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Mandarin may refer to any of the following:

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  • Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China, Vietnam and by analogy, any government bureaucrat

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Chinese phrasebook article)

From Wikitravel

Chinese script in Chinatown, Singapore
Chinese script in Chinatown, Singapore

Mandarin Chinese is the official language of China and Taiwan, and is one of the official languages of Singapore. In English, it is often just called "Mandarin" or "Chinese". In China, it is called Putonghua (普通话), meaning "common speech", while it Taiwan it is referred to as Guoyu (國語) - "the national language." It has been the main language of education in China (but not Hong Kong) since the 1950s. Standard Mandarin is close to, but not quite identical with, the dialect of the Beijing area. Note that while the spoken mandarin in the above places is the same, the written characters are different. In Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau traditional characters are used, whereas China and Singapore use a simplified derivative.

Map of Chinese dialects
Map of Chinese dialects

The word "dialect" means something different when applied to Chinese than it does for other languages. Chinese "dialects" are often mutually unintelligible, as different as, say, Spanish and French and even English, which we would call "related languages" rather than "dialects".

However, while there are different spoken dialects of Chinese, there is only one form of written Chinese, with one common set of characters - mostly. An exception arises where in some spoken dialects, for example Cantonese as used in Hong Kong, more informal phrasings are used in everyday speech than what would be written. Thus, there are some extra characters that are sometimes used in addition to the common characters to represent the spoken dialect and other colloquial words. One additional complication is that mainland China and Singapore use simplified characters, a long-debated change completed by the mainland Chinese government in 1956 to facilitate the standardization of language across China's broad minority groups and sub-dialects. Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macau and many overseas Chinese use the traditional characters. In addition, the Dungan language, which is spoken in some parts of Russia, is considered to be a variant of Mandarin but uses the Cyrillic alphabet instead of Chinese characters.

About one fifth of the people in the world speak some form of Chinese as their native language, making it the most widely spoken language in the world. It is a tonal language that is related to Burmese and Tibetan. Although Japanese and Korean use Chinese written characters and a large number of Chinese loanwords, they are not in the same language family. Rather they are related in a manner that resembles English having a lot of Romance language-derived loanwords while being a Germanic language. Also, the unrelated Vietnamese language (which uses a distinctive version of the Latin alphabet) language has borrowed many words from Chinese.

Note that travellers headed for Hong Kong, Macau or Guangdong will almost certainly find Cantonese more useful than Mandarin.

Chinese, like most other Asian languages such as Arabic, is famous for being difficult to learn but it needn't be. While English speakers would initially have problems with the tones and recognizing many different characters (Chinese has no alphabet), the grammar is very simple and can be picked up very easily. Most notably, Chinese grammar does not have conjugation, tenses, gender, plurals or other grammatical rules which are found in other major languages such as English, French or Japanese.

Pronunciation guide

The pronunciation guide below uses Hanyu pinyin, the official romanization of the People's Republic of China. Until recently, Taiwan used the Wade-Giles system, which is quite different, but has recently officially switched to Tongyong pinyin, which is only slightly different.

Pinyin allows very accurate pronunciation of Chinese if you understand how it works, but the way it uses letters like q, x, c, z and even i is not at all intuitive to the English speaker. Studying the pronunciation guide below carefully is thus essential.

Vowels

Some pinyin vowels (esp. "e", "i", "ü") can be tricky, so it's best to get a native speaker to demonstrate. Also beware of the spelling rules listed in Exceptions below.

as in father
unrounded back vowel (IPA [ɤ]), similar to duh; in unstressed syllables becames a schwa (IPA [ə]), like idea
as in see or key;
after sh, zh, s, z or r, not really a vowel at all but just a stretched-out consonant sound
as in saw
as in soon; but read ü in ju, qu, yu and xu
ü 
as in French lune or German grün

Diphthongs

As in any language, there are diphthongs in Chinese, and they are listed below:

ai 
as in pie
ao
as in pouch
ei 
as in pay
ia
as in ya
ia in ' ian'
as in 'yes
iao
as in meow
ie
as in yes
iong
as in Pyongyang
ou
as in mow
ua
as in what
uo
as in war

Consonants

Chinese stops distinguish between aspirated and unaspirated, not voiceless and voiced as in English. Aspirated sounds are pronounced with a distinctive puff of air, the way they are in English when at the beginning of a word, while unaspirated sounds are pronounced without the puff, as in English when found in clusters. Place a hand in front of your mouth and compare pit (aspirated) with spit (unaspirated) to see the difference.

Unaspirated Aspirated
b
as in spot
p
as in pit
d
as in do
t
as in tongue
g
as in skin
k
as in king
j
as in jeer
q
as in cheap
zh
as in jungle
ch
as in chore
z
as in zebra
c
as in rats

The other consonants in Chinese are:

as in mow
as in fun
as in none or none
as in lease
as in her
as in sheep
sh 
as in shoot
as in fair
as in sag
ng 
as in sing
as in wing, but silent in wu
as in yet, but silent in yi, yu

If you think that's a fairly intimidating repertoire, rest assured that you're not alone, and many Chinese, particularly those who are not native Mandarin speakers, will merge many of the sounds above (eg. q with ch, j with zh).

