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Coordinates: 53°28′N 2°14′W / 53.467°N 2.233°W / 53.467; -2.233

City of Manchester
—  City & Metropolitan borough  —
Manchester skyline from the River Irwell

Coat of Arms of the City Council
Nickname(s): "Cottonopolis", "Warehouse City" "Capital Of The North",
Motto: "Concilio Et Labore" "By wisdom and effort"
Manchester shown within England
Coordinates: 53°28′N 2°14′W / 53.467°N 2.233°W / 53.467; -2.233
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region North West England
Ceremonial county Greater Manchester
Admin HQ Manchester city centre
Founded 1st century
Town charter 1301
City status 1853
Government
 - Type Metropolitan borough, City
 - Governing body Manchester City Council
 - Lord Mayor Mavis Smitheman
 - MPs: Paul Goggins (Lab)
Sir Gerald Kaufman (Lab)
John Leech (Lib Dem)
Tony Lloyd (Lab)
Graham Stringer (Lab)
Area
 - City & Metropolitan borough 44.7 sq mi (115.65 km2)
Elevation 125 ft (38 m)
Population (2008 est.)
 - City & Metropolitan borough 464,200 (Ranked 7th)
 Density 9,880.8/sq mi (3,815/km2)
 Urban 2,240,230
(Greater Manchester Urban Area)
 - County 2,547,700
 - County Density 5,172.2/sq mi (1,997/km2)
 - LUZ 2,539,100
 - LUZ Density 5,138.5/sq mi (1,984/km2)
 - Demonym Mancunian
Time zone Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0)
Postcode M
Area code(s) 0161
Ethnicity
(2007 Estimates[1])
75.8% White
69.1% White British
2.6% White Irish
4.0% Other White
3.3% Mixed
1.2% White & Black Caribbean
0.6% White & Black African
0.7% White & South Asian
0.7% White & Other
11.1% South Asian
2.7% Indian
6.1% Pakistani
1.0% Bangladeshi
1.3% Other South Asian
5.5% Black
1.9% Black Caribbean
3.1% Black African
0.5% Other Black
4.3% East Asian and Other
2.7% Chinese
1.6% Other
ISO 3166-2 GB-MAN
ONS code 00BN
OS grid reference SJ838980
NUTS 3 UKD31
Demonym Mancunian
Website www.manchester.gov.uk

Manchester (pronounced /ˈmæntʃɛstər/ ( listen)) is a city and metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England. In 2008, the population of the city was estimated to be 464,200,[2] making it the seventh-most populous local authority district in England. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas; the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester had an estimated population of 2,562,200, the Greater Manchester Urban Area a population of 2,240,230,[3] and the Larger Urban Zone around Manchester, the second-most-populous in the UK, had an estimated population in the 2004 Urban Audit of 2,539,100.[4] The demonym of Manchester is Mancunian.

Manchester is situated in the south-central part of North West England, fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south and the Pennines to the north and east. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian vicus associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium, which was established c. AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. Historically, most of the city was a part of Lancashire, although areas south of the River Mersey were in Cheshire. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution.[5] The urbanisation of Manchester largely coincided with the Industrial Revolution and the Victorian era, resulting in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.[6] As the result of an early-19th century factory building boom, Manchester was transformed from a township into a major mill town, borough and was later granted honorific city status in 1853.

Forming part of the English Core Cities Group, Manchester today is a centre of the arts, the media, higher education and commerce, factors all contributing to Manchester polling as the second city of the United Kingdom in 2002.[7] In a poll of British business leaders published in 2006, Manchester was regarded as the best place in the UK to locate a business.[8] A report commissioned by Manchester Partnership, published in 2007, showed Manchester to be the "fastest-growing city" economically.[9] In the GaWC global city list, Manchester is ranked as a Gamma city.[10] It is the third-most visited city in the United Kingdom by foreign visitors and the most visited in England outside London.[11] Manchester was the host of the 2002 Commonwealth Games, and among its other sporting connections are its two Premier League football teams, Manchester United and Manchester City.[12]

Contents

History

Etymology

The name Manchester originates from the Ancient Roman name Mamucium, the name of the Roman fort and settlement, generally thought to be a Latinisation of an original Celtic name (possibly meaning "breast-like hill" from mamm- = "breast"), plus Old English ceaster = "town", which is derived from Latin castra = "camp".[13] An alternative theory suggests that the origin is British Celtic mamma = "mother", where the "mother" was a river-goddess of the River Medlock which flows below the fort. Mam means "female breast" in Irish Gaelic and "mother" in Welsh.[14]

Early history

The Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in what is now Northern England; they had a stronghold in the locality at a sandstone outcrop on which Manchester Cathedral now stands, opposite the banks of the River Irwell.[15] Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a Roman fort in the year 79 named Mamucium to ensure Roman interests with Deva Victrix (Chester) and Eboracum (York) were protected from the Brigantes.[15] Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time.[16] A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield. The Roman habitation of Manchester probably ended around the 3rd century; the vicus, or civilian settlement appears to have been abandoned by the mid 3rd century although the fort may have supported a small garrison until the late 3rd or early 4th century.[17] By the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 the focus of settlement had shifted to the confluence of the rivers Irwell and Irk.[18] Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.[19][20]

A map of Manchester circa 1650
A map of Manchester and Salford from 1801.

Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor, founded and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the domestic premises of the college currently house Chetham's School of Music and Chetham's Library.[18][21] The library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom.[22]

Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282.[23] Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry.[24] Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, and by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded, quickest, and most populous town of all Lancashire."[18] The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester.[19]

During the English Civil War, Manchester strongly favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was later appointed Major General for Lancashire, Cheshire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals. He was a diligent puritan, turning out ale houses and banning the celebration of Christmas; he died in 1656.[25]

Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance.[18] The Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester. The canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved the cost of coal and halved the transport cost of raw cotton.[18][21] Manchester became the dominant marketplace for textiles produced in the surrounding towns.[18] A commodities exchange, opened in 1729,[19] and numerous large warehouses, aided commerce.

In 1780, Richard Arkwright began construction of Manchester's first cotton mill.[19][21]

Industrial Revolution

Cotton mills in Ancoats about 1820
Manchester from Kersal Moor, by William Wylde in 1857. Manchester acquired the nickname Cottonopolis during the early 19th century owing to its sprawl of textile factories.

Much of Manchester's history is concerned with textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. The great majority of cotton spinning took place in the towns of south Lancashire and north Cheshire, and Manchester was for a time the most productive centre of cotton processing,[26] and later the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods.[18][27] Manchester was dubbed "Cottonopolis" and "Warehouse City" during the Victorian era.[26] In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the term "manchester" is used for household linen : sheets, pillow cases, towels, etc.[28]

Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation[29] brought on by the Industrial Revolution.[30] It developed a wide range of industries, so that by 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world."[27] Engineering firms initially made machines for the cotton trade, but diversified into general manufacture. Similarly, the chemical industry started by producing bleaches and dyes, but expanded into other areas. Commerce was supported by financial service industries such as banking and insurance. Trade, and feeding the growing population, required a large transport and distribution infrastructure: the canal system was extended, and Manchester became one end of the world's first intercity passenger railway—the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Competition between the various forms of transport kept costs down.[18] In 1878 the GPO (the forerunner of British Telecom) provided its first telephones to a firm in Manchester.[31]

The Manchester Ship Canal was built in 1894, in some sections by canalisation of the Rivers Irwell and Mersey, running 58 kilometres (36 mi) [32] from Salford to Eastham Locks on the tidal Mersey. This enabled ocean going ships to sail right into the Port of Manchester. On the canal's banks, just outside the borough, the world's first industrial estate was created at Trafford Park.[18] Large quantities of machinery, including cotton processing plant, were exported around the world.

The Peterloo Massacre of 1819 saw 15 deaths and several hundred injured.

A centre of capitalism, Manchester was once the scene of bread and labour riots, as well as calls for greater political recognition by the city's working and non-titled classes. One such riot ended with the Peterloo Massacre of 16 August 1819. The economic school of Manchester capitalism developed there, and Manchester was the center of the Anti-Corn Law League from 1838 onward.

Manchester has a notable place in the history of Marxism and left-wing politics; being the subject of Friedrich Engels' work The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844; Engels himself spent much of his life in and around Manchester,[33] and when Karl Marx visited Manchester, they met at Chetham's Library. The economics books Marx was reading at the time can be seen on the shelf in the library, as can the window seat where Marx and Engels would meet.[22] The first Trades Union Congress was held in Manchester (at the Mechanics' Institute, David Street), from 2 to 6 June 1868. Manchester was also an important cradle of the Labour Party and the Suffragette Movement.[34]

At that time, it seemed a place in which anything could happen—new industrial processes, new ways of thinking (the Manchester School, promoting free trade and laissez-faire), new classes or groups in society, new religious sects, and new forms of labour organisation. It attracted educated visitors from all parts of Britain and Europe. A saying capturing this sense of innovation survives today: "What Manchester does today, the rest of the world does tomorrow."[35] Manchester's golden age was perhaps the last quarter of the 19th century. Many of the great public buildings (including the town hall) date from then. The city's cosmopolitan atmosphere contributed to a vibrant culture, which included the Hallé Orchestra. In 1889, when county councils were created in England, the municipal borough became a county borough with even greater autonomy.

Although the Industrial Revolution brought wealth to the city, it also brought poverty and squalor to a large part of the population. Historian Simon Schama noted that "Manchester was the very best and the very worst taken to terrifying extremes, a new kind of city in the world; the chimneys of industrial suburbs greeting you with columns of smoke". An American visitor taken to Manchester’s blackspots saw "wretched, defrauded, oppressed, crushed human nature, lying and bleeding fragments".[36]

The number of cotton mills in Manchester itself reached a peak of 108 in 1853.[26] Thereafter the number began to decline and Manchester was surpassed as the largest centre of cotton spinning by Bolton in the 1850s and Oldham in the 1860s.[26] However, this period of decline coincided with the rise of city as the financial centre of the region.[26] Manchester continued to process cotton, and in 1913, 65% of the world's cotton was processed in the area.[18] The First World War interrupted access to the export markets. Cotton processing in other parts of the world increased, often on machines produced in Manchester. Manchester suffered greatly from the Great Depression and the underlying structural changes that began to supplant the old industries, including textile manufacture.

World War II and the Manchester Blitz

Like most of the UK, the Manchester area mobilised extensively during World War II. For example, casting and machining expertise at Beyer, Peacock and Company's locomotive works in Gorton was switched to bomb making; Dunlop's rubber works in Chorlton-on-Medlock made barrage balloons; and just outside the city in Trafford Park, engineers Metropolitan-Vickers made Avro Manchester and Avro Lancaster bombers and Ford built the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines to power them. Manchester was thus the target of bombing by the Luftwaffe, and by late 1940 air raids were taking place against non-military targets. The biggest took place during the "Christmas Blitz" on the nights of 22/23 and 23/24 December 1940, when an estimated 467 tons (475 tonnes) of high explosives plus over 37,000 incendiary bombs were dropped. A large part of the historic city centre was destroyed, including 165 warehouses, 200 business premises, and 150 offices. 376 were killed and 30,000 houses were damaged.[37] Manchester Cathedral was among the buildings seriously damaged; its restoration took 20 years.[38]

Post-World War II

Cotton processing and trading continued to fall in peacetime, and the exchange closed in 1968.[18] By 1963 the port of Manchester was the UK's third largest,[39] and employed over 3,000 men, but the canal was unable to handle the increasingly large container ships. Traffic declined, and the port closed in 1982.[40] Heavy industry suffered a downturn from the 1960s and was greatly reduced under the economic policies followed by Margaret Thatcher's government after 1979. Manchester lost 150,000 jobs in manufacturing between 1961 and 1983.[18]

Regeneration began in the late 1980s, with initiatives such as the Metrolink, the Bridgewater Concert Hall, the Manchester Evening News Arena, and (in Salford) the rebranding of the port as Salford Quays. Two bids to host the Olympic Games were part of a process to raise the international profile of the city.[41]

Manchester has a history of attacks attributed to Irish Republicans, including the Manchester Martyrs of 1867, arson in 1920, a series of explosions in 1939, and two bombs in 1992. On Saturday 15 June 1996, the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out the 1996 Manchester bombing, the detonation of a large bomb next to a department store in the city centre. The largest to be detonated on British soil, the bomb injured over 200 people, heavily damaged nearby buildings, and broke windows half a mile away. The cost of the immediate damage was initially estimated at £50 million, but this was quickly revised upwards.[42] The final insurance payout was over £400 million; many affected businesses never recovered from the loss of trade.[43]

Exchange Square during a BBC Big Screen showing of a FIFA world cup football game.

Spurred by the investment after the 1996 bomb, and aided by the XVII Commonwealth Games, Manchester's city centre has undergone extensive regeneration.[41] New and renovated complexes such as The Printworks and the Triangle have become popular shopping and entertainment destinations. The Manchester Arndale is the UK's largest city centre shopping mall.[44]

Large sections of the city dating from the 1960s have been either demolished and re-developed or modernised with the use of glass and steel. Old mills have been converted into modern apartments, Hulme has undergone extensive regeneration programmes, and million-pound lofthouse apartments have since been developed. The 169-metre tall, 47-storey Beetham Tower, completed in 2006, is the tallest building in the UK outside London and the highest residential accommodation in western Europe. The lower 23 floors form the Hilton Hotel, featuring a "sky bar" on the 23rd floor. Its upper 24 floors are apartments.[45] In January 2007, the independent Casino Advisory Panel awarded Manchester a licence to build the only supercasino in the UK to regenerate the Eastlands area of the city,[46] but in March the House of Lords rejected the decision by three votes rendering previous House of Commons acceptance meaningless. This left the supercasino, and 14 other smaller concessions, in parliamentary limbo until a final decision was made.[47] On 11 July 2007, a source close to the government declared the entire supercasino project "dead in the water".[48] A member of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce professed himself "amazed and a bit shocked" and that "there has been an awful lot of time and money wasted".[49] After a meeting with the Prime Minister, Manchester City Council issued a press release on 24 July 2007 stating that "contrary to some reports the door is not closed to a regional casino".[50] The supercasino was officially declared dead in February 2008 with a compensation package described by the media as "rehashed plans, spin and empty promises."[51]

Since around the turn of the 21st century, Manchester has been regarded by sections of the international press,[52] British public,[53] and government ministers[54] as being the second city of the United Kingdom. A 2007 poll by the BBC placed it ahead of Birmingham and Liverpool in the category of second city of England, but also ahead in the category of third city. Neither category is officially sanctioned, and criteria for determining what 'second city' means are ill-defined. Manchester is not the second largest city in terms of population, but it is argued that cultural and historical criteria are more important.[55] The BBC reports that redevelopment of recent years has heightened claims that Manchester is the second city of the UK.[56] This title however, which is unofficial in the UK, has traditionally been held by Birmingham since the early 20th century.[57]

Governance

Manchester Town Hall, used for the local governance of Manchester, is an example of Victorian era Gothic revival architecture.

Manchester is represented by three tiers of government, Manchester City Council ("local"), UK Parliament ("national"), and European Parliament ("Europe"). Greater Manchester County Council administration was abolished in 1986, and so the city council is effectively a unitary authority. Since its inception in 1995, Manchester has been a member of the English Core Cities Group,[58] which, among other things, serves to promote the social, cultural and economic status of the city at an international level.

The town of Manchester was granted a charter by Thomas Grelley in 1301 but lost its borough status in a court case of 1359. Until the 19th century, local government was largely provided by manorial courts, the last of which ended in 1846.[59] From a very early time, the township of Manchester lay within the historic county boundaries of Lancashire.[59] Pevsner wrote "That [neighbouring] Stretford and Salford are not administratively one with Manchester is one of the most curious anomalies of England".[24] A stroke of a Norman baron's pen is said to have divorced Manchester and Salford, though it was not Salford that became separated from Manchester, it was Manchester, with its humbler line of lords, that was separated from Salford.[60] It was this separation that resulted in Salford becoming the judicial seat of Salfordshire, which included the ancient parish of Manchester. Manchester later formed its own Poor Law Union by the name of Manchester.[59] In 1792, commissioners—usually known as police commissioners—were established for the social improvement of Manchester. In 1838, Manchester regained its borough status, and comprised the townships of Beswick, Cheetham Hill, Chorlton upon Medlock and Hulme.[59] By 1846 the borough council had taken over the powers of the police commissioners. In 1853 Manchester was granted city status in the United Kingdom.[59]

In 1885, Bradford, Harpurhey, Rusholme and parts of Moss Side and Withington townships became part of the City of Manchester. In 1889, the city became the county borough of Manchester, separate from the administrative county of Lancashire, and thus not governed by Lancashire County Council.[59] Between 1890 and 1933, more areas were added to the city from Lancashire, including former villages such as Burnage, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Didsbury, Fallowfield, Levenshulme, Longsight, and Withington. In 1931 the Cheshire civil parishes of Baguley, Northenden and Northen Etchells from the south of the River Mersey were added.[59] In 1974, by way of the Local Government Act 1972, the City of Manchester became a metropolitan district of the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester.[59] That year, Ringway, the town where Manchester Airport is located, was added to the city.

Geography

Manchester
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
69
 
6
1
 
 
50
 
7
1
 
 
61
 
9
3
 
 
51
 
12
4
 
 
61
 
15
7
 
 
67
 
18
10
 
 
65
 
20
12
 
 
79
 
20
12
 
 
74
 
17
10
 
 
77
 
14
8
 
 
78
 
9
4
 
 
78
 
7
2
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: Climate-Charts.com

At 53°28′0″N 2°14′0″W / 53.466667°N 2.233333°W / 53.466667; -2.233333, 160 miles (257 km) northwest of London, Manchester lies in a bowl-shaped land area bordered to the north and east by the Pennine hills, a mountain chain that runs the length of Northern England and to the south by the Cheshire Plain. The city centre is on the east bank of the River Irwell, near its confluences with the Rivers Medlock and Irk, and is relatively low-lying, being between 115 to 138 feet (35 and 42 m) above sea level.[61] The River Mersey flows through the south of Manchester. Much of the inner city, especially in the south, is flat, offering extensive views from many highrise buildings in the city of the foothills and moors of the Pennines, which can often be capped with snow in the winter months. Manchester's geographic features were highly influential in its early development as the world's first industrial city. These features are its climate, its proximity to a seaport at Liverpool, the availability of water power from its rivers, and its nearby coal reserves.[62]

The City of Manchester. The land use is overwhelmingly urban

The name Manchester, though officially applied only to the metropolitan district of Greater Manchester, has been applied to other, wider divisions of land, particularly across much of the Greater Manchester county and urban area. The "Manchester City Zone", "Manchester post town" and the "Manchester Congestion Charge" are all examples of this. The economic geography of the Manchester City Region is used to define housing markets, business linkages, travel to work patterns, administrative areas etc.[63] As defined by The Northern Way economic development agency the City Region territory encompasses most of the natural economy’s Travel to Work Area and includes the cities of Manchester and Salford, plus the adjoining metropolitan boroughs of Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale and Wigan, together with High Peak (which lies outside the North West England region), Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Chester and Warrington.[64]

For purposes of the Office for National Statistics, Manchester forms the most populous settlement within the Greater Manchester Urban Area, the United Kingdom's third largest conurbation. There is a mixture of high-density urban and suburban locations in Manchester. The largest open space in the city, at around 260 hectares (642 acres),[65] is Heaton Park. Manchester is contiguous on all sides with several large settlements, except for a small section along its southern boundary with Cheshire. The M60 and M56 motorways pass through the south of Manchester, through Northenden and Wythenshawe respectively. Heavy rail lines enter the city from all directions, the principal destination being Manchester Piccadilly station.

Manchester experiences a temperate maritime climate, like much of the British Isles, with relatively cool summers and mild winters. There is regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year. The city's average annual rainfall is 806.6 millimetres (31.76 in)[66] compared to the UK average of 1,125.0 millimetres (44.29 in),[67] and its mean rain days are 140.4 per annum,[66] compared to the UK average of 154.4.[67] Manchester however has a relatively high humidity level, which optimised the textile manufacturing (with low thread breakage) which took place there. Snowfalls are not common in the city, due to the urban warming effect. However, the Pennine and Rossendale Forest hills that surround the city to its east and north receive more snow and roads leading out of the city can be closed due to snow.[68] notably the A62 road via Oldham and Standedge, the A57 (Snake Pass) towards Sheffield,[69] and the M62 over Saddleworth Moor.

Climate data for Manchester
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 6.4
(44)
6.6
(44)
8.9
(48)
11.6
(53)
15.3
(60)
18.2
(65)
19.6
(67)
19.5
(67)
17.0
(63)
13.7
(57)
9.1
(48)
7.1
(45)
Average low °C (°F) 1.3
(34)
1.2
(34)
2.5
(37)
4.3
(40)
7.3
(45)
10.2
(50)
12.0
(54)
11.9
(53)
10.0
(50)
7.5
(46)
3.6
(38)
2.0
(36)
Rainfall mm (inches) 69
(2.72)
50
(1.97)
61
(2.4)
51
(2.01)
61
(2.4)
67
(2.64)
65
(2.56)
79
(3.11)
74
(2.91)
77
(3.03)
78
(3.07)
78
(3.07)
Avg. rainy days 18.2 13.1 15.6 14.4 15.1 14.4 13.6 15.0 15.0 16.5 17.0 17.4 185.3
Source: Worldweather.org taken between 1971 and 2000 at the Met Office weather station at Manchester Airport.

Demography

Manchester compared[70][71]
UK Census 2001 Manchester Greater Manchester England
Total population 441,200 2,547,700 49,138,831
Foreign born 15.0% 7.2% 9.2%
White 81.0% 91.0% 91.0%
Asian 9.1% 5.7% 4.6%
Black 4.5% 1.2% 2.3%
Over 75 years old 6.4% 7.0% 7.5%
Christian 62.4% 74% 72%
Muslim 9.1% 5.0% 3.1%
The population of Manchester shown with other boroughs in the Greater Manchester county from 1801 to 2001.

The United Kingdom Census 2001 showed a total resident population for Manchester of 392,819, a 9.2% decline from the 1991 census.[72] Approximately 83,000 were aged under 16, 285,000 were aged 16–74, and 25,000 aged 75 and over.[72] 75.9% of Manchester's population claim they have been born in the UK, according to the 2001 UK Census. Inhabitants of Manchester are known as Mancunians or Mancs for short. Manchester reported the second-lowest proportion of the population in employment of any area in the UK. A primary reason cited for Manchester's high unemployment figure is the high proportion of the population who are students.[72] A 2007 report noted "60 per cent of Manchester people are living in some of the UK's most deprived areas".[9] Mid-year estimates for 2006 indicate that the population of the metropolitan borough of Manchester stood at 452,000 making Manchester the most populous city in North West England.[73] Historically the population of Manchester only began to rapidly increase during the Victorian era and peaked at 766,311 in 1931. After the peak the population began to decrease rapidly, reasons cited for this are slum clearance and the increased building of social housing overspill estates by Manchester City Council after WWII such as Hattersley and Langley.[74]

The inhabitants of Manchester, like in many other large cities, are religiously diverse. The Jewish population is second only to London in the UK,[75] and Greater Manchester also has one of the largest Muslim populations.

