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Manchester Cathedral
Manchester Cathedral Front Entrance.JPG

The north porch of Manchester Cathedral

Basic information
Location Manchester
Country England
Ecclesiastical information
Denomination Church of England
Province York
Diocese Manchester
Diocese created 1847
Dean Rogers Morgan Govender
Website www.manchestercathedral.org
Building information
Dates built 1421–1882
Architectural style Gothic (Perpendicular)

Manchester Cathedral is a medieval church on Victoria Street in central Manchester and is the seat of the Bishop of Manchester. The cathedral's official name is The Cathedral and Collegiate Church of St Mary, St Denys and St George in Manchester. It has also variously been known locally as St Mary's, Christ Church and, simply, t'owd church.[1]

Although extensively refaced, restored and extended in the Victorian period, and then again following severe bomb damage in the 20th century, the main body of the Cathedral largely derives from the wardenship of James Stanley (warden 1485–1506), and is in the Perpendicular Gothic style. Stanley was also primarily responsible for commissioning the spectacular late medieval wooden furnishings, including the pulpitum, the choir stalls, and the nave roof supported by angels with gilded instruments. It is one of the Grade I listed buildings in Manchester. The Cathedral's current Dean is the Very Reverend Rogers Morgan Govender.[2] The previous Dean, the Very Reverend Kenneth Riley retired in 2005.

Services are currently held on Mondays to Fridays at 9:00am (Morning Prayer), 1:10pm (Holy Communion), and 5:30pm (Evensong); on Saturdays at 9:00am (Morning Prayer), 9:15am (Holy Communion), and 3:30pm (Evensong); and on Sundays at 8:45am (Morning Prayer), 9:00am (Holy Communion), 10:30am (Sung Eucharist) and 5:30pm (Evening Prayer (Anglican)|Evensong).

Contents

History and furniture

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The Middle Ages

A church dedicated to St Mary is recorded in the Domesday Survey, although the only surviving evidence from this period is a small carving of an angel with a scroll, preserved in the Cathedral nave; the Old English inscription on the stone translates as "into thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit".[3][notes 1] The Domesday Book entry for Manchester reads "the Church of St Mary and the Church of St Michael hold one carucate of land in Manchester exempt from all customary dues except tax".[5][notes 2]

Construction of the predecessor church to the current building started in 1215 within the confines of the Baron's Court beside the Manor House. The occupying Lords of the Manor were the Grelley family, and their coat of arms is still associated with the Cathedral to this day. The Grelley family acted as stewards of the church, building and endowing the first chancery, the St. Nicholas Chancery. In 1311 the succession of the Grelley family ended, and the estate passed by marriage to the de la Warre family. The 14th century west tower and eastern Lady Chapel of this building were to be incorporated into the current structure (although little or no fabric of that date is still visible). In 1349 the St. Nicholas Chancery was endowed by the de Trafford family. The involvement of the de la Warre family was furthered in 1382 when Thomas de la Warre, later to be appointed Baron of Manchester, became Rector of the parish church.

In 1421, Thomas de la Warre obtained a licence from King Henry V and from Pope Martin V to establish a collegiate foundation in Manchester, appropriating the parish church for the purpose. The college was established in 1422 by royal charter, with a warden, eight fellows, four singing clerks and eight choristers; an exceptionally large foundation charged with the duty of praying for the souls of those killed in the King's campaigns in France. The priests of the college were housed in collegiate buildings to the north of the church, built on the site of the former Manor House. The buildings survive as Chetham's Hospital, founded by Humphrey Chetham on his death in 1653. They retain the fifteenth century hall, cloister and spectacular library. The library is the oldest surviving public library in Britain and among its readers was Karl Marx. Chetham's school was refounded in 1969 Chetham's Hospital School of Music, which rapidly attained international prestige as Britain's leading music academy for pre-university students. The boys of the Cathedral Choir are now drawn from among its students.

