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Mammoth
Fossil range: Early Pliocene to Middle Holocene
Columbian mammoth in the George C. Page Museum, Los Angeles
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Proboscidea
Family: Elephantidae
Genus: Mammuthus
Brookes, 1828
Species

A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus. These proboscideans are members of Elephantidae, the family of elephants and mammoths, and close relatives of modern elephants. They were often equipped with long curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair. They lived from the Pliocene epoch from around 4.8 million to 4,500 years ago.[1][2] The word mammoth comes from the Russian мамонт mamont, probably in turn from the Vogul (Mansi) language, mang ont, meaning "earth horn".[3]

Contents

Size

Like their modern relative the elephant, mammoths were quite large; in English the noun "mammoth" has become an adjective meaning "huge" or "massive". The largest known species, Songhua River Mammoth (Mammuthus sungari) , reached heights of at least 5 metres (16 feet) at the shoulder. Mammoths would probably normally weigh in the region of 6 to 8 tons, but exceptionally large males may have exceeded 12 tons. However, most species of mammoth were only about as large as a modern Asian Elephant. Fossils of species of dwarf mammoth have been found on the Californian Channel Islands (Mammuthus exilis) and the Mediterranean island of Sardinia (Mammuthus lamarmorae). There was also a race of dwarf woolly mammoths on Wrangel Island, north of Siberia, within the Arctic Circle.

A full size reconstruction of a mammoth species, the woolly mammoth, at Ipswich Museum, Ipswich, Suffolk
Cross-section of mammoth footprints (a type of trace fossil) at the Hot Springs Mammoth Site in South Dakota

An 11-foot (3.4 m) long mammoth tusk was discovered north of Lincoln, Illinois in 2005.[4]

Based on studies of their close relatives the modern elephants, mammoths probably had a gestation period of 22 months, resulting in a single calf being born. Their social structure was probably the same as that of African and Asian elephants, with females living in herds headed by a matriarch, whilst bulls lived solitary lives or formed loose groups after sexual maturity.[citation needed]

Well-preserved specimens and prospects of cloning

In May 2007, the carcass of a one-month-old female woolly mammoth calf was discovered in a layer of permafrost near the Yuribei River in Russia, where it had been buried for 37,000 years. Alexei Tikhonov, the Russian Academy of Science's Zoological Institute's deputy director, has dismissed the prospect of cloning the animal, as the whole cells required for cloning would have burst under the freezing conditions. Nonetheless, DNA is expected to be well-enough preserved to be useful for research on mammoth phylogeny and perhaps physiology.[5][6] However, Dr Sayaka Wakayama from the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe, Japan, believes that a technique she has used to clone mice from specimens frozen for sixteen years could be used successfully on recovered mammoth tissue: she cites that in her experiments the dead mice had been frozen to -20°C under simulated natural conditions, without using the usual preservative chemicals.[7]

Researchers at Penn State University have sequenced about 85% of the gene map of the woolly mammoth, using DNA taken from hair samples collected from a selection of specimens, advancing the possibility of bringing the woolly mammoth back to life by inserting mammoth DNA sequences into the genome of the modern-day elephant. Although the samples were washed with bleach to remove possible contamination by bacteria or fungi, some DNA bases identified may be from the contaminating organisms and these have yet to be distinguished. To this end, scientists at the Broad Institute are currently generating a comparison with the genome of the African elephant.[8][9][10] The information cannot be used to synthesize mammoth DNA, but Dr Stephan Schuster, leader of the project, notes that the mammoth’s genes differ at only some 400,000 sites from the genome of the African elephant and it would be possible (though not with presently available technology) to modify an elephant cell at these sites to make it resemble one bearing a mammoth's genome, and implant it into a surrogate elephant mother.[11]

There is an estimate of 150 million mammoth remains in Russia's Siberian permafrost, which covers a vast sparsely inhabited area.[12] Some of the remains are frozen complete, others in pieces of bone, tusk, tissue and wool, from less than a metre to 1 km below ground.[13]

Extinction

Illustration of an Indian elephant jaw and a mammoth jaw from Georges Cuvier's 1796 paper on living and fossil elephants.
Full size life reconstruction of a mammoth (Mammuthus trogontherii).