The percentage of the population in Manchester who reported themselves as living in the same household in a same-sex relationship was 0.44%, compared to the English national average of 0.20%.[76]

In terms of districts by ethnic diversity, the City of Manchester is ranked highest in Greater Manchester and 34th in England. 2005 estimates state 77.6% people as 'White' (71.0% of residents as White British, 3.0% White Irish, 3.6% as Other White – although those of mixed European and British ancestry is unknown, there are over 25,000 Mancunians of Italian descent alone which represents 5.5% of the city's population[77]). 3.2% as Mixed race (1.3% Mixed White and Black Caribbean, 0.6% Mixed White and Black African, 0.7% Mixed White and Asian, 0.7% Other Mixed). 10.3% of the city's population are South Asian (2.3% Indian, 5.8% Pakistani, 1.0% Bangladeshi, 1.2% Other South Asian). 5.2% are Black (2.0% Black Caribbean, 2.7% Black African and 0.5% Other Black). 2.3% of the city's population are Chinese, and 1.4% are another ethnic group.[78] Kidd identifies Moss Side, Longsight, Cheetham Hill, Rusholme, as centres of population for ethnic minorities.[18] Manchester's Irish Festival, including a St Patrick's Day parade, is one of Europe's largest.[79] There is also a well-established Chinatown in the city with a substantial number of oriental restaurants and Chinese supermarkets. The area also attracts large numbers of Chinese students to the city, attending the local universities.[80]

Based on the population estimates for 2005, crime levels in the city are considerably higher than the national average. Some parts of Manchester were adversely affected by its rapid urbanisation, resulting in high levels of crime in areas such as Moss Side and Wythenshawe.[81] The number of theft from a vehicle offences and theft of a vehicle per 1,000 of the population was 25.5 and 8.9 compared to the English national average of 7.6 and 2.9 respectively.[82] The number of sexual offences was 1.9 compared to the average of 0.9.[82] The national average of violence against another person was 16.7 compared to the Manchester average of 32.7.[82] The figures for crime statistics were all recorded during the 2006/7 financial year.[83]

The Manchester Larger Urban Zone, a Eurostat measure of the functional city-region approximated to local government districts, has a population of 2,539,100 in 2004.[4] In addition to Manchester itself, the LUZ includes the remainder of the county of Greater Manchester.[84] The Manchester LUZ is the second largest within the United Kingdom, behind that of London.

Economy

The arched entrance into Chinatown

Manchester was at the forefront of the 19th-century Industrial Revolution, and was a leading centre for manufacturing. The city's economy is now largely service-based and, as of 2007, is the fastest growing in the UK, with inward investment second only to the capital.[85] Manchester’s State of the City Report identifies financial and professional services, life science industries, creative, cultural and media, manufacturing and communications as major activities.[85] The city was ranked in 2007 and 2008 as the second-best place to do business in the UK,[86] and in 2009 as the third-best city in the UK and sixteenth best in Europe.[87]

Manchester has the largest UK office market outside London.[88] Greater Manchester represents over £42 billion of the UK GVA, the third largest of any English county and more than Wales or North East England.[89]

Manchester is a focus for businesses which serve local, regional and international markets.[88] It is one of the largest financial centres in Europe with more than 15,000 people employed in banking and finance and more than 60 banking institutions.[88] The Co-operative Group, the world's largest consumer-owned business, is based in Manchester and is one of the city's biggest employers. Legal, accounting, management consultancy and other professional and technical services exist in Manchester.[88]

Manchester's Central Business District is in the centre of the city, adjacent to Piccadilly, focused on Mosley Street, Deansgate, King Street and Piccadilly. Spinningfields is a £1.5 billion mixed-use development that is expanding the district west of Deansgate. The area is designed to hold office space, retail and catering facilities, and courts. Several high-profile tenants have moved in, and a Civil Justice Centre opened in October 2007.[90]

Manchester is the commercial, educational and cultural focus for North West England,[88] and is ranked as the third or fourth biggest retail area in the UK by sales.[91] The city centre retail area contains shops from chain stores up to high-end boutiques such as Vivienne Westwood, Emporio Armani, DKNY, Harvey Nichols, Chanel and Hermès. The city has several shopping malls including the Manchester Arndale, the UK's largest inner city shopping mall.[44]

Landmarks

Beetham Tower on Deansgate, currently Manchester's tallest building and England's tallest residential tower

Manchester's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from Victorian to contemporary architecture. The widespread use of red brick characterises the city. Much of the architecture in the city harks back to its days as a global centre for the cotton trade.[21] Just outside the immediate city centre is a large number of former cotton mills, some of which have been left virtually untouched since their closure while many have been redeveloped into apartment buildings and office space. Manchester Town Hall, in Albert Square, was built in the gothic revival style and is considered to be one of the most important Victorian buildings in England.[92] It has been used in film as a replacement location for the Palace of Westminster, in which filming is not permitted.[93] Manchester also has a number of skyscrapers built during the 1960s and 1970s, the tallest of which was the CIS Tower located near Manchester Victoria station until the Beetham Tower was completed in 2006; it is an example of the new surge in high-rise building and includes a Hilton hotel, a restaurant, and apartments. On its completion, it was the tallest building in the UK outside London, although an even taller building, the Piccadilly Tower, began construction behind Manchester Piccadilly station in early 2008 (a project currently in abeyance).[94] The Green Building, opposite Oxford Road station, is a pioneering eco-friendly housing project, one of very few in the UK.

The award-winning Heaton Park in the north of the city borough is one of the largest municipal parks in Europe, covering 610 acres (250 ha) of parkland.[95] The city has 135 parks, gardens, and open spaces.[96] Two large squares hold many of Manchester's public monuments. Albert Square has monuments to Prince Albert, Bishop James Fraser, Oliver Heywood, William Ewart Gladstone,and John Bright. Piccadilly Gardens has monuments dedicated to Queen Victoria, Robert Peel, James Watt and the Duke of Wellington. The cenotaph in St Peter's Square, by Edwin Lutyens, is Manchester's main memorial to its war dead. The Alan Turing Memorial in Sackville Park commemorates his role as the father of modern computing. A statue of Abraham Lincoln by George Gray Barnard in the eponymous Lincoln Square (having stood for many years in Platt Fields) was presented to the city by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Phelps Taft of Cincinnati, Ohio, to mark the part that Lancashire played in the cotton famine and American Civil War of 1861–1865.[97] A Concorde is on display near Manchester Airport. 

Transport

Manchester Piccadilly Station, the principal railway and Metrolink station in Manchester.
One of the zero-fare buses.

Manchester and North West England are served by Manchester Airport. The airport is the busiest in terms of passenger traffic in the UK outside London, serving 21.06 million passengers in 2008. Airline service exists to many destinations in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East and Asia (with more destinations from Manchester than from London Heathrow).[98] A second runway was opened in 2001 and there have been continued terminal improvements. Passenger figures have been virtually static since 2005.

Manchester is well served by trains. In terms of passengers, Manchester Piccadilly was the busiest English railway station outside London in 2005 and 2006.[99] Local operator Northern Rail operates all over the north of England, and other national operators include Virgin Trains. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was the first passenger railway in the world. Greater Manchester has an extensive countywide railway network, and two mainline stations. Manchester city centre is also serviced by over a dozen rail-based park and ride sites.[100] In October 2007, the government announced that a feasibility study had been ordered into increasing the capacity at Piccadilly station and turning Manchester into the rail hub of the north.[101]

Manchester became the first city in the UK to acquire a modern light rail tram system when the Manchester Metrolink opened in 1992. The present system mostly runs on former commuter rail lines converted for light rail use, and crosses the city centre via on-street tram lines.[102] The 23 mi (37 km)-network consists of three lines with 37 stations (including five on-street tram stops in the centre). An expansion programme is underway.[103]

The city has one of the most extensive bus networks outside London with over 50 bus companies operating in the Greater Manchester region radiating from the city. Prior to the deregulation of 1986, SELNEC and later GMPTE operated all buses in Manchester.[104] The bus system was then taken over by GM Buses which after privatisation was split into GM Buses North and GM Buses South and at a later date taken over by First Manchester and Stagecoach Manchester respectively.[105] First Manchester also operates a three route zero-fare bus service called Metroshuttle which carries commuters around Manchester's business districts.[106]

An extensive canal network remains from the Industrial Revolution, nowadays mainly used for leisure. The Manchester Ship Canal is open, but traffic to the upper reaches is light.[107]

Culture

Music

The Bridgewater Hall
The MEN Arena
Manchester band The Smiths

Bands that have emerged from the Manchester music scene include The Smiths, the Buzzcocks, The Fall, Joy Division and its successor group New Order, Oasis and Doves. Manchester was credited as the main regional driving force behind indie bands of the 1980s including Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, James, and The Stone Roses. These groups came from what became known as the "Madchester" scene that also centred around the Fac 51 Haçienda (also known as simply The Haçienda) developed by founder of Factory Records Tony Wilson. Although from southern England, The Chemical Brothers subsequently formed in Manchester.[108] Ex-Stone Roses' frontman Ian Brown and ex-Smiths Morrissey continue successful solo careers. Other notable Manchester acts include Take That and Simply Red. Greater Manchester natives include A Guy Called Gerald, Richard Ashcroft of The Verve and Jay Kay of Jamiroquai. Older Manchester artists include the 1960s band's The Hollies, Herman's Hermits and the Bee Gees who, while commonly associated with Australia, grew up in Chorlton.[109]

Manchester’s main pop music venue is the Manchester Evening News Arena, situated next to Victoria station. It seats over 21,000, is the largest arena of its type in Europe, and has been voted International Venue of the Year.[110] In terms of concert goers, it is the busiest indoor arena in the world ahead of Madison Square Garden in New York and the O2 Arena in London, the second and third busiest respectively.[111] Other major venues include the Manchester Apollo and the Manchester Academy. Smaller venues are the Band on the Wall Roadhouse, the Night and Day Cafe and the Ruby Lounge.

Manchester has two symphony orchestras, the Hallé and the BBC Philharmonic. There is also a chamber orchestra, the Manchester Camerata. In the 1950s, the city was home to the so-called 'Manchester School' of classical composers, which comprised Harrison Birtwistle, Peter Maxwell Davies, David Ellis and Alexander Goehr. Manchester is a centre for musical education, with the Royal Northern College of Music and Chetham’s School of Music.[112] The main classical venue was the Free Trade Hall on Peter Street, until the opening in 1996 of the 2,500 seat Bridgewater Hall.[113]

Brass band music, a tradition in the north of England, is an important part of Manchester's musical heritage;[114] some of the UK's leading bands, such as the CWS Manchester Band and the Fairey Band, are from Manchester and surrounding areas, and the Whit Friday brass band contest takes place annually in the neighbouring areas of Saddleworth and Tameside.

Performing arts

The Opera House, one of Manchester's largest theatre venues

Manchester has a thriving theatre, opera and dance scene, and is home to a number of large performance venues, including the Manchester Opera House, which feature large-scale touring shows and West End productions; the Palace Theatre; the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester’s former cotton exchange; and the Lowry Centre, a touring venue in Salford which often hosts performances by Opera North.

Smaller performance spaces include the Library Theatre, a producing theatre in the basement of the Central Library; the Green Room; the Contact Theatre; and Studio Salford. The Dancehouse is dedicated to dance productions.[115]

Museums and galleries

City Art Gallery
Museum of Science and Industry

Manchester has a wide selection of public museums and art galleries.[116]

Manchester's museums celebrate Manchester's Roman history, rich industrial heritage and its role in the industrial revolution, the textile industry, the Trade Union movement, women's suffrage and football. In the Castlefield district, a reconstructed part of the Roman fort of Mamucium is open to the public in Castlefield. The Museum of Science and Industry, housed in the former Liverpool Road railway station, has a large collection of steam locomotives, industrial machinery and aircraft.[117] The Museum of Transport displays a collection of historic buses and trams.[118] Salford Quays, a short distance from the city centre in the adjoining borough of Trafford, is home to the Imperial War Museum North.[119] The Manchester Museum opened to the public in the 1880s, has notable Egyptology and natural history collections.[120]

The municipally-owned Manchester Art Gallery on Mosley Street houses a permanent collection of European painting, and has one of Britain's most significant collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings.[121][122]

In the south of the city, The Whitworth Art Gallery displays modern art, sculpture and textiles.[123] Other exhibition spaces and museums in Manchester include the Cornerhouse, the Urbis centre, the Manchester Costume Gallery at Platt Fields Park, the People's History Museum, the Manchester United Museum in Old Trafford football stadium and the Manchester Jewish Museum.[124]

The works of Stretford-born painter L.S. Lowry, known for his "matchstick" paintings of industrial Manchester and Salford, can be seen in both the city and Whitworth Manchester galleries, and The Lowry art centre in Salford Quays (in the neighbouring borough of Salford) devotes a large permanent exhibition to his works.[125]

Literature

In the 19th century, Manchester featured in works highlighting the changes that industrialisation had brought to Britain. These included Elizabeth Gaskell's novel Mary Barton: A Tale of Manchester Life (1848),[126] and The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, written by Friedrich Engels while living and working in Manchester. Charles Dickens is reputed to have set his novel Hard Times in the city, and while it is partly modelled on Preston, it shows the influence of his friend Mrs Gaskell.[127]

Nightlife

Canal Street, one of Manchester's liveliest nightspots, part of the city's gay village

The night-time economy of Manchester has expanded significantly since about 1993, with investment from breweries in bars, public houses and clubs, along with active support from the local authorities.[128] The more than 500 licensed premises[129] in the city centre have a capacity to deal with over 250,000 visitors,[130] with 110–130,000 people visiting on a typical weekend night.[129] The night-time economy has a value of about £100 million pa[131] and supports 12,000 jobs.[129]

The Madchester scene of the 1980s, from which groups including The Stone Roses, the Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, 808 State, James and The Charlatans emerged, was based around clubs such as The Haçienda.[132] The period was the subject of the film 24 Hour Party People. Many of the big clubs suffered problems with organised crime at that time; Haslam describes one where staff were so completely intimidated that free admission and drinks were demanded (and given) and drugs were openly dealt.[132] Following a series of drug-related violent incidents, The Hacienda closed in 1997.[128]

Gay Village

Public houses in the Canal Street area have had a gay clientele since at least 1940[128] and now form the centre of Manchester's gay community. Following the council's investment in infrastructure, the UK's first gay supermarket was opened; since the opening of new bars and clubs the area attracts 20,000 visitors each weekend[128] and has hosted a popular festival, Manchester Pride, each August since 1991.[133] The TV series Queer as Folk is set in the area.

Education

The entrance to Whitworth Hall, part of the University of Manchester campus

There are two universities in the City of Manchester. The University of Manchester is the largest full-time non-collegiate university in the United Kingdom and was created in 2004 by the merger of Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST.[134] It includes the Manchester Business School, which offered the first MBA course in the UK in 1965. Manchester Metropolitan University was formed as Manchester Polytechnic on the merger of three colleges in 1970. It gained university status in 1992, and in the same year absorbed Crewe and Alsager College of Higher Education in South Cheshire.[135]

The University of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University and the Royal Northern College of Music are grouped around Oxford Road on the southern side of the city centre, which forms Europe's largest urban higher education precinct.[136] Together they have a combined population of 73,160 students in higher education,[137] though almost 6,000 of these were based at Manchester Metropolitan University's campuses at Crewe and Alsager in Cheshire.[138]

One of Manchester's most notable secondary schools is the Manchester Grammar School. Established in 1515,[139] as a free grammar school next to what is now the Cathedral, it moved in 1931 to Old Hall Lane in Fallowfield, south Manchester, to accommodate the growing student body. In the post-war period, it was a direct grant grammar school (i.e. partially state funded), but it reverted to independent status in 1976 after abolition of the direct-grant system.[140] Its previous premises are now used by Chetham's School of Music. There are three schools nearby: William Hulme's Grammar School, Withington Girls' School and Manchester High School for Girls.

Sport

Manchester is well-known for being a city of sport. Two Premiership football clubs bear the city's name, Manchester United and Manchester City. Manchester City's ground is at the City of Manchester Stadium (near 48,000 capacity); Manchester United's Old Trafford ground, the largest club football ground in the United Kingdom, with a capacity of 76,000, is just outside the city, in the borough of Trafford. It is the only club football ground in England to have hosted the UEFA Champions League Final, in 2003. It is also the venue of the Super League Grand Final in rugby league. Lancashire County Cricket Club's ground is also in Trafford.[141] Premier League champions Manchester United have the widest football club fanbase in the world, while Manchester City is the richest football club in the world, thanks to its wealthy owners.[142]

The City of Manchester Stadium was built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games. After the games, a temporary stand at the northern end of the stadium was dismantled and a permanent structure matching the rest of the stadium was developed. In addition the ground level was lowered by approximately 10m and the entire level 1 seating area was constructed. The capacity for the Games was approximately 38,000. This increased in preparation for Manchester City's arrival in 2003, and the official capacity by April 2008 was recorded as 47,726.[143] The stadium hosted the 2008 UEFA Cup Final.

Manchester City's former home Maine Road, now demolished, still holds a number of significant footballing milestones and records. These include the first World Cup qualifying match staged in England (1949); the record League crowd (83,260, Manchester United V Arsenal, 1948); and the record provincial attendance (84,569, Manchester City V Stoke City, FA Cup, 1934).[144]

First class sporting facilities were built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, including the City of Manchester Stadium, the National Squash Centre and the Manchester Aquatics Centre.[145] Manchester has competed twice to host the Olympic Games, beaten by Atlanta for 1996 and Sydney for 2000. The Manchester Velodrome was built as a part of the bid for the 2000 games.[128] It hosted the UCI Track Cycling World Championships for the third time in 2008. Various sporting arenas around the city will be used as training facilities by athletes preparing for the 2012 Olympics in London. The MEN Arena hosted the FINA World Swimming Championships in 2008.[146] Manchester also hosted the World Squash Championships in 2008.[147]

Media

The headquarters of Granada Television
The headquarters of the Manchester Evening News, in the Spinningfields district
The Manchester Eye

ITV franchisee Granada Television has its headquarters in Quay Street, in the Castlefield area of the city.[148] Granada produces the world's oldest and most watched television soap opera, Coronation Street,[149] which is screened five times a week on ITV1. Local news and programmes for the north-west region are produced in Manchester.

Manchester is one of the three main BBC bases in England,[148] alongside London and Bristol. Programmes including A Question of Sport, Mastermind,[150] and Real Story,[151] are made at New Broadcasting House on Oxford Road, just south of the city centre. The hit series Cutting It was set in the city's Northern Quarter and ran on BBC1 for five series. Life on Mars was set in 1973 Manchester. Also, The Street, winner of a BAFTA and International Emmy Award in 2007 is set in Manchester.[152] The first edition of Top of the Pops was broadcast from a studio (a converted church) in Rusholme on New Year's Day 1964.[153] Manchester is also the regional base for the BBC One North West Region so programmes like North West Tonight are produced here.[154] The BBC intends to relocate large numbers of staff and facilities from London to Media City at Salford Quays. The Children's (CBBC), Comedy, Sport (BBC Sport) and New Media departments are all scheduled to move before 2010.[155] Manchester has its own television channel, Channel M, owned by the Guardian Media Group and operated since 2000.[148] The station produces almost all content including local news locally and is available nationally on the BSkyB television platform. Television characters from Manchester include Daphne Moon (played by Jane Leeves), of Frasier, Charlie Pace (played by Dominic Monaghan) of Lost, Naomi Dorrit (Lost) and Nessa Holt (Las Vegas), both played by local actress Marsha Thomason.

The city has the highest number of local radio stations outside London including BBC Radio Manchester, Key 103, Galaxy, Piccadilly Magic 1152, 105.4 Century FM, 100.4 Smooth FM, Capital Gold 1458, 96.2 The Revolution, NMFM (North Manchester FM) and Xfm.[156][157] Radio Manchester returned to its former title in 2006 after becoming BBC GMR in 1988.[158] Student radio stations include Fuse FM at the University of Manchester and MMU Radio at the Manchester Metropolitan University.[159] A community radio network is coordinated by Radio Regen, with stations covering the South Manchester communities of Ardwick, Longsight and Levenshulme (All FM 96.9) and Wythenshawe (Wythenshawe FM 97.2).[157] Defunct radio stations include Sunset (which became) Kiss 102 (now Galaxy Manchester), and KFM which became Signal Cheshire (now Imagine FM). These stations, as well as pirate radio, played a significant role in the city's House music culture, also known as the Madchester scene, which was based around clubs like The Haçienda which had its own show on Kiss 102.

Manchester is also featured in several Hollywood films such as My Son, My Son! (1940), directed by Charles Vidor and starring Brian Aherne and Louis Hayward. Also Grand Hotel (1932), in which Wallace Beery often shouts "Manchester!". Others include Velvet Goldmine starring Ewan McGregor, and Sir Alec Guinness's The Man in the White Suit. More recently, the entire city of Manchester is engulfed in runaway fires in the 2002 film 28 Days Later. The 2004 Japanese animated film Steamboy was partly set in Manchester, during the times of the industrial revolution. The city is also home to the Manchester International Film Festival[160] and has held the Commonwealth film festival.