Exceptions

There are a fairly large number of niggling exceptions to the basic rules above, based on the position of the sound. Some of the more notable ones include:

wu- 
as u-, so 五百 wubai is pronounced "ubai"
yi- 
as i-, so 一个 yige is pronounced "ige"
yü- 
as ü-, so 豫园 Yuyuan is pronounced "ü-üan"

How do I put my tone marks?

If you're confused by how to put tone marks above the Hanyu Pinyin, follow the steps below:

Always insert tone marks above the vowels. If there is more than 1 vowel letter, follow the steps below:

(1) Insert it above the 'a' if that letter is present. For example, it is rǎo and not raǒ

(2) If not, insert it above 'o'. eg. guó and not gúo

(3) Insert it above the letter 'e' if the letters 'a' and 'o' are not present. eg. jué and not júe

(4) If only 'i', 'u' and 'ü' are the only present letters, insert it in the letter than occurs last. eg. jiù and not jìu, chuí and not chúi. Note, if the vowel present is ü, the tone mark is put in addition to the umlaut. eg. lǜ

There are four tones in Mandarin that must be followed for proper pronunciation. If you are not used to tonal languages then never underestimate the importance of these tones. Consider a vowel with a different tone as simply a different vowel altogether, and you will realize why Chinese will not understand you if mess this up — is to as "I want a cake" is to "I want a coke". Be especially wary of questions that have a falling tone, or conversely exclamations that have an "asking" tone (eg jǐngchá, police!). In other words, pronounced like does not imply meaning. While Mandarin speakers also vary their tone just like English speakers do to differentiate a statement from a question and convey emotion, this is much more subtle than in English so it is best not to try it until you have mastered the basic tones.

1. first tone ( ā ) 
flat, high pitch — more sung instead of spoken
2. second tone ( á ) 
low to middle, rising — pronounced like the end of a question phrase (Whát?)
3. third tone ( ǎ ) 
middle to low to high, dipping — Note: For two consecutive words in the 3rd tone, the first word is pronounced as if it is in the 2nd tone. For example, 打扰 dǎrǎo is pronounced as dárǎo.
4. fourth tone ( à ) 
high to low, rapidly falling — pronounced like a command (Stop!)
5. a fifth tone 
this is a neutral tone, which is rarely used by itself (mostly for phrase particles), but frequently occurs as the second part of a phrase.

Phrase list

All phrases shown in here use the simplified characters used in mainland China and Singapore. See Chinese phrasebook - Traditional for a version using the traditional characters still used on Taiwan.

To be or not to be?

Chinese does not have words for "yes" and "no" as such; instead, questions are typically answered by repeating the verb. Common ones include:

To be or not to be
是 shì, 不是 bú shì
To have or not have / there is or is not
有 yǒu, 没有 méi yǒu
To be right or wrong
对 duì, 不对 bú duì
Hello. 
你好。 Nǐ hǎo.
How are you? 
你好吗? Nǐ hǎo ma? 身体好吗? Shēntǐ hǎo ma?
Fine, thank you. 
很好, 谢谢。 Hěn hǎo, xièxie.
May I please ask, what is your name? 
请问你叫什么名? Qǐngwèn nǐjiào shěnme míng?
Who are you? 
你叫什么名字? Nǐ jiào shénme míngzi?
My name is ______ . 
我叫 _____ 。 Wǒ jiào ______ .
Nice to meet you. 
很高兴认识你。 Hěn gāoxìng rènshì nǐ.
Please. 
请。 Qǐng.
Thank you. 
谢谢。 Xièxiè.
You're welcome. 
不客气。 Bú kèqi.
Excuse me. (getting attention
请问 qǐng wèn
Excuse me. (begging pardon
打扰一下。 Dǎrǎo yixià ; 麻烦您了, Máfán nín le.
I'm sorry. 
对不起。 Duìbùqǐ.
It's okay. (polite response to "I'm sorry")
没关系 (méiguānxi).
Goodbye 
再见。 Zàijiàn
Goodbye (informal
拜拜。 Bai-bai (Byebye)
I can't speak Chinese. 
我不会说中文。 Wǒ bú huì shuō zhōngwén.
Do you speak English? 
你会说英语吗? Nǐ huì shuō Yīngyǔ ma?
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
这里有人会说英语吗? Zhèlĭ yǒu rén hùi shuō Yīngyǔ ma?
Help! (in emergencies)
救命! Jiùmìng!
Good morning. 
早安。 Zǎo'ān.
Good evening. 
晚上好。 Wǎnshàng hǎo.
Good night. 
晚安。 Wǎn'ān.
I don't understand. 
我听不懂。 Wǒ tīng bù dǒng.
Where is the toilet? 
厕所在哪里? Cèsuǒ zài nǎli?

Asking a question in Chinese

There are many ways to ask a question in Chinese. Here are two easy ones for travelers...

Verb/Adj. + bù + Verb/Adj. 
Example - hăo bù hăo? - Are you ok? (literally - good not good?)

Exception - yŏu méi yŏu? - Do you have? (literally - have not have?)

