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Manhattan Engineer District (MED)
.Trinity shot color.jpg
The Manhattan Project created the first nuclear bombs.
^ The Manhattan project : making the atomic bomb .
  • Fermilab Library Book Catalog 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www-spires.fnal.gov [Source type: General]

^ That they even created a nuclear bomb?

^ The atom bomb: creating and exploding the first nuclear weapon.
  • From the Manhattan Project to Chernobyl:A Guide to Exhibited Materials - Science Reference Guide - Science Reference Services, Library of Congress) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The first human-engineered nuclear detonation, the Trinity test, is shown.^ He witnessed the detonation of the first test A Bomb.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

^ When the Soviet Union conducted its first nuclear test on August 29, 1949 (right), the device they used was virtually identical in design to the one that had been tested at Trinity four years previously.
  • Espionage and the Manhattan Project, 1940-1945 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.mbe.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite enormous hurdles, an implosion bomb was successfully detonated at the “Trinity” test at Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 July 1945.
  • Manhattan Project – FREE Manhattan Project information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Manhattan Project research 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Active 1942–1945
Allegiance United States, United Kingdom, Canada
Branch U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Nickname Manhattan Engineer District (MED)
Commanders
Notable
commanders
General Leslie Groves
.The Manhattan Project was the codename for a project conducted during World War II to develop the first atomic bomb.^ World War II (September 1939) .
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Printer-friendly version of section Manhattan Project , name given to the American programme to construct the first atomic bombs during World War II .
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^ The Mahnattan Project was a massive research, development and production project conducted during World War II. The aim of the project was the development of deliverable nuclear weapons.

.The project was led by the United States, and included participation from the United Kingdom and Canada.^ The project was led by the United States, and included ...
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^ United States: $7290 Switzerland: $4417 France: $3601 United Kingdom: $2992 Average of OECD developed nations: $2964 Italy: $2686 Japan: $2581 .

^ Search Manhattan Project In 1942 the Manhattan Engineer Project was set up in the United States under the command of Brigadier General Leslie Groves.
  • Excite - Search: Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC msxml.excite.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Formally designated as the Manhattan Engineering District (MED), it refers specifically to the period of the project from 1942–1946 under the control of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, under the administration of General Leslie R. Groves.^ This was located in the Manhattan Engineering District, and the whole programme became the Manhattan Project, under the command of Major General Leslie Groves.
  • Manhattan Project - ninemsn Encarta 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The army learned of this and under General Groves orders, were to keep it quiet.
  • The Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The group was headed by a United States Army engineer, Major General Leslie Groves.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer.^ Over the objection of virtually every adviser and scientist, he personally recruited J. Robert Oppenheimer, scion of a prosperous family of clothing merchants, as his scientific director.
  • The Manhattan Project: The building of the Atomic Bomb (Part 2 of 4) | Troy Media Corporation 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.troymedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A special laboratory also has been set up near Santa Fe, N.M., under direction of Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer of the University of California.
  • Columbia, home of the Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.doublemirrors.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scientific basis for a sustained, or even explosive, chain reaction was now clear to any well-versed research physicist.
  • Espionage and the Manhattan Project, 1940-1945 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.mbe.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.The project's roots lay in scientists' fears since the 1930s that Nazi Germany was also investigating nuclear weapons of its own.^ The consequences of a NAZI Germany armed with nuclear weapons was too terrifying to imagine.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manhattan Project: The U.S. Government project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. Started in 1942, the Manhattan Project formally ended in 1946.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - M 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The scientists and engineers who helped build the world's first nuclear weapon reflect on their accomplishments and legacy.

.Born out of a small research program in 1939, the Manhattan Project eventually employed more than 130,000 people and cost nearly US$2 billion ($22 billion in current value).^ Nearly 3,000 people are killed.

^ Add More Products To manhattan project .
  • Amazon.com: manhattan project 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Category:People associated with the Manhattan Project .
  • Category:People associated with the Manhattan Project - Wikimedia Commons 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

.It resulted in the creation of multiple production and research sites that operated in secret.^ Dubbed the Manhattan Project, this secret weapon program employed more than 130,000 people over 30 different research and production sites and cost $2 billion ($24 billion in today’s dollar).
  • Manhattan Project – Neatorama 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ The process then being developed for barrier production seemed unpromising, and Groves to switched planned production to a new process creating months of delays in equipping K-25 for operation.