The Guardian newspaper was founded in Manchester in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian. Its head office is still in Manchester, though many of its management functions were moved to London in 1964.[18] Its sister publication, the Manchester Evening News, has the largest circulation of a UK regional evening newspaper. It is free in the city centre, but paid for in the suburbs. Despite its title, it is available all day.[161] The Metro North West is available free at Metrolink stops, rail stations and other busy locations. The MEN group distributes several local weekly free papers.[162] For many years most of the national newspapers had offices in Manchester: The Daily Telegraph, Daily Express, Daily Mail, The Daily Mirror, The Sun. Only The Daily Sport remains based in Manchester. At its height, 1,500 journalists were employed, though in the 1980s office closures began and today the "second Fleet Street" is no more.[163] An attempt to launch a Northern daily newspaper, the North West Times, employing journalists made redundant by other titles, closed in 1988.[164] Another attempt was made with the North West Enquirer, which hoped to provide a true "regional" newspaper for the North West, much in the same vein as the Yorkshire Post does for Yorkshire or The Northern Echo does for the North East; it folded in October 2006.[164] There are several local lifestyle magazines, including YQ Magazine and Moving Manchester.[165]

Twin cities and consulates

Manchester has formal twinning arrangements (or "friendship agreements") with several places.[166][167][168] In addition, the British Council maintains a metropolitan centre in Manchester.[169] Although not an official twin city, Tampere, Finland is known as "the Manchester of Finland" – or "Manse" for short. Similarly, Ahmedabad, India established itself as the centre of a booming textile industry, which earned it the nickname "the Manchester of the East".[170][171]

Country Place County / District / Region / State Originally twinned with Date
Nicaragua Nicaragua Bilwi Bandera Atlàntic Nord.png Atlántico Norte City of Manchester
Germany Germany Coat of arms of Chemnitz.svg Chemnitz Flag of Saxony.svg Sachsen City of Manchester 1983
Spain Spain COA Córdoba, Spain.svg Córdoba Bandera de Andalucia.svg Andalucía City of Manchester
Israel Israel Rehovot COA.png Rehovot HaMerkaz County Borough of Manchester
Russia Russia Coat of Arms of Saint Petersburg (2003).png Saint Petersburg Flag of Saint Petersburg Russia.svg Sankt-Peterburg County Borough of Manchester 1962
People's Republic of China China Wuhan Hubei City of Manchester 1986
Pakistan Pakistan Faisalabad Flag of Punjab (Pak).gif Punjab City of Manchester 1997
United States United States Seal of Los Angeles, California.svg Los Angeles Flag of California.svg California City of Manchester 2009

Manchester is home to the largest group of consuls in the UK outside London. The expansion of international trade links during the industrial revolution led to the introduction of the first consuls in the 1820s and since then over 800, from all parts of the world, have been based in Manchester. Manchester has remained (in consular terms at least) the second city of the UK for two centuries, and hosts consular services for most of the north of England. The reduction in the amount of local paperwork required for modern international trade is partly offset by the increased number of international travellers. Many pass through Manchester Airport, easily the UK’s biggest and busiest airport outside the London area.[172]

  • Australia Australian Honorary Consul[173]
  • Bangladesh Assistant High Commissioner for Bangladesh
  • People's Republic of China Consulate General of the Peoples Republic of China
  • Cyprus High Commission for Cyprus
  • Denmark Trade Commission of Denmark
  • France Consulate of France
  • Italy Consulate of Italy
  • Netherlands Consulate of the Netherlands
  • Norway Royal Norwegian Consulate
  • India Consulate General of India
  • Pakistan Consulate General of Pakistan
  • Poland Consulate General of Poland
  • Portugal Consulate General of Portugal
  • Spain Consulate General of Spain
  • Sweden Consulate of Sweden
  • Switzerland Consulate of Switzerland

See also

References

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  144. ^ "Sporting Legacy". Commonwealth Games Legacy Manchester 2002. Commonwealth Games Legacy. 2003. http://web.archive.org/web/20071111071627/http://www.gameslegacy.com/cgi-bin/index.cgi/34. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  146. ^ "Hi-Tec World Squash Championships - Manchester 2008". Hi-Tec World Squash Championships Manchester 2008. 2008. http://www.worldsquash2008.com/. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
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  148. ^ Little, Daran (1995). The Coronation Street Story. London: Boxtree. p. 6. ISBN 1-85283-464-1. "Coronation Street is without doubt the most successful television programme in the world. ... what is today the world's longest running drama serial." 
  149. ^ BBC (23 November 2005). "Championing sustainable TV production in the nations and regions". Press release. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/speeches/stories/bennett_manch.shtml. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  150. ^ BBC (15 November 2006). "BBC One's Real Story with Fiona Bruce series comes to end in 2007". Press release. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2006/11_november/15/real.shtml. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  151. ^ "International Emmys Awards to honor Al Gore". 19 November 2007. http://www.usatoday.com/life/people/2007-11-18-al-gore_N.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  152. ^ "'Top of the Pops' shows". Observer Music Monthly (Guardian News and Media Limited). July 16, 2006. http://observer.guardian.co.uk/omm/story/0,,1818023,00.html. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  153. ^ "Television & Radio Stations in Manchester". Manchester 2002 UK. 2002. http://www.manchester2002-uk.com/media/tv-and-radio.html. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  154. ^ "BBC R&D to relocate to Salford Quays". Digital TV Group. 1 June 2007. http://www.dtg.org.uk/news/news.php?id=2464. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
    BBC (31 May 2007). "BBC move to Salford gets green light". Press release. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2007/05_may/31/salford.shtml. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  155. ^ Anon (2005). "A Guide to Radio Stations in and Around North West England" (http). northwestradio.info. http://www.northwestradio.info/fm.asp. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  156. ^ a b See Radio at the Ofcom web site and subpages, especially the directory of analogue radio stations, the map Commercial Radio Styles (PDF), and the map Community Radio in the UK (PDF). Retrieved on 6 November 2007
  157. ^ BBC (17 March 2006). "Radio Manchester goes back to its roots". Press release. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2006/03_march/17/manchester.shtml. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  158. ^ "FUSE FM - Manchester Student Radio". fusefm.co.uk. http://www.fusefm.co.uk/. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
    "MMU radio". www.mmunion.co.uk. MMUnion. http://www.mmunion.co.uk/group/group.aspx?id=22869. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  159. ^ "Manchester International Film Festival Home Page". miff.co.uk. http://www.miff.co.uk/. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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    "manchester local press". ManchesterOnline. GMG Regional Digital. 2007. http://www.manchesteronline.co.uk/newspapers/. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  162. ^ Waterhouse, Robert (2004). The Other Fleet Street. First Edition Limited. ISBN 1-84547-083-4. 
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    Waterhouse, Robert (20 September 2006). "The Enquirer suspends publication". The North West Enquirer. The North West Enquirer. Archived from the original on 2007-04-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20070226214918/www.nw-enquirer.co.uk/the_enquirer_suspends_publication_.html. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  164. ^ Barnett, Mike (22 March 2007). "What's (not) on?". How-Do. How-Do. http://www.how-do.co.uk/north-west-media-features/special-features/what's-(not)-on?-20070322146. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  165. ^ Manchester City Council : Questions to the Deputy Leader in 2007 retrieved 8 January 2010
  166. ^ At the time of the twinning agreement, the city was in the German Democratic Republic and named Karl-Marx-Stadt.
  167. ^ "Twinning link with LA". Manchester Evening News. http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/s/1128076_twinning_link_with_la. Retrieved 2009-07-28. 
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  170. ^ "Profile of the City Ahmedabad" (PDF). Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Ahmedabad, Urban Development Authority and CEPT University, Ahmedabad. Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. 2006. http://www.egovamc.com/cdp/AMC_CDP.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-22. 
  171. ^ Fox, David (2007). Manchester Consuls. Lancaster: Carnegie Publishing. pp. vii–ix. ISBN 978-1-85936-155-9. 
    "Manchester Consular Association". Manchester Consular Association. http://www.mca.group.shef.ac.uk/. Retrieved 2007-09-15. 
    "List of Consulates, Consulate Generals and High Commissioners". MCA (subsidiary of Sheffield University). http://mca.group.shef.ac.uk/page2.html. Retrieved 2007-01-05. 
  172. ^ "Australian High Commission". Australian Visa Bureau. http://www.visabureau.com/australia/australian-high-commission.aspx. Retrieved 2007-09-15. 

Further reading

  • Architecture
    • Hands, David; Parker, Sarah (2000). Manchester: A Guide to Recent Architecture. London: Ellipsis Arts. ISBN 1-899858-77-6. 
    • Hartwell, Clare (2001). Manchester. Pevsner Architectural Guides. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-071131-7. 
    • Hartwell, Clare; Hyde, Matthew, Pevsner, Nikolaus (2004). Lancashire: Manchester and the South-East. The Buildings of England. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10583-5. 
    • Parkinson-Bailey, John J. (2000). Manchester: an Architectural History. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-5606-3. 
    • Robinson, John Martin (1986). The Architecture of Northern England. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-37396-0. 
  • General
    • Beesley, Ian (1988). Victorian Manchester and Salford. Keele: Ryburn. ISBN 1-85331-006-9. 
    • Hylton, Stuart (2003). A History of Manchester. Chichester: Phillimore & Company. ISBN 1-86077-240-4. 
    • Kidd, Alan J. (1993). Manchester. Town and City Histories. Keele: Ryburn. ISBN 1-85331-016-6. 
    • Price, Jane; Stebbing, Ben (eds.) (2002). The Mancunian Way. Manchester: Clinamen Press. ISBN 1-903083-81-8. 
    • Redhead, Brian (1993). Manchester: a Celebration. London: André Deutsch. ISBN 0-233-98816-5. 
    • Schofield, Jonathan (2005). The City Life Guide to Manchester. Manchester: City Life. ISBN 0-9549042-2-2. 
  • Culture
    • Champion, Sarah (1990). And God Created Manchester. Manchester: Wordsmith. ISBN 1-873205-01-5. 
    • Gatenby, Phill (2002). Morrissey's Manchester: The Essential "Smiths" Tour. Manchester: Empire Publications. ISBN 1-901746-28-3. 
    • Haslam, Dave (2000). Manchester, England. New York: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-84115-146-7. 
    • Lee, C. P. (2002). Shake, Rattle and Rain: popular music making in Manchester 1955–1995. Ottery St Mary: Hardinge Simpole. ISBN 1-84382-049-8. 
    • Lee, C. P. (2004). Like the Night (Revisited): Bob Dylan and the Road to the Manchester Free Trade Hall. London: Helter Skelter Publishing. ISBN 1-900924-33-1. 
    • Savage, John (editor) (1992). The Haçienda Must Be Built. Woodford Green: International Music Publications. ISBN 0-86359-857-9. 
  • Sport
    • James, Gary (2008). Manchester: a football history. Halifax: James Ward. ISBN 978-0-9558127-0-5. 
    • Inglis, Simon (2004). Played In Manchester. Played In Britain. ISBN 978-1-8735927-8-6. 

External links

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

For other places with the same name, see Manchester (disambiguation).
Manchester is a huge city with several district articles containing sightseeing, restaurant, nightlife and accommodation listings — consider printing them all.

Manchester [1] is in the north west of England. The city proper has a population of around 450,000, while the larger conurbation, called Greater Manchester, has over 2,500,000 inhabitants.

Manchester is known by some for its influence on the histories of industry and music, and for its sporting connections. It has a large number of students. It is seen by many as the "capital" of the north of England, the second city of the United Kingdom and is home to the UK's largest airport outside London, which is owned by the ten local authorities of Greater Manchester.

City of Manchester (click to enlarge).
City of Manchester (click to enlarge).
East Central
Covers the area of the city centre bounded by the A57 (M), Oxford Road, and the A62. It covers the locales of Piccadilly, the Northern Quarter, Chinatown, the Gay Village, and Piccadilly Gardens.
North Central
Covers the area in central Manchester north of Piccadilly Gardens and east of Quay St and Peter St. It covers the locales of the Millennium Quarter, Deansgate, Albert square, and St. Ann's Square as well as the newly developed business district of Spinningfields.
West Central
Covers the area in central Manchester west of Quay St, Peter St and Oxford St. It covers the locales of Castlefield and St. Peter's Fields.
North
Covers the area north of the centre as far as the M60. Includes Sportcity.
South
Covers the area south of the centre as far as the M60. Includes the neighborhoods of Didsbury, Hulme, Moss Side, and Old Trafford.
University Corridor
Covers the Oxford Rd/Wilmslow Rd corridor from the A57(M) to the bottom of Fallowfield. Includes both universities, Rusholme, and Fallowfield.
Salford and the Western Districts.
Covers all of the City of Salford and also includes the regenerated Salford Quays with its award-winning architecture and museums.

Towns within the Greater Manchester Conurbation

The following towns are all within Greater Manchester but not covered by the scope of this article:

Manchester Town Hall
Manchester Town Hall

Manchester is in the northwest region of England, about equidistant between Liverpool and Leeds. Due to its proximity to the Pennines ( the range which forms England's spine, from just south of the Scottish border down into the region known as The East Midlands ), which force the prevailing Atlantic westerly clouds to rise, it receives more than its fair share of wet weather.

Manchester once had a negative reputation derived from its industrial past. Things have dramatically changed in the last decade and now the city has a vibrant, exciting air. Investment in the city's regeneration following the 1996 IRA bomb and 2002 Commonwealth Games has paid off and Manchester is well worth a visit, even if just for a couple of days, or for longer, if you plan to use it as a base to explore northern England and North Wales.

Manchester is becoming more and more a city where people are choosing to settle. It is seen by many as young, vibrant and cutting edge city, where there is always something happening. Many see their city as a rival to London, albeit on a more human scale; nevermind the ongoing battle with Birmingham for "The Second City" title. This feud seems to go on and on and hinges on how you add up the numbers. If you compare Greater Manchester's population to Birmingham's and its neighbouring towns and districts, Birmingham pips Manchester to the post by a 100,000 or so. However if you look at the actual population of the city of Birmingham, which is more than 1 million, it is more than twice as big, in terms of population, as the actual city of Manchester which has a population of around 450,000 people. But the city argues that population is just one aspect and that history and contributions to the world should also be considered.

Over the years, many have moved to Manchester from London. These people are by no means all returning to their northern roots. Some are from overseas, who stopped off down south on their way north in search of a more affordable urban existence. Manchester is a friendly city as well. Northerners do talk to each other and to strangers. Just compare asking for directions in London and Manchester and the difference is often clear. Of late, locals seem more proud than ever of Manchester and all it offers. Some outsiders may find this fierce pride in their city somewhat "un-British," but it is very similar to that of Australians in their country. Positive comments and praise go down a treat with the locals, and with all that has happened in recent years, such is often due.

The adjective associated with Manchester is Mancunian or simply Manc. The distinctive linguistic accent of the city's indigenous inhabitants is much more closely related to that of Liverpool with its strong north-Waleian (Welsh) roots than it is to the Lancastrian or Cestrian of the neighbouring cotton towns.

  • Manchester Visitor Information Centre, Town Hall Extension, St. Peter's Square, +44 (0) 871 222 8223 (touristinformation@marketing-manchester.com fax: +44 (0) 161 236 9900) [2] Mon-Fri 10AM-5:15PM (recorded information available by phone outside these times). The Visitor Centre has up-to-date lists of places to eat and sleep.

History

Manchester was the site of the Roman Fort Mamucium (breast-shaped) in AD 79 but a town was not built until the 13th Century. A priests' college and church ( now Chetham's School and Library and the Cathedral ) were established in Manchester in 1421. Early evidence of its tendency towards political radicalism was its support for Parliament during the Civil War and in 1745 for the Jacobite forces of the Young Pretender.

It was not until the start of the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th Centuries that this small Medieval town would build its fortune. The presence of an existing cloth trade, coupled with the mechanization of spinning in nearby Bolton, created a thriving cotton industry in Manchester. Though the high and frequent rainfall may lower the spirits of today's inhabitants, the availability of copious supplies of clean, soft, water was of great utility to the various cotton processes particularly in the bleaching, printing, and dyeing of cotton cloth. Water power rapidly gave way here to steam invented by Boulton and Watt and a steam-driven factory was built in the Ancoats Northern Quarter section of the city. By the end of the 19th Century, Manchester was one of the 10 biggest urban centres on earth (even before counting the wider population, within 50 miles of the Northern England region, such as Liverpool, Sheffield, Bradford, Leeds, and Central Lancashire ).

Whitworth, inventor of the eponymous mass-cut screw thread, also manufactured his equally revolutionary rifled guns in huge quantities at his factory on Sackville Street. After their initial meeting at the Midland Hotel, still one of the city's most luxurious, Rolls and Royce began manufacture of their luxury motor cars in Hulme.

Trafford Park, in Trafford, was to become the first industrial estate in the world, housing the Ford Motor Company and much of the pre-wartime aircraft industry, notably the 'Lancaster' Bombers of the AVRO Co.

Manchester's success during the Victorian era and before is evident everywhere you look. Great Ancoats Street was a source of wonder to Schinkel, the neo-classical architect from Berlin. Equally grandiose neo-Gothic buildings line the old Financial District around King Street, and public institutions such as the University and the many libraries are dotted around everywhere. There is even a statue of Abraham Lincoln in Lincoln Square (Brazennose Street, straight across Albert Square from the Town Hall main entrance) commemorating his personal thanks for Manchester's support during a cotton famine created by Britain's refusal to run the Federal blockade of the slave-owning Confederacy during the American Civil War.

Continuing its radical political tradition, Manchester was the home of opposition to the Corn Laws and espoused Free Trade, as well as Chartism and the Great Reform Act. It was instrumental in the establishment of socialism in the UK. Both Engels and Marx frequented the city; the former conducted his famous inquiry into the condition of the working class, and the latter sought to draw universal rules from the particular circumstances of the early industrial revolution, with disastrous consequences in the 20th century. Cleaving to a more gently pragmatic English tradition it was the birthplace of the Trades Union Congress which led to the creation of the Labour Party. It was also home to a number of philanthropists of the industrial age, such as John Owens and John Dalton, who bequeathed large parts of their fortunes to improving the city.

In more recent times, Manchester has been famous for its influence on the UK music scene. The Madchester movement of the early 1980s, started by Factory Records and Joy Division, led to the creation of the Haçienda nightclub (now unfortunately demolished after standing empty for many years) and the birth of modern club culture. Manchester has given life to many hugely successful musicians, among them The Stone Roses, The Smiths, Joy Division/New Order, The Happy Mondays, Oasis, James, and Badly Drawn Boy.

At 11.20AM on Saturday 15th June 1996, Manchester's city centre was rocked by a huge IRA bomb blast. Although preliminary intelligence managed to clear people from the scene enough for there to be no fatalities, the very heart of the city was ripped to shreds. A huge amount of money and effort was put into regenerating this bomb damaged part of the centre, redubbed the Millennium Quarter. The area has renewed interest in the centre and contains the entertainment and shopping heart of the city.

Student life

Central Manchester is home to two of the largest universities in the UK. The University of Manchester (formerly Owens College and subsequently the Victoria University and its Institute of Science and Technology UMIST) [3] and Manchester Metropolitan University (aka 'Man Met', formerly the Polytechnic, itself a conglomeration of municipal colleges), as well as the Royal Northern College of Music. There is also a university in Salford, within one mile of the city centre, which is renowned as a European Centre of excellence in Media. Together they create a body of over 86,000 students living full-time in the city.

Manchester is often named 'best student city'. It is very welcoming to the student lifestyle and many establishments in the centre and South Manchester are geared towards students; eating and drinking in Manchester can be very inexpensive due to the high competition that goes on between these establishments.

However, if you don't like hanging around students, there are many places that are not frequented by students, although you may have to be prepared to pay a little extra. Also, some places have a strictly 21-and-over only policy, so take identification with you. Although, the number of bars or clubs that are for 21-and-over is relatively low. When visiting the student areas of Fallowfield and Withington, some venues operate a student only policy, so production of a student card (or something resembling a student card) is necessary.

Sporting

Manchester is famous all over the world thanks to its football clubs, including Manchester United (Old Trafford) and Manchester City (City of Manchester Stadium, Sportcity).

Old Trafford is also home to the Lancashire County Cricket Club.

In 2002, Manchester was the host to the Commonwealth Games and a large area of East Manchester was converted into a new Sportcity, the centre-piece of which is the new athletics and football stadium.

The Manchester Velodrome started off the whole regeneration of East Manchester and formed part of the bid for the 2002 Commonwealth Games (and for Manchester's failed bid for the 2000 Olympics). Britain's great success in the cycling events in the 2008 Olympics is very much due this venue and most of the medal winners are based in and around the city. However the London-centric authorities, preparing for the 2012 London Olympics, plan to build a venue in the capital and are not seen as willing to share events around the country. Some still fear that Manchester may be sidelined furthermore in the future. The UK authorities have always been lukewarm to any Olympic bid that was not based on London, claiming that only a capital can host such a large event. Many cities who have hosted the games are not capitals, and this fact reinforces what a centralised country the UK is. Some reports in the press did suggest that the team wishes to keep their base in the city as they are also supported by a large administrative team.

In July 2009 it has been reported that the world's first purpose-built BMX Centre is also to be built on the site. Work on this addition to Sportcity is expected to start in January 2010 and is said to remove any lingering doubts that Manchester will be replaced by London as British Cycling's headquarters after the 2012 Olymipic Games. The centre will be used by athletes preparing for London 2012 and help bring major national and international events to the city. It will also be open to schools,clubs and the local community. In the Queen's New Year's Honours list, January 2009, some of the locally based cycling heroes were given awards, including a knighthood to Chris Hoy.

Diversity

Manchester is a very mixed city. Many races and religions have communities in the city and it has a long history of being more tolerant than most cities to people of any background. The very large number of British Citizenship ceremonies, held in Heron House by The Town Hall, each year, is testament to this.

Manchester is also very gay-friendly and liberal-minded. The Village is an area concentrated around Canal Street and is very popular with people of all sexualities. It is also home to an annual Pride festival. The atmosphere of the village area is very friendly and welcoming; as is Manchester's very large LGBT community; known to be one of the most accepting in the country. It is certainly the most gay friendly major city by far. Most Mancunians have grown up with a tolerant attitude towards sexuality.

Climate

Manchester has a temperate maritime climate and rarely gets too warm or too cold. The city receives below average rainfall for the UK. It is not significantly far behind London in terms of the average number of hours of sunlight per day (within nine minutes per day, based on the last 100 years data from Met office) though it does have a few more days with rain. However, as a result of relatively mild winter conditions, there is never a period that one should avoid visiting due to extreme weather conditions.

Get in

By plane

Manchester International Airport (IATA: MAN) (ICAO: EGCC). [4] in the south of the city is the largest airport in the UK outside of London and is amongst the 50 largest airports in the world. Nearly 100 operators fly to and from hundreds of locations worldwide, including most major cities in Europe, along with services from North America, South America, Africa, and Asia.

Notable services include:

Car parks serving Manchester Airport
Address On/Off Airport Distance / Transfer Time Security Additional Information
Long Stay Parking (T1-3)
Manchester Airport
M90 3NS
On
0.5 miles / 5 minutes
Security lighting and fencing, entry/exit barriers and 24-hour security patrols.
Maximum vehicle height of 2.2 metres. Trailers are not permitted.
Long Stay Parking (T2)
Manchester Airport
M90 5PR
On
0.5 miles / 5 minutes
Security lighting, perimeter fencing, entry/exit barriers and 24-hour security patrols.
Maximum vehicle height of 2.2 metres. Trailers are not permitted.
Short Stay Parking (All terminals)
Manchester Airport
M90 1QX
On
.2 miles / Walking distance
CCTV, entry/exit barriers and regular security patrols.
Maximum vehicle height is 2 metres. Trailers are not permitted.
Multi-Storey Parking (All terminals)
Manchester Airport Terminals 1-3
M90 1QX
On
.2 miles / Walking distance
CCTV, entry/exit barriers and regular security patrols.
Maximum vehicle height of 2 metres. Trailers are not permitted.
Meteor Meet & Greet Parking
Car park does not disclose address for security reasons.
On
Customer is met at terminal. No transfer required.
CCTV, security lighting, 6ft security fencing and regular security patrols.
Meteor drivers are comprehensively insured to drive customers' cars.
Airparks Handforth Dean Parking
Car park does not disclose address for security reasons.
Off
4 miles / 15mins transfer
CCTV, security lighting, security fencing and regular security patrols.
No trailers are allowed.
Airparks Manchester Ringway
Isherwood Road,Carrington,Wilmslow,Manchester,M31 4RA
Off
4 miles / 15mins transfer
CCTV, security fencing and regular security patrols.
No trailers are allowed. Maximum vehicle height of 2.10m
Manchester Shuttle Park
Styal Road,Manchester,M90 1QX
Off
3 miles / 10mins transfer
CCTV, security fencing and regular security patrols.
No trailers are allowed.

Direct trains run from the airport station (reached by Skyway, between terminals 1 and 2) to Piccadilly and Oxford Road stations about every 20 minutes and cost no more than £3. Taxis are available from outside each terminal, costing about £15 and taking about 30-45 minutes. You can also catch a coach/bus to Manchester Central Coach station.

John Lennon Airport, [5] in Liverpool is a budget airline airport with Easyjet [6] and Ryanair [7] serving it and is also relatively conveniently located for access to Manchester. A coach service runs connecting the airport to Manchester's central coach station and takes about 45 minutes. There is now a direct train link between Liverpool Parkway (ie the station near John Lennon Airport) and Manchester Oxford Road Train Station (in the city centre). Services currently run once per hour, but are planned to increase to every half hour.

By train

Manchester city centre is served by two major railway stations, Victoria in the north (the area around the station has recently undergone extensive redevelopment with much more to come) and Piccadilly (transformed in recent years and voted the UK's most popular station in 2007!) in the south. These stations are well-connected with the rest of the UK, although it is more likely that you will arrive at Piccadilly as it deals with the most services in and out of Manchester. Fares vary dramatically depending on time of day and rail operator.

Other stations in the city centre are Deansgate/G-Mex, Oxford Road, and Salford Central, but generally only local services bound for through services passing Wigan and Bolton or Manchester and Rochdale will stop at these stations.

Connections from London Euston to Piccadilly are run by Virgin Trains. The journey on the West Coast Mainline takes just over 2hrs in Pendolino trains that do not need to slow down when going round bends. Online Virgin Value fares can dramaticaly reduce the cost of this trip [8] if you book well enough in advance (at least 14 days is advisable), purchase two single tickets (one for each leg of the journey) and/or travel outside of peak times (after 9AM and before 3PM during the day, after 6:30PM in the evening).

By car

The outer ring road of the Manchester conurbation is the M60. It is accessible from Leeds or Liverpool by the M62 and from Scotland and the south by the M6. From the north and Scotland follow the M6 and then the M61. From the south take the M6 and the M56. The most direct route from the M6 to the M56 and South Manchester is to take the A556 leaving the M6 at junction 19, but note this has a 50mph speed limit for most of its length and can be somewhat congested at busy times of the day. It is signed Manchester and Manchester Airport.