Sentence + ma 
Example - nĭ shì zhōngguóren ma? - Are you Chinese? (literally - you are chinese + ma)
Leave me alone. 
不要打扰我。 (búyào dǎrǎo wǒ)
I don't want it! (useful for people who come up trying to sell you something) 
我不要 (wǒ búyào!)
Don't touch me! 
不要碰我! (búyào pèng wǒ!)
I'll call the police. 
我要叫警察了。 (wǒ yào jiào jǐngchá le)
Police! 
警察! (jǐngchá!)
Stop! Thief! 
住手!小偷! (zhùshǒu! xiǎotōu!)
I need your help. 
我需要你的帮助。 (wǒ xūyào nǐde bāngzhù)
It's an emergency. 
这是紧急情况。 (zhèshì jǐnjí qíngkuàng)
I'm lost. 
我迷路了。 (wǒ mílù le)
I lost my bag. 
我丟了手提包。 (wǒ diūle shǒutíbāo)
I lost my wallet. 
我丟了钱包。 (wǒ diūle qiánbāo)
I'm sick. 
我生病了。 (wǒ shēngbìng le)
I've been injured. 
我受伤了。 (wǒ shòushāng le)
I need a doctor. 
我需要医生。 (wǒ xūyào yīshēng)
Can I use your phone? 
我可以打个电话吗? (wǒ kěyǐ dǎ ge diànhuà ma?)
I am sick. 
我生病了。 (wǒ shēngbìng le)
Painful. 
痛。 (tòng)
Uncomfortable. 
不舒服。 (bù shūfú)
Itchy/ticklish. 
痒。(yǎng)
Sore (In muscle strains). 
酸。(suān)
Fever. 
发烧。 (fāshāo)
Cough. 
咳嗽。 (késòu)
Sneeze. 
打喷嚏 (dǎ pēntì)
Diarrhoea. 
泻肚子/拉肚子 (xiè dùzi/lā dùzi)
Running nose. 
流鼻涕 (liú bítì)
Phlegm. 
痰。 (tán)
Hands/Arms. 
手。 (shǒu)
Fingers. 
手指。(shǒuzhǐ)
Wrist. 
手腕。 (shǒuwàn)
Shoulder. 
肩膀。 (jiānbǎng)
Feet. 
脚。 (jiǎo)
Toes. 
脚指。 (jiǎozhǐ)
Legs. 
腿。 (tuǐ)
Nails. 
指甲。 (zhǐjiǎ)
Body. 
身体。 (shēntǐ)
Eyes. 
眼睛。 (yǎnjīng)
Ears. 
耳朵。 (ěrduo)
Nose. 
鼻子。 (bízi)
Face. 
脸。 (liǎn)
Hair. 
头发。 (tóufǎ)
Head. 
头。 (tóu)
Neck. 
颈项/脖子。 (jǐngxiàng/bózi)
Throat. 
喉咙。 (hóulóng)
Chest. 
胸。 (xiōng)
Abdomen. 
肚子。 (dùzi)
Hip/Waist. 
腰。 (yāo)
Buttocks. 
屁股。 (pìgǔ)
Back. 
背。 (bèi)

Numbers

Chinese numbers are very regular. While Indo-Arabic (Western) numerals have become more common, the Chinese numerals shown below are still used, particularly in informal contexts like markets. The characters in parentheses are generally used in financial contexts, such as writing cheques and printing banknotes.

0 〇, 零 
líng
1 一 (壹) 
2 二 (贰) 
èr (两 liǎng is used when specifying quantities)
3 三 (叁) 
sān
4 四 (肆) 
5 五 (伍) 
6 六 (陆) 
liù
7 七 (柒) 
8 八 (捌) 
9 九 (玖) 
jiǔ
10 十 (拾) 
shí
11 十一 
shí-yī
12 十二 
shí-èr
13 十三 
shí-sān
14 十四 
shí-sì
15 十五 
shí-wǔ
16 十六 
shí-liù
17 十七 
shí-qī
18 十八 
shí-bā
19 十九 
shí-jiǔ
20 二十 
èr-shí
21 二十一 
èr-shí-yī
22 二十二 
èr-shí-èr
23 二十三 
èr-shí-sān
30 三十 
sān-shí
40 四十 
sì-shí
50 五十 
wǔ-shí
60 六十 
liù-shí
70 七十 
qī-shí
80 八十 
bā-shí
90 九十 
jiǔ-shí

For numbers above 100, any "gaps" must be filled in with 〇 líng, as eg. 一百一 yībǎiyī would otherwise be taken as shorthand for "110". A single unit of tens may be written and pronounced either 一十 yīshí or just 十 shí.

100 一百 (壹佰)
yī-bǎi
101 一百〇一 
yī-bǎi-líng-yī
110 一百一十 
yī-bǎi-yī-shí
111 一百一十一 
yī-bǎi-yī-shí-yī
200 二百 
èr-bǎi or 两百:liǎng-bǎi
300 三百 
sān-bǎi
500 五百 
wǔ-bǎi
1000 一千 (壹仟)
yī-qiān
2000 二千 
èr-qiān or 两千:liǎng-qiān

Numbers above 10,000 are grouped by in units of four digits, starting with 万 wàn (ten thousand). "One million" in Chinese is thus "hundred tenthousands" (一百万).