^ Problems with developing suitable diffusion barriers leads Groves to switch planned production to a new type of barrier, creating months of delays in equipping K-25 for operation.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Project research took place at over thirty sites across the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.^ The project was led by the United States, and included ...
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^ Locations Research and production sites of the Manhattan Project were located all across the United States.

^ The Manhattan project was the codename for the United States's World War II effort to devise an atomic weapon.
  • Call for New 'Manhattan Project' to Fight Bioterror (Frist) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The three primary research and production sites of the project were the plutonium-production facility at what is now the Hanford Site, the uranium-enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the weapons research and design laboratory now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory.^ These sites are: Los Alamos National Laboratory and townsite in New Mexico ; Hanford Site in Washington; Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee; and sites in Dayton, Ohio.
  • NPS Seeks Public Comment on "Manhattan Project Sites Study" 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.losalamosnm.us [Source type: News]

^ Uranium-235 produced at Oak Ridge.
  • Pitt Chronicle: Pittsburgh Professor Irving Wender Recalls Working on Manhattan Project 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.chronicle.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trinity.” 2005 The Los Alamos National Laboratory 28 July 2005.

The MED maintained control over U.S. weapons production until the formation of the Atomic Energy Commission in January 1947.

Contents

Etymology

.It is widely believed that the Manhattan Project's name is simply a code name.^ This Manhattan Project predecessor, code named the S-1 project, was headed by Arthur H. Compton.

^ He is believed to have participated in the Manhattan Project.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

^ Manhattan Engineer District, or Manhattan Project the code name for Americas...Groves, military head of the Manhattan Project , selected the region as the...gripes, it is doubtful that the Manhattan Project could have succeeded as well...
  • Manhattan Project: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

[3] .In fact, the project was named after the location where many of its early operations were conducted—Manhattan.^ Manhattan Project Facts, information, pictures .
  • Manhattan Project Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This was located in the Manhattan Engineering District, and the whole programme became the Manhattan Project, under the command of Major General Leslie Groves.
  • Manhattan Project - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC uk.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manhattan Engineer District, or Manhattan Project the code name for Americas...Groves, military head of the Manhattan Project , selected the region as the...gripes, it is doubtful that the Manhattan Project could have succeeded as well...
  • Manhattan Project: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.According to historian Robert S. Norris, Manhattan contained at least ten sites where the project's work was being conducted—the island was ideal because of its port facilities, the military presence, a large available work force, a population of expatriate European physicists, and Columbia University, a center of early nuclear research.^ Harold Agnew was a physicist working on the Manhattan Project.
  • Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC web311.pavilion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Robert...complete understanding of the Manhattan Project .
  • Manhattan Project – FREE Manhattan Project information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Manhattan Project research 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Manhattan Project veterans, eminent historians...
  • Manhattan Project – FREE Manhattan Project information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Manhattan Project research 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Uranium Committee (1939–1941)

.In 1939, President Franklin Roosevelt called on Lyman Briggs of the National Bureau of Standards to head "The Uranium Committee" as a result of the Einstein–Szilárd letter.^ It included the letter from Einstein to President Roosevelt.

^ The discovery of fission led President Franklin Roosevelt to create what committee?
  • Manhattan Project – FREE Manhattan Project information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Manhattan Project research 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt responded by creating the Uranium Committee to investigate this possibility.
  • Manhattan Project: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Even though Roosevelt had sanctioned the project, progress was slow and was not directed exclusively towards military applications.^ The direction of progressive thought is towards globalization.
  • Big Hollywood » Blog Archive » Do The Warhol—Part 4: The Manhattan Project of the Culture War 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC bighollywood.breitbart.com [Source type: General]

^ While centrally planned projects might be appropriate for military applications, a pending proposal to provide prize money for hydrogen breakthroughs is much more intriguing.
  • No Need For Energy Manhattan Project | Techdirt 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ Progress was slow until Aug., 1942, when the project was placed under U.S. Army control and reorganized.
  • Manhattan Project Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

