Manchester Metrolink: Wikis


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Manchester Metrolink
Manchester Metrolink 2008 logo.png
No 3001 Manchester Metrolink tram.jpg
Locale Greater Manchester
Transit type Light rail
Number of lines 3
Number of stations 37
Daily ridership 55,000
Headquarters Metrolink House,
Queens Road,
Manchester, England
Began operation 6 April 1992
Operator(s) Stagecoach Group
Number of vehicles 32 Ansaldobreda T-68s, 12 Bombardier M5000 (to be 48)
Train length 30 m (98 ft)
System length 37 km (23 mi)
Track gauge Standard gauge
Minimum radius of curvature 25 m (82 ft)[1]
Average speed 48 km/h (30 mph)
Top speed 80 km/h (50 mph)

Manchester Metrolink[2] (which operates as Metrolink) is a light rail system in Greater Manchester, England. It consists of three lines which converge in Manchester city centre and serve the surrounding towns of Bury, Altrincham and Eccles. The system is owned by the Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive (GMPTE) and operated under contract by Stagecoach Group.

Metrolink trams run on the highway in the city centre, but most of the routes in the suburbs use former heavy rail lines. Several extensions to the system are currently under construction or have been proposed. Late in 2008 works started extending the system to East Didsbury, Ashton-under-Lyne, Oldham, Rochdale, Mediacity:uk and Manchester Airport. The expansions will increase the system's length from 37 to 97 km (23 to 60 mi) with at least 99 stops. On 13 May 2009 funding was finally secured for phase 3b, with a small rise in council taxes, and work will start from late 2009.[3][4]. Further potential extensions to Stockport and the Trafford Centre are envisaged, subject to funding.



The need for a light rail system in Manchester was born out of a desire to link the two main railway stations, Piccadilly and Victoria. In the late 1960s and early 1970s there were plans for a "Picc-Vic tunnel" to carry main-line trains under the city centre[5], but this proposal was abandoned because of excessive cost.

Plans for a light rail system in Manchester were first drawn up in 1984, consisting of three lines radiating from the city centre with an estimated cost of £42.5million[6]. The plans were revised in 1987, and a trial using a prototype Docklands Light Railway train was carried out on a freight-only line[7].

Authority to begin construction was granted in January 1988. This involved closing the heavy rail lines from Bury to Victoria (which was electrified using a non-standard and life-expired system) and from Altrincham to Manchester Picadilly for conversion, and a new route through the city centre streets. The line opened between Bury and Victoria in April 1992; the full system was operational from August that year.

A second phase, which extended the network to Eccles, was opened in January 2001.


Metrolink is run as a public-private partnership between GMPTE and private transport firms. The system is currently operated and maintained by Stagecoach Metrolink, a subsidiary of the Scottish transport company, Stagecoach Group plc, who took over in 2007 under a 10-year fixed-term management contract which will run until July 2017.[8][9] Stagecoach also operate another British light rail system, Sheffield Supertram.

Metrolink was originally built and operated from 1989 by the consortium Greater Manchester Metrolink Limited (GMML). Several firms have been contracted in the past to operate and manage the network, including Altram (Manchester) Limited (a consortium of Ansaldo Transporti, Serco Investments Limited, Laing Civil Engineering and 3i) and Serco Metrolink.[10]

Routes and stations

Schematic map of the Metrolink network, 2008
Alternative map

Alternative version of this map
(more geographically representative)

Monday to Saturday service:

  1. BuryAltrincham (daytime only)
  2. PiccadillyBury
  3. PiccadillyAltrincham
  4. PiccadillyEccles

Sunday and Bank Holiday service:

  1. PiccadillyBury
  2. PiccadillyAltrincham
  3. PiccadillyEccles

Frequency on Bury – Altrincham services is every 12 minutes with services interspersed with Piccadilly services providing an overall frequency or around 1 tram every 5–6 minutes.