10,000 一万 (壹萬)
yī-wàn
10,001 一万〇一 
yī-wàn-líng-yī
10,002 一万〇二 
yī-wàn-líng-èr
20,000 二万 
èr-wàn
50,000 五万 
wǔ-wàn
100,000 十万 
shí-wàn
200,000 二十万 
èr-shí-wàn
1,000,000 一百万 
yī-bǎi-wàn
10,000,000 一千万 
yī-qiān-wàn
100,000,000 一亿 (壹億) 
yī-yì
1,000,000,000,000 一兆 
yī-zhào
number _____ (train, bus, etc.
number measure word (路 lù, 号 hào, ...) _____ (huǒ chē, gōng gòng qì chē, etc.)

Measure words are used in combination with a number to indicate an amount of mass nouns, similar to how English requires "two pieces of paper" rather than just "two paper". Read this for full details. When in doubt, use 个 (ge); even though it may not be correct you will probably be understood because it is the most common measure word. (One person: 一个人 yīgè rén; two apples: 两个苹果 liǎnggè píngguǒ; note that two of something always uses 两 liǎng rather than 二 èr).

half 
半 bàn
less than 
少於 shǎoyú
more than 
多於 duōyú
more 
更 gèng
now 
现在 xiànzài
later 
以后, yǐhòu or shāohòu
before 
以前, yǐqián
morning 
早上, zǎoshàng
noon
中午, zhōngwǔ
afternoon 
下午, xiàwǔ
evening/night 
晚上, wǎnshàng
midnight
半夜 bànyè or 午夜 (wǔyè)

Clock time

What time is it? 
现在几点? Xiànzài jǐ diǎn?
It is nine in the morning. 
早上9点钟。 Zǎoshàng jǐu diǎn zhōng.
Three-thirty PM. 
下午3点半. Xiàwǔ sān diǎn bàn.
3
38 PM. : 下午3点38分 (xiàwǔ sāndiǎn sānshíbā fēn).

Duration

_____ minute(s) 
_____ 分钟 fēnzhōng
_____ hour(s) 
_____ 小时 xiǎoshí
_____ day(s) 
_____ 天 tiān
_____ week(s) 
_____ 星期 xīngqī
_____ month(s) 
_____ 月 yùe
_____ year(s) 
_____ 年 nián

Days

today 
今天 jīntiān
yesterday 
昨天 zuótiān
the day before yesterday
前天qiăntiān
tomorrow 
明天 míngtiān
the day after tomorrow
后天 hòutiān
this week 
这个星期 zhège xīngqī
last week 
上个星期 shàngge xīngqī
next week 
下个星期 xiàge xīngqī

Weekdays in Chinese are easy: starting with 1 for Monday, just add the number after 星期 xīngqī. In Taiwan, 星期 is pronounced xīngqí (second tone on the second syllable).

Sunday 
星期天 xīngqītiān or xīngqīrì (星期日)
Monday 
星期一 xīngqīyī
Tuesday 
星期二 xīngqīèr
Wednesday 
星期三 xīngqīsān
Thursday 
星期四 xīngqīsì
Friday 
星期五 xīngqīwǔ
Saturday 
星期六 xīngqīliù

星期 can also be replaced with 礼拜 lǐbài and occasionally 周 zhōu.

Months

Months in Chinese are also easy: starting with 1 for January, just add the number before 月 yuè.

January 
一月, yī yuè
February 
二月, èr yuè
March 
三月, sān yuè
April 
四月, sì yuè
May 
五月, wŭ yuè
June 
六月, liù yuè
July 
七月, qī yuè
August 
八月, bā yuè
September 
九月, jiŭ yuè
October 
十月, shí yuè
November 
十一月, shí yī yuè
December 
十二月, shí èr yuè
13th month:十三月, shí-sān yuè (occasionally added as a leap month in the Lunar Calendar)

Tips: From January to December, you just need to use this pattern: number (1-12) + yuè

Writing Dates

Writing dates in the Lunar Calendar

If you are attempting to name a date in the Chinese Lunar Calendar, add the words ‘农历’ before the name of the month to distinguish it from the months of the solar calendar, although it is not strictly necessary. There are some differences: The words 日(rì)/ 号(hào) are generally not required when stating dates in the lunar calendar; it is assumed. Besides that, the 1st Month is called 正月 (zhèngyuè). If the number of the day is less than 11, the word 初 is used before the value of the day. Besides that, if the value of the day is more than 20, the word 廿 (niàn) is used, so the 23rd day is 廿三 for example.

15th day of the 8th lunar month (the mid-autumn festival)
(农历)八月十五 ( (nónglì) bāyuè shí-wǔ).
1st day of the 1st lunar month
(农历)正月初一 ( (nónglì) zhèngyuè chūyī).
23rd day of the 9th lunar month
( 农历) 九月廿三 ( (nónglì) jiŭ yuè niànsān).

When writing the date, you name the month (number (1-12) + yuè), before inserting the day (number (1-31) + 日(rì)/ 号(hào) ). Note that the usage of 号(hào), which is more often used in spoken language, is more colloquial than that of 日(rì), which is more often used in written documents.