John Huntingdon served as the first warden from 1422–1458, during which he rebuilt the eastern arm of the parish church to provide a collegiate choir. Traditionally the third warden, Ralph Langley (1465–1481), is credited with rebuilding the nave. However, both nave and choir were substantially reconstructed again by James Stanley a few years later, when he raised the present clerestory and provided the richly decorated timber roofs. James's stepmother was Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of Henry VII and through their alliance with the new Tudor dynasty the Stanley's acquired fabulous wealth, as well as access to architects and craftsmen working on royal commissions. On stylistic grounds, the arcades and clerestory of Manchester Cathedral are attributed to John Wastell, who was also the architect for the completion of Kings College Chapel. The choir stalls were carved by the workshop of William Brownflet of Ripon, and are the finest of a series by those woodcarvers, that also includes the stalls at Ripon Cathedral, Beverly Minster, and Bridlington Priory. The carving of the misericord seats is exceptionaly fine.

The early 16th century also saw the construction of an almost complete sequence of chantry chapels for local guilds along both north and south sides of the church; in effect creating a double aisle around the parochial nave, which is consequently much wider than it is long. Indeed Manchester is commonly claimed to have the widest nave of any cathedral in England. James Stanley is also responsible for the embelishment of the nave roof with supporters in the form of fourteen life-size angel minstrels, each playing a different late medieval instrument; and for the endowment of his own chantry chapel at the north-east corner, in which he was buried in 1515.

The college was dissolved in 1547 in the reign of Edward VI by the Chantries Act, but then refounded by his sister Mary. Its future continued uncertain when Elizabeth I succeeded in 1559, but was eventually assured when Elizabeth granted a new charter in 1578, allowing a warden, four fellows, two chaplains, four singing men and four choristers. Consequently, along with Southwell Minster, Manchester was one of only two medieval collegiate foundations where daily choral worship was maintained after the Reformation; although these two were joined by Ripon when the collegiate foundation was restored in 1607. The most famous of the post-medieval wardens of Manchester was John Dee, magus and astrologer for Elizabeth I.

The Modern Period

The West Door and St Mary Window, viewed from inside the building

Under the Cathedrals Act of 1840, the Warden and Fellows of the collegiate church of Manchester were translated into Dean and Canons, in preparation for becoming the cathedral of a new diocese of Manchester – which was effected in 1847. By then both external and internal stonework were in a very poor state, partly due to the poor weathering qualities of the original Binney sandstone, but also due ot an ill advised attempt to lighten the interior by coating all internal surfaces of the nave with Roman Cement. All external stonework was replaced between 1850 and 1870, in a restoration by JS Crowther, who also replaced the internal stonework of the nave walls and arcades. The west tower was heightened by J.P. Holden in 1868 who also replaced all its external stonework. Consequently the cathedral gives the overall impression of a 19th-century structure.

The nave roof of the Cathedral supported by angel minstrels, viewed from the West Door

During the Manchester Blitz, a German bomb severely damaged the cathedral, completely demolishing both the Lady Chapel and James Stanley's chantry chapel, and blowing out all the Victorian stained glass. It took nearly twenty years to repair all of the destruction.

The cathedral became a Grade I listed building on 25 January 1952;[1] Grade I structures are those considered to be "buildings of exceptional interest".[7]

The building was again damaged by an IRA bomb in 1996. The cathedral houses extensive parish and historical archives, dating back to 1421. In 2003, a project began to provide an exhaustive catalogue of the archive's contents to the public. It was the setting for a marriage at the start of the 2006 episode of Cracker.

Misericords

The Cathedral has thirty 16th-century misericords, considered to be amongst the finest in Europe. It is worth noting that the misericords have a stylistic similarity to those at Ripon Cathedral and Beverley Minster – and although Manchester's post date-these, they were probably carved by the same school at Ripon. One of the most notable is N-08, which is the earliest known mention of backgammon in the UK.

Stained glass

All the Victorian stained glass in the cathedral was destroyed during the second world war – and until the late 1960s, only two windows had been replaced, notably the Fire Window by Margaret Traherne (1966). The Dean and Chapter commissioned Anthony Hollaway to prepare a scheme for reglazing the cathedral, with particular priority to the five western windows; St George (1973), St Denys (1976), St Mary (1980), The Creation (1991) and The Apocalypse (1995). To commemorate the restoration of the cathedral following an IRA bomb in 1996, the Healing Window by Linda Walton was installed in 2004.

