Queen Elizabeth II as the Queen of Malta, with a Governor-General working on her behalf in Malta. On 13 December 1974 (Republic Day), it became a republic within the Commonwealth, with the President as head of state. Malta joined the European Union on 1 May 2004 and joined the Eurozone on 1 January 2008.

Possible genetic links

The origins debate

Historians and Geneticists currently do not know where the Maltese people came from. The answer is difficult to find because of several things, such as Malta's invasions, with long parts in time where the population got smaller, before other people from the Mediterranean moved to Malta and married the Maltese. One unusual example of this is the exile to Malta of all of the male population from the town of Celano (Italy) in 1223, the stationing of a Norman and Sicilian garrison on Malta in 1240, the expulsion from Malta of Arabs (presumably, those who refused to convert to Christianity) commencing in 1245,[5] the arrival of several hundred Catalan soldiers in 1283, the European repopulation of Malta that began in the 13th century,[6] the settlement in Malta of noble families from Sicily and Aragon between 1372 and 1450, the arrival of several thousand Greek and Rhodian sailors, soldiers and slaves with the Knights of St. John, the introduction of several thousand Sicilian labourers in 1551 and again in 1566, the emigration to Malta of some 891 Italian exiles during the Risorgimento in 1849, and the posting of some 22,000 British servicemen in Malta from 1807 to 1979.[7]

Historical and ethnic studies published and promoted by the various ruling classes during their governance over Malta provide little, if any, valuable guidance on the question of Maltese ethnicity, given that their conclusions appear to have been driven, in large part, by political expediency.[8] Hence, Maltese history books published during the rule of the Knights of St. John, at a time when Malta and Gozo suffered repeated razzias at the hands of the Ottomans and Barbary corsairs, promoted the myth of a continuous, Roman Catholic, native Maltese population, that somehow survived despite the Arab conquest of Malta and the depopulation that followed.[9] Studies and reports published during the British colonial period promoted the theory of Phoenician origins, in an attempt to distinguish the Maltese from their Sicilian and Italian neighbours, or in the case of the Catholic Church, to distinguish the Maltese from the Arab peoples that controlled Malta prior to the liberation of Malta by the Normans.[10] By contrast, history books published during the Mintoff years following Independence began to question the earlier beliefs in a continuous, indigenous population of Christian Maltese and, in some cases, quietly promoted the theory of closer cultural and ethnic ties with North Africa. This new development was noted by Boissevain in 1991:

...the Labour government broke off relations with NATO and sought links with the Arab world. After 900 years of being linked to Europe, Malta began to look southward. Muslims, still remembered in folklore for savage pirate attacks, were redefined as blood brothers.[11]

This latter development coincided with and reflected dramatic new (but short-lived) developments in Maltese foreign policy: Western media reported that Malta appeared to be turning its back on NATO, the United Kingdom, and Europe generally;[12] Libya had loaned several million dollars to Malta to make up for the loss of rental income which followed the closure of British military bases in Malta;[13] Malta and Libya had entered into a Friendship and Cooperation Treaty, in response to repeated overtures by Gaddafi for a closer, more formal union between the two countries; and, for a brief period, Arabic had become a compulsory subject in Maltese secondary schools.[14]

The Phoenician origins theory

Some recent studies carried out by geneticists Spencer Wells and Pierre Zalloua of the American University of Beirut collected samples of Y-chromosomes from men living in the Middle East, North Africa, southern Spain, and Malta, places the Phoenicians are known to have settled and traded. According to the study, more than half (50 %) of the Y chromosome lineages that are seen in today's Maltese population could have come in with the Phoenicians. As to why there is such a significant genetic impact, Wells could only speculate, "but the results are consistent with a settlement of people from the Levant within the past 2,000 years, and that points to the Phoenicians." [15]

The Phoenician background of the Maltese suggests possible tenuous cultural, religious, and linguistic links to Lebanese Maronites, (whom are also descended from Phoenicians revealed during National Geographic's Special) , who speak a variety of Arabic, and are Christian. [1]

The Sicilian or Calabrian theory

This "Phoenician origins" theory has been contradicted by at least one major study, which found that that "the contemporary males of Malta most likely originated from Southern Italy, including Sicily and up to Calabria," and that "[t]here is a minuscule amount of input from the Eastern Mediterranean with genetic affinity to Christian Lebanon."[16] One of the authors of this study commented as follows on the Wells/Zalloua study:

"We are aware of conflicting conclusions published as an interview in the popular National Geographic magazine. Despite an intensive search we cannot find them reproduced in the mainstream scientific literature. We consider that data somewhat flawed, and furthermore, unsound. National Geographic is not a peer-reviewed academic journal and thus the weight of the evidence is poor compared to other peer-reviewed academic journals that are also in the public domain. One cannot be comfortable with data that have not passed the scrutiny of peer review....
[I]t seems to me that the simplest explanation that cannot be excluded by any of the scientific data thus far available is that Malta was indeed barely inhabited at the turn of the tenth century.
Repopulation is likely to have occurred by a clan or clans (possibly of Arab or Arab-like speaking people) from neighbouring Sicily and Calabria. Possibly, they could have mixed with minute numbers of residual inhabitants, with a constant input of immigrants from neighbouring countries and later, even from afar. There seems to be little input from North Africa."[17]

Other pages

References

  1. How many Maltese in Australia? WIRT MALTA, April 1995, Vol. 1, Number 10
  2. Maltese Americans Everculture.com
  3. Statistics Canada, 2001 Census: Ethnic Origin
  4. CSO Ireland - 2006 Census
  5. Anthony Luttrell, "Giliberto Abbate's Report on Malta: circa 1241," in Proceedings of History Week (1993) (1-29). Last visited on August 6, 2007.
  6. Constantiae Imperatricis et Reginae Siciliae Diplomata: 1195-1198, ed. T.K.Slzer (Vienna, 1983), 237-240.
  7. Joseph M. Brincat, "Language and Demography in Malta: The Social Foundations of the Symbiosis between Semitic and Romance in Standard Maltese," in Malta: A Case Study in International Cross-Currents. Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on the history of the Central Mediterranean held at the University of Malta, 13-17 December 1989. Ed: S. Fiorini and V. Mallia-Milanes (Malta University Publications, Malta Historical Society, and Foundation for International Studies, University of Malta) at 91-110.] Last visited August 5, 2007.
  8. Anthony Luttrell, "Medieval Malta: the Non-written and the Written Evidence", in Malta: A Case Study in International Cross-Currents. Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on the history of the Central Mediterranean held at the University of Malta, 13-17 December 1989. Ed: S. Fiorini and V. Mallia-Milanes (Malta University Publications, Malta Historical Society, and Foundation for International Studies, University of Malta) at 33-45. Last visited August 5, 2007.
  9. Anthony T. Luttrell, "Girolamo Manduca and Gian Francesco Abela: Tradition and invention in Maltese Historiography," in Melita Historica, 7 (1977) 2 (105-132). Last visited August 5, 2007.
  10. See, e.g.: "Malta: Civil History," in The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX. Published 1910. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Remy Lafort, Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York. Last visited August 6, 2007.
  11. Jeremy Boissevain, "Ritual, Play, and Identity: Changing Patterns of Celebration in Maltese Villages," in Journal of Mediterranean Studies, Vol.1 (1), 1991:87-100 at 88.
  12. "Our Sad Adieu", in Time Magazine (Monday, Apr. 09, 1979). Last viewed August 8, 2007.
  13. "Gaddafi to the Rescue", in Time Magazine (Monday, Jan. 17, 1972). Last viewed August 8, 2007.
  14. Hanspeter Mattes, "Aspekte der libyschen Außeninvestitionspolitik 1972-1985 (Fallbeispiel Malta)," Mitteilungen des Deutschen Orient-Instituts, No. 26 (Hamburg: 1985), at 88-126; 142-161.
  15. In the Wake of the Phoenicians: DNA study reveals a Phoenician-Maltese link
  16. C. Capelli, N. Redhead, N. Novelletto, L. Terrenato, P. Malaspina, Z. Poulli, G. Lefranc, A. Megarbane, V. Delague, V. Romano, F. Cali, V.F. Pascali, M. Fellous, A.E. Felice, and D.B. Goldstein; "Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective," Annals of Human Genetics, 69, 1-20, 2005. Last visited August 8, 2007.
  17. Alex E. Felice, "Genetic origin of contemporary Maltese," The Sunday Times (of Malta), August 5, 2007, last visited August 5, 2007

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