6th January
一月六号 (yī yuè liù hào) or 一月六日 (yī yuè liù rì)
25th December
十二月二十五号 (shí-èr yuè èr-shí-wǔ hào)
black 
黑色 hēi sè
white 
白色 bái sè
grey 
灰色 huī sè
red 
红色 hóng sè
blue 
蓝色 lán sè
yellow 
黄色 huáng sè
green 
绿色 lǜ sè
orange 
橙色 chéng sè
purple 
紫色 zǐ sè
brown 
褐色 he sè, 棕色 zōng sè,
Do you have it in another colour?  
你们有没有另外颜色? nǐmen yǒu méiyǒu lìngwài yánsè ?

Tips: sè means 'colour', therefore, 'hóng sè' is 'red colour'(literally). More common for brown and easier to remmember is 'coffee colour': 咖啡色 kā fēi sè

Transportation

Bus and Train

How much is a ticket to _____? 
去______的票多少钱 qù _____ de piào duō shǎo qián?
Do you go to... (the central station)? 
去不去... (火车站) qù bù qù... (huǒ chē zhàn)

Directions

How do I get to _____ ? 
怎么去_____ zěnme qù _____?
...the train station? 
...火车站? ...huǒchē zhàn?
...the bus station? 
...汽车总站? ...qìchē zǒngzhàn?
...the airport? 
...机场? ...jī chǎng?
street 
街 jiē; 路 lù
Turn left. 
左边转弯 zuǒbiān zhuǎnwān/左拐zuǒguǎi
Turn right. 
右边转弯 yòubiān zhuǎnwān/右拐yòuguăi
Go straight
一直走 yìzhízŏu
I've reached my destination
到了dàole
U-turn
掉 头 diàotóu
Taxi driver
师傅 shīfu
Please use the meter machine
请打表 qǐng dǎbiǎo
Please turn up the aircon/heater
请空调开大点儿。 qǐng kōngtiáo kāi dàdiǎn(r)
left 
左边 zuǒbiān
right 
右边 yòubiān
straight ahead 
往前走 wǎngqián zǒu
north 
北 bĕi
south 
南 nán
east 
东 dōng
west 
西 xī

Taxi

Taxi 出租车 chū zū chē
Take me to _____, please. 
请开到_____。 qǐng kāidào _____。

Common signs

入口 
Entrance [rùkǒu]
出口 
Exit [chūkǒu]
推 
Push [tuī]
拉 
Pull [lā]
厕所 / 洗手间 
Toilet [cèsuǒ] / [xǐshǒujiān]
男 
Men [nán]
女 
Women [nǚ]
禁止 
Forbidden [jìnzhǐ]
吸烟 
Smoking [xīyān]
Do you have any rooms available? 
你们有房间吗? Nǐmen yǒu fángjiān ma?
Does the room come with... 
有没有... Yǒu méiyǒu...
...bedsheets? 
...床单? ...chuángdān?
...a bathroom? 
...浴室? ...yùshì?
...a telephone? 
...电话? ...diànhuà?
...a TV? 
...电视? ...diànshì ?
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
我打算住_____夜。 Wǒ dǎsuàn zhù _____ yè.
Do you have a safe? 
你们有没有保险箱? Nǐmen yǒu méiyǒu bǎoxiǎn xiāng?
Can you wake me at _____? 
请明天早上_____叫醒我。 Qǐng míngtiān zǎoshàng _____ jiàoxǐng wǒ.
I want to check out. 
我现在要走。 Wǒ xiànzài yào zǒu.
pay
付 fù
cash
现钱 xiàn qián
credit card
信用卡 xìn yòng kǎ
cheque
支票 zhīpiào

Reading a Chinese Menu

Look for these characters to get an idea of what you're ordering. With help from The Eater's Guide to Chinese Characters (J. McCawley) and using Simplified Chinese.

dīng
丁 (cubed/diced)
piàn
片 (thinly sliced)
丝 (shredded)
kuài
块 (chunk/cut into bite-sized pieces)
qiú
球 (curled)
chăo
炒 (stir-fried)
zhá or zhà
炸 (deep-fried)
kăo
烤 (dry-roasted)
shāo
烧 (roasted w/ sauce)
Can I look at the menu, please? 
请给我看看菜单. qĭng gĕi wŏ kànkan càidān.
Do you have an English menu? 
你有没有英文菜单? nĭ yŏu méi yŏu yīngwén càidān?

(Listen for... Yes, we have one. : 有 yŏu - No, we don't. : 没有 méi yŏu)