Meanwhile, in the United Kingdom, Otto Frisch and Rudolf Peierls made a breakthrough by discovering the fissile properties of uranium-235.[4] A British committee, the MAUD Committee, concluded that.....:
(i) The committee considers that the scheme for a uranium bomb is practicable and likely to lead to decisive results in the war
(ii) It recommends that this work continue on the highest priority and on the increasing scale necessary to obtain the weapon in the shortest possible time
(iii) That the present collaboration with America should be continued and extended especially in the region of experimental work[5]
Their reports were sent to Briggs, but were ignored. .One of the members of the MAUD Committee, Mark Oliphant, flew to the United States in late August 1941 to find out why the U.S. was ignoring the MAUD Committee's findings.^ Watch this video and find out why.
  • Duke Nukem: Manhattan Project for PC - Duke Nukem: Manhattan Project PC Game - Duke Nukem: Manhattan Project Computer Game 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.gamespot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The HAARP project has been virtually ignored by the mainstream media, which is why Project Censored gave it one of its "Top Ten Most Censored Stories" awards...
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^ The purpose of the Manhattan Project was to find a way to split the atom and...propose that the United States launch a new Manhattan project : a five-year project to put America...
  • Manhattan Project Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.He reported that "this inarticulate and unimpressive man (Briggs) had put the reports in his safe and had not shown them to members of his committee."^ November 23, 2009 10:55 AM [ report this ] Kriston Capps replied to comment from Bullneck I had to put on Gang of Four's "I Love a Man in Uniform" when I was putting this together.
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^ In 1988, a National Research Council committee, chaired by Kleinrock and with Kahn and Clark as members, produced a report commissioned by NSF titled "Towards a National Research Network".
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[6]
.Oliphant then met with the whole Uranium Committee and other physicists to galvanize the USA into action.^ Although Roosevelt knew little about science, he immediately established an Advisory Committee on Uranium to look into the matter.
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^ Gradually, though, other shipments met the research needs of Manhattan Project physicists and chemists.
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^ In 1940, the Uranium Committee was absorbed into the larger National Defense Research Committee.
  • Operation Trinity and Manhattan Project | World War II Database 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC ww2db.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, in December 1941 Vannevar Bush created the larger and more powerful Office of Scientific Research and Development—which was empowered to engage in large engineering projects in addition to research—and became its director.^ On December 6, 1941, the project was put under the direction of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, headed by Vannevar Bush .
  • Manhattan Project (United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The old sources are the result of literally, a hundred years or more of scientific and engineering development.

^ At this same time, Bush creates the larger and more powerful Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), which is empowered to engage in large engineering projects in addition to research, and becomes its director.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Acceleration of the Project

A few months after he was put in charge of fast neutron research, Berkeley physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer convened a conference on the topic of nuclear weapon design.
.Now that the bomb project was under the OSRD, the project leaders began to accelerate the work.^ Germans are not working on the atom bomb project.
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^ As of now, work for the Manhattan Project will be voluntary.

^ Collection Division 5 (Sessions 17-18) contains interviews with members of the team that worked on Project Alberta, the delivery and detonation of the atomic bombs on Japan.
  • The Manhattan Project Videohistory Collection 1987-1990. 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC siris-archives.si.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Arthur Compton organized the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory in early 1942 to study plutonium and fission piles (primitive nuclear reactors), and asked theoretical physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer of the University of California, Berkeley to take over research on fast neutron calculations—key to calculations about critical mass and weapon detonation—from Gregory Breit, who had quit because of concerns over lax operational security.^ Berkeley, University of California Press, 2004.
  • From the Manhattan Project to Chernobyl:A Guide to Exhibited Materials - Science Reference Guide - Science Reference Services, Library of Congress) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ January, 1942 - Compton creates the Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) at the University of Chicago to act as a consolidated research center.
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^ Oppenheimer organizes a program on fast neutron theoretical physics at Berkeley.
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[7] .John Manley, a physicist at the Metallurgical Laboratory, was assigned to help Oppenheimer find answers by coordinating and contacting several experimental physics groups scattered across the country.^ The opera is scored by John Adams, who was inspired by the creation of the world's first atomic weapon during the Manhattan Project and its leader, physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer.
  • Manhattan Project Hits the Met - WSJ.com 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ Oppenheimer, a professor of physics at Berkeley, had demonstrated a special skill at leading groups of scientists during the S-1 program, which Groves quickly took notice of.

^ Please contact me if you have any information on this group or know a WAIT. We are hoping to find other WAITs.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

.During the spring of 1942, Oppenheimer and Robert Serber of the University of Illinois worked on the problems of neutron diffusion (how neutrons moved in the chain reaction) and hydrodynamics (how the explosion produced by the chain reaction might behave).^ December, 1942 - During this month the work on gaseous diffusion is reorganized.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ J. Robert Oppenheimer (taken during 1945) .