The woolly mammoth was the last species of the genus. Most populations of the woolly mammoth in North America and Eurasia, as well all the Columbian mammoths in North America, died out around the time of the last glacial retreat, as part of a mass extinction of megafauna in northern Eurasia and the Americas. Until recently, it was generally assumed that the last woolly mammoths vanished from Europe and southern Siberia about 10,000 BC, but new findings show that some were still present there about 8,000 BC. Only slightly later, the woolly mammoths also disappeared from continental northern Siberia.[14] A small population survived on St. Paul Island, Alaska, up until 3,750 BC,[2][15][16] and the small mammoths of Wrangel Island survived until 1,650 BC.[17][18][19]

A definitive explanation for their mass extinction is yet to be agreed upon. The warming trend (Holocene) that occurred 12,000 years ago, accompanied by a glacial retreat and rising sea levels, has been suggested as a contributing factor. Forests replaced open woodlands and grasslands across the continent. The available habitat may have been reduced for some megafaunal species, such as the mammoth. However, such climate changes were nothing new; numerous very similar warming episodes had occurred previously within the ice age of the last several million years without producing comparable megafaunal extinctions, so climate alone is unlikely to have played a decisive role.[20][21] The spread of advanced human hunters through northern Eurasia and the Americas around the time of the extinctions was a new development, and thus probably contributed significantly.[20][21]

Whether the general mammoth population died out for climatic reasons or due to overhunting by humans is controversial. Another theory suggests that mammoths may have fallen victim to an infectious disease. A combination of climate change and hunting by humans has been suggested as the most likely explanation for their extinction.

Data derived from studies done on living elephants suggests human hunting was likely a strong contributing factor in the mammoth's final extinction[citation needed]. Homo erectus is known to have consumed mammoth meat as early as 1.8 million years ago.[22]

However, the American Institute of Biological Sciences also notes that bones of dead elephants, left on the ground and subsequently trampled by other elephants, tend to bear marks resembling butchery marks, which have previously been misinterpreted as such by archaeologists[citation needed].

The survival of the dwarf mammoths on Russia's Wrangel Island was due to the island's very remote location and lack of inhabitants in the early Holocene period[citation needed]. The European discovery of the island (by American whalers) did not occur until the 1820s[citation needed]. A similar dwarfing occurred with the Pygmy Mammoth on the outer Channel Islands of California, but at an earlier period. Those animals were very likely killed by early Paleo-Native Americans, and habitat loss caused by a rising sea level that split Santa Rosae into the outer Channel Islands[citation needed].

Recent research indicates that mammoths survived in the Americas until 10,000 years ago. This conclusion is from research, by James Haile and Eske Willerslev of the University of Copenhagen, of sediments found in central Alaska, and reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. [23]

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Capelli, Cristian; MacPhee, Ross D.E.; Roca, Alfred L.; Brisighelli, Francesca; Georgiadis, Nicholase; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Greenwood, Alex D. (2006): A nuclear DNA phylogeny of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (2) 620–627. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.03.015 (HTML abstract). Supplemental data available to subscribers.
  • Levy, Sharon (2006): Clashing with Titans. BioScience 56(4): 292-298. DOI:10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[292:CWT]2.0.CO;2 PDF fulltext
  • Lister, Adrian & Bahn, Paul (1994): Mammoths. MacMillan, London. ISBN 0-02-572985-3
  • Martin, Paul S. (2005): Twilight of the mammoths: Ice Age extinctions and the rewilding of America. University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-23141-4
  • Mercer, H.C. (1885): The Lenape Stone or The Indian and the Mammoth. DjVu fulltext PDF fulltext
  • Stone, Richard (2001): Mammoth: The resurrection of an Ice Age giant. Fourth Estate, London. ISBN 1-84115-518-7