I'm a vegetarian 
我吃素的 wŏ chī sù de
breakfast 
早饭 zǎofàn or 早餐 zǎocān
lunch 
午饭 wǔfàn or zhōngfàn or 午餐 wǔcān
supper 
晚饭 wǎnfàn or 晚餐 wǎncān
beef 
牛肉 niúròu
pork
猪肉 zhūròu,or sometimes simply '肉' ròu.
mutton
羊肉 yángròu
chicken
鸡 jī
fish
鱼 yú
cheese 
奶酪 nǎilào
eggs 
鸡蛋 jīdàn
bread 
面包 miànbāo
noodles 
面条 miàntiáo
fried rice
炒饭 chǎofàn
dumpling
饺子 jiǎozi
rice 
米饭 mĭfàn
coffee 
咖啡 kāfēi
black coffee: 黑咖啡 hēi kāfēi
milk
牛奶 niúnǎi
sugar
糖 táng
tea (drink
茶 chá
green tea
绿茶 lǜ chá
scented tea
花茶 huāchá
black tea
红茶 hóngchá
juice 
(水)果汁 (shuǐ)guǒzhī, literally 'fruit juice'.
water 
水 shuĭ
natural mineral water
矿泉水 kuàngquán shuǐ
beer 
啤酒 píjiŭ
red/white wine 
红/白 葡萄 酒 hóng/bái pútáo jiŭ
It was delicious. 
好吃极了。 hǎochī jí le
The check, please. 
请结帐。 qǐng jiézhàng
Do you serve alcohol? 
卖不卖酒? ( màibú màijiǔ?)
Is there table service? 
有没有餐桌服务? (yǒu méiyǒu cānzhuō fúwù?)
A beer/two beers, please. 
请给我一杯/两杯啤酒。 (qǐng gěiwǒ yìbēi/liǎngbēi píjiǔ)
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
请给我一杯红/白葡萄酒。 (qǐng gěi wǒ yìbēi hóng/bái pútáojiǔ)
A pint, please. 
请给我一品脱。 (qǐng gěi wǒ yìpǐntuō)
A bottle, please. 
请给我一瓶。 (qǐng gěi wǒ yìpíng)
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
请给我_____和_____。 (qǐng gěi wǒ _____ hé _____)
whiskey 
威士忌 (wēishìjì)
vodka 
伏特加 (fútèjiā)
rum 
兰姆酒 (lánmǔjiǔ)
water 
水 (shuǐ)
mineral spring (i.e. bottled) water 
矿泉水 (kuàngquánshuǐ)
boiled water
开水 (kāishuǐ)
club soda 
苏打水 (sūdǎshuǐ)
tonic water 
通宁水 (tōngníngshuǐ)
orange juice 
柳橙汁 (liǔchéngzhī)
Coke (soda
可乐 (kělè)
Do you have any bar snacks? 
有没有吧臺点心? (yǒu méiyǒu bātái diǎnxīn?)
One more, please. 
请再给我一个。 (qǐng zài gěi wǒ yígè')
Another round, please. 
请再来一轮。 (qǐng zàilái yìlún)
When is closing time? 
几点打烊、关门? (jǐdiǎn dǎyáng/guānmén?)
Where is the toilet? 
厕所在哪里 (cèsuǒ zài nǎli?)
Where is the washingroom? 
洗手间在哪儿?(xǐshǒujiānzàinǎr?
Do you have this in my size? 
有没有我的尺寸? (yǒu méiyǒu wǒde chǐcùn?)
How much is this? 
这个多少钱? (zhège duōshǎo qián?)
That's too expensive. 
太贵了。 (tài guì le)
Would you take _____? 
_____元可以吗? (_____ yuán kěyǐ ma?)
expensive 
贵 (guì)
cheap 
便宜 (piányi)
I can't afford it. 
我带的钱不够。 (wǒ dài de qián búgòu)
I don't want it. 
我不要。 (wǒ bù yào)
You're cheating me. 
你欺骗我。 (nǐ qīpiàn wǒ) Use with caution!
I'm not interested. 
我没有兴趣。 (wǒ méiyǒu xìngqù)
OK, I'll take it. 
我要买这个。 (wǒ yào mǎi zhège)
Please provide me with a carrier-bag. 
请给我袋子。 (qǐng gěi wǒ dàizi)
Do you ship (overseas)? 
可以邮寄到海外吗? (kěyǐ yóujì dào hǎiwài ma?)
I need... 
我要_____ (wǒ yào _____)
...toothpaste. 
牙膏 (yágāo)
...a toothbrush. 
牙刷 (yáshuā)
...tampons. 
卫生棉条 (wèishēng miántiáo)
...soap. 
肥皂 (féizào)
...shampoo. 
洗发精 (xǐfàjīng)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
镇痛剂 (zhèntòngjì)
...cold medicine. 
感冒药 (gǎnmào yào)
...stomach medicine. 
胃肠药 (wèicháng yào)
...a razor. 
剃刀 (tìdāo)
...an umbrella. 
雨伞 (yǔsǎn)
...sunblock lotion. 
防晒油 (fángshàiyóu)
...a postcard. 
明信片 (míngxìnpiàn)
...postage stamps. 
邮票 (yóupiào)
...batteries. 
电池 (diànchí)
...writing paper. 
纸 (zhǐ)
...a pen. 
笔 ()
...a pencil. 
铅笔 (qiānbǐ)
...glasses. 
眼镜 (yǎnjìng)
...English-language books. 
英文书 (Yīngwén shū)
...English-language magazines. 
英文杂志 (Yīngwén zázhì)
...an English-language newspaper. 
英文报纸 (Yīngwén bàozhǐ)
...a Chinese-English dictionary. 
汉英词典 (Hàn-Yīng cídiǎn)
...an English-Chinese dictionary. 
英汉词典 (Yīng-Hàn cídiǎn)
I want to rent a car. 
我想要租车。 (wǒ xiǎngyào zūchē)
Can I get insurance? 
我可以买保险吗? (wǒ kěyǐ mǎi bǎoxiǎn ma?)
stop (on a street sign
停 (tíng)
one way 
单行道 (dānxíngdào)
yield 
让路 (rànglù)
no parking 
禁止停车 (jìnzhǐ tíngchē)
speed limit 
速度限制 (sùdù xiànzhì)
gas (petrol) station 
加油站 (jiāyóuzhàn)
petrol 
汽油 (qìyóu)
diesel 
柴油 (cháiyóu)
I haven't done anything wrong. 
我没有做错事。 (wǒ méiyǒu zuòcuò shì)
It was a misunderstanding. 
这是误会。 (zhè shì wùhuì)
Where are you taking me? 
你带我去哪里? (nǐ dài wǒ qù nǎlǐ?)
Am I under arrest? 
我被捕了吗? (wǒ bèibǔle ma?)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
我是 美国/澳洲/英国/加拿大 公民。 (wǒ shì měiguó/àozhōu/yīngguó/jiānádà gōngmín)
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
我希望跟 美国/澳洲/英国/加拿大 的 大使馆/领事馆 联系。 (wǒ xīwàng gēn měiguó/àozhōu/yīngguó/jiānádà de dàshǐguǎn/lǐngshìguǎn liánxì)
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
我希望跟律师联系。 (wǒ xīwàng gēn lǜshī liánxì)
Can I just pay a fine now? 
我可以支付罚款吗? (wǒ kěyǐ zhī fù fákuǎn ma?)