The current route length is:

Phase 1
Bury – Victoria 15.9 kilometres (9.9 mi)
Victoria – G-Mex 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi)
Spur to Piccadilly station 0.4 kilometres (0.2 mi)
G-Mex – Altrincham 12.2 kilometres (7.6 mi)
Phase 2
Cornbrook – Broadway 3.1 kilometres (1.9 mi)
Broadway – Eccles 3.9 kilometres (2.4 mi)

Rail interchanges on Metrolink include Piccadilly, Victoria, G-Mex (for Deansgate), Altrincham and Navigation Road. Eccles is also available for interchange via a 400-m walk. Major bus interchanges are at Bury, Victoria, Shudehill, Piccadilly Gardens, Altrincham and Eccles. In December 2007 there were 37 Metrolink stops: 17 former British Rail stations on the Phase 1 lines to Altrincham and Bury, 17 new stops on the Phase 1 lines in the city centre and on the Phase 2 line to Eccles, and 3 shared main line stations (Altrincham, Piccadilly and Victoria).

The Metrolink depot is south of Queen’s Road (Cheetham Hill, M8) on the western side of the Bury line, between Victoria and Woodlands Road. The depot connections face Bury. Queens Road staff halt serves the depot.[11] This facility will not be able to handle the expanded network, so GMPTE has obtained a site for a second depot near Old Trafford.[12] Work on this site, alongside the track between Trafford Bar and Old Trafford, commenced in early 2009 with the demolition of the remaining buildings on the site.

On 15 January 2010, A report was issued by GMITA (Greater Manchester Integrated Transport Authority) proposing the possible closure of Mosley Street station due to operational difficulties including the annual maintenance cost of retractable steps on the trams to access the profiled platform, the cramped location being unsuitable for full length platform conversion and tram congestion affecting the nearby piccadilly delta junction when frequency is increased.[13]

Bury Line Altrincham Line Eccles Line

(*)=Planned (#)=Planned to close

The line through Navigation Road is single track.

Fares and usage

A 2000 Metrolink tram crossing the Manchester Ship Canal at Pomona

Fares are charged according on the number of fare zones travelled through, and whether travel is in the peak period - before 0930 on weekdays (except public holidays).

Tickets are purchased from machines at each stop. Single journeys must be completed within 90 minutes, return journeys the same day. It is possible to purchase tickets from the machines for travel all day, for groups, or all weekend. Some ticket machines accept only coins, others also accept banknotes and give a maximum of £7 in change. Train users travelling into the city centre from stations in Greater Manchester are able to use the Metrolink in the central zone for nothing. These train tickets can be used between Victoria, Shudehill, Market Street, Piccadilly Gardens, Piccadilly, Mosley Street, St Peter's Square and G-Mex.[14] Free tram rides also extend to stations outside Greater Manchester between Ashley and Northwich. Standard rail tickets for stations between Altrincham and Mouldsworth are valid on Metrolink services on Sundays only. This was due to no trains running between Altrincham and Manchester on a Sunday between 1992 and December 2008, due to a GMPTE budgeting crisis in 1992 after which the service was not reinstated. A 2-hourly Sunday train service between Altrincham and Manchester has since been resumed, but tickets remain valid on Sundays.<[15] Metrolink is in the process of rolling out new ticketing stock which is similar to the systems in use with National Rail services. This includes the introduction of stronger credit card sized tickets with magnetic strip encoding.

All Metrolink tickets must be purchased before travel. A "standard fare" of £100 is charged for travelling without a valid ticket (Must be paid within 21 days of issue) (Reduced to £50 if paid within 14 days) [16]. Metrolink is policed by the Greater Manchester Police including Police Community Support Officers. An initiative by Greater Manchester Police, which saw around 15 officers routinely patrolling the tram network, was stopped due to lack of funds. On-board ticket checks are done by Carlisle Security on behalf of the GMPTE.

Metrolink carried 18.8 million passengers in 2004, compared to 7.5 million who used the Bury and Altrincham rail services before Metrolink. According to Metrolink sources, at least two million fewer car journeys have been made each year along the tram route. Metrolink has become something of a victim of its own popularity. Many services are extremely busy, especially at peak times at the city centre stations, and fares have risen at a rate far above that of inflation. In the first two years of Metrolink operation, peak hour patronage was well below expected levels, but off-peak patronage exceeded expectations. Metrolink reacted by reducing peak fares which improved loadings.


A 2000 Series street-running tram in Eccles.


The original vehicles operated on the Metrolink network since 1991 are T-68 trams built by the Italian manufacturer AnsaldoBreda. In 1999 the same company supplied six T-68a trams for operation on the Eccles extension. In December 2007 the Metrolink fleet consisted of 26 T-68 vehicles numbered in the 1000 series, and six T68a vehicles numbered in the 2000 series.