Notes

  1. ^ "Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius)". Academy of Natural Sciences. http://www.ansp.org/museum/jefferson/otherFossils/mammuthus.php#top. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  2. ^ a b Schirber, Michael. "Surviving Extinction: Where Woolly Mammoths Endured". Live Science. Imaginova Cororporation. http://www.livescience.com/animals/041019_Mammoth_Island.html. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  3. ^ "mammoth". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. June 2009. 
  4. ^ Recently discovered long Woolly Mammoth tusk on display at the Illinois State Museum Illinois Department of Natural Resources press release, August 14, 2006
  5. ^ Rincon, Paul (2007-07-10). "Baby mammoth discovery unveiled". news.bbc.co.uk (The BBC). http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6284214.stm. Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  6. ^ Solovyov, Dmitry (2007-07-11). "Baby mammoth find promises breakthrough". reuters.com (Reuters). http://www.reuters.com/article/scienceNews/idUSL1178205120070711. Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  7. ^ Wakayama, Sayaka; et al. (3 November 2008). "Production of healthy cloned mice from bodies frozen at −20°C for 16 years". PNAS (Washington, DC: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA) 105: 17318. doi:10.1073/pnas.0806166105. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2008/10/31/0806166105. Retrieved 7 November 2008. 
  8. ^ Staff (19 November 2008). "Scientists sequence woolly-mammoth genome". Penn State Live. Penn State University. http://live.psu.edu/story/36123. Retrieved 25 November 2008. 
  9. ^ Fox, Maggie (19 November 2008). "Mammoth genome sequence may explain extinction". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSTRE4AI6DB20081119?pageNumber=1&virtualBrandChannel=0. Retrieved 20 November 2008. 
  10. ^ Gilbert, Thomas P.; et al. (28 September 2007). "Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Mitochondria from Ancient Hair Shafts". Science (Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science) 317: pp 1927–1930. doi:10.1126/science.1146971. ISSN 1095-9203. http://rw.mammoth.psu.edu/pubs/hair.pdf. Retrieved 25 November 2008. 
  11. ^ Wade, Nicholas (19 November 2008). "Regenerating a Mammoth for $10 Million". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/20/science/20mammoth.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1. Retrieved 25 November 2008. 
  12. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (19 November 2008). "Trade in mammoth ivory, helped by global thaw, flourishes in Russia". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/25/world/europe/25iht-mammoth.4.11415717.html. Retrieved 12 Dec 2009. 
  13. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (19 November 2008). "Trade in mammoth ivory, helped by global thaw, flourishes in Russia". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/25/world/europe/25iht-mammoth.4.11415717.html. Retrieved 12 Dec 2009. 
  14. ^ Anthony J. Stuart, Leopold D. Sulerzhitsky, Lyobov A. Orlova, Yaroslav V. Kuzmin and Adrian M. Lister: The latest woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach) in Europe and Asia: a review of the current evidence Quaternary Science Reviews Volume 21, Issues 14-15, August 2002, Pages 1559-1569 online
  15. ^ Kristine J. Crossen, “5,700-Year-Old Mammoth Remains from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska: Last Outpost of North America Megafauna”, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Volume 37, Number 7, (Geological Society of America, 2005), 463.
  16. ^ David R. Yesner, Douglas W. Veltre, Kristine J. Crossen, and Russell W. Graham, “5,700-year-old Mammoth Remains from Qagnax Cave, Pribilof Islands, Alaska”, Second World of Elephants Congress, (Hot Springs: Mammoth Site, 2005), 200-203
  17. ^ Kh. A. Arslanov, G. T. Cook, Steinar Gulliksen, D.D. Harkness, Touvi Kankainen, E. M. Scott, Sergey Vartanyan, and Ganna I. Zaitseva, S. L. Vartanyan, “Consensus Dating of Remains from Wrangel Island”, Radiocarbon, Volume 40, Number 1, (Tucson: Radiocarbon, 1998), 289-294.
  18. ^ Sergei L. Vartanyan, Alexei N. Tikhonov, and Lyobov A. Orlova, “The Dynamic of Mammoth Distribution in the Last Refugia in Beringia”, Second World of Elephants Congress, (Hot Springs: Mammoth Site, 2005), 195.
  19. ^ Vartanyan, S.L.; Kh. A. Arslanov; T. V. Tertychnaya; S. B. Chernov (1995). "Radiocarbon Dating Evidence for Mammoths on Wrangel Island, Arctic Ocean, until 2000 BC". Radiocarbon (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona) 37 (1): pp 1–6. http://packrat.aml.arizona.edu/Journal/v37n1/vartanyan.html. Retrieved 2008-01-10. 
  20. ^ a b Martin, P. S. (2005). Twilight of the Mammoths: Ice Age Extinctions and the Rewilding of America. University of California Press. ISBN 0520231414. http://books.google.com/books?id=eThoCsL1hRAC. 
  21. ^ a b Burney, D. A.; Flannery, T. F. (July 2005). "Fifty millennia of catastrophic extinctions after human contact". Trends in Ecology & Evolution (Elsevier) 20 (7): 395-401. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2005.04.022. http://www.anthropology.hawaii.edu/Field%20Schools/Kauai/Publications/Publication%204.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  22. ^ Levy, Sharon (2006): Clashing with Titans. BioScience 56(4): 292-298. DOI:10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[292:CWT]2.0.CO;2 PDF fulltext
  23. ^ Henry Fountain, "DNA Shifts Timeline for Mammoths' Exit," "The New York Times," December 22, 2009.