Telephone & Internet

In most Chinese cities telephone booths don't exist. Instead, small street shops have telephones which can usually be used for national calls and cost around 0.6RMB for a city-call. Look for signs like

公用电话 Public Telephone

Don't pay to go online in hotels since most common cafes are cheaper. Many mid-range hotels and chains now offer free wireless or plug-in internet. In cafes, usually you pay 10RMB in advance for a card. Prices per hour from 1RMB to 4RMB. Those cafes are quite hidden sometimes and you should look for the following Chinese characters:

网吧 Internet Cafe
Can I make international calls here? 
可以打国际电话吗? (kěyǐ dǎ guójì diànhuà ma?)
How much is it to America/Australia/Britain/Canada? 
打给 美国/澳洲/英国/加拿大 是多少钱? (dǎgěi měiguó/àozhōu/yīngguó/jiānádà shì duōshǎo qián?)
Where can I find an Internet cafe? 
哪里有网吧? (nǎlǐ yǒu wǎng ba?)
How much is it per hour? 
一小时是多少钱? (yī xiǎoshí shì duōshǎo qián?)

Learning more

Chinese is the most spoken language of the world, in the sense that it has the most native speakers of any language, more than the next two, Hindi and Spanish, combined. Due to China's economic growth and globalisation, more and more students in the western world are quickly taking up language to open opportunities to working in China. Be part of the new 'cultural wave' sweeping across the world!

Advice: The first step is to learn to properly read the romanization or 'hànyǔ pīnyīn' with tones! There are still many sites with small Chinese phrase chapters which do not indicate the Mandarin tones needed. For simple sentences, one may be able to get away without tones, but this can cause confusion in more complex situations, so tones are very important. A classic example is the difference between the Chinese characters for "four" (四, sì) and "death" (死, sǐ), different only by tones. A good idea for practicing is to make Chinese friends online since millions of young people in China also look for somebody to practice English with.

This is a usable phrasebook. It explains pronunciation and the bare essentials of travel communication. An adventurous person could use it to get by, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

←Topic:Chinese

Contents

Basic Mandarin Chinese Courses for Foreign Learners

For people fluent in English wanting to communicate in Standard Mandarin, to get credit by examination for their first two years of study, or to study for the HSK test.

Year One

An introduction to Mandarin: Parallel to first-year college courses

Consists of listening, speaking, reading, and writing Mandarin Chinese. The written and spoken languages are presented concurrently throughout both courses.

Year Two

Parallel to second-year college courses

  • Mandarin Three
  • Mandarin Four
Continued work in Mandarin, with an emphasis on mastering all basic grammatical structures, developing conversation skills, and building vocabulary in the written and spoken languages using the correct pronunciation. Recommended prerequisite: Mandarin Two.

Conversational Chinese (Mandarin)

Practical and informative classes for the casual tourist and their families offered in a fun "non-credit" style

Adult Conversational Courses

For native English speakers fluent in written Chinese, and another Chinese dialect (e.g. Cantonese), wanting to also become fluent in Standard Mandarin, and those wanting to focus exclusively on the spoken language

  • Conversational Mandarin One
This class will teach you the basics of speaking, listening, and surviving in China in a fun and supportive environment as a tourist
  • Conversational Mandarin Two
Expand your ability to communicate in practical situations. It will give you more grammer, pronunciation, and conversation. This vocabulary boost will enable you to speak basic phrases with confidence. Includes the introduction of basic business phrases for the occasional business traveler.

For Kids Only

To be made for Chinese children adopted by parents with no assumed knowledge of Mandarin Chinese and for other Children who will be traveling to China in the future. Language, culture, and identity will be explained in parallel with a multimedia approach.