The trams normally operate singly, except during the rush hours when there are a few double trams along the Bury–Altrincham route. The trams consist of two units joined by an articulated section, with four doors per side. They are 30 m long and bi-directional with cabs at both ends.[17] The front and rear bogies are powered, with two 750 V, 105 kW motors per bogie. The third bogie, under the articulation, is not powered. The maximum speed is 112 kilometres per hour (70 mph), however 48 kilometres per hour (30 mph) is the maximum speed allowed for street running. There are 83 seats in each vehicle (plus four folding seats) and the nominal capacity is 200 passengers (250 maximum). Up to four trams can be worked in multiple, but the platform length on the Eccles line and city centre routes allow for a double unit only. Although the former heavy rail stations on the Bury and Altrincham lines can accept a triple or quadruple tram, each platform's public area is currently shorter than its full length. Twenty three trams have a nameplate, for a full list see the main article.


New M5000 Tram 3001 at Shudehill

As part of the "Big Bang" network extension project, the Metrolink fleet is being expanded with the introduction of new Flexity Swift high-floor trams, built by the Canadian manufacturer Bombardier Transportation.

In April 2007 eight Flexity Swift LRVs were ordered, designated 'M5000', similar to the K5000 series used in the German cities of Cologne and Bonn, and similar to the low-floor models used by London’s Tramlink. Each tram is 28.4m long, and has 52 standard seats with a further 8 'perch' seats. This was quickly followed by more orders taking the present order tally to 48 of which 12 have been delivered.


Mediacity:uk extension

The Mediacity:uk spur

The extension of the network to Mediacity:uk in Salford Quays is under development. Construction on the 400 metres (440 yd) spur off the Eccles line was due to start in spring 2009. The Transport and Works application was approved in May 2009.[18]

It is planned to open the new line in summer 2010.[19]

Phase 3

Construction work along the extension near Chorlton-cum-Hardy

Phase 3 is an ambitious expansion programme that will see trams running to Oldham, Rochdale, Ashton-under-Lyne, Wythenshawe and Manchester Airport.[20] It has been dubbed the "Big Bang" on account of the size of the planned extensions.[21]

Expansion of the Metrolink network has been promoted since the 1980s, but proposals have had mixed fortunes. In 2000, a £500 million expansion of Metrolink was announced by the Government, promising extensions to Oldham, Rochdale, Ashton-under-Lyne, Wythenshawe and Manchester Airport.[22] These plans were later cancelled due to increasing costs.[23]

Phase 3 was eventually split into two more phases due to funding constraints, known as Phase 3a and Phase 3b. In December 2004 the government announced that £520 million would be authorised for Phase 3a. Phase 3a was given the go-ahead by the Department for Transport in July 2006, with a £300m funding gap expected to be met by a loan.[24] Funding for Phase 3b was tied in with the Greater Manchester Transport Innovation Fund; following the rejection of congestion charging in Manchester in a 2008 referendum, councils grouped together and agreed a way to raise the capital through loans, council tax rises and the government releasing future funding.[25] In May 2009, a revival of Phase 3 was announced, with plans to complete both phases of the "Big Bang" as part of one project, funded by national and local government.[3]

Summary of Metrolink Phase 3 extension plans
Rochdale Line East Manchester Line South Manchester Line
Metrolink phase3 rochdale.png Metrolink phase3 east manchester.png Metrolink phase south manchester line.png

Phase 3a:

  • Conversion of part of the Oldham Loop line Victoria - Rochdale

Phase 3b:

  • Re-route line through Oldham town centre
  • Extension into Rochdale Town Centre

Phase 3a:

  • Construction of the line as far as Droylsden

Phase 3b:

  • Extension to Ashton-under-Lyne

Phase 3a:

  • Construction of the line as far as St. Werburgh's Road

Phase 3b:

  • Extension to East Didsbury
  • Extension to Manchester Airport

Phase 3a

  Manchester Metrolink
Proposed Extensions (Phase 3a)
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Rochdale Railway Station
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Kingsway Business Park
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Shaw and Crompton
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Oldham Mumps
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Oldham Werneth
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South Chadderton
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To Bury; Failsworth
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Abraham Moss ; Dean Lane
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Woodlands Road; Central Park
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To Eccles
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Queens Road; Monsall
Urban straight track Unknown route-map component "uHST" Unknown route-map component "ueABZrg" Unused waterway turning right
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G-Mex; Victoria
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St Peter's Square; Shudehill
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Mosley Street; Market Street
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Trafford Bar
Unused waterway turning from left Waterway with unused branch to right Unknown route-map component "uHST"
Piccadilly Gardens
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Firswood; Piccadilly
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To Altrincham; New Islington
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Chorlton-cum-Hardy; Holt Town
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Chorlton High; Sportcity:Stadium
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Edge Lane
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Cemetery Road
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Phase 3a will take over the existing heavy rail Oldham Loop Line to Oldham and Rochdale, and extensions to Droylsden and to St Werburgh's Road in Chorlton-cum-Hardy.[20]

Environmental surveys began in April 2008[26] which will continue until the autumn. Several companies were short-listed to build the extensions[26] with the M-Pact Thales consortium, made up of Thales, Laing O'Rourke and GrantRail, being eventually picked[27] in spring 2008. The project's final cost was calculated at £575 million and was signed off in May 2008[27]. Construction started in 2009[28] and the new lines are hoped to become operational in 2011/12.

Phase 3b

Phase 3b will divert the Phase 3a Rochdale line into Oldham and Rochdale town centres, and extend the Droylsden line to Ashton-under-Lyne and the St Werburgh's Road line to East Didsbury and Manchester Airport.[20]

Phase 3b forms part of Greater Manchester’s integrated transport strategy, which recommends a wide-ranging package of transport investment and traffic management measures. In July 2007 GMPTE and the AGMA submitted a bid to the Government's Transport Innovation Fund to secure the funding for this package which would have guaranteed the extensions to these destinations. The bid was put to a referendum and rejected by the residents of Greater Manchester. Following on from this, AGMA agreed a package to raise the capital needed for the extensions and work will begin in late 2009.

Two further Metrolink extensions were included in the 2007 GMPTE plans, serving Stockport and the Trafford Centre. The Trafford Centre line will continue from Pomona viaduct on the Eccles line, which has been built with the expansion in mind, and will have stops serving the Manchester United home ground at Old Trafford and Imperial War Museum North. These extensions are awaiting funding from private sector sources. Proposals to extend the East Didsbury line to Stockport town centre have not been approved by the Department for Transport and would therefore need to be deferred.

Concerns were raised in the original Phase 3 proposals regarding the continued reliance on a single route through the city centre, which could have become a bottleneck when the new extensions opened, with six or seven routes running over the same track. GMPTE has reacted to this by including an additional line, probably along Cross Street between GMex and Victoria with stops at the Manchester Town Hall and Arndale Shopping Centre. There will be a Bus Rapid Transit route developed linking the Metrolink service in the centre of Manchester with Leigh and Salford that will not be reached by the Phase 3b extensions.

The full proposal for the Metrolink extensions, including the additional city centre crossing and Trafford Park lines, and linking with new Bus Rapid Transit routes, would take the total cost of Phase 3 to an estimated £1.2 billion, requiring revenue from the government and local council taxes.[29]. AGMA commissioned a public referendum on the plans, including the congestion charge, and this concluded on 11 December 2008. Each borough representative agreed to vote in accordance with the public vote of their residents, with a minimum 7 to 3 majority of boroughs being required for the TIF proposal to proceed. 79% of the votes were cast against the plans[30].

The network including all immediately planned proposed expansions would increase in size from 37 kilometres (23.0 mi) with 37 stops to 97.3 kilometres (60 mi) with at least 105 stops, and carrying 70 million passengers per year.