External links



Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Mammoth Lakes article)

From Wikitravel

Mammoth Mountain with ski runs toward the top and the city of Mammoth Lakes hidden in the trees on the lower slopes.
Mammoth Mountain with ski runs toward the top and the city of Mammoth Lakes hidden in the trees on the lower slopes.

Mammoth Lakes [1] is a resort city next to Mammoth Mountain which is a popular skiing destination. Mammoth Lakes is in the Eastern Sierra region of the Sierra Nevada mountains in California.

Understand

The Sierra Nevada mountains are a popular snow skiing destination. For Californians living in Los Angeles, Mammoth Mountain is the easiest resort to get to from Los Angeles.

The Town of Mammoth Lakes serves one main function: a place for these hordes of Los Angelenos to stay. Condos, motels, hotels, and restaurants fill this small town to serve the flood of winter visitors. In summer, the flood stops and rents plunge, making Mammoth an affordable base to explore the region.

At 8000 feet of elevation, the city stays naturally cool during the region's summer heat waves. Nearby Bishop routinely heats to 105°F (40C) while Mammoth tops out around 84°F (29C).

  • Mammoth Yosemite Airport (IATA: MMH) is just east of US-395 near Mammoth.
  • Horizon Air provides daily service between December and April from LAX in Los Angeles.

By car

Nearby US 395 brings visitors from the south (Los Angeles and Bakersfield) and the north (Reno).

From the San Francisco Bay Area, Highway 120 (Tioga Road) from Yosemite is the quick route, but is passable only in summer and early fall. Interstate 80 and US 50 provide cross-mountain access during the winter months, subject to icy conditions and closure due to blizzards.

Get around

Between the city of Mammoth Lakes and the Mammoth Mountain resort, a bike will do fine in summer. Frequent trams run between the town and the slopes during the winter, with outside racks for skis and snowboards. For everything else, you need a car.