Another route would be to carry on northbound up the M6, taking you directly to the M6/M62 interchange. Here you would follow signs for Leeds and Manchester North. This can, however, seem a longer way round, but it does also give you access, via the M60 orbital road, to places around the conurbation and is a much better option if you wish to access the northern part of Greater Manchester.

If a little lost in the city centre, follow signs for the inner ring road, as there are signs to most destinations from this road.

Parking in the city centre of Manchester can be expensive. Avoid the multi-storey car parks if you can and look for some open-air car parks. There are good ones by Salford Central Station, behind Piccadilly Station and opposite the cathedral.

If you have to use a multi-storey, the one by The Coach Station and The Village is handy. This is fine as a last resort if you have been driving around for an hour, looking for a place to park. There are increasingly more and more double yellow lines, which designate no parking at any time.

Ladywell Park & Ride [9] is situated near Eccles (M602, Junction 2); the car park is free and there is a tram station. Similarly, parking at the Trafford Centre (M60, junctions 9 and 10) is free and there are buses to the city centre and Stretford tram station.

A tip worth noting is that on Saturday from 12.30PM to Monday morning, just over from the city centre into Salford, you can park on a single yellow line (remember in The UK you can never park on a double yellow line!) or in a designated space without paying, unlike in the city centre where restrictions apply even during weekends. Streets like Chapel Street, Bridge Street, and the areas around them are a good bet and much safer now with all the new housing developments. There you are just a short walk from Deansgate. Problems are rare as long as you take the usual precautions and do not leave valuables on display. Try not to put things in the boot (trunk) after a shopping spree, if people are watching. Avoid parking under the bridges at all costs, and try the main roads, just off one or next to one of the many new blocks of flats where it is well lit. Watch out on Bank Holidays around here. Sometimes these are treated like a Sunday in the centre, but people have been known to get parking tickets on the Salford side. If in doubt treat a holiday, on the Salford side, as a normal day of the week or ask a warden if you can find one!

Also check out Parkopedia.com [10], a website that allows users to search and compare parking rates and locations for commercial and private parking facilities in Manchester.

By bus

Chorlton Street Coach Station is the central coach station in Manchester, located close to the centre, between Chinatown and The Village on Chorlton Street. Coaches run from all over the country and are generally the most reasonably-priced way to get into Manchester. London to Manchester on the coach can take about four hours, but it depends on the time of day and number of stops.

  • National Express [11] is a comfortable and frequent service which runs 24 hours a day from some cities, including London.
  • Stagecoach Megabus [12] is less comfortable, but can be very cheap (some cities have buses to Manchester for as little as £1). You must book in advance over the web.
Manchester trams
Manchester trams

Transport in Greater Manchester is overseen and co-ordinated by the GMPTE (Information: 0871 200 22 33) [13]. GMPTE sells a number of tickets which are valid for multiple operators, such as the any bus day ticket or the Wayfarer. If you are planning to do a lot of travelling in one day, these might be your cheapest option. Metromax day tickets are good value if using the tram network. There are tickets for single people and family tickets. The best value are valid after 9:30AM.

Maps

Dotted around the city centre in all the places you wouldn't look for them are the pedestrian-level street maps. They are usually placed in normal advertising hoardings, which makes them all the more difficult to spot. From a distance, the map looks like a light-brown horse's head on a blue background. Once found your position is marked by a blue circle. They cover the whole centre down to the university district.

As with any large UK city an A-Z map is often handy. These street maps, in book form, are available from newsagents or book shops and, depending on size, cover everything from the city centre to the whole Greater Manchester conurbation.

On foot in the city centre

Manchester city centre's many attractions are easily reached on foot, and walking provides the perfect opportunity to take in the architecture of the city. Manchester walking directions can be planned online with the walkit.com [14] walking route planner.

By bus

Metroshuttle [15] is a FREE bus service run jointly by the local council, National Car Parks Manchester and First. It runs three routes which between them cover most of the major areas in the city centre. These bus routes can be caught straight from all city centre railway stations (Piccadilly, Oxford Road, Deansgate/G-Mex, Salford Central and Victoria) as well as many of the larger car parks. Areas on the fringes of the city centre (such as Spinningfields, Petersfield, Oxford Road Corridor, Millennium Quarter) are now easier to access from other parts of the city. Just note, that due to a high-level of pedestrian priority around areas such as Deansgate, traffic in the city centre is often slow.

Most of the buses in Manchester are operated by First [16] or Stagecoach [17] and serve most places you are likely to want to go in the conurbation. The main bus station for the south is Piccadilly Gardens and a new state-of-the-art £24 million interchange has been built at Shudehill for the north.

The South Manchester corridor that begins with Oxford Road and Wilmslow Road is the most-served bus route in Europe. Buses connect the centre with the universities and Rusholme, as often as every one minute. The general rule on this street is to get on any bus that is not operated by Stagecoach and your fare is likely to be under £1. Some buses have a student fare, which they will charge you if you look like a student, regardless of whether you ask for it or not. Be warned, though, during peak hours it can take as long as 30 minutes to make the relatively short three mile journey from Piccadilly Gardens to Rusholme. Route number 42 (operated by various companies) is usually the most frequent service, operating through the night from Piccadilly, Oxford Road, Wilmslow Road, Rusholme and beyond.

It is well worth noting that the number 43 bus not only runs all day to the airport, but also throughout the night at regular intervals. (Train services from Piccadilly also serve the airport all night).

Busses to the Trafford Centre include the Stagecoach-operated Route 250 [18], from Piccadilly Gardens to the Trafford Centre and the First-operated Routes 100 and 110 , from Shudehill, via Blackfriars (the stop is just off Deansgate) and Eccles, to The Trafford Centre. The quicker, more direct but less frequent option is the 100 bus route.They run about three buses an hour peak times. There are other bus services from Central Manchester to The Trafford Centre and additional services from other towns and suburbs in the conurbation. In the evening, or on Sundays and public holidays, your better bet for the Trafford Centre, from the city centre, is the tram and buslink to and from Stretford, as buses are much less frequent at these times.

Bus Tickets are usually purchased directly from the driver. First and Stagecoach both offer day-savers for unlimited travel on their company's buses, which cannot be used on other busses. A FirstDay is currently £4.00. If transfer between different bus companies is required then you can ask the driver for an "any bus day-saver", emphasising the "any"! These '"System One"' tickets can be used on any bus, details of current prices are available at [19]

Map of the Metrolink network
Map of the Metrolink network

Metrolink [20], also known as the tram, is the name for Manchester's local mass-transit system. With a map of the system it is very easy to understand.

Currently, Metrolink runs two lines, Altrincham-Bury (every 6 minutes at peak times, every 12 minutes off-peak, and Piccadilly-Eccles (every 12 minutes at peak times, every 15 minutes off-peak). At peak times trams run either Bury or Altrincham to Piccadilly, via Piccadilly Gardens, where you can change, or direct Bury to Altrincham. Off peak there are no direct Bury-Altrincham trams and your only option is to change at Piccadilly Gardens. A small part of the city centre from Piccadilly to Cornbrook is shared between the two lines. Metrolink stops serve major areas of the city centre and Central Zone tickets are quite cheap.

Work is now underway to extend the system to five lines, with three new destinations at Oldham,Rochdale,Ashton-under-Lyne and Tameside, and in the direction of Manchester Airport, which is already well served by trains and buses, as well as a link to the new BBC development at Salford Quays,MediaCityUK.

In part due to its financial difficulties, Metrolink is quite expensive to travel on and does not really provide good value for money. If you are going to be using it for more than one journey in a day, your best bet is to buy a Metromax ticket. Tickets must be purchased in advance from the automated vending machines at each station. Press the required destination followed by the required ticket type and then insert your money. Most machines accept notes, but if your note is anything more than even slightly crumpled, it will more then likely be rejected by the machine. Change is not guaranteed over £7 at any machines, or at all, at some machines with the appropriate warning lamp.

The following Central Zone stations might be useful to you:

  • Victoria — for Urbis, Chethams Library, Manchester Cathedral Visitor Centre, The Triangle and the Northern half of Deansgate,
  • Shudehill — for Bus Interchange, The Printworks, Manchester Arndale and parts of the Northern Quarter.
  • Market Street — for the main shopping area, including parts of Manchester Arndale.
  • Piccadilly Gardens and Mosley Street — for Coach Interchange from Chorlton Street Coach Station, Chinatown, The Gay Village, Manchester Art Gallery, Cube Gallery and parts of the Northern Quarter.
  • Piccadilly — for Rail Interchange and Metroshuttle and Oxford Road Link busses. Manchester Apollo is a 10 minute walk from here.
  • St. Peter's Square — for Central Library, The Library Theatre, Bridgewater Hall, The Midland Hotel, The Town Hall and Albert Square. Busses down the Oxford Road corridor to The Palace Theatre, The Green Room, Dance House and Contact Theatres and to the universities and beyond.
  • G-Mex — for Rail Interchange from Deansgate Station, Manchester Central (exhibition centre/concert venue), The Manchester International Conference Centre, MOSI (Museum of Science and Industry), the southern half of Deansgate and the beautiful canalside area of Castlefield.

Other interesting destinations include:

  • Harbour City — Around 10 minutes from the City Centre. Closest station at Salford Quays to the Lowry, Lowry Outlet Mall and Imperial War Museum North. When the weather is fine, if coming from the centre, alight at Salford Quays Station, walk just a few yards in the direction of travel, cross the road, turn left, and enjoy the tree lined waterside walk, past the Salford Rowing club, as far as the bridge linking The Lowry with The War Museum.
  • Heaton Park — Around 10 minutes from the City Centre. Alight here for Manchester's chief parkland. This is the biggest municipal park in the country and a great day out in summer. It has seen much investment of late. Inside you will find a pet zoo, tramway museum, boating lake, stables and golf centre with pitch and putt. The former stately home Heaton Hall is located within the park and is open to visitors in the summer months.
  • Old Trafford — Around 10 minutes from the City Centre. For Manchester United Football Club, and the home of Lancashire County Cricket Club.
  • Stretford — Around 10 minutes from the City Centre. Alight here for a connecting bus to the Trafford Centre. Joint tickets are available from the usual machines.Take care at night.
  • Ladywell — Around 15 minutes from the City Centre.There is a large, free car park for the Park and Ride service to Salford Quays and the city.

By taxi

Taxis are considerably cheaper than in London. As a general rule you should be able to get anywhere you need to go within the core of the city for £5-10. Because of the nature of local authority boundaries, within the conurbation, taxis cross these as a matter of course, and there are few problems as long as your journey stays within Greater Manchester. As a general rule, taxis are required to put the meter on for journeys within the M60 ringroad (and a little further in places) if you feel this would be cheaper than agreeing a fixed price although it is sometimes hard to convince them to do so at busy times (this is the law though and you can threaten to report them). If you are to travel further it is best to agree a price in advance. You may only flag down the black cabs (London-style Hackney carriages) — other taxis must be booked in advance over the phone and are marked with the yellow Manchester City Council sign on the bonnet, and the firm's phone number (again on a yellow strip) on the sides. These are often called minicabs or private hire cars. Avoid rogue mini cabs at all costs. Even if the car has a Manchester City Council plate, or one from one of the other metropolitan boroughs, you are not insured if the cab was not booked in advance.

You may find it difficult to get a black cab after the pubs shut on Friday and Saturday nights in the city centre, so it serves to have a back-up plan for getting back to your accommodation. Larger groups are most likely to be able to "flag" down a taxi on the road. If you're struggling for a taxi after midnight and don't mind waiting around drunk people, it can often be easier to join a queue outside larger clubs, such as those in The Printworks, as black cabs often stop here. The black cabs with the amber "TAXI" sign illuminated are the ones that are looking for fares.

There are a number of taxi ranks within the city centre, which are staffed by security/logistical staff during busy periods. These ranks are serviced only by black cabs, but there are also private hire taxi/minicab companies that you can walk to, and then wait (inside or usually outside) until a car becomes available.

By train

Local rail services run regularly and to most places in the surrounding area and beyond. Most trains will pass through Piccadilly or Victoria, but it will do to call National Rail Enquiries (08457 48 49 50) [21] to find out which one before setting off. If you plan to take several off peak journeys within Greater Manchester, you could consider a "Rail Ranger" ticket, which, as of January 2009, costs £4 per day. An "Evening Ranger" is also available for just £2. This is a large area and means you could travel as far north as Bolton and Rochdale, as far south as the airport and Stockport, as far west as Wigan and as far east as The Peak District. These can be bought at ticket offices or on the train.

GMPTE [22] has a "London tube-style" map of the Greater Manchester rail network, including Metrolink.

It is worth remembering that train services from Piccadilly serve the airport all night.

Piccadilly Gardens
Piccadilly Gardens
  • The Manchester Wheel, in Exchange Square in the Millennium Quarter. This is a good way of seeing Manchester from an elevated height! You can even hire an extra luxurious gondola with champagne for a special treat.
The Imperial Chinese Archway in Manchester's Chinatown
The Imperial Chinese Archway in Manchester's Chinatown
  • Manchester's Chinatown around George Street and Faulkner Street has been a feature of Manchester since the late 1970s. Of late there is much talk of its decline, as many middle aged people are taking their business to the suburbs rather than the centre, which many see as a place for younger people at night. You will find people on the streets of Chinatown speaking Chinese to each other and most of the signs are bilingual. It is home to the bulk of Manchester's east-asian restaurants as well as many traders in Chinese food and goods. As night falls upon Chinatown, the neon lights come on, adding to the ambient feel of the area. There many eateries to try too. All of them have an astounding quality, ranging from Chinese to Japanese; reaching out to a wide spectrum of tastes. There are also Chinese shops for the locals to buy items imported directly from China, such as newspapers, magazines, DVDs and medications. It also serves as a magnet for the Chinese population, from around the city region and beyond.
  • The Village, also known as the Gay Village, has built up around Canal Street out of the many cotton warehouses in the area. It is home to one of the oldest and most-established gay communities in Europe and is known for its tolerance toward all kinds of people. Many of Manchester's most famous bars and clubs are to be found here, most of which are as popular with heterosexual party-animals as they are with the gay crowd. The Village hosts a major Pride festival every year (August Bank Holiday; the last weekend of the month), when this part of town is closed to the public for a somewhat expensive and exclusive charity fundraising weekend for gay and gay-friendly people. Many thousands of Pounds are raised, each year, for various AIDS charities. There is a moving memorial service on the Monday evening to round the weekend off. Entrance is by wrist band. These are valid for the whole weekend or part of it, if required.

Check out the restaurants in The Village too. The best and longest established has to be Velvet, on Canal Street. Friendly staff, good food, and a cosmopolitan environment make it a hip and popular restaurant, bar, and hotel. Art works are also on display.

  • Check out the Curry Mile, a half-mile long stretch of curry restaurants, sari shops, and jewelry stores in Rusholme.
  • If you have time and want to mix with trendy, monied residents try an evening out in the very upmarket southern suburb of Didsbury. This is a popular nighttime destination for many from across the conurbation. "The village" as it is known is too far from East Didsbury station for comfort, but a taxi is possible from the city centre or there is a good bus service. On the all too rare, warm and fine Saturday evenings in summer, Didsbury can put on a good show with upmarket restaurants, where you can eat outside at the many great pubs and bars. Think London's Hampstead and Islington with similar media types and many others from elsewhere in town, who just want a piece of the action. This was THE place to live in Manchester, for many years, before the rebirth of the centre, and still is, for many, with very high property prices and a certain cachet!
  • Castlefield is the site of the original Roman settlement Mamucium and has been known as Castlefield since Medieval times. The walls that still stand over two metres high are from as late as the 16th Century. It is the centre of Manchester's canal network and a transport nexus of unique historical importance. The Castlefield Basin joins the Rochdale and Bridgewater canals, the latter being the first cut canal in Britain. The nearby Museum of Science and Industry contains Liverpool Road station, the first passenger railway station in the world. Very important in industrial times, it became run down in post-war times until it was completely regenerated in the 1990s and designated Britain's first Urban Heritage site. These days the area is like a small country oasis in the heart of the city, with regular events and a handful of great pubs around the canals and the neighbouring streets. It is also the only place to see wildlife in Manchester's centre.
  • The University of Manchester, on Oxford Road, where amongst other things, the atom was first probed by Rutherford, the first computer was built, and where radio astronomy was pioneered. It was here too that the element Vanadium was first isolated. The architectural style of the new curved visitor's centre contrasts with the old buildings on the opposite side of Oxford Road, within which Manchester Museum is to be found.
  • Manchester Cathedral, in the Millennium Quarter. The widest cathedral in England with important carved choir stalls (school of Lincoln) and pulpitum. The recently finished Visitor's Centre provides an initmate experience for newcomers to the cathedral. This is near to Harvey Nichols, Urbis and Victoria Station.
Manchester Cathedral
Manchester Cathedral
  • Manchester Town Hall, on Albert Square. This imposing and beautiful neo-Gothic masterpiece by Alfred Waterhouse is a symbol of the wealth and power of Manchester during the Industrial Revolution. Free tours can be arranged and the state rooms are generally open to visitors when not otherwise in use. The Great Hall contains a series of pre-Raphaelite wall paintings by Ford Maddox Brown depicting historical scenes (some rather fanciful) from Manchester's past. The corridors are often seen on television dramas standing in for the Palace of Westminster, although the Commons chamber itself is usually depicted in a permanent set at Granada TV studios. The Town Hall is on the wide cobbled area of Albert Square, which is all accessible from St Peter's Square Metrolink station.
  • John Rylands Library, on Deansgate. The bequest to the people of Manchester by who was once the world's richest widow, Henriquetta Rylands, in memory of her husband John, but now administered by the University of Manchester. It Contains the 'Manchester Fragment' the earliest known fragment of the New Testament, part of St. John's gospel found near Alexandria and dating from the first part of the second century, shortly after the gospel itself was first written. Tours can be booked around lunchtime. The library was designed by Basil Champneys and is the last building built in the perpendicular gothic style.
  • St Ann's Church is on one side of St Ann's Square and offers a quiet refuge from the noise of the city. There is always a warm welcome inside.

Cultural Manchester

There are many theatres and concert venues in Manchester, (The Opera House, Palace Theatre, Royal Exchange, Green Room, Dancehouse Theatre, Library Theatre, and The Contact, not forgetting The Lowry at The Quays, which has two theatre spaces). Further afield, The Bolton Octagon, Bury Met, Oldham Coliseum, The Garrick in Stockport, The Gracie Fields Theatre in Rochdale and Stockport Plaza are worth a mention, as are university and RNCM (Royal Northern College of Music) venues. You can catch the likes of Madonna and Kylie at The MEN Arena, which is the largest of its kind in Europe and seen as one of the best such venues in the world. Other such venues include the Apollo, Bridgewater Hall, and the revamped Manchester Central.

  • Central Library & Theatre, near Albert Square. As mentioned above. An interesting, round building from the 1930s.
  • The Cornerhouse on Oxford Road. This excellent art house cinema has three screens, three floors of exhibition space and a great bar on the ground floor, with a trendy cafe above. The house festivals, courses, and a bookstore as well. It is located around the former administrative and goods areas of Oxford Road station. This is the gateway to the University Area.
  • Imperial War Museum North [23], at The Quays. Great museum with fantastic architecture, located in Trafford Borough, across the water from The Lowry, near Manchester United's Stadium, and designed by Daniel Libeskind, who also designed The Jewish Museum in Berlin. The museum focuses on the people involved in war, whether it's the people who worked in the factories in World War two, or the soldiers who suffered in the battlefield. Tours are offered and displays are updated on a regular basis.
The award winning architecture of the Imperial War Museum North at the Quays.
The award winning architecture of the Imperial War Museum North at the Quays.
  • The Lowry, at Pier 8 on the The Quays Home to the City of Salford's collection of the paintings of L.S. Lowry. The centre also contains two theatres which put on everything from "Opera North" productions to pantomime and quality touring productions.
  • Manchester Art Gallery, near Chinatown. Designed by Sir Charles Barry architect of the Houses of Parliament. The gallery has a particulary fine collection of pre-Raphaelite paintings.
  • Manchester Museum, on Oxford Road. Highlights include a fossil skeleton of Tyrannosaurus Rex and Egyptology, including painted mummy masks of the Roman era.
  • Gallery of English Costume, in Platt Hall Rusholme will be closed until early 2010.
  • The Museum of Science and Industry [24], in Castlefield. This is very popular with families and school groups and offers a vast number of displays. The first ever railway station is part of the museum. Currently they are celebrating the centenary of the first all-British flight in 1909.
  • People's History Museum, on Bridge Street between Deansgate and the now much improved Salford Central Station. On Bridge Street, to the left, fans of modern architecture should look out for the new Manchester Civil Justice Centre. It is slowly becoming known to Mancunians as "the filing cabinet". You will see why! For a better view, take it in from the new square, on the other side, into the Spinningfields district, itself worth a detour.
  • Urbis, in Millennium Quarter. A "museum of the modern city" in its unmistakable all-glass building. Exhibitions change regularly, so check ahead to see what's on. The top floors house The Modern, a bar and restaurant with panoramic views.

It now seems that The Urbis is soon to be the home of The National Football Museum when it moves, in part if not wholly, from Preston.