^ Manhattan Project: The U.S. Government project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. Started in 1942, the Manhattan Project formally ended in 1946.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - M 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

.To review this work and the general theory of fission reactions, Oppenheimer convened a summer study at the University of California, Berkeley, in June 1942.[8] Theorists Hans Bethe, John Van Vleck, Edward Teller, Felix Bloch, Emil Konopinski, Robert Serber, Stanley S. Frankel, and Eldred C. Nelson (the latter three all former students of Oppenheimer) quickly confirmed that a fission bomb was feasible.^ Berkeley, University of California Press, 2004.
  • From the Manhattan Project to Chernobyl:A Guide to Exhibited Materials - Science Reference Guide - Science Reference Services, Library of Congress) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Brotherhood of the bomb: the tangled lives and loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller .
  • From the Manhattan Project to Chernobyl:A Guide to Exhibited Materials - Science Reference Guide - Science Reference Services, Library of Congress) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nobel Prize winning physicist Niels Bohr, to his colleague Edward Teller on the construction of an atomic bomb.
  • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.There were still many unknown factors in the development of a nuclear bomb, however, even though it was considered to be theoretically possible.^ He also considers the possibility of using this to make bombs.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were many factors that doomed the German atomic bomb program.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That they even created a nuclear bomb?

.The properties of pure uranium-235 were still relatively unknown, as were the properties of plutonium, a new element which had only been discovered in February 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and his team.^ A $2-billion effort was required to obtain sufficient amounts of the two necessary isotopes, uranium-235 and plutonium-239.
  • Manhattan Project Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Manhattan Project: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In early 1942, University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory joined in to study plutonium (which had just been discovered by Glenn Seaborg and his team in Feb 1941) and fission piles, while theoretical physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer of the University of California at Berkeley took over the research for critical mass calculations associated with weapon detonation.
  • Operation Trinity and Manhattan Project | World War II Database 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC ww2db.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ February 26, 1941 - Glenn Seaborg and Arthur Wahl conclusively demonstrate the presence of element 94, which they later name plutonium.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Plutonium was the product of uranium-238 absorbing a neutron which had been emitted from a fissioning uranium-235 atom, and was thus able to be created in a nuclear reactor.^ To make plutonium meant 'cooking' uranium in a nuclear reactor.
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^ B Reactor on the Hanford site was, the world's first industrial-scale nuclear reactor, used to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons.
  • Deadly exposure: Cancers plague children of the Manhattan Project // Current 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Time to Ban Production of Nuclear Weapons Material A new global treaty that cuts off production of plutonium and highly enriched uranium for nuclear weapons could jump-start nuclear disarmament and help prevent proliferation Energy & Sustainability Newsletter .
  • Energy Push Rivals Manhattan Project, Says WSJ: Scientific American 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: News]

.But at this point no reactor had yet been built, so while plutonium was being pursued as an additional fissile substance, it was not yet to be relied upon.^ Huge plants for separating U235 were already under construction at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and plutonium reactors were being built on the Columbia River near Hanford, Washington.
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^ But the pie-in-the-sky idea laid down-to-earth foundations in reactor fuels, materials, computing, and other areas still being built on today.
  • Swords to Plowshares: A Short History of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1943-1993) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ornl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additional number of bombers that are being built : 12 Whiteman Air Force Base (Mo.
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[9] .Only microgram quantities of plutonium existed at the time (produced from neutrons derived from reaction started in a cyclotron).^ We had only produced two bombs at that time.
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^ The world supply of plutonium at this time is 2.5 mg, produced by cyclotrons.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Theory # 1 - Too morbid source A shake is only 10 nanoseconds in time and arises from the theory of the chain reaction where one free neutron causes a fission that creates 2.5 to 3 new neutrons like a huge pyramid scheme and by the time the last layers of fissions occur they produce enough energy to "shake" the earth severely.

.
A number of the different fission bomb assembly methods explored during the June 1942 conference, later reproduced as drawings in The Los Alamos Primer.
^ Before 1943, work on the design and functioning of the bomb itself was largely theoretical, based on fundamental experiments carried out at a number of different locations.
  • Manhattan Project (United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critical Assembly: A Technical History of Los Alamos during the Oppenheimer Years, 1943-1945 .
  • Manhattan Project and Atomic Scientists Collections 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.lib.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A meeting between Oppenheimer, Groves, and Los Alamos division leaders (February 28) fixed the design approach for the plutonium bomb.

.In the end, only the "gun" method (at top) and a more complicated variation of the "implosion" design would be used.^ This method of filtering allows for more full