Cathedral Bells

There are 10 bells in the cathedral tower hung for change ringing, which were cast in 1925 by Gillett & Johnston. The tenor (largest) bell has a mass of 1.3 tonnes and is tuned to the key of D. The bells are rung for church service on a Sunday morning and for special occasions, the latest being for a visit by HM the Queen for The Royal Maundy. One of the recipients of the Maundy Money was the tower Captain, Roland Eccles, for 35 years of service to ringing and to the Cathedral community.

Manchester Grammar School Founders' Day

Every year, on the third Friday in October, the Manchester Grammar School's Founders' Day Service is held in the Cathedral. Before moving to Fallowfield in the 1930s, MGS was situated in the building that is now Chetham's School of Music, next to the Cathedral. It is believed that this service is the oldest tradition in Manchester.

Today

The Manchester Museum Visitor Centre is next to the cathedral's south porch. It cost £3 million to build and was opened by Queen Elizabeth II. It includes a shop and an exhibition room.[8] The main attraction of the visitor centre is Hanging Bridge,[9] a 15th-century bridge and Scheduled Monument,[10] which before being displayed in the visitor centre had not been seen by the public for over 100 years.[9]

Organ and organists

Organ

Details of the organ from the National Pipe Organ Register

Organists

  • 1635 John Leigh
  • 1637 William Garter
  • 1666 William Turner
  • 1670 William Keys
  • 1679 Richard Booth
  • 1696 Edward Tetlow
  • 1702 James Holland
  • 1704 Edward Edge
  • 1714 Edward Betts
  • 1767 John Wainwright
  • 1768 Robert Wainwright
  • 1775 Richard Wainwright
  • 1783 Grifiith James Cheese
  • 1804 William Sudlow
  • 1831 William Sudlow and Joseph John Harris
  • 1848 Joseph John Harris
  • 1980 – 1992 Stuart Beer (Choirmaster)
  • 1981 – 1992 Gordon Brodie Stewart (Organist)
  • 1992 – 1996 Stuart Beer (Director of Music)
  • 1992 – 1996 Christopher Stokes (Organist)
  • 1996 – Christopher Stokes (Organist and Master of the Choristers)

Assistant organists

Aerial view of Manchester Cathedral

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Despite the Old English inscription, according to historian Alan Kidd the stone is probably of a later date, however he does not explain how he reached this conclusion.[4]
  2. ^ It's thought that the St Michael's Church mentioned in the Domesday Survey was on the site of St Michael and All Angels' Church in Ashton-under-Lyne.[6]

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b "A-Z of Listed Buildings in Manchester", Manchester City Council web pages (Manchester City Council), 2007, http://www.manchester.gov.uk/site/scripts/documents_info.php?documentID=1908&pageNumber=6, retrieved 2008-04-25 
  2. ^ The Dean, ManchesterCathedral.org, 12 January 2009, http://www.manchestercathedral.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=63&Itemid=185, retrieved 2010-01-08 
  3. ^ History of Manchester Cathedral, ManchesterCathedral.org, http://www.manchestercathedral.org/content/view/36/41/, retrieved 2009-01-14 
  4. ^ Kidd 2008, p. 2.
  5. ^ Hylton 2003, p. 9.
  6. ^ Hylton 2003, p. 10.
  7. ^ "What is a listed building?". Manchester City Council. http://www.manchester.gov.uk/site/scripts/documents_info.php?categoryID=514&documentID=1906. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  8. ^ Welcome to our Visitor Centre, mcvc.info, http://www.mcvc.info/, retrieved 2010-01-08 
  9. ^ a b "Bridge to Manchester's past revealed". BBC. 18 December 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/england/1717912.stm. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  10. ^ Hanging Bridge, Pastscape.org.uk, http://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=76682, retrieved 2008-01-07 
Bibliography
  • Hylton, Stuart (2003), A History of Manchester, Chichester: Phillimore and co. Ltd., ISBN 1-86077-240-4 
  • Kidd, Alan (2008), Manchester: A History, Carnegie Publishing, ISBN 1-85936-128-5 

External links

Coordinates: 53°29′07″N 2°14′41″W / 53.48528°N 2.24472°W / 53.48528; -2.24472


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