  • The Whitworth Art Gallery on Oxford Road. This gallery houses modern and historic art, prints, and a collection of rare wallpapers. During the summer, forget the bus and walk down Oxford Road through the University area, looking out for The Aquatics Centre (a legacy of The Commonwealth Games) and The Royal Northern College of Music. Walk even further and seek out The Museum of Costume (currently closed) at Platt Fields, near the famous Curry Mile in Rusholme, which is unique in Britain. At the Whitworth The Gallery Cafe has been declared "Best Family Restaurant" by the prestigious "Which?-Good Food Guide 2009". It has been described by its owner as "a fresh food cafe" with food of "restaurant quality". The menu is simple with an emphasis on seasonal, local produce.
  • Bridgewater Hall, near St. Peter's Square and Manchester Central Exhibition Centre, was completed 1996 and is the home of the Halle Orchestra, the world's first municipal symphony orchestra, and also houses traveling famous musical acts. The centrepiece of the hall is the 5,500 pipe organ by Rasmussen. An elegant bistro and restaurant are open at normal meal times to the general public. There is also a bar next door down the wide steps, overlooking a pleasant water feature. Look out, too, for the polished stone sculpture outside!
  • Manchester Jewish Museum, 190 Cheetham Hill Road, Manchester. This is a safe, 10-15 minute walk up the road behind The MEN Arena. You can also catch any bus that goes up Cheetham Hill Road from the stop by the side of the Urbis, opposite The Printworks. The 135 bus is an option; a reliable service running at least every ten minutes. It is about three or four stops from the Urbis, but it is best to ask the driver when to alight. Open Mon-Thu 10:30AM-4PM, Sun 11AM-5PM. Closed on Jewish holidays. Tells the story of the large Jewish population in Manchester. Adults £3.95, concessions £2.95. The museum is in the former Spanish-Portuguese synagogue in what was once the heart of the old jewish quarter. The community has long since moved up the road to Cheetham Hill and Higher Broughton and, in later years, many less orthodox people have moved to Prestwich and Whitefield.
  • Manchester City Football Club, located in Sportcity.
The B of the Bang - the tallest sculpture in the UK. Sadly dismantled for reasons of safety in 2009. It may be put elsewhere in the future.
The B of the Bang - the tallest sculpture in the UK. Sadly dismantled for reasons of safety in 2009. It may be put elsewhere in the future.
  • Manchester United Football Club [25], the self-proclaimed world's most popular Football Club, located in Old Trafford. The club is one of the most succesful in England, and are the first English club to become European champions when they did it in 1968. They have a very heated rivalry with Liverpool FC, considered by most football fans to be the biggest rivalry in all of England; a rivalry which stems from the traditional city rivalry between Manchester and Liverpool since the Industrial Revolution, and further fuelled by the fact that both clubs are the most successful English clubs in European competition. Matches between the two sides are always very charged affairs which attract sell-out crowds. Crowd violence is rare though, as there is always a strong police presence at big matches to keep things in order.
  • Sportcity is the "largest concentration of sporting venues in Europe." It is located to the east of the city centre, about 30 minutes walk from Piccadilly Station. It was built to host most of the events for the 2002 Commonwealth Games and is home to the National Cycling Centre, Manchester City FC, and other important sporting venues, as well as the tallest sculpture in the UK, which is to be dismantled in spring 2009, for reasons of safety. Some are happy but many will miss it, it is reported.
  • Manchester Phoenix Ice Hockey Club, located in Altrincham, are the newly formed (2003) team to replace the once most supported team in European Hockey, Manchester Storm. The Phoenix also host the UK's most sucessfull ice hockey player in the form of Tony Hand the team's player/manager.
  • Chetham's Library is Manchester's best kept secret - even most residents of the city are largely oblivious to its existence. Europe's oldest English language Public Library is tucked away next to the futuristic Urbis just off Millenium Square. One of Manchester's oldest buildings, it still has the original collection of books, all chained to their shelves. This is where Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels would visit while in Manchester and where Engels wrote the world-changing book 'The Condition of the Working Classes in England', a key influence on the development of Communism. You can still sit in the window seat where they would talk. The 15th century structure is part of Chetham's Music School - despite the lack of signs, simply ask at the security hut and they will happily let you in for free.
  • St. Mary's, The Hidden Gem, near Albert Square. The oldest post-Reformation Catholic church in the country, dating from 1794. It contains one of the greatest pieces of art in Manchester, and the altar is quite magnificent. This is a quiet refuge from the noise of the city.
  • The futuristic Trinity Bridge, designed by the Spaniard Santiago Calatrava, who was heavily involved in the designs for the Olympic village in Barcelona, is in the Chapel Wharf Area. This links the twin cities of Manchester and Salford, leading to the five star Lowry Hotel on the Salford bank. It is all a block behind Kendals, near The Freemasons' Hall. A nice pleasant view.
  • The Hulme Bridge in Hulme and The Merchant's Bridge in Castlefield, by Catalan Square, are also worth a look.
  • Parsonage Gardens is at the back of the House of Fraser (Kendals) Department Store. This is a quaint garden. Nice to relax in when the weather is fine and to read a book. Nearby there is also an observation platform which looks over the River Irwell and is ideal for taking photos of Trinity Bridge and The Lowry Hotel. This does also serve as a carpark, on an overhang, for one of the office blocks, but you may use it. It is a little hidden away but you access this to the right of 20 St Mary's Parsonage, which runs along one side of the gardens.
  • Portico Library and Gallery, near Piccadilly Gardens. Home of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical society. Speakers here have included Dalton, the father of Atomic theory and describer of his own colour blindness, the Salford physicist Joule for whom the S.I. unit of energy is named and Roget (who compiled his celebrated Thesaurus here). The Austrian Philosopher Wittgenstein here claimed to have attempted to repeat Franklin's celebrated kite and lightning experiment in the Peak District while employed at Manchester University.
  • Midland Bank Building (was the King Street branch of HSBC) is a domineering piece of architecture from 1928, reminiscent of Dublin's General Post Office. Go inside for a look if you can once it reopens. It is located at the upper end of King Street near Armani and Vivienne Westwood, towards Mosley Street.

Buy

Manchester's shopping district may not be quite as diverse as London's, but it is much less spread out and the vast majority of city centre shops are within walking distance of each other. Even in the most upmarket stores you are treated in a friendly manner, which many think is not the case in the capital. The recently redeveloped Arndale Centre is a large 1970's city-centre shopping mall, with 280 stores, including the largest Next store in the world. The place retains some of its 1970's concrete charms and STILL some of the infamous yellow tiles that are a testament to bad urban planning of that era. Part awaits an update to the exterior, but the section modernised after the 1996 bomb is a great improvement, although not quite up to the standards of The Trafford Centre. The inside has had a total revamp. It does get very busy at weekends and, unlike at The Trafford Centre, there are far too few places to sit down.

There are a lot of large shops aimed at lower income families ,including the largest Primark in the country, which is great for a bargain and much loved by US cabin crew when in town, and an Aldi food hall on Market Street (just off Piccadilly Gardens).

The Millennium Quarter (at the back of the Arndale Centre) is now quite smart and good for shopping. There's The Triangle, an upmarket shopping centre based in the beautiful old Corn Exchange, worth a visit for the building alone and Selfridges, with its large Louis Vuitton concession and fantastic food hall in the basement. You will find everything from sushi to fine chocolates, kosher foods, to a juice bar, etc. Harvey Nichols, opposite the Triangle, offers luxury fashions and produce to Manchester's rich and famous. The centre of Manchester's shopping area has traditionally been St. Ann's Square, and there are many shops nearby. King Street and Spring Gardens city centre offer a Vivienne Westwood store (a local girl, from the nearby Peak District), Joseph and DKNY, as well as Emporio Armani and Collezione; these catering for, amongst others, the city's Premiership footballers, soap stars ("Coronation Street" has been produced in the city since the early sixties!), and the many media types who can also be found in the area.

Deansgate has a fair number of decent shops, as do some of the roads off it. The House of Fraser store, considered by many to be the top people's shop, (still known as "Kendals" to most Manchester people and "Kendal Milne's" to an even older generation) is on Deansgate and has been on roughly the same site since the mid-19th century. It is somewhat old school and the eating places are worth a visit. The new Champagne bar, on the third floor, is the latest addition. One of central Manchester's few quiet green squares is just behind the store. This is Parsonage Gardens.

There is also an outlet mall at The Lowry, in Salford, near the future site (2011) of a new media village and BBC development.

The Trafford Centre is a huge out-of-town shopping centre and accessible by car, taxi, or a bus/tram journey. It does not yet have a tram station of its own. It has been designated the Temple to Consumerism, and is one the largest, and possibly the grandest, such centres in Europe. It has its own branches of Selfridges, Debenhams and the best of Greater Manchester's two John Lewis stores. The other is in suburban Cheadle. The centre is spectacular, luxurious, and 'posh' inside and out. Look out for the biggest chandelier in Europe, near the eating places! If confused how to get there by bus and not too worried about the cost, opt for a through ticket on the tram and catch the link bus from Stretford station on the Altrincham line, (turn right out of station and take the first right for the bus stop). If you already have a Metromax day ticket for the tram, just pay extra on the link bus. You can catch the same bus back to the station from a couple of stops around the centre or from the centre's own bus station. The cinema is also one of the best in the area and has even hosted some UK premieres in the past. The centre is now also linked to an annex offering homewares and furniture, built in an italianate style around a very large outdoor fountain. With supermarkets and DIY outlets nearby, mancunians can buy everything in this area without venturing into the city or any other town centre.

  • Merchandise from the football club Manchester United is popular with some tourists. There is a dedicated superstore in the stadium at Old Trafford.
  • Manchester City FC also has its own dedicated retail outlet at the City of Manchester Stadium in Sportcity, as well as in the Arndale Centre.
  • Afflecks Palace in the Northern Quarter is "an emporium of eclecticism, a totem of indie commerce," and a shopping arcade in a five story Victorian building, featuring a range of 50+ independent stalls catering to a young alternative crowd. It's a lot of fun: strange costumes, lots of goths, punks, and teenagers. Saved from closing in April 2008, it is now simply known as Afflecks.
  • The Northern Quarter is Manchester's answer to Soho, and there is a mishmash of stores which sell music, art, and clothing. More and more bars and cafes are opening too.
  • Every Christmas time, continental style Christmas markets take place in Albert Square, in St. Ann's Square, and along both New Cathedral Street and Brazennose Street. You can buy all the usual continental and British Christmas curios as well as various foodstuffs. Good fun and very atmospheric at night when it's all lit up.
  • Also at Christmas, into the new year, there are open air skating rinks in Piccadilly Gardens and, for the first time in 2008, at Spinningfields infront of the new Justice Centre and The Royal Bank of Scotland building. There is also a bar at the Spinningfields location.
  • The small but perfectly stocked food section of Harvey Nichols has a particularly fine wine department. Wines range from relatively inexpensive to the highest levels, e.g Chateau Latour, vertical ranges of Petrus, Vega Sicilia, etc. They are still remarkably good value in context, e.g. 1990 Krug Clos de Mesnil 1990, arguably the greatest Champagne ever made and incomparably finer than the footballer's wildly overrated Crystal is about £150.00 cheaper than usually quoted elsewhere.
  • Of late, there is a flower market at the Market Street corner of Piccadilly Gardens Thursday through Saturday from 10AM-6PM.
  • Also hunt out the Craft and Design Centre, in the old Smithfield Market Building, in The Northern Quarter. The complex is full of artist studio space and boutiques, as well as a cafe.
  • There are regular events in both Albert Square and St Ann's Square, all year around, where you can buy art, listen to music and sample foods from far and wide.
  • If catering for yourself, there are several Sainsbury's Local stores located around the city centre (at Oxford Road, Mosley Street, Quay Street, Bridge Street, Piccadilly Station). Tesco Metro supermarkets can be found on Market Street (the largest supermarket in the centre), on Piccadilly and on Quay Street, which is near the aforementioned Sainsbury's and Granada TV. M&S food outlets are located within the M&S store next to Selfridges and there are also M&S Simply Food stores at Piccadilly Gardens and within Piccadilly Station. You will find increasingly popular Coop food stores near both Victoria, by the movement's headquarters, opposite the Arndale Market, at Piccadilly Gardens and just outside Piccadilly station. For more upmarket food products, Harvey Nichols has a deli and foodhall as does Selfridges. At the other end of the spectrum there are the Arndale Market and a large Aldi store in the Arndale Centre, which is, in common with most UK outlets, much more upmarket than the stores in Germany. This is also accessible from Market Street. There is also a Lidl and a Tesco on Oxford Road near Manchester Royal Infirmary.
  • For something a little bit different, the newly refurbished Manchester Arndale Market features many food stalls, including a rather large fish store and a butchers. Chinatown has many specialist shops and the landmark Wing Yip superstore on Oldham Road in the Northern Quarter is excellent for everything oriental.
  • There are various other mini-markets and late night stores around the city centre and in Piccadilly station. There is at least one 24 hour Spar opposite the BBC Studios on Oxford Road. Just out of the centre are a large Sainsbury's, in Regent Retail Park, Salford, an Asda store in Hulme, a Tesco Extra Hypermarket in Cheetham Hill.
  • Not of particular interest maybe, but it is worth knowing where the main public toilets are about town! Clean conveniences can be found at Piccadilly station (less reliable ones are to be found at Victoria) and there are a few pods around the centre (one is on the corner of John Dalton Street and Deansgate). There are pay toilets in the basement and on the top floor of The Triangle Centre, Exchange Square. You can also find FREE toilets in The Arndale Centre and at the following locations;
  • Kendals House of Fraser, Deansgate, (basement, 3rd, and 6th floors).
  • Selfridges,Exchange Square. (basement ,in the corner, near TV department).
  • M&S, St Mary's Gate. (basement, near the food hall).
  • Harvey Nichols, New Cathedral Street (Near the food hall, bar, and restaurant).
  • Debenhams, Market Street. (Near cafe, top sales floor).
  • Royal Exchange Theatre, St. Ann's Square. (by bars and restaurant — not available to public during performances).
  • Town Hall. (entrance opposite Beluga restaurant, on Mount Street, just off Albert Square).
  • Central Library, St Peter's Square (in the basement, by the Library Theatre)

Most museums and galleries include free toilets. There is nothing stopping you popping into any busy pub to use their conveniences! At busy times you would hardly be noticed.

  • Free copies of The Manchester Evening News are given out, around the city and available at the airport, on Thursday and Friday, as well as inside and outside some selected newsagents in town. There is a charge of 42 Pence for the other days of the week including Saturday's edition. This is very good for listings, especially on a Friday, with the City Life pull out section. The free Metro newspaper is handed out in the mornings. This too has some listings.
  • Visit the Trafford Area of this area of fascinating industrial heritage.
  • Manchester has a couple of big multi-screen cinemas located centrally, AMC off Deansgate (as cheap as £3.20 if you're a student) and Odeon in the Printworks show the usual Hollywood fare; the Cornerhouse on Oxford Road tends to show smaller, independent, art house and foreign language movies. there is an Imax inside the Odeon in the Printworks.
  • Shows in Manchester [26], Manchester has many theatres and live music venues so see what's on when and where.
  • Hire a supercar in Manchester [27]; Northern Ferrari hire offer self drive supercar hire in Manchester.

Learn

There is no doubt that Greater Manchester's universities continue to be a big draw. The University of Manchester is the most over subscribed university in Europe. More and more language schools are also now opening and offer a more reasonable option than the likes of London and other southern venues.

Work

There are numerous temporary agencies in the city and there is work in the hospitality industry to be had. There have been reports, of late, of teacher shortages (though not quite on par with London), and this could be of interest to overseas candidates with the relevant qualifications.

If you are qualified to work in Britain, work can be found. Many thousands of East Europeans have been drawn to the city in recent years, but according to the press reports, a great number are now returning due to perceived job insecurity and the falling value of the Pound, as a result of the economic downturn. Many, to date, have found work in the building trade, where there has been a boom as of late. In some areas of employment, you could find yourself competing with the many students who need to finance their studies.

Manchester is an important financial centre and the media are also well represented, as can be seen in the BBC's forthcoming partial move to The Media City at Salford Quays and the ITV-Granada (makers of Coronation Street) presence on Quay Street. The BBC already has a strong foothold at Broadcasting House on Oxford Road. This is home to BBC Radio Manchester, BBC North West Tonight (regional TV news) and The Religious Affairs Department of The BBC.

Retail is a large employer, in and around the city, and there are many gyms in need of trainers for the growing city centre population.

Manchester is a huge city, so all individual listings should be moved to the appropriate district articles, and this section should contain a brief overview. Please help to move listings if you are familiar with this city.

As you would expect from such a cosmopolitan city, Manchester has a huge selection of restaurants and eateries that serve a vast array of cuisines. Look hard enough and you will be able find any type of international food. It is also worth exploring some of the suburbs for superb, small independent bistros / restaurants. West Didsbury and Chorlton are noted for their large number of great eateries. If you can get there, the quaintly named and somewhat trendy village of Ramsbottom, just north of Bury, directly north of Manchester, is said to be "the new Chorlton", as regards restaurants, and THE place to eat. Ransoms has won many awards both regionally and nationally. The usual, well established UK chains like Cafe Rouge, Pizza Express, Bella Italia etc are all to be found in Manchester city centre and out of town too.

Free

Revolution on Oxford Road has a policy where your food is either ready within a 15 minutes wait or it's free. Worth going at busy times of the day!

Budget

There are hundreds of kebab and pizza shops on Oxford Road and in Fallowfield and Rusholme. In Rusholme, in particular, locals speak of the £10 curry, where if you bring your own drinks into the curry house, you should leave with change from a ten pound note.

Some of the cheapest, long-established curry cafes, though, are still to be found in the back streets of the Northern Quarter. The Little Aladdin cafe at 72 High St (on the corner of Turner St, near Arndale centre) is a tiny little curry house with real charm. They serve a range of delicious curries and kebabs for £3-£4. Here's the menu: [28].

On John Dalton Street, on the left, just up from Deansgate, going to Albert Square, is a gem of a cafe,Essy's, (imagine a cross between an American diner and an old style British "cafe"). It is run by a group of Iranians, for whom nothing is too much trouble. You can be satisfied there for under £5 with clean, welcoming table service. There are a couple of other similar places around town; in the Northern Quarter and one just behind Kendals, on King Street West.

On the opposite of Manchester Metropolitan University at 121 Oxford Road, there is a small fast food restaurant called "Pizza Co". Try their spicy chicken wings with fries, which are a hit among students in Manchester, for under £3. The spicy wings are very flavourful and are really not very spicy.

Chinese

There are plenty of all-you-can-eat buffets in [Manchester/East Central|Chinatown]] for less than £10.00 (€ 13.00). Prices tend to change with the time of day and likely demand. If you eat earlier in the day, you can have a full all-you-can-eat meal, including soup, starter, and desert for around £5. Really cheap Chinese buffets include Number 1's at 48 Whitworth Street (between Oxford Road Station and the Gay Village) Tai Wu at 44 Oxford Street next to McDonalds.

Wing's Dai Pai Dong in the Arndale Market city centre is set around a sushi counter. It serves a variety of mainstream Cantonese (Hong Kong), Thai, and Japanese dishes. The Hong Kong style roasting dishes are particularly good value and well-made. Typically any mixture of Char Sui, Duck, Pork Belly, Jelly Fish, and Cold Cuts can be paired with Rice, Soup Noodle, or other fried noodles, typically for around £4.50 for a very large and filling bowl/plate. Teamed with a bottle of Asahi Beer, the bill per person will be well under £10.

Mid range

Chinese

Amongst the enormous range of Cantonese restaurants in Chinatown, the Great Wall at 52 Faulkner Street offers authentic, reasonably priced food, including many one bowl/plate dishes (Roast Pork and Roast Duck in soup noodle is particularly popular). The only downside is that the service charge increases the bill.

  • Red Chilli on Portland Street and Oxford Road (next to McDonald's) is of a very good standard and is unusual in Manchester in specializing in Beijing and the very spicy Szechuan cooking. It has a large Chinese following, which is always a good sign.

Outside Chinatown, the increasingly esteemed Tai Pan on Upper Brook Street and Brunswick Street. Visit the huge, Hong Kong style restaurant from Mon-Fri after 12PM for half price dim sum.

  • Fuzion Noodle Bar at 264 Wilmslow Road in Fallowfield has very good, speedy pan-asian noodles.

Indian

Rusholme's Curry Mile is, as the name suggests, home to a lot of Indian restaurants! Due to the high concentration of curry houses, and all the competition, you should be able to get a really good curry in just about any restaurant.

In the centre Shimla Pinks is upmarket as is a new venture by the side of The Museum of Science and Industry. This is Akbar's on Liverpool Road and they claim, on the side of buses, to be "probably the best Indian restaurant in the North of England". Also popular in town are the two EastZEast; the original is under the Ibis Hotel, behind The BBC building, and the new, very luxurious one is on Bridge Street, opposite The Manchester Central Travelodge, off Deansgate. Look out for the doorman at the riverside location. There they also offer free valet parking to all guests. These two are classy but not overpriced. Some have claimed the menu could be a little more adventurous, in view of all they seem to have invested. The riverside branch seems popular for Asian weddings, lately, which must say something about the quality of the venue.

Also just off Oxford Road on Chester Street is a new indian restaurant which has won lots of awards zouk tea bar & Grill. They have a good mix of people dining there and it is open lunch as well as evenings. This is in the top 10 resaurants in Manchester. conntact them at http://www.zoukteabar.co.uk

Further out, Moon in Withington and Third Eye in Didsbury, both in south Manchester, are excellent. Individual takes on traditional dishes are served alongside local specialities, and cost about £6 a dish.

In Chorlton, you should be able to find Coriander Restuarant, Azid Manzil and Asian Fusion, they are all on barlow moor road.

Korean

  • Yechan Foods, 95 Mauldeth Road, Manchester M14 6SR, ph: (0161) 225 4447.
  • Koreana Restaurant — A Long established Korean Restaurant at 40a King Street West in city centre just off Deansgate. A regular stop for Manchester United's Korean football star Ji-Sung Park.

Japanese

  • Wagamama's, (located in the Printworks), is one of the chain of Japanese restaurants popping up all over the country. Wagamama's serve the best ramen, ebi gyoza, and many other different Japanese cooked dishes... perfect with a hot flask of sake! Their second venture in town is into the Spinningfields district just off Deansgate.
  • New Samsi, 36 Whitworth Street, city centre. A great sushi restaurant that also caters well for those that don't like raw fish. With a well-stocked, but small Japanese supermarket below (accessed from inside the restaurant) [29].
  • Selfridges Food Hall has a YO! sushi bar with conveyor belt.
  • Wasabi, 63 Faulkner St, Manchester, M1 4FF, +44 161 228 7288, [30]. Great sushi from the conveyor belt in a fun atmosphere. £7.95 for 6 dishes and miso soup or 3 dishes and a noodle/rice dish. £12.95 for 10 dishes and a miso soup. £14.95 for 10 dishes and a rice/noodle dish..  edit Needless to say, you will be full.

Greek

  • Kosmos Taverna, 248 Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M14 6LD (in [[Manchester/Universities|Fallowfield]]), +44 161 225 9106, [31]. Good Greek food, but quite pricey. Not the most attractive interior, but good service and atmosphere.  edit

Seasonal

During the period leading up to Christmas from November, there is a Christmas Market stretching from the Town Hall towards The Arndale (Market Street). By the Town Hall section there is a spectacular range of international cuisine. Those not to be missed are the crepes (£3.50-4.50 each, but they are really large) which are some of the best in Europe and the paella (£4.50 a box) which is genuinely Spanish. Other popular stalls include German hotdogs and Dutch pancakes. There is also a stall selling German salamis. If you go there nearer Christmas, you may be able to get a bargain packet of 7-8 salamis for just £10.

  • Search out the upmarket restaurants in the city's top hotels (The Lowry Hotel, The Midland, SAS Radisson, and the Hilton, Deansgate to name just four). Less grand, but very popular, is the restaurant in The Malmaison hotel, by Piccadilly station. The restaurant at the top of the Urbis building,The Modern , reopened at the end of 2007 to much acclaim. It also has a great bar which shares the good view of the city's skyline. The Market Restaurant, in The Northern Quarter, is long established and has an excellent reputation. Heathcote is well represented with a place off Deansgate and a new, modern, Spanish-style venture behind Piccadilly Gardens on New York Street called Grados. Abode at 107 Piccadilly is also believed to have brought something new to the Manchester dining scene.

Harvey Nichols is a traditional style restaurant and cocktail bar at 21 New Cathedral Street, with views onto Exchange Square, and is hard to beat if you like rubbing shoulders with Manchester's wealthy set. When the store is closed there is a dedicated entrance and lift at the side of the building. Their afternoon tea is worth a try, but you may prefer the older style version at The Midland Hotel or a new take on the theme at The Lowry Hotel.

At the top of King Street, in what was once Karim's Indian restaurant, the footballer Rio Ferdinand has recently pumped a load of money into Rosso an upmarket "Italian", which has so far had good, if not excellent, revues in the local press which praised the decor and very professional waiters more than the food.

Armenian

The Armenian restaurant, very long established, hidden in a basement on Albert Square (by the Town Hall) is good, and full of atmosphere. It's to the left with the Town Hall facing you.

Chinese

  • Yang Sing at 17 George Street by Princess Street at the south-western edge of Chinatown has long been considered the best Cantonese restaurant in the country (and perhaps in Europe).

Spanish

There are the usual chains to be had on Deansgate, but try to search out El Rincon de Rafa, hidden away behind Deansgate, near St. John's Gardens. This is an authentic Spanish restaurant, established for many years, and popular with Spanish and South American people, based in the city. It is a stones throw from The Cervantes Centre.

On Deansgate, opposite The Cervantes Centre at number 279, is Evuna another Spanish tapas establishment. This newish venture has had very good reviews.

Drink

Manchester has a diverse nightlife and can offer a wide range of night-time activities. It has a vibrant and varied nightlife scene, including numerous clubs as well as a huge range of drinking establishments from traditional pubs to ultra-chic concept bars. Very high-profile, of late, is the Cloud 23 bar on the 23rd floor of The Hilton, Deansgate. A bit pricey, but with attentive table service, and worth it for the views alone. To avoid the sometimes 2 hour long queues, try it during the week. The bars in The SAS Radisson and The Aurora Hotel are also upmarket. For other upmarket venues (there are some very discrete ones catering for the most privileged in town ), your hotel concierge should be of help in pointing you in the right direction.

For a slightly more querky place to have a drink, The Temple of Convenience is aptly named as it is a converted underground public toilet in the city centre. The bar receives many high reviews although it's quite small and may be crowded.