  • Hot Creek Geological Area (On a dirt road just east of the airport, which is just south along US395). An area of hot springs and steam in a very small canyon. Several pools are scalding hot and will result in death if you jump in. Swimming is currently forbidden due to increased geothermal activity.
  • Mammoth Mountain. In winter, this is the main ski resort. In summer the gondola will take you to the top, and the view is amazing. Bring warm clothes for the top.
  • Ski & Snowboard (Fall, Winter and Spring, depending on precipitation). Most years the ski season extends until July 4th. One of the top ranking Ski and Snowbarding Resorts in the United States.
  • Mountain Biking (Summer only). The ski resort will carry your bike up to the top of the mountain so you can coast down it. Rentals available.
  • Fish. The many lakes in the lake basin just west of the city (and north of the mountain) are popular. Boat rentals available.
  • Hike (Summer only). To beautiful and amazing locations such as Rainbow Falls and Devils Postpile. An easy 3.5 hike.
  • Horseback Ride (Summer Only). Various of tours through beautiful remote areas.
  • Angel's Restaurant, 3516 Main St, +1 760 934-7427.  edit
  • Base Camp Cafe, 3325 Main St, +1 760 934-3900. Good burgers and sandwiches. You can order a brown bag meal to take skiing or hiking.  edit
  • Breakfast Club, (Hwy 203 & Old Mammoth Rd. next to Shell Mart), +1 760 934-6944.  edit
  • Good Life Cafe, 126 Old Mammoth Rd, +1 760 934-1734.  edit
  • The Lakefront Restaurant, (at Tamarack Lodge on Twin Lakes), +1 760 934-2442. Reservations Recommended.  edit
  • Lulu's, 1111 Forest Trl, +1 760 924-8781.  edit
  • Petra's Cafe, 6080 Minaret Rd (across from the Village Gondola), +1 760 934-3500.  edit
  • The Stove, 644 Old Mammoth Rd, +1 760 934-2821.  edit
  • Whiskey Creek, (corner of Main St & Minaret Rd), +1 760 934-2555.  edit
  • Whitebark at the Westin, 760.934.0460. 7 AM- 10PM. Contemporary Chop House with and Eclectic Menu of Appetizers  edit
  • Restaurant SKADI, Old Mammoth at the Corner of Chateau, 760.934.3902. 5PM - 9PM. Fine Alpine Cuisine  edit
  • Discovery 4 Condominiums, 25 Lee Rd, +1 760 934-6410, [2]. Condos that are affordable. Adequately well-kept, but not more so.  edit
  • Holiday Inn Hotel & Suites, 3236 Main St (Hwy 203), (760) 924-1234, [3].  edit
  • Mammoth Village Condominiums, 6201 Minaret Rd, [4].  edit
  • Mammoth Premiere Reservations, 89 Laurel Mountain Rd (Head into Mammoth on Main Street, turn left on Laurel Mountain), (760) 934-6543, [5]. checkin: 4PM, Sundays and Holidays 5PM. Various rentals.  edit
  • Mammoth Reservations, 3325 Main Street (near Base Camp Cafe), (760) 934-6011 (toll free: (800) 223-3032, fax: (760) 934-7461), [6]. Rents various properties around Mammoth. Their website is terrible, but you may find some deals worth the pain.  edit
  • Motel 6, 3372 Main Street, +1 760 934-6660 (fax: +1 760 934-6989), [7].  edit
  • Shilo Inn, 2963 Main St., +1 760 934-4500 (toll free: +1 800 222-2244), [8].  edit
  • The Westin Monache Resort, 50 Hillside Dr., (760) 934-0400, [9].  edit
  • 1849 Condos, 826 Lakeview Blvd, 1-800-421-1849, [10]. checkin: 3PM; checkout: 10AM.  edit
  • Mammoth Reservation Bureau, 94 Old Mammoth Road (Take a left at Old Mammoth Rd., 4th driveway on right side), 800-462-5571, [11]. checkin: 5PM; checkout: 10AM. Studio to 5-Bedroom Condominiums in 43 complexes. Hosting visitors since 1976.  edit
  • Stay In Mammoth, 26 Old Mammoth Road, #L2, 866-686-8423, [12].  edit
Bodie State Historic Park
Bodie State Historic Park
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MAMMOTH Russ. mammot, mod. mamant; the Tatar word mama, earth, from which it is supposed to be derived, is not known to exist), a name given to an extinct elephant, Elephas primigenius of Blumenbach. Probably no extinct animal has left such abundant evidence of its former existence; immense numbers of bones, teeth, and more or less entire carcases, or " mummies," as they may be called, having been discovered, with the flesh, skin and hair in situ, in the frozen soil of the tundra of northern Siberia.

The"general characteristics of the order Proboscidea, to which the mammoth belongs, are given under that heading. The mammoth pertains to the most highly specialized section of the group of elephants, which also contains the modern Asiatic species. Of the whole group it is in many respects, as in the size and form of the tusks and the characters of the molar teeth, the farthest removed from the mastodon type, while its nearest surviving relative, the Asiatic elephant (E. maximus), has retained the slightly more generalized characters of the mammoth's contemporaries of more southern climes, E. columbi of America and E. armeniacus of the Old World. The tusks, or upper incisor teeth, which were probably smaller in the female, in the adult males attained the length of from 9 to io ft. measured along the outer curve. Upon leaving the head they:were directed at first downwards, and outwards, then upwards and finally inwards at the tips, and generally with a tendency to a spiral form not seen in other elephants.

It is chiefly by the characters of the molar teeth that the various extinct modifications of the elephant type are distinguished. Those of the mammoth (fig. 2) differ from the corresponding organs of allied species in great breadth of the crown as compared with the length, the narrowness and crowding or close approximation of the ridges, the thinness of the enamel, and its straightness, parallelism and absence of " crimping," as seen on the worn surface or in a horizontal section of the tooth. The molars, as in other elephants, are six in number on each side above and below, succeeding each other from before backwards. Of these Dr Falconer gave the prevailing " ridge-formula "(or number of complete ridges in each tooth) as 4, 8, 12, 12, 16, 24, as in E. maximus. Dr Leith-Adams, working from more abundant materials, has shown that the number of ridges of each tooth, especially those at the posterior end of the series, is subject to individual variation, ranging in each tooth of the series within the following limits: 3 to 4, 6 to 9, 9 to 12, 9 to 15, 14 to 16, 18 to 27 - excluding the small plates, called " talons," at each end. Besides these variations in the number of ridges or plates of which each tooth is composed, the thickness of the enamel varies so much as to have given rise to a distinction between a " thick-plated " and a " thin-plated " variety - the latter being most prevalent among specimens from the Arctic regions. From the specimens with thick enamel plates the transition to the other species mentioned above, including E. maximus, is almost imperceptible.