  • Preschool Chinese: Toddler to Kindergarden
  • Children’s Chinese: Grades 1-6
  • Teen Chinese Challenge: Grades 7-12

Intermediate Mandarin Chinese Courses for Foreign Learners

For people fluent in English wanting to become fluent in Standard Mandarin or basic Classical Chinese

Year Three

Parallel to third-year college courses

  • Mandarin Five
  • Mandarin Six
Includes intermediate conversation, reading, writing, vocabulary building, and grammar. Introduction to literary texts. Recommended prerequisite: Mandarin Four.
  • Short Stories
A course of manually annotated Chinese short stories is available at http://popupchinese.com/archives/shows/short-stories. The course focus is on extensive reading of contemporary texts. All texts are annotated with mouseover popups to avoid the reader to need to constantly check other reference tools and dictionaries. Recommended corequisite: Newspaper Chinese.
  • Newspaper Chinese
Practical introduction to the reading and accurate understanding of Chinese newspapers and other related styles of writing. Recommended as a complement to Mandarin Five and Six. Recommended prerequisite: Mandarin Four. Recommended corequisite: Mandarin Five.
  • Business Chinese
Practice in oral and written Chinese at the upper-intermediate level, with emphasis on business vocabulary. Recommended as a complement to third-year Chinese. Recommended prerequisites: Mandarin Five and Newspaper Chinese. Recommended corequisite: Mandarin Six.
  • Modern Chinese Literature
Emphasizes the most influential works of the twentieth century, from semi-traditional to the latest genres. Could be conducted in English.
  • Chinese Vernacular Literature (pre 20th Century)
Emphasizes traditional poetry and fiction from 700 BC to the late nineteenth century. Could be conducted in English.
Readings in the traditional literary language, designed to provide familiarity with the essential grammer, build vocabulary, and introduce works from all genres and periods. Recommended as a complement to third-year Chinese; preparation for advanced work in either modern or classical Chinese. Recommended prerequisite: Mandarin Four. Recommended corequisite: Mandarin Five.

Advanced Chinese Courses for Fluent Speakers

For native English speakers fluent in Mandarin and also wanting to master Classical Chinese or other advanced Chinese topics at the "graduate" course level (links have Wikimedia references)

Year Four/Graduate

Parallel to fourth-year and graduate level college courses

  • Advanced Chinese One
  • Advanced Chinese Two
Learn complex patterns in conversation including reading and writing. Topics such as Rural China, The Philosophers, Documentary Chinese, The Structure of Chinese are included. Recommended prerequisites: Mandarin Six, Newspaper Chinese, and Intro. Literary Chinese I & II.
  • Advanced Classical Chinese
Readings from classical works of various genres and historical periods, designed to solidify the grammer introduced in Intro. to Literary Chinese I & II, build further vocabulary and introduce the fundamentals of classical Chinese literary history. Recommended prerequisites: Mandarin Six and Intro. to Literary Chinese I & II.
Reading, analysis, and discussion of representative literary texts. Classic Chinese Lit I focuses on pre-modern topics such as "Traditional Chinese Fiction" and "Chinese Classical Masterpieces," while Classic Chinese Lit II addresses primarily twentieth-century topics such as "Chinese Nativist Literature" or "Chinese Urban Literature." Recommended prerequisites: Mandarin Six, Newspaper Chinese, and Intro. Literary Chinese I & II. Could include: Poetry of the Tang Dynasty and The Works of Sima Qian.
  • History of the Chinese Language
History of the Chinese language and language family, with emphasis on the development of the current standard language. Evolution of of the language in spoken Chinese, development of the Chinese writing system, and current language policy. Could be conducted in English. Recommended prerequisite: One second-year course in lingustics or Mandarin Four.

Resources


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also mandarin

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Etymology

EB1911A-pict1.png This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this word, please add it to the page as described here.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Mandarin

Plural
-

Mandarin

  1. The official language of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China on Taiwan, and one of four official languages in Singapore.

Synonyms

Translations

See also

External links


German

Noun

Mandarin m.

  1. mandarin (Chinese Imperial official)

This German entry was created from the translations listed at mandarin. It may be less reliable than other entries, and may be missing parts of speech or additional senses. Please also see Mandarin in the German Wiktionary. This notice will be removed when the entry is checked. (more information) January 2009


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Chinese (Mandarin) article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

The Forbidden City in Beijing 北京紫禁城

Welcome to the Chinese wikibook, a free Chinese textbook on the Standard Mandarin dialect. This page links to lessons using simplified characters (used in mainland China, Singapore and Malayasia). There is also a Traditional Character Version available (used in Taiwan, Macau, and Hong Kong).

Note: To use this book, your web browser must first be configured to display Chinese characters Development stage: 50% (as of Jan 24, 2005). If the characters in the grey box below appear as blank boxes or garbage such as �?�?􏿾, it is not properly configured.

我们需要您帮助!如果您谙悉中文,请協助编撰本教科书。
我們需要您的幫助,如果您諳悉中文,請協助編撰本教課書。
III This is a Category III Language.

Contents

Lessons / 课程

Introduction / 介绍

Pronunciation / 发音

Lesson Texts / 课文

Appendices / 附录

Related Books

Contributors


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