Project Length New trams required
Extension spur from Harbour City to Mediacity funded jointly by Peel Holdings and North West Development Agency, service to run between Cornbrook and Mediacity every 12 minutes 0.4 kilometres (0.2 mi) 4
Additional route across Manchester city centre between Central and Victoria 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) Not yet known
Conversion of existing railway from Victoria to Oldham and Rochdale (plus some street running) 25 kilometres (15.5 mi) 12
Extension to Manchester Airport 14.5 kilometres (9.0 mi) 16
Extension to Ashton-under-Lyne 10.2 kilometres (6.3 mi) 10
Extension to East Didsbury 7.2 kilometres (4.5 mi) 10

Phase 3 Big Bang revival, May 2009

At a meeting of AGMA (the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities), 12 May 2009, cross-party agreement was reached between representatives of all ten Greater Manchester authorities for an increase in Council Tax to cover a number of transport improvements.[3][31] The list of 10 schemes costing £1.4 billion includes some road and bus improvements but crucially for Metrolink fills the gap in funding left by the shortfall of the "3a" scheme.

The money is to be found by a combination of an increase in council tax (by approx £2 per year per council tax payer), contributions from Manchester Airport, increased revenue from passenger journeys and the early release of some central government money, previously earmarked for transport improvements in the conurbation.[32] The revived project was presented by the leader of Manchester City Council Sir Richard Leese as "a new plan" which had been drawn up after the failure of the Transport Innovation Fund referendum.[33]

Further projects

The Metrolink expansion proposals still not programmed following this announcement are:

  • The Trafford Park/Trafford Centre line (dependent on private sector funding)[34]
  • The full extension of the Didsbury line into Stockport Town centre.

In addition, feasibility work is continuing on possible further Metrolink expansions beyond the Phase 3 network:

A 2001 official document called the Greater Manchester Strategic Rail Study by the Department for Transport [38], also included several other potential routes that could be considered for potential Tram-Train or light rail working. This included an indicative route through inner South Manchester, which although drawn approximately on the reports map [39] as heading down Kingsway, a more likely, if technically difficult route, would be the Oxford Road-Wilmslow Road corridor. This route has also been raised as a potential Bus Rapid Transit route[40] where work is currently underway to restrict part of the route to buses only [41][42]. Princess Parkway was also considered at one point for the South Manchester (to Airport) route[43].


Metrolink been criticised for its concessionary fares policy, in particular the student fare which does not extend to students over 19 years old[44] This has attracted criticism in the form of a web-based petition from the student population, which has recently led to an assessment of demand to alter the pricing and upper age limit to the current student fare[45]. (A Railcard for 16-25s and full-time students over 25 is on sale for rail journeys [46] but is not valid for Metrolink journeys apart from through journeys from the National Rail network.) Metrolink is also unpopular with cyclists as bicycles are prohibited, unlike on heavy rail.[citation needed]

GMPTE has invested a lot of money converting popular heavy rail lines to light rail, which has attracted criticism.[47][48] Critics have remarked that while trams may run more frequently than heavy rail services, they are much smaller, meaning that there is actually less capacity on the Altrincham and Bury lines than in the 1980s.[47] They also point out that all trams call at every station, meaning that they are slower at reaching Manchester than some of the 1980s train services.[47]

The conversion of the Altrincham line has meant that trains from Knutsford, Northwich and Chester must take a longer route to Manchester through Stockport. In December 2008 that service had to be cut back further due to a shortage of paths through Stockport.[49] which resurfaced criticism about conversion of the Altrincham line.[48] Similarly, there have been suggestions that Rawtenstall should get a regular train service to Manchester, via the East Lancashire Railway, with the conversion of the Bury line this creates complications.

There have been public calls from as early as 1996 that the city centre spine via Mosley Street to Victoria could face a "tram-jam" when Metrolink vehicles are feeding into it from up to 8 termini across the urban area. This potential problem will be mostly solved by the proposed "Second City Crossing" (see above).

Issues regarding safety after operator Serco handed over to Stagecoach Group have arisen over 2008. It is alleged that Serco allowed maintenance to decline after losing the franchise.[50] A second derailment in just over six months followed on 29 June 2008, at Princess Street, while carrying passengers from a Radiohead concert at Lancashire County Cricket Ground.[51] The Rail Accident Investigation Branch report into this derailment was damning of the state of maintenance of the track, reporting that the keep rail (the rail on the inside of the wheel) on one track had worn down to a thickness of only 2.5 millimetres, from an initial 15 mm, and that there was a lack of communication between Metrolink, Serco, and Stagecoach Group on the state of the track at the time the franchise was transferred.[52]