Famed for its musical past, the University of Manchester Student's Union on Oxford Road hosts almost nightly gigs in its three venues on Oxford road ranging from local unsigned bands to international superstars. The Manchester Apollo in Ardwick is a slightly bigger venue having boasted appearances from Blondie to new-comers like Kasabian. Smaller bands can also be seen at a range of excellent venues in the city including the Roadhouse, Night and Day, both in the Northern Quarter, and Jabez Clegg, a pub/club off Oxford Road.

The club scene in Manchester is varied with the dance-orientated clubs you'd expect from a city setting alongside indie, rock, and gay clubs. For the commercial dance music fan, the "place to be" would be Deansgate Locks (four bars and a comedy club in a converted railway complex) in Peter's Fields where the clubs and bars can be expensive, but are always full of fashionable types and members of the local student population. More eclectic dance music styles are played at the Music Box and The Phoenix, both on Oxford Road.

For fans of rock music, Jillys on Oxford Road is something of an institution. On a Thursday, it costs just £1 to get in, while Fridays see them open until 6 or 7AM. It has three rooms incorporating punk, ska, metal, goth, and everything in between. Next door to Jilly's is Music Box, home to the very good (and increasingly famous) Mr. Scruff. Come here once a month to have a good dance and a cup of tea! Also check out Rock Kitchen on a Saturday night for cheap drinks at the Manchester Metropolitan University Student's Union, again on Oxford Road. If you are interested in Rock and Metal paired with cage dancers and a lapdancing lounge, try the monthly Caged Asylum night at the Ruby Lounge, the self proclaimed craziest place to be in Manchester at 28-34 High Street.

For fans of indie and alternative music, there are a whole host of new exciting clubs opening. Any late evening walk up Oxford Road should enable you to collect a variety of fliers for club nights. The Friday edition of The Manchester Evening News has a good listings section, which is handy for the weekend. Papers are handed out free of charge Mon-Fri, at various points in the centre and at some newsagents.

The Retro Bar on Sackville Street, hosts live acts upstairs and a club downstairs with play lists that include Blondie, The Ramones, and Le Tigre. Joshua Brooks on Charles Street is also another club where you can expect a mix of indie, electro, punk, and rock in a budget-friendly, student atmosphere. Weekly, Smile at the Star and Garter [32] in East Manchester is something of a local indie institution with a great playlist. Be warned, it sells out very early and can often be unbearably busy as a result of this. Saturdays also play host to Tiger Lounge near the Town Hall. This plays more in the way of lounge alongside experimental and indie sounds.

If you want to hear music by Manchester bands like The Stone Roses, visit Fifth Avenue on Princess Street, often brimming with students — unsurprising when you see the cheap drinks prices! They also feature themes such as toga and foam parties. The other, rival centre club for indie music is 42nd Street, just off Deansgate. It plays a mixture of classic and modern indie, 60's pop, and 70's funk and soul.

To enjoy Gay Manchester, it is probably best to visit Canal Street with its concentration of bars and clubs and visit places that appeal along the way. Just off Canal Street, the most popular gay clubs are Essential, a multi-floor super-club open until the early hours (sometimes as late as 8AM), Cruz 101 (Manchester's longest running gay club) and Poptastic, a two-room pop and indie club held at Alter Ego every Tuesday and Saturday night. Although entry can be expensive, this is usually reflected in a reduced price bar inside the club.

For bars, try the cocktail lounge Socio Rehab in the Northern Quarter (ask a taxi driver where it is) and Tribeca on Sackville Street (in the popular Gay Village). Trof, a funky student bar in Fallowfield, has recently opened a second venture, Trof North, on Thomas Street in the Northern Quarter.

Although there are still plenty of cafes and traditional pubs in Manchester, bars and restaurants with much more bohemian and cosmopolitan feels to them are now dominating. The better traditional pubs include:

  • Lass O'Gowrie at 36 Charles Street.
  • Salisbury at 2 Wakefield Street off of Oxford Road.
  • Peveril of the Peak. Behind The Bridgewater Hall at 27 Great Bridgewater Street.
  • Britons Protection. 50 Bridgewater Street, behind the stage door entrance of the Bridgewater Hall. It is here where many a poor mug "took The King's Shilling" and found himself pressganged into the army.
  • Sinclairs. This is just by Harvey Nichols store at 2 Cathedral Gates.
  • Grey Horse Inn at 80 Portland Street.
  • The Old Wellington Inn, the oldest pub in Manchester. It was opened in 1552. Along with Sinclair's the whole place was moved, a couple of hundred yards down the road at number 4, as part of the development of New Cathedral Street, after the IRA bomb of 1996.
  • The Marble Arch Inn, 76 Rochdale Road. Real ale brewed on the premises and cask ale from micro-breweries nationwide.

Comedy wise, Manchester has a fair number of offerings: The Frog and Bucket at 96 Oldham Street offers student friendly prices and The Comedy Store at 1a-3 Deansgate Locks is the largest comedy venue in town. XS Malarkey at 341-343 Wilmslow Road in Fallowfield is cheap but good.

  • Hilton Chambers, 15 Hilton Street Manchester, M1 1JJ (http://www.hattersgroup.com/Hilton/location.php), +44 (0) 161 236 4414, [33]. A popular youth hostel which is part of the 2nd most popularly rated hostel chain worldwide. Their accommodations include 24-hour check in, wifi, a guest kitchen, TV, common area, and a continental breakfast included in the rate. They also have a BBQ on the rooftop deck. £15-25 for dorms, £45-70 for private rooms.  edit
  • YHA Manchester, Potato Wharf Castlefield Manchester, M3 4NB (http://www.yha.org.uk/find-accommodation/north-west-cities/hostels/manchester/travel_info.aspx), +44 (0) 845 371 9647, [34]. This hostel is centrally located by the canal, and offers a game room, TV, cafe and restaurant, guest kitchen, laundry, internet access, and parking facilities. £18 for a dorm bed.  edit
  • Manchester Hotels, City Centre Manchester, [35]. This Manchester Hotel provides all types of accommodation in Manchester aswell as Manchester City Centre Accommodation. £19 for a single room.  edit
  • Trafford Hall Hotel, 23 Talbot Road, Old Trafford, Manchester, M16 0PE (http://www.venturehotels.co.uk/Trafford-Hall-Hotel/budget-hotels-manchester.aspx), +44 (0) 161 848 7791, [36]. This hotel is located near old trafford football ground and has great transport access to Salford and the city centre. £50 for a hotel room.  edit
  • Sach Hotel, Tib Street Manchester, [37]. Britannia Sachas is a popular hotel located near Manchester city centre. from £26 for a single room.  edit
  • Sizzly Hotel Manchester, Manchester Piccadilly, [38]. Hotel is located near Manchester Piccadilly train station. from £32 for a single room.  edit
  • Arora International Manchester, 18-24 Princess Street Manchester, M1 4LY (http://www.arorainternational.com/manchester/location.html), +44 (0) 161 236 8999 (fax: +44 (0) 161 236 3222), [39]. A modern hotel inside a fine old building with restored facade. Rooms are reasonably spacious for the UK, bathrooms modern and there is air conditioning. The beds are comfortable and the rooms have irons, safes, fridges and heated bathroom mirrors. It is very centrally located in the Manchester city centre, being just across the road from the Manchester Art Gallery, close to China Town and a wide variety of entertainment venues and restaurants. Even reluctant walkers will not need wheeled transport to get around. The staff are friendly and helpful. Residential floors are secured; access requires your room key card. Breakfast has a good selection and may be included in the room rate. It is eaten in the hotel's own Obsidian Restaurant and Bar located in the basement and accessible by lift if you don't want to leave the hotel. The Obsidian also has its own separate street entrance. In room broadband internet is available for a fee. The reception area is modest. Parking is a few hundreds of yards away in a multi-storey public park; the hotel has none of its own. £130.  edit
  • SACO Apartments, 5 Piccadilly Place, Manchester, M1 3BP, +44 (0) 117 970 6999 (fax: +44 (0) 117 974 5939), [40]. checkin: 16:00; checkout: 10:00. Serviced apartments set over the top of the new piazza in Piccadilly Place. The apartments are very conveniently located, with Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester Art Gallery, Chinatown and The Palace Theatre only a stones throw away. Rooms are well-equipped with necessities like wireless Internet, a direct dial phone, separate showers, digital tv and CD/DVD player and more. The lobby includes a lift, off-site gym and car parking. From £72.  edit
  • Marriott Victoria and Albert Hotel, Water Street Manchester, M3 4JQ (http://www.marriott.co.uk/hotels/maps/travel/manva-manchester-marriott-victoria-and-albert-hotel/), +44 (0) 161 832 1188, [41]. Built in 1844 and restored immaculately in 2005, this 4-star hotel is one of Manchester's most deluxe accommodations, on the banks of the Irwell River. The hotel is within walking distance from the Opera House and the Palace Theatre, and has a gourmet restaurant, bar, and lounge. The hotel is totally smoke-free except for designated rooms on the 2nd floor. £150.  edit
  • Radisson SAS Hotel Manchester Airport, Chicago Avenue, Ringway, Greater Manchester, M90 3RA, +44 (0) 161 490 5000 (fax: +44 (0) 161 490 5100), [42]. Very convenient location for corporate and leisure travellers, with stunning views in Business Class with direct access to both its own station and to Manchester Airport. The high-speed wireless internet is reasonably priced, with a fantastic restaurant and lavishly equipped health club. £75-250.  edit

There are thousands of hotel beds in the city ranging from 5 star establishments to bed and breakfast. If in doubt consult the tourist office, behind the Town Hall on St Peter's Square. See City Information section for contact details and address.

Self Catering

Self catering apartments in Manchester are now becoming popular alternatives to 'traditional' hotel stays. There are thousands of self catering apartments available throughout the city centre and outskirts - providing accommodation for up to 8 people at a time, for stays of anything from one night to 1 year. You can expect noisy neighbours at weekends! Do also take care of the place you are staying in as, according to the local press, there have been some horror stories of people being charged for breakages etc for which they were not resposible.

Contact

Although you will find a whole bunch of available wi-fi hot spots in central Manchester, they can be very expensive. Until the free municipal wi-fi network comes live in a few years, make best use of the free wi-fi available at:

  • Cornerhouse, 70 Oxford Street - art gallery, cinema, bar.
  • Oklahoma Cafe, 74 - 76 High Street - organic, vegetarian and fair trade coffee shop.
  • The Castle Pub, 66 Oldham Street - traditional pub *Note: currently being refurbished so may have limited service or be closed.

Stay safe

If you're uncomfortable around thousands of intoxicated young people, then you should probably avoid Friday and Saturday night taxi queues in the city centre. You should also avoid any conflict with door staff at bars, clubs and pubs.

Manchester is generally quite a safe place, especially in commercialised and tourist orientated areas. If you should wander into a less desirable area you should be very wary of street gangs hanging around. Should you encounter a group which looks suspicious, either avoid them all together and walk the other way, or try to walk past them quickly (at a distance if possible) and don't behave in a way that they may perceive as disrespectful or confrontational. This can include eye contact or accidently brushing past them with your shoulder.

Caution would be advised in the following areas:

  • Longsight. This is a somewhat rundown residential area in the shadow of the city centre, which has as yet avoided the gentrification of nearby Hulme.
  • Moss Side. This area has a notorious reputation, but it is very multicultural and worth a visit if you looking for something different, but only during the day. At night the area can be very dangerous. This area is renowned for gang warfare and knife and gun attacks on youths are not uncommon although recent police operations have been reducing this.
  • Parts of Hulme. Although this young, trendy, regenerated area would be of interest to many with its new town houses, quirky architecture and blocks of flats; just a stones throw from the centre!
  • Cheetham Hill. Not at night maybe, but during the day this suburb, to the north of Victoria Station, is a lively, colourful mixture of cultures: Jewish, Asian, and newer arrivals to the city from various parts of the world! The shopping area around "The Village" is very much like an inner London high street.
  • Wythenshawe. Much of this is a vast public housing district out towards the airport.
  • Ordsall. This area is on the up and following the example of Hulme with lots of new developments.
  • Parts of East Manchester, particularly Beswick.
  • Salford. Unless you have good reason, do not wander too far on foot at least, over the river Irwell, into Salford, from the city centre. With the great number of new residential developments in the area, it does feel more relaxed, of late, and should continue to improve over time. The straight route from Manchester centre, via Salford Cathedral along Chapel Street, to Salford University is safe.

Cope

Many countries have consulates and commissions in Manchester. For others, you may have to travel to London.

  • Australian Consulate, Chatsworth House, Lever Street, Manchester M1 2QL. Tel. 0161 228 1344 Fax: 0161 236 4074.
  • Consulate of Belgium, 76 Moss Lane Bramhall, Stockport SK7 1EJ. Tel. 0161 439 5999.
  • Consulate General of The People's Republic of China, Denison House, Denison Road, Rusholme, Manchester M14 5RY. Tel.0161 248 9304.
  • The Royal Danish Consulate, Century Buildings, St. Mary's Parsonage, Manchester M3 2DD. Tel: 0161 214 4370.
  • Trade Commission of France, 24th Floor, Sunley Tower, Piccadilly Plaza, Manchester M1.
  • Consulate of France, Davis Blank Furniss, 90 Deansgate, Manchester M3 2QJ. Tel. 0161 832 3304.
  • Trade Board of Ireland, 56 Oxford Street, Manchester M1.
  • Consulate of Italy, Rodwell Tower, 111 Piccadilly, Manchester M1.
  • Consulate of Monaco, Dene Manor, Dene Park, Manchester M20.
  • The Royal Consulate of the Netherlands, 123 Deansgate, Manchester M3.
  • Vice-consulate of Pakistan, 4th Floor Hilton House, 26/28 Hilton Street, Manchester M1.
  • Consulate General of Spain, La Brook House, 70 Spring Gardens, Manchester M2 2BQ.
  • Consulate General of Switzerland, 24th Floor, Sunley Tower, Piccadilly Plaza, Manchester M1.
  • Swedish Consulate, Lincoln House, 1 Brazennoze Street, Manchester M2 5FJ. Tel. 0161 834 4814.
  • Norwegian Consulate, International Trade centre, Churchgate House,6 Oxford Street,Manchester M60 7HF. Tel. 0161 236 1406.
  • Consulate of Iceland, 28 Macclesfield Road, Wilmslow SK9 2AF. Tel. 01625 524133.
  • Consulate of Finland, 5 Bramway,High Lane, Stockport SK6 8EN.Tel. 0161 376 4799.
  • Consulate of Czech Republic, 20 Stamford New Road,Altrincham WA14 1EJ. Tel(mob).07729834759.
  • High Commission of Cyprus, 304-306 Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9NS. Tel. 0161 276 5013.

Get out

Manchester is well placed at the heart of Northern England. Everything is within an hour away of Manchester's Piccadilly and Victoria stations; major cities, National Parks, picturesque scenery, seaside resorts and swanky suburbs can all be reached by train, usually for under/around £10 return.

  • Blackpool — Around 1 hour by train. Previously known as 'The Playground of England'. Famed for a wild night out and favoured by Stag and Hen parties. An education, with some fantastic gay clubs to rival those anywhere! Blackpool's attractions including Britain's busiest theme park Pleasure Beach, Blackpool and the famous "Lights" from end of August to the first weekend in November.
  • If you want a quiet day by the seaside try Southport, north of Liverpool, and the Northwest's best kept secret! Lord Street is a must. Upmarket shopping and tea rooms combine with the beach to make Southport a nice relaxing day out. Accessible by train from Manchester in around one hour.
  • The North Wales seaside resorts of Rhyl , Prestatyn and Llandudno are around an hour and a half to two hours away from Manchester.
  • Formby near Southport is a nice day out. Some picturesque sand-dunes, red squirrel preservation area, an ice cream van and a lovely beach, without the usual British seaside resort junk (arcade games, amusements etc). A change of train is required, so journey times are over an hour away. You can access the northern end from Southport quite easily.
  • Leeds — Less than an hour from Manchester, in West Yorkshire, this is the largest city in Yorkshire and now a major financial centre, as well as home to The Royal Armories Collection, good museums and galleries and the much praised West Yorkshire Playhouse Theatre. There is great shopping to be had, some of which is housed in elegant victorian arcades, and many excellent restaurants too. Get there by coach/bus from Manchester Central Coach Station, Chorlton Street (cheaper by far, as many locals will confirm, and often more reliable than the train).
  • Bradford. This city is next door to Leeds, so close their suburbs merge into one, and boasts the fabulous Alhambra Theatre, The National Media Museum, with a giant IMAX screen, and the German Merchants' Quarter, which is also well worth a visit.
  • Liverpool was 2008 European Capital of Culture, and is booming again, being seen by many in The North West as a strong rival to Manchester. Often seen as quicker than the train is the hourly coach service to Liverpool from Chorlton Street Coach Station. A day return is a real bargain and you are in Liverpool in about an hour. This can be a little longer, at times, but the friendly staff at the coach station can advise you how long the trip takes at busier times. The River Mersey and Liverpool's Albert Dock, along with the city's breathtaking skyline and cosmopolitain character, make it definitely worth a visit, with museums of national importance, a wealth of fine victorian and georgian buildings as well as two very contrasting cathedrals.

"Liverpool One", the new city centre shopping centre, might not yet boast a Harvey Nichols or Selfridges, but all other big names are there including an excellent John Lewis and great eating places too, overlooking Liverpool's own wheel and a fantastic urban park leading through to Albert Dock.

  • Chester — Take a Direct train from Manchester Piccadilly or Oxford Road stations to this compact Roman city in Cheshire on the edge of North Wales. Old buildings and cobbled streets will greet you as well as the unique shopping streets with two storeys. You can also walk around the city centre on the Roman Walls. Lots of inviting tea rooms and pubs await you too as well as the cathedral and Roman remains.
The city's zoo is one of the best in the country, and can be found on the edge of the city, near the main Park & Ride car park, which is easily reached from Manchester or Liverpool and well signposted. The "Blue Planet Aquarium" and "Cheshire Oaks Outlet Centre", near to each other, are but a short drive from the zoo also.
In Chester listen out for all the accents, including a lot of Welsh voices, mixed with those of nearby Liverpool, Manchester and beyond!
  • Sheffield, in South Yorkshire, is less well known to Manchester people, due to poor road links, but it is less than 40 miles away and the train service from Piccadilly is good and the journey a scenic one. This fine, industrial city is said to be built on seven hills and was once home to a thriving steel industry.
  • Preston — This Lancashire town still retains an "old northern" culture and is the UK's newest city, having been at last granted that status. The city centre is currently undergoing a £700 million redevelopment project. Preston is about a 40 minute drive north of Manchester and also accessible by train or coach. Preston is well worth a visit. It is the administrative centre of the County of Lancashire and home to County Hall, The National Football Museum (this is now due to move, in part or wholly, to Manchester's Urbis Building) and one of the region's newer universities.
  • Peak District for grass and hills. About 15 miles to the east of the city. A National Park and one of the most beautiful parts of the country. Buxton and the villages around are worth a look. Hadfield and Glossop are around 30 minutes train ride away from Piccadilly. Edale and Buxton are under an hour away.
  • The Lake District — For a bit of greenery in a National Park, go to the north. Of international poetic repute and one of the most beautiful parts of England. About an hour away.
  • Heaton Park — Ok, not exactly deep countryside but the nearest suburban Manchester can offer. Heaton Park is served by Metrolink trams around 10 minutes away from Manchester Victoria on the Bury Line, so it is great if you want a break from the city but are short on time! The tram station is on the Prestwich side of the park. The 135 bus from Manchester centre will take you to the same entrance, as will the 137 and 138. Some other buses will take you to the Middleton Road side to the east of the park. You could easily spend a whole day in this expansive park, with loads of attractions including pitch and putt, the boating lake, the tramway museum, former stately home "Heaton Hall". Finish off with the excellent views of the City and surrounding countryside from the highest point in Manchester "Heaton Park Temple".
  • Delamere Forrest and Tatton Park are beautiful areas of Mid-Cheshire on the Manchester-Chester via Stockport line. Alight at Delamere and Knutsford stations respectively.
  • Huddersfield — A solid Victorian gem! Around 30 minutes away by Transpennine Express. This fine town is in West Yorkshire.
  • Wigan — The western part of Greater Manchester, home to the 1970's Northern Soul scene, famous for it's premier league football league team 'Wigan Athletic' and pies. The shopping district has been greatly expanded with the grand arcade shopping centre opening in 2007. Wigan is around a 20-35 minutes by train ride from central Manchester depending on the service and line or 1 hour by services 32 & 33 by bus.
  • Rochdale — Also within Greater Manchester and home town of Gracie Fields, boasting a Victorian Gothic town hall to rival Manchester's. The town is around a 15-20 minute train ride from Victoria or bus from Shudehill Interchange. The Cooperative Movement started here and there is a dedicated museum.
  • Stockport is in the south of the conurbation and boasts the Hat Museum and the 1930's Plaza Cinema and Theatre. Trains from Piccadilly take around 13 minutes and there are also excellent bus links. You can visit the underground, former World War II bomb shelters..
  • Bolton - The most northern district of Greater Manchester, famous for Bolton Wanderers FC, Bolton Market and the home of comic Peter Kay. Bolton is around 20-25 minutes by train or 1 hour by bus on services 8, 36 & 37
  • Bury, Oldham, Ashton-under-Lyne, and Altrincham are all satellite towns, within Greater Manchester, each with their distinct feeling and market-town atmosphere. They are all under 25 minutes way from the city centre by train or Metrolink tram or a little more by bus.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

="">See Manchester (disambiguation) for articles sharing the title Manchester.


MANCHESTER, a city and county of a city, municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Lancashire, England, 189 m. N.W. by N. of London, and 31 m. E. by N. of Liverpool. It stands for the most part on a level plain, the rising ground being chiefly on the north side. The rivers are the Irwell, the Medlock, the Irk, and the Tib, the last entirely overarched and covered by streets and warehouses. The Irwell, which separates Manchester from Salford, is crossed by a series of bridges and discharges itself into the Mersey, which is about io m. distant. The chief part of the district, before it was covered with the superficial drift of sand, gravel and clay, consisted of upper New Red Sandstone with slight portions of lower New Red Sandstone, magnesian marls and upper red marls, hard sandstone and limestone rock, and cold clays and shales of contiguous coal-fields. The city, as its thousands of brick-built houses show, has been for the most part dug out of its own clay-fields. The parliamentary and municipal boroughs of Manchester are not conterminous. The city boundaries, which in 1841 enclosed 429 3 acres, have been successively enlarged and now enclose 19,914 acres.

There are four large stations for the Lancashire & Yorkshire, London & North-Western, the Midland, Cheshire lines, Great Northern, and Great Central railways, and many subsidiary stations for local traffic. Tramways, as well as railways, run from Manchester to Oldham, Ashton, Eccles, Stockport, &c., with which places the city is connected by continuous lines of street. The length of the streets in the city of Manchester is 758 m. (exclusive of those in the district of Withington, which joined the city in 1905). The tramway lines within the city boundaries extend to III m., and in addition there are 58 m. leased to the corporation by adjacent local authorities. As a matter of fact, the whole of south-east Lancashire and some portions of Cheshire are linked to Manchester by railways and tramways so as to form one great urban area, and the traveller passes from one town to another by lines of street which, for the most part, are continuous. Facility of communication is essential to the commercial prosperity of Manchester, and its need was recognized by the duke of Bridgewater, whose canal, constructed in 1761, has now been absorbed by the Manchester Ship Canal. The making of this early waterway was an event only less important than the opening of the Manchester & Liverpool railway in 1830.