The bones of the skeleton generally more resemble those of the Indian elephant than of any other species, but the skull differs in the narrower summit, narrower temporal fossae, and more prolonged incisive sheaths, supporting the roots of the enormous tusks. Among the external characters by which the mammoth was distinguished from either of the existing species of elephant was the dense clothing, not only of long, coarse outer hair, but also of close under woolly hair of a reddish-brown colour, evidently in adaptation to the cold climate it inhabited. This character is represented in rude but graphic drawings of prehistoric age found in caverns in the south of France. It should be added that young Asiatic elephants often show considerable traces of the woolly coat of the mammoth. The average height does not appear to have exceeded that of either of the existing species of elephant.

The geographical range of the mammoth was very extensive. There is scarcely a county in England in which its remains have not been found in alluvial gravel or in caverns, and numbers of its teeth are dredged in the North Sea. In Scotland and Ireland its remains are less abundant, and in Scandinavia and Finland they appear to be unknown; but they have been found in vast numbers at various localities throughout the greater part of central Europe (as far south as Santander and Rome), northern Asia, and the northern part of the American continent.

The mammoth belongs to the post-Tertiary or Pleistocene epoch and was contemporaneous with man. There is evidence to show that it existed in Britain before, during and after the glacial period. It is in northern Siberia that its remains have erect position, with the soft parts and hairy covering entire, have been brought to light.

(From Owen.) FIG. 2. - Grinding surface of Upper Molar Tooth of the7Mammoth (Elephas primigenius). c, cement; d, dentine; e, enamel.

For geographical distribution and anatomical characters see Falconer's Palaeontological Memoirs, vol. ii. (1868); B. Dawkins, " Elephas Primigenius, its Range in Space and Time," Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., xxxv. 138 (1879); and A. Leith Adams, " Monograph of British Fossil Elephants," part ii., Palaeontographical Society (1879). (W. H. F.; R. L.*)


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Simple English

Mammoth
Fossil range: Pliocene to Holocene
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Proboscidea
Family: Elephantidae
Genus: Mammuthus
Brookes, 1828
Species
  • Mammuthus africanavus African mammoth
  • Mammuthus columbi Columbian mammoth
  • Mammuthus exilis Pygmy mammoth
  • Mammuthus imperator Imperial mammoth
  • Mammuthus jeffersonii Jeffersonian mammoth
  • Mammuthus trogontherii Steppe mammoth
  • Mammuthus meridionalis Southern mammoth
  • Mammuthus subplanifrons South African mammoth
  • Mammuthus primigenius Woolly mammoth
  • Mammuthus lamarmorae Sardinian dwarf mammoth
  • Mammuthus sungari Songhua River mammoth
File:Elephant near
A modern elephant, with almost no hair. They live in warm climates
File:Mamut NDH
A model of a mammoth, which lived in a cold climate. All living ones died out 4,500 years ago.

Mammoths were hairy elephants of the genus Mammuthus. They lived in Europe until 4,500 years ago, and were adapted to cold climate. They were killed off by hunters and climate change.

They lived in the Pliocene and Pleistocene. In the Pleistocene, northern Europe was covered with ice and tundra. There were a series of ice ages. The whole world was much colder than it is now.

Mammoth were hunted by early humans, who used spears, and cut them up with hand axes. Their frozen flesh has been analysed for its DNA sequence.[1][2][3]

Other pages

Other websites

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Look up Mammuthus in Wikispecies, a directory of species

References

  1. Staff (19 November 2008). "Scientists sequence woolly-mammoth genome". Penn State Live. Penn State University. http://live.psu.edu/story/36123. Retrieved 25 November 2008. 
  2. Fox, Maggie (19 November 2008). "Mammoth genome sequence may explain extinction". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSTRE4AI6DB20081119?pageNumber=1&virtualBrandChannel=0. Retrieved 20 November 2008. 
  3. Gilbert, Thomas P.; et al. (28 September 2007). "Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Mitochondria from Ancient Hair Shafts". Science (Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science) 317 (5846): pp 1927–1930. doi:10.1126/science.1146971. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 17901335. http://rw.mammoth.psu.edu/pubs/hair.pdf. Retrieved 25 November 2008. 








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