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ Department for Transport (2005-02-02). "Manchester Metrolink Working Group Minutes". Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  3. ^ a b c "Tram line extension is approved". BBC News. 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-05-17. 
  4. ^ "Metrolink: back on track?". BBC Manchester. 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-05-17. 
  5. ^ SELNEC (October 1971), SELNEC Picc-Vic Line, SELNEC  publicity brochure
  6. ^ Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive (1984), Light Rapid Transit in Greater Manchester, GMPTE  - publicity brochure
  7. ^ "Stagecoach signs Manchester Metrolink contract". Press release (Stagecoach Group). 2007-05-29. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  8. ^ "Stagecoach take over tram service". BBC News (British Broadcasting Corporation). 15 July 2007. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  9. ^ "Past, Present and Future". Metrolink. 2003. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  10. ^ "Bury line description". Light Rail Transit Association. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  11. ^ "New Metrolink depot". Light Rail Transit Association. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  12. ^
  13. ^|title=Free tram rides for Greater Manchester's train passengers|date=2007-08-09|publisher = Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive|accessdate=2008-07-10}}
  14. ^ "Mid-Cheshire Rail Users Association: Response to Draft North-West Rail Utilisation Strategy". Network Rail. 2007-01-02. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 
  15. ^ "Standard Fare". Metrolink. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  16. ^ "Manchester Metrolink LRV". Ansaldobreda. Retrieved 2008-01-04. 
  17. ^ "Pieces fall into place for MediaCityUK tram line". GMPTE. Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
  18. ^ "Future Metrolink - MediaCityUK Line". GMPTE. Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
  19. ^ a b c "Metrolink Future Network". GMPTE. 2006. Retrieved 2008-12-28.  - map of the proposed network expansion
  20. ^ "£289m for Metrolink 'Big Bang'". Manchester Evening News. 2000-03-22. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  21. ^ "£500m tram extension unveiled". BBC News. 2000-03-22. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  22. ^ "Government scraps trams extension". BBC News. 2004-07-20. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  23. ^ "Metrolink extension is announced". BBC News. 2006-07-06. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  24. ^ "Metrolink - the little Bang?". BBC Manchester. 2006-07-07. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  25. ^ a b "Environmental experts inspect new Metrolink routes". Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive. 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2008-04-15. 
  26. ^ a b "£575 million Metrolink expansion gets final sign off". Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive. 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2008-05-30. 
  27. ^ "What Happens Next". Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  28. ^ Frame, Don; Craig, Ian (2006-07-06). "Metrolink wins a 'Little Bang'". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  29. ^ "Voters reject congestion charge". BBC News Online. 2008-12-12. Retrieved 2008-12-12. 
  30. ^ Ottewell, David (2009-05-13). "£1.4bn transport boost". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 2009-05-17. 
  31. ^ "Transport Briefing". Retrieved 2009-05-24. (subscription required)
  32. ^ Linton, Deborah (2009-05-13). "£1.4bn transport deal unveiled". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 2009-05-17. 
  33. ^ "An Integrated Transport Strategy for Greater Manchester". GMITA. pp. 13. Retrieved 2009-07-13. 
  34. ^ ibid, p 16
  35. ^ a b ibid, p 12
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^ Bainbridge, Pete (2 October 2009). "Buses to take over Oxford Road". Manchester Evening News. 
  42. ^
  43. ^ "Concessions and Child Fares". Manchester Metrolink. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  44. ^ "Petition to introduce a student fare on the Manchester Metrolink service". 10 Downing Street. Retrieved 2008-09-19. 
  45. ^
  46. ^ a b c "Reponse to draft North-West Rail Utilisiation Strategy". Mid Cheshire Rail Users' Association. 2007-01-02. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 
  47. ^ a b
  48. ^
  49. ^ Binns, Simon (2008-04-24). "Track’s poor condition to blame for tram derailment". Crain's Manchester Business. Retrieved 2008-06-30. 
  50. ^ "City centre tram chaos". Manchester Evening News. 2008-06-30. Retrieved 2008-06-30. 
  51. ^ [ "Derailment at St Peter’s Square, Manchester 29 June 2008. Report 25/2009"]. Department for Transport: Rail Accident Investigation Branch. September 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 

Further reading

  • Holt, David (1992). Manchester Metrolink. UK light rail systems; no. 1. Sheffield: Platform 5. p. 96. ISBN 1-872524-36-2. 

External links

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