The township of Manchester, which forms the nucleus of the city, is comparatively small, and outlying hamlets having been added, its size has increased without regularity of plan. Roughly speaking, the city forms a square, with Market Street as its central thoroughfare. The tendency of recent development is to reduce the irregularities so that the other main streets may either run parallel to or intersect Market Street. Deansgate, which formerly ended in a narrow tangle of buildings, is now a broad road with many handsome buildings, and the same process of widening, enlarging and rebuilding is going on, more or less, all over Manchester. Market Street, which has not been widened since 1820, has been termed, and with some reason, "the most congested street in Europe"; but relief is anticipated from some of the other street improvements. The centre of the city is occupied by business premises; the factories and workshops are mainly on the eastern side. The most important of the public buildings are in the centre and the south. The latter is also the most favoured residential district, and at its extremity is semi-rural in character. Large masses of the population live beyond the city boundary and come to their daily avocations by train and tram. Such a population is rarely homogeneous and Manchester attracts citizens from every part of the globe; there are considerable numbers of German, Armenian and Jewish residents. The houses are for the most part of brick, the public buildings of stone, which is speedily blackened by the smoky atmosphere. Many of the warehouses are of considerable architectural merit, and in recent years the use of terra-cotta has become more common. It is only in the suburbs that gardens are possible; the air is laden with black dust, and the rivers, in spite of all efforts, are in the central part of the city mere dirty ditches. It is impossible to describe Manchester in general terms, for within the city boundaries the conditions vary from the most squalid of slums to suburban and almost rural beauty.

Table of contents

Churches

Manchester is the seat of an Anglican bishopric, and the chief ecclesiastical building is the cathedral, which, however, was built simply as a parish church, and, although a fine specimen of the Perpendicular period, is by no means what might be expected as the cathedral of an important and wealthy diocese. In the course of restoration a piece of Saxon sculpture came to light. This "Angel stone" represents a winged figure with a scroll inscribed In means tu g s Domine in characters of the 8th century. The bulk of the building belongs to the early part of the 15th century. The first warden was John Huntington, rector of Ashton, who built the choir. The building, which was noticed for its hard stone by Leland when he visited the town, did not stand time and weather well, and by 1845 some portions of it were rapidly decaying. This led to its restoration by James P. Holden. By 1868 the tower was almost completely renovated in a more durable stone. Further restoration was carried out by J. S. Crowther, and the addition of a porch and vestries was executed by Basil Champneys. The total length is 220 ft. and the breadth 112 ft. There are several stained-glass windows, including one to the memory of "Chinese Gordon." The recumbent statues of Bishop James Fraser and of Hugh Birley, M.P., should also be named. In the Ely chapel is the altar tomb of Bishop James Stanley. In the stalls there are some curious miserere carvings. The tower is 139 ft., high, and contains a peal of ten bells, chiefly from the foundry of the Rudhalls. There are two organs, one by Father Smith, and a modern one in an oak case designed by Sir G. Scott. The parish church was made collegiate in 1422, and when in 1847 the bishopric of Manchester was created the warden and fellows became dean and canons and the parish church became the cathedral. The first bishop was James Prince Lee, who died in 1869; the second was James Fraser, who died in 1885; the third was James Moorhouse, who resigned in 1903 and was succeeded by Edmund Arbuthnott Knox. The church endowments are considerable and have been the subject of a special act of parliament, known as the Manchester Rectory Division Act of 1845, which provide per annum for the dean and 600 to each of the four canons, and divides the residue among the incumbents of the new churches formed out of the old parish.

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gallery. The art gallery already existing in 1909 was founded as the Royal Institution, but in 1882 passed under the control of the city council. The building was designed by Sir Charles Barry. The collection contains some fine paintings by Etty, Millais, Leighton and other artists. The sculpture includes casts of the Elgin marbles and a statue of Dr John Dalton by Chantrey. The most striking of the public buildings is the town hall, probably the largest municipal building in the country, but no longer entirely adequate to the increasing business of the city council. It was completed in 1877 from designs by Alfred Waterhouse, who selected as the style of Chain Bar o' ?l-`-y?Uf Lady Withingtotti am Burnage) Green End Lane Scale.. r:86,000 o { ......-...

Of the Roman Catholic churches that of the Holy Name, which belongs to the Jesuits, is remarkable for its costly decoration. The Greek Church and most of the Nonconformist bodies have places of worship. There are twelve Jewish. synagogues. The meeting-house of the Society of Friends is said to be the largest of the kind in the kingdom and will seat 1200 persons.

Public Buildings

The Royal Infirmary, founded in 1752, having become inadequate for its purposes, a ,new building has been erected on the south side of the city near the university, from designs by Edwin T. Hall and John Brooke; it was opened in 1909 by king Edward VII. The central site in Piccadilly thus became available for other purposes, and the corporation gave instructions for plans to be made for a new library and art architecture a form of Gothic, but treated it very freely as purposes of utility required. The edifice covers 8000 sq. yds., and includes more than two hundred and fifty rooms. The building consists of continuous lines of corridors surrounding a central courtyard and connected by bridges. The principal tower is 286 ft. high to the top of the ball, and affords a view which extends over a large part of south Lancashire and Cheshire and is bounded only by the hills of Derbyshire. The tower contains a remarkable peal of bells by Taylor of Loughborough, forming an almost perfect chromatic scale of twenty-one bells; each bell has on it a line from canto 105 of Tennyson's In Memoriam. The great hall is 100 ft. long and 50 ft. wide, and contains a magnificent organ built by Cavaille-Coll of Paris. The twelve panels of this room are filled with paintings Xvii. 18 C ?

i?CyI??R?,E ? I ?F???, 1 by Ford Madox Brown, illustrating the history and progress of the city. The royal exchange is a fine specimen of Italian architecture and was erected in 1869; the great meeting-hall is one of the largest rooms in England, the ceiling having a clear area, without supports, of 120 ft. in width. The exchange is seen at its best on market days (Tuesday and Friday). The assize courts were built in 1864 from designs by Waterhouse. The style is a mixture of Early English and Decorative, and a large amount of decorative art has been expended on the building. The branch Bank of England is a Doric building designed by C. R. Cockerell. There are separate town-halls for the townships of Ardwick, Chorlton, Hulme, Cheetham, Broughton and Pendleton. The Free Trade hall is a fine structure in the Lombardo-Venetian style, and its great hall will accommodate about five thousand people. It is used for public meetings, concerts, &c., and was built by Edward Walters. The Athenaeum, designed by Barry, was founded by Richard Cobden and others associated with him for "the advancement and diffusion of knowledge." The institution has, perhaps, not developed exactly on the lines contemplated by its promoters, but it has been very useful. The advantages enjoyed by members of social clubs, with the addition of facilities for educational classes and the use of an excellent newsroom and a well-selected library, are offered in return for a payment which does not amount to a penny a day. The mechanics' institution has developed into the school of Technology, which now forms a part of the university. The Portico is a good specimen of the older proprietary libraries and newsrooms. It dates from 1806, and has a library. The Memorial Hall was built to commemorate the memory of the ejected ministers of 1662; it is used for meetings, scientific, educational, musical and religious. The Whitworth Institute is governed by a corporate body originating from the liberal bequests of Sir Joseph Whitworth. The Institute contains a valuable collection of works of art and stands in the centre of a woodland park. In the park, which has been transferred to the corporation, is a sculpture group of "Christ and the Children," executed by George Tinworth from the designs of R. D. Darbishire, by whom it was presented. The assize courts, built from designs by Waterhouse (1864), the post office (1887), and the police courts (1871) should also be named. Many fine structures suffer from being hemmed in by streets which prevent the proportions from being seen to advantage.

Monuments

In Piccadilly are bronze statues of. Wellington, Watt, Dalton, Peel and Queen Victoria. Another statue of the Queen, by the Princess Louise, is placed on the new porch of the cathedral. A bronze statue of Cobden occupies a prominent position in St Ann's Square. There also is the South African War Memorial of the Manchester Regiment. The marble statue of the Prince Consort, -covered by a Gothic canopy of stone, is in front of the town hall, which dwarfs what would otherwise be a striking monument. In Albert Square there are also statues of Bishop Fraser, John Bright, Oliver Heywood and W. E. Gladstone. A statue of J. P. Joule is in the town hall, which also contains memorials of other worthies. The Queen's Park has a statue of Benjamin Brierley, a well-known writer in the Lancashire dialect. The most picturesque is Matthew Noble's bronze statue of Cromwell, placed on a huge block of rough granite as pedestal. It stands at the junction of Deansgate and Victoria Street, near the cathedral, and was presented to the town by Mrs E. S. Heywood.

Education

T here are many educational facilities. The oldest institution is the grammar school, which was founded in 1519 by Hugh Oldham, bishop of Exeter, a native of the town. The master and usher appointed by the bishop were to teach freely every child and scholar coming to the school, "without any money or reward taken"; and the bishop forbade the appointment of any member of the religious orders as head master. Some corn mills were devised for the. maintenance of the school, which was further endowed at both the universities by Sarah, duchess of Somerset, in 1692. The school has now two hundred and fifty free scholars, whilst other pupils are received on payment of fees. Among those educated at the grammar school were Thomas De Quincey, Harrison Ainsworth and Samuel Bamford the Radical. After the grammar school the oldest educational foundation is that of Humphrey Chetham, whose bluecoat school, founded in 1653, is housed in the building formerly occupied by the college of clergy. This also contains the public library founded by Chetham, and is the most interesting relic of antiquity in the city. The educational charity of William Hulme (1631-1691) is administered under a scheme drawn up in 1881. Its income is nearly ro,000 a year, and it supports a grammar school and aids education in other ways. There are three high schools for girls. The Nicholls hospital was founded in 1881 for the education of orphan boys. Manchester was one of the first places to adopt the powers given by Forster's Act of 1870, and on the abolition of school boards the educational supervision was transferred to a committee of the corporation strengthened by co-opted members. In addition to the elementary schools, the municipality provides a large and well-equipped school of technology, and a school of art to which is attached an arts and crafts museum. There are a pupil teachers' college, a school of domestic economy, special schools for feeble-minded children, and a Royal College of Music. The schools for the deaf and dumb are situated at Old Trafford, in a contiguous building of the same Gothic design as the blind asylum, to which Thomas Henshaw left a bequest of X20,000. There is also an adult deaf and dumb institution, containing a news-room, lecture hall, chapel, &c., for the use of deaf mutes.

The Victoria University of Manchester has developed from the college founded by John Owens, who in 1846 bequeathed nearly £ioo,000 to trustees for an institution in which should be taught "such branches of learning and science as were then or might be hereafter usually taught in English universities." It was opened in 1851 in a house which had formerly been the residence of Cobden. In 1872 a new college building was erected on the south side of the town from designs by Waterhouse. In 1880 a university charter was granted, excluding the faculties of theology and medicine, and providing for the incorporation of University College, Liverpool, and the College of Science, Leeds. The federal institution thus created lasted until 1903, when the desire of Liverpool for a separate university of its own led to a reconstruction. Manchester University consists of one college - Owens College - in its greatly enlarged form. The buildings include the Whitworth Hall (the gift of the legatees of Sir Joseph Whitworth), the Manchester Museum and the Christie Library, which is a building for the university library given by R. C. Christie, who also bequeathed his own collection. Dr Lee, the first bishop of Manchester, left his library to Owens College, and the legatees of Sir Joseph Whitworth bought and presented E. A. Freeman's books. The library has received other important special collections. The benefactions to the university of Thomas Ashton are estimated at X80,000. There are in Manchester a number of denominational colleges, Wesleyan, Primitive Methodist, Unitarian, Baptist, &c., and many of the students preparing for the ministry receive their arts training at the university, the theological degrees of which are open to students irrespective of creed.

Libraries, Museums and Societies. - Manchester is well provided with libraries. The Chetham library, already named, contains some rare manuscripts, the gem of the collection being a copy of the historical compilation of Matthew Paris, with corrections in the author's handwriting. There is a large collection of matter relating to the history and archaeology of Lancashire and Cheshire, including the transcripts of Lancashire MSS. bequeathed by Canon F. R. Raines. The collections of broadsides formed by Mr J. O. HalliwellPhillipps, and the library of John Byrom, rich in mystics and shorthand writers, should also be named. The Manchester Free Libraries were founded by Sir John Potter in 1852. There is now a reference library containing about 170,000 volumes, including an extensive series of English historical works, a remarkable collection of books of political economy and trade, and special collections relating to local history, Dr Thomas Fuller, shorthand and the gipsies. The Henry Watson Music Library, and the Thomas Greenwood Library for librarians were presented to the reference library, and the Foreign Library was purchased. Affiliated to the reference library there are nineteen libraries, each of which includes a lending department and reading rooms. The municipal libraries contain in the aggregate over 366,000 vols. There are also libraries in connexion with the Athen - aeum, the School of Technology, the Portico, and many other in - stitutions. The most remarkable of the Manchester libraries is that founded by Mrs Enriqueta Rylands, and named the John Rylands Library in memory of her husband. The beautiful building was designed by Basil Champneys; the library includes the famous Althorp collection, which was bought from Earl Spencer. Mrs Rylands died in 1908, and by her will increased the endowment of the library so that it has an income of £1 3,000 yearly. She also bequeathed her own library.

Manchester possesses numerous literary and scientific associations. The oldest of these, the Literary and Philosophical Society, founded in 1781, has a high reputation, and has numbered among its work - ing members John Dalton, Eaton Hodgkinson, William Fairbairn, J. P. Joule, H. E. Roscoe and many other famous men of science. It has published a series of memoirs and proceedings. The Manchester Statistical Society was the first society of the kind established in the kingdom, and has issued Transactions containing many important papers. The Field Naturalists' and Archaeologists' Society, the Microscopical Society, the Botanists' Association, and the Geological Society may also be named. Manchester is the headquarters of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society and of several printing clubs, the Chetham, the Record, the Lancashire Parish Registers societies. Seven daily papers are published, and various weekly and otherperiodicals. The journalism of Manchester takes high rank, the Manchester Guardian (Liberal) being one of the best news - papers in the country, while the Manchester Courier (Unionist) has an important local influence. The Manchester Quarterly is issued by the Manchester Literary Club, which was founded in 1862. The success of the Art Treasures Exhibition in 1857 was repeated in the Jubilee Exhibition of 1887. The Manchester Academy of Fine Arts is a society of artists, and holds an annual exhibition in the city art gallery.

Parks and Open Spaces

There are fifty-three parks and open spaces. The Queen's Park, at Harpurhey, is pleasantly situated, though surrounded by cottages and manufactories. Philips Park is also attractive, in spite of its close proximity to some of the most densely populated portions of the town. The Alexandra Park has very good ornamental grounds and a fine cactus house with a remark - able collection presented by Charles Darrah. Some of the open spaces are small; Boggart Hole Clough, where great efforts have been made to preserve the natural features, is 76 acres in extent, and was the largest until 1902, when Heaton Park, containing 692 acres, was purchased. It was formerly the seat 'of the earls of Wilton, and includes Heaton House, one of Wyatt's structures. In the Queen's Park there is a museum, and periodical exhibitions of works of art are held. The total area of the city parks is 1146 acres. The corporation are also responsible for four cemeteries, having a total area of 228 acres.

Recreation

There are nine theatres, mostly large, and eight music halls. The Theatre Royal was established as a patent theatre. When the bill for it was before the House of Lords in 1775 it was advocated as an antidote to Methodism. The Bellevue Zoological Gardens is a favourite holiday place for working people. The Ancoats Recreation Committee have since 1882 had Sunday lectures, and occasional exhibitions of pictures, window gardening, &c. The Ancoats Art Museum was founded to carry out the educational influences of art and culture generally. In addition to works of art, there are concerts, lectures, reading circles, &c. The museum is worked in connexion with a university settlement. The German element in the population has largely influenced the taste for music by which Manchester is distinguished, and the orchestral concerts (notably under Charles Halle) are famous.

Population

From a census taken in 1773 it appears that there were then in the township of Manchester and its outtownships 36,267 persons. The first decennial census, 1801, showed the population to be 75,275; in 1851 it was 303,382; in 1901, 606,824. It is not easy to make an exact comparison between different periods, because there have been successive enlargements of the boundaries. The population has overflowed into the surrounding districts, and if all that belongs to the urban area, of which it is the centre, were included, greater Manchester would probably rival London in the number of its inhabitants.

Manufactures and Commerce. - Manchester is the centre of the English cotton industry (for details see Cotton and Cotton MANUFACTURE), but owing to the enhanced value of land many mills and workshops have been removed to the outskirts and to neighbouring villages and towns, so that the centre of Manchester and an ever-widening circle around are now chiefly devoted not so much to production as to the various offices of distribution. It would be a mistake, however, to regard Manchester as solely dependent upon the industries connected with cotton. There are other important manufactures which in another community would be described as gigantic. Wool and silk are manufactured on a considerable scale, though the latter industry has for some years been on the decline. The miscellaneous articles grouped under the designation of small-wares occupy many hands. Machinery and tools are made in vast quantities; the chemical industries of the city are also on a large scale. In short, there are but few important manufactures that are wholly unrepresented. The proximity of Manchester to the rich coal-fields of Lancashire has had a marked influence upon its prosperity; but for this, indeed, the rapid expansion of its industries would have been impossible.

The Manchester Bankers' Clearing House returns show an almost unbroken yearly increase. The amount in 1872 was £72,805,510; in 1907 it was £320,296,332; by the severe depression of 1908 it was reduced to £288,555,307. Another test of prosperity is the increase in rateable value. In 1839 it was £669,994; in 1871, £1,703,627; in 1881, £2,301,225; in 1891, £ 2,798,005; in 1901, £3,394,879; in 1907, £4,191,039; in 1909, £4,234,129.

The commercial institutions of Manchester are too numerous for detailed description; its chamber of commerce has for more than sixty years exercised much influence on the trade of the district and of the nation. Manchester is the headquarters of the Co-operative Wholesale Society, and indeed of the cooperative movement generally.

The most important event in the modern history of the district is the creation of the Manchester Ship Canal (q.v.), by which Manchester and Salford have a direct communication with the sea at Eastham, near Liverpool. The canal was opened for traffic in January 1894. The official opening ceremony was on the 21st of May 1894, when Queen Victoria visited Manchester. The total expenditure on capital account has been £16,567,881. The original share capital of £8,000,000 and £1,812,000, raised by debentures, having been exhausted, the corporation of Manchester advanced on loan a further sum of £5,000,000.

Municipality

Manchester received a municipal charter in 1838, received the title of city in 1853, and became a county borough in 1889. The city is divided into 30 wards, and the corporation consists of 31 aldermen and 93 councillors. The mayor received the title of lord mayor in 1893. Unlike some of the municipalities, that of Manchester makes no pecuniary allowance to its lord mayor, and the office is a costly one.

The water supply is controlled by the corporation. The works at Longdendale, begun in 1848, were completed, with extensions in 1884, at a cost of £3,147,893. The area supplied by Manchester waterworks was about 85 square miles, inhabited by a million people. The increase of trade and population led to the obtaining of a further supply from Lake Thirlmere, at the foot of Helvellyn and 96 miles from Manchester. The watershed is about t,000 acres. The daily consumption is over 38 million gallons. Manchester supplies in bulk to many local authorities in the district between Thirlmere and the city. The corporation have also established works for the supply of hydraulic and electric power.

The gas .lighting of Manchester has been in the hands of the corporation for many years, as also the supply of electricity both for lighting and energy. When the works are complete the electricity committee will supply an area of 45 sq. m.

Sanitary Condition

Dr John Tatham constructed a Manchester life-table based on the vital statistics of the decennium 1881-1890, from which it appeared that, while in England and Wales of 1000 men aged 25 nearly 800 survived to be 45 and of moo aged 45, 569 survived to be 65, in Manchester the survivors were only 732 and 414 respectively. The expectation of life, at 25, was, for England and Wales 36.12 years, and for Manchester 30.69 years. But the deathrate has since rapidly decreased; in 1891 it was 2 6.0 per thousand living; in 1901 it was 21 6; in 1906 it was 19 o; in 1907 it was 17-9. The deaths of infants under one year old amounted to 169 per moo The reports of the medical officer show that whilst the density of the population, the impurity of the atmosphere, and the pollution of the streams are difficult elements in the sanitary problem, great efforts have been made towards improving the health of the people. The birth-rate in 1907 was 28.4, but the population is augmented by immigration as well as by natural increase. The number of persons to the acre is 33.

Administration of Justice

The city has a stipendiary magistrate who, in conjunction with lay magistrates, tries cases of summary jurisdiction in the police courts. There are also quarter sessions, presided over by a recorder. Separate sessions are held for the Salford hundred. Certain sittings of the Court of Chancery for the duchy of Lancaster are held in Manchester. In addition to the county court, there is an ancient civil court known as the Salford Hundred Court of Record. Assizes have been held since 1866.

Parliamentary Representation

By the first Reform Bill Manchester received in 1832 two representatives. In 1868 this was increased to three, but each voter had only two votes. In 1885 the city was divided into six divisions, each returning one member. Owing to the extension of the city boundaries there are Manchester voters in the Stretford, Prestwich and Gorton parliamentary divisions.

History

Very little is known with certainty of the early history of Manchester.' A Roman station of some importance existed at Castlefield, and a fragment of the wall still exists. Another, perhaps earlier, was at Hunt's Bank. In the 18th century considerable evidences of Roman occupation were still visible; and from time to time, in the course of excavation (especially during the making of the Bridgewater Canal), Roman remains have been found. The coins were chiefly those of Vespasian, Antoninus Pius, Trajan, Hadrian, Nero, Domitian, Vitellius and Constantine. Investigations by the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society and the Classical Association have brought to light many relics, chiefly of pottery. The period succeeding the Roman occupation is for some time legendary. As late as the 17th century there was a tradition that Tarquin, an enemy of King Arthur, kept the castle of Manchester, and was killed by Lancelot of the Lake. The references to the town in authentic annals are very few. It was probably one of the scenes of the missionary preaching of Paulinus; and it is said (though by a chronicler of comparatively late date) to have been the residence of Ina, king of Wessex, and his queen Ethelberga, after he had defeated Ivor, somewhere about the year 689. Almost the only point of certainty in its history before the Conquest is that it suffered greatly from the devastations of the Danes, and that in 923 Edward, who was then at Thelwall, near Warrington, sent a number of his Mercian troops to repair and garrison it. In Domesday Book Manchester, Salford, Rochdale and Radcliffe are the only places named in south-east Lancashire, a district now covered by populous towns. Large portions of it were then forest, wood and waste lands. Twenty-one thanes held the manor or hundred of Salford among them. The church of St Mary and the church of St Michael in Manchester are both named in Domesday, and some difficulty has arisen as to their proper identification. Some antiquaries consider that the passage refers to the town only, whilst others think it relates to the parish, and that, while St Mary's is the present cathedral, St Michael's would be the present parish church of Ashton-under-Lyne. In 1301 Manchester received a charter of manorial liberties and privileges from its baron, Thomas Gresley, a descendant of one to whom the manor had been given by Roger of Poictou, who was created by William the Conqueror lord of all the land between the rivers Mersey and Ribble. The Gresleys were succeeded by the De la Warrs, the last of whom was educated for the priesthood, and became rector of the town. To avoid the evil of a non-resident clergy, he made considerable additions to the lands of the church, in order that it might be endowed as a collegiate institution. A college of clergy was thus formed, whose fellows were bound to perform the necessary services at the parish church, and to whom the old baronial hall was granted as a place of residence. The manorial rights passed to Sir Reginald West, a descendant of 1 In the Antonine Itinerary the name Mancunium or Mamucium is given. This is the origin of the modern name, and has supplied the adjective "Mancunian" (cf."Old Mancunians" applied to old boys of Manchester Grammar School).

Joan Gresley, who was summoned to parliament as Baron de la Warre. The West family, in 1579, sold the manorial rights for 3000 to John Lacy, who, in 1596, resold them to Sir Nicholas Mosley, whose descendants enjoyed the emoluments derived from them until 1845, when they were purchased by the municipality of Manchester for a sum of X200,000. The lord of the manor had the right to tax and toll all articles brought for sale into the market of the town. But, though the inhabitants were thus to a large extent taxed for the benefit of one individual, they had a far greater amount of local selfgovernment than might have been supposed, and the court leet, which was then the governing body of the town, had, though in a rudimentary form, nearly all the powers now possessed by municipal corporations. This court had not only control over the watching and warding of the town, the regulation of the water supply, and the cleaning of the streets, but also had power, which at times was used freely, of interfering with the private liberty of their fellow-citizens. Thus, no single woman was allowed to be a householder; no person might employ other than the town musicians; and the amount to be spent at wedding feasts and other festivities was carefully settled. Under the protection of the barons the town appears to have steadily increased in prosperity, and it early became an important seat of the textile manufactures. Fulling mills were at work in the district in the 13th century; and documentary evidence exists to show that woollen manufactures were carried on in Ancoats at that period. In 1538 Leland described it as "the fairest, best-builded, quickest, and most populous town in Lancashire." The right of sanctuary granted to the town in 1J40 was found so detrimental to its industrial pursuits that after very brief experience the privilege was taken away. The college of Manchester was dissolved in 1547, but was refounded in Mary's reign. Under her successor the town became the headquarters of the commission for establishing the Reformed religion. In 1641 we hear of the Manchester people purchasing linen yarn from the Irish, weaving it, and returning it for sale in a finished state. They also brought cotton wool from Smyrna to work into fustians and dimities. An act passed in the reign of Edward VI. regulates the length of cottons called Manchester, Lancashire and Cheshire cottons. These, notwithstanding their name, were probably all woollen textures. It is thought that some of the Flemish weavers who were introduced into England by Queen Philippa of Hainault were settled at Manchester; and Fuller has given an exceedingly quaint and picturesque description of the manner in which these artisans were welcomed by the inhabitants of the country they were about to enrich with a new industry. The Flemish weavers were in all probability reinforced by religious refugees from the Low Countries.

In the civil wars, the town was besieged by the Royalists under Lord Strange (better known as earl of Derby - "the great Stanley"); but was successfully defended by the inhabitants under the command of a German soldier of fortune, Colonel Rosworm, who complained with some bitterness of their ingratitude to him. An earlier affray between the Puritans and some of Lord Strange's followers is said to have occasioned the shedding of the first blood in the struggle between the king and parliament. The year 1694 witnessed the trial of those concerned in the so-called Lancashire plot, which ended in the triumphant acquittal of the supposed Jacobites. That the district really contained many ardent sympathizers with the Stuarts was, however, shown in the rising of 1715, when the clergy ranged themselves to a large extent on the side of the Pretender; and was still more clearly shown in the rebellion of 1745, when the town was occupied by Prince Charles Edward Stuart, and a regiment, known afterwards as the Manchester regiment, was formed and placed under the command of Colonel Francis Townley. In the fatal retreat of the Stuart troops the Manchester contingent was left to garrison Carlisle, and surrendered to the duke of Cumberland. The officers were taken to London, where they were tried for high treason and beheaded on Kennington Common.

The variations of political action in Manchester had been exceedingly marked. In the 16th century, although it produced both Roman Catholic and Protestant martyrs, it was earnestly in favour of the Reformed faith, and in the succeeding century it became indeed a stronghold of Puritanism. Yet the successors of the Roundheads who defeated the army of Charles I. were Jacobite in their sympathies, and by the latter half of the 18th century had become imbued with the aggressive form of patriotic sentiment known as anti-Jacobinism, which showed itself chiefly in dislike of reform and reformers of every description. A change, however, was imminent. The distress caused by war and taxation, towards the end of the 18th and the beginning of the i 9 th century, led to bitter discontent, and the anomalies existing in the parliamentary system of representation afforded only too fair an object of attack. While single individuals in some portions of the country had the power to return members of parliament for their pocket boroughs, great towns like Manchester were entirely without representation. The popular discontent was met by a policy of repression, culminating in the affair of Peterloo, which may be regarded as the starting-point of the modern reform agitation. This was in 1819, when an immense crowd assembled on St Peter's Fields (now covered by the Free Trade Hall and warehouses) to petition parliament for a redress of their grievances. The Riot Act was read by a clerical magistrate; but in such a manner as to be quite unheard by the mass of the people; and drunken yeomanry cavalry were then turned loose upon the unresisting mass of spectators. The yeomanry appear to have used their sabres freely; several people killed and many more injured; and, although the magistrates received the thanks of the prince regent and the ministry, their conduct excited the deepest indignation throughout the entire country. Those who had organized the meeting, incLding "Orator" Hunt with Samuel Bamford and other working men, were imprisoned.

Naturally enough, the Manchester politicians took an important part in the Reform agitation; when the Act of 1832 was passed, the town sent as its representatives the Right Hon. C. P. Thomson, vice-president of the board of trade, and Mark Philips. With one notable exception, this was the first time that Manchester had been represented in parliament since its barons had seats in the House of Peers in the earlier centuries. In 1654 Charles Worsley and R. Radcliffe were nominated to represent it in Cromwell's parliament. Worsley was a man of great ability, and has a place in history as the man who carried out the injunction of the Protector to "remove that bauble," the mace of the House of Commons. The agitation for the repeal of the corn laws had its headquarters at Manchester, and the success which attended it, not less than the active interest taken by its inhabitants in public questions, has made the city the home of other projects of reform. The "United Kingdom Alliance for the Suppression of the Liquor Traffic" was founded there in 1853, and during the continuance of the American War the adherents both of the North and of the South deemed it desirable to have organizations in Manchester to influence public opinion in favour of their respective causes. A charter of incorporation was granted in 1838; a bishop was appointed in 1847; and the town became a city in 1853. The Lancashire cotton famine, caused by the Civil War in America, produced much distress in the Manchester district, and led to a national movement to help the starving operatives. The more recent annals of Manchester are a record of industrial and commercial developments, and of increase in educational opportunities of all kinds. Politically Manchester was Liberal, of one or other shade, under the first Reform Act; a Conservative member was first elected in 1868, and in 1874 two. Under household suffrage in 1885 that party secured five out of six members; in 1886 and 1892, three out of six. In 1895 and 1900 five Unionists were elected, but in 1906 six Liberals were returned, one of whom (Mr Winston Churchill) was defeated at a by-election in 1908. In 1910 three Liberals, two Labour members and one Conservative were elected.

Authorities

Although several excellent books have been written on subjects connected with the town, there is no adequate modern history. The History of Manchester, by the Rev. John Whitaker, appeared in 1771; it is a mere fragment, and, though containing much important matter, requires to be very discreetly used. The following may be recommended: John Reilly, History of Manchester, (1861); R. W. Procter, Manchester in Holiday Dress (1866), Memorials of Manchester Streets (1874), Memorials of Byegone Manchester (1880); Richard Buxton, Botanical Guide to Manchester, &c. (2nd ed., 1859); Leo Grindon, Manchester Flora (1859); Edward Baines, History of Lancashire, edited by Croston (1886-1893), 5 vols.; W. A. Shaw, Manchester, Old and New (1894); W. E. A. Axon, Annals of Manchester (1885), Cobden as a Citizen (1906); Harry Rawson, Historical Record of some Recent Enterprises of the Corporation of Manchester (1894); Official Manual of Manchester and Salford (1909); J. P. Earwaker, Court Leet Records of Manchester, 1552-1686, 1731-1846 (1884-1890), 12 vols.; Constable's Accounts, 1612-1647, 1 7431776 (1891-1892), 3 vols.; Manchester Municipal Code (1894-1899), 5 vols.; George Saintsbury, Manchester (1887); Thomas Swindells, Manchester Streets and Manchester Men (1906-1907), 3 vols.; James Tait, Medieval Manchester (1904); Charles Roeder, Roman Manchester (1900); Sir Bosdin Leech, History of the Manchester Ship Canal (1907), 2 vols. (W. E. A. A.)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also manchester

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Proper noun

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Manchester

  1. Major city in the north-west of England.
  2. Name of several towns and cities in the United States of America.

Translations

Related terms


Simple English

Coordinates: 53°28′N 2°14′W / 53.467°N 2.233°W / 53.467; -2.233

City of Manchester
—  Borough & City  —
Nickname(s): "Capital of the North", "Cottonopolis", "Second city", "Warehouse City"
Motto: "Concilio Et Labore" "Wisdom and effort"
Coordinates: 53°28′N 2°14′W / 53.467°N 2.233°W / 53.467; -2.233
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region North West England
Ceremonial county Greater Manchester
Admin HQ Manchester City Centre
Founded 1st century
Town charter 1301
City status 1853
Government
 - Type Metropolitan borough, City
 - Governing body Manchester City Council
 - Lord Mayor Glynn Evans
 - MPs: Paul Goggins (L)
Gerald Kaufman (L)
John Leech (LD)
Tony Lloyd (L)
Graham Stringer (L)
Area
 - Borough & City 44.7 sq mi (115.65 km2)
Elevation 256 ft (78 m)
Population (2005 est.)
 - Borough & City 441,200 (Ranked 6th)
 Density 9,880.8/sq mi (3,815/km2)
 Urban 2,240,230
(Greater Manchester Urban Area)
 Metro 4,209,132
 - County 2,547,700
 - County Density 5,172.2/sq mi (1,997/km2)
Time zone Greenwich Mean Time
Postcode M
Area code(s) 0161
ISO 3166-2 GB-MAN
ONS code 00BN
OS grid reference SJ838980
NUTS 3 UKD31
Website www.manchester.gov.uk

Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England. Manchester was given city status in 1853. As of 2001 Manchester has a population of 452,000. The city is in the middle of the Greater Manchester Urban Area, which has 2,240,230 people,[1] and is the United Kingdom's third largest built-up place.

Manchester is a very important city in England, and is called the second city of the UK.[2] It has also been called the "Capital of the North".[3] Manchester has many places for the arts, places for learning, businesses providing media as well as lots of shops. In a poll of British managers in 2006, Manchester was named the best place in Britain to have a business.[4] A report in 2007 said Manchester is a fast-growing city (meaning lots of jobs are being created).[5] Manchester was the host of the 2002 Commonwealth Games. Manchester United and Manchester City are football teams in the area.[6]

Manchester was the first place to have big industry,[7] because of the Industrial Revolution. It was the main place for making cloth and fabric.[8] During the 19th century it had the nickname Cottonopolis,[8] because it had so many cotton mills. The middle of Manchester is important because it is on UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, because of its network of canals and mills built during its 19th-century development.[9]

Contents

History

File:Peterloo
The Peterloo Massacre of 1819 saw fifteen-twenty deaths and several hundred injured.

In the late 1700s, Manchester was only a small village with a low population. This changed at the start of the Industrial Revolution. During this time, there were revolts about the living conditions for workers. The most well known of these revolts was the Peterloo Massacre. Fifteen to twenty people were killed during the Peterloo Massacre and hundreds of other people were hurt.[10] In 1780, Richard Arkwright built the first cotton mill in the area.[11]

Later in the 1800s, Manchester became most important cotton town in the world. It was also the first 'industrialised' city, meaning that it was the first city to have a big amount of industry in it.[7] Only a small amount of cloth is still made in the city and the trade has mainly stopped. This left a big number of old buildings from that time including the Town Hall, Free Trade Hall and Central Library and left a lot of other buildings empty.

The Manchester Ship Canal was created by the digging of canals in the rivers Irwell and Mersey for 36 miles (58 km) from Salford to the Mersey estuary. This let ocean going ships sail into the Port of Manchester.

The county of Greater Manchester was made in 1974. The county was created from cities and towns in southern Lancashire and northern Cheshire (the two main areas which make up Greater Manchester), and some mainly rural districts of Derbyshire and Yorkshire.

In 1996, the Irish Republican Army put a bomb in a truck located in the centre of the city. Nobody was killed, but it did a lot of damage.[12]

Geography

File:Map of
The City of Manchester, the area is almost all "built-up".

Manchester is located 160 miles (257 km) north-west of England's capital, London. The city has many canals and rivers which were a big part in its earlier growth.[13] The largest open space in the city is Heaton Park. It has an area of about 618 acres (250 ha).[14] Heaton Park is a place that attracts many people every year. People go there to see the many animals and the beauty of the countryside. Much of Manchester is built-up (or 'urbanised'). Much of Manchester's rain comes over from the Pennines, which are a hilly range to the south and east of the city.[15] The city is mainly urban areas but also has some areas which are mainly of farmland. To the south of the centre is Manchester Airport. This is the third largest airport in the United Kingdom.[16]

Culture

A revival of the city's importance started in the 1980s. This was partly led by a vibrant music scene whose spirit was labelled 'Madchester', which was led by bands such as The Happy Mondays and Joy Division.[17] It was also partly fuelled by the big number of students attending the number of universities and further education colleges in the city. Manchester has the highest population of students in the United Kingdom in term time.[18]

The largest university in the UK , the University of Manchester, is located in the city. It has over 30,000 students.[19] It also has the fourth largest university, the Manchester Metropolitan University.[19]

The city has two Premier League football teams, Manchester City and Manchester United. Football is a very important part of the culture of the city. Many of the population support or show interest in the sport.[20] There is a small number of people who think that some of the teams who have the word 'Manchester' in their team name are not in Manchester. This is because Manchester United plays in Greater Manchester but outside Manchester city limits. They play in the borough of Trafford.

Transport

File:Metrolink
A Metrolink tram going through the city centre.

Manchester and North West England are served by Manchester Airport. The airport has the most passengers in the UK outside London, with 22.1 million passengers in 2007. Planes fly to lots of destinations in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East and Asia (with more destinations from Manchester than from London Heathrow).[21]

Manchester is very well served by train and in terms of passengers, Manchester Piccadilly was the busiest English train station outside London in 2005 and 2006.[22] Northern Rail operates all over the north of England, and other operators include Virgin Trains. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway was the first passenger railway in the world. Greater Manchester has a very big railway network. The city centre has over a lot of park and ride sites.[23] Manchester became the first city in the UK to get a new tram system when the Manchester Metrolink opened in 1992. There are lots of new lines being built.[24]

The city has one of the biggest bus networks outside London with over 50 bus companies operating in the Greater Manchester area around the city. First Manchester and Stagecoach Manchester are the main bus operators.[25] First Manchester also operates three free bus services called Metroshuttle which carry workers around Manchester's business areas.[26]

A big canal network runs though the city, built in the Industrial Revolution, today mainly used for leisure. The Manchester Ship Canal is open, but not many boats use it.[27]

Buildings

Manchester's buildings display many different types of building styles, from Victorian to contemporary architecture. The very common use of red bricks characterises the look of the city. Much of the architecture in the city dates back to its days as a global centre for the trade of cotton.[11] Just outside the city centre is a large number of former cotton mills, some of which have been left mostly untouched since they were closed, while many others have been turned into apartment buildings and office spaces.Manchester Town Hall, in Albert Square, was built in the gothic revival style and is thought of by many to be one of the most important Victorian buildings in all of England.[28]

Education

[[File:|thumb|right|The entrance to Whitworth Hall, part of the University of Manchester campus]] There are two universites in the City of Manchester. The University of Manchester, created in 2004 when Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST were combined, is the largest full-time non-collegiate university in the United Kingdom.[19] The Manchester Business School, located at the University of Manchester, was the first school to offer an MBA course in the United Kingdom in 1965. Manchester Metropolitan University was created as Manchester Polytechnic on the merger of three colleges in 1970. It was given university status in 1992, and in the same year, combined with Crewe and Alsager College of Higher Education, located in South Cheshire.[29]

Twin cities

Manchester has twinning plans (or "friendship agreements") with lots of places.[30][31] In addition, the British Council has a "metropolitan centre" in Manchester.[32] Although not an official twin city, Tampere, Finland is known as "the Manchester of Finland" – or "Manse" for short. Also, Ahmedabad, India became the centre of a booming textile industry, and it got the nickname "the Manchester of the East."[33][34]

Country Place County / District / Region / State Date
Nicaragua Bilwi Puerto Cabezas
Germany File:Coat of arms of Chemnitz[35] File:Coat of arms of Saxony 1983
Spain File:COA Córdoba, Córdoba File:Provincia de Córdoba - Córdoba
Israel Rehovot Center District
Russia File:Coat of Arms of Saint Petersburg (2003).png Saint Petersburg Northwestern Federal District 1962
File:Flag of the People' China Wuhan Hubei 1986
Pakistan Faisalabad Punjab 1997

References

  1. United Kingdom Census 2001 (2001). "Key Statistics for urban areas in England and Wales". statistics.gov.uk. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/corrections_ks_urban.asp. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  2. "Manchester 'England's second city'". BBC. 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2253035.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 
    "Manchester 'England's Second City'". Ipsos MORI. 2002. http://www.ipsos-mori.com/content/manchester-englands-second-city.ashx. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
    Riley, Catherine (2005). "Can Birmingham halt its decline?". The Times. http://property.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/property/article541043.ece. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
    "Manchester 'close to second city'". BBC. 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/manchester/4293814.stm. Retrieved 2006-05-02. 
    "Manchester tops second city poll". BBC. 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/6349501.stm. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 
    "Birmingham loses out to Manchester in second city face off". BBC. 2007. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2007/02_february/09/birmingham.shtml. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 
  3. "Manchester "the north's dynamite capital"". England's North West. 2007. http://www.englandsnorthwest.com/invest/news/archive/1417/manchester-the-north-s--dynamite-capital-.html. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
    "About Manchester". The University of Manchester. 2003. http://www.manchester.ac.uk/aboutus/manchester/. Retrieved 2006-10-24. 
    "Northern Soul Club UK Life Guide". British Council. 2003. http://www.educationuk.org/clubuk/1/northern_soul_man.html. Retrieved 2006-10-24. 
  4. "Britain's Best Cities 2005–2006 Executive Summary" (PDF). OMIS Research. 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-11-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20071126231935/http://www.omis.co.uk/Downloads/BBC06.pdf. Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  5. "Manchester – The State of the City". Manchester City Council. 2007. http://www.manchester.gov.uk/site/scripts/news_article.php?newsID=2915. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  6. Note: Manchester United's ground is in Greater Manchester but outside Manchester city limits; it is in the borough of Trafford
  7. 7.0 7.1 Kidd, Alan (2006). 'Manchester: A History'. Lancaster, Lancashire: Carnegie Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1859361285. 
    Frangopulo, Nicholas (1977). Tradition in Action. The historical evolution of the Greater Manchester County. Wakefield: EP Publishing. ISBN 0715812033. 
    "Manchester United in Celebration of City". European Structural Funding. 2002. http://www.eurofundingnw.org.uk/current_affairs.asp?section=affairs&id=34. Retrieved 2006-12-18. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Manchester Cottonopolis". Spinningtheweb.org.uk – Manchester City Council. 2005. http://www.spinningtheweb.org.uk/places/cottonopolis.php. Retrieved 2006-10-24. 
  9. "Manchester and Salford (Ancoats, Castlefield and Worsley)". UNESCO. 1999. http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1316/. Retrieved 2006-10-24. 
  10. "Information". The Peterloo Massacre Memorial Campaign. http://www.peterloomassacre.org/. Retrieved 2008-06-15. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Hartwell, Clare (2001). Pevsner Architectural Guides: Manchester. London, England: Penguin Books. pp. 11–17, 155, 256, 267–268. ISBN 0140711317. 
  12. A History of Manchester. Phillimore & Co Ltd. 2003. pp. pg. 227–230. ISBN 1860772404. http://www.phillimore.co.uk/acatalog/info_1860772404.html. 
  13. "Waterways in Manchester". Pennine Waterways. http://www.penninewaterways.co.uk/manchester/. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  14. "HeatonPark.org". Heaton Park. http://www.heatonpark.org.uk/HeatonPark/. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  15. Thomas, Lesley (2008-08-28). "Don't rain on our parade, Nemanja Vidic". Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/features/3637816/Dont-rain-on-our-parade-Nemanja-Vidic.html. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  16. "Manchester Airport". Manchester City Council. http://www.manchester.gov.uk/info/100011/travel_and_roads/2544/manchester_airport/1. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  17. "Rochdale claims its place in pop history". Manchester Evening News. 2009-09-26. http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/s/1142156_rochdale_claims_its_place_in_pop_history. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  18. "Local Area Info". http://www.crixtalproperty.co.uk/local_area.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-23. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 "Manchester still top of the popularity league". University of Manchester. 18 January 2007. http://www.manchester.ac.uk/aboutus/news/archive/list/item/index.htm?year=2007&month=january&id=99915. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  20. "Football fever". Visit Manchester web pages. Visit Manchester. http://www.visitmanchester.com/Parts2.aspx?PartId=51&ExperienceId=11. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  21. Wilson, James (26 April 2007). "A busy hub of connectivity". Financial Times – FT report – doing business in Manchester and the NorthWest (The Financial Times Limited). 
  22. "Passenger Numbers 2005-06". http://www.rail-reg.gov.uk/upload/xls/station_usage_2005-06.xls. Retrieved 2007-10-01. 
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  27. "North West Cities". Waterscape. British Waterways. 2007. http://www.waterscape.com/North_West_Cities. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
    Pivaro, Nigel (20 October 2006). "Ship canal cruising is all the rage". Manchester Evening News (M.E.N media). http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/s/226/226106_ship_canal_cruising_is_all_the_rage.html. Retrieved 2007-09-19. 
  28. Robinson (1986), The Architecture of Northern England, p. 153
  29. Fowler, Alan (1994). Many Arts, Many Skills: Origins of Manchester Metropolitan University. Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University. pp. 115–20, 226–8. ISBN 1-870355-05-9. 
  30. Stevens, Val (18 May 2007). "Questions to the Deputy Leader in 2007". Manchester City Council web pages. Manchester City Council. http://www.manchester.gov.uk/site/scripts/documents_info.php?documentID=2754. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
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  33. Engineer, Ashgar Ali (2003). The Gujarat Carnage. Orient Longman. p. 196. ISBN 8125024964. 
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  35. At the time of the twinning agreement, the city was in the German Democratic Republic and named Karl-Marx-Stadt. See "Friendship Agreements". Manchester City Council. http://www.manchester.gov.uk/site/scripts/documents_info.php?categoryID=100002&documentID=2632&pageNumber=3. Retrieved 2008-01-11. 

Further reading

  • General
    • Beesley, Ian (1988). Victorian Manchester and Salford. Keele: Ryburn. ISBN 1-85331-006-9. 
    • Hylton, Stuart (2003). A History of Manchester. Chichester: Phillimore & Company. ISBN 1-86077-240-4. 
    • Kidd, Alan J (1993). Manchester. Town and City Histories. Keele: Ryburn. ISBN 1-85331-016-6. 
    • Price, Jane; Ben Stebbing (editors) (2002). The Mancunian Way. Manchester: Clinamen Press Ltd. ISBN 1-903083-81-8. 
    • Redhead, Brian (1993). Manchester: a Celebration. London: Andre Deutsch Ltd. ISBN 0-233-98816-5. 
    • Schofield, Jonathan (2005). The City Life Guide to Manchester. Manchester: City Life. ISBN 0-9549042-2-2. 
  • Culture
    • Champion, Sarah (1990). And God Created Manchester. Manchester: Wordsmith. ISBN 1-873205-01-5. 
    • Gatenby, Phill (2002). Morrissey's Manchester: The Essential "Smiths" Tour. Empire Publications. ISBN 1-901746-28-3. 
    • Haslam, Dave (2000). Manchester, England. New York: Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-84115-146-7. 
    • Lee, C P (2002). Shake, Rattle and Rain – Popular Music Making in Manchester 1955–1995. Hardinge Simpole. ISBN 1-84382-049-8. 
    • Lee, C P (2004). Like The Night (Revisited): Bob Dylan and the Road to the Manchester Free Trade Hall. London: Helter Skelter Publishing. ISBN 1-900924-33-1. 
    • Savage, John (editor) (1992). The Hacienda Must Be Built. International Music Publications. ISBN 0-86359-857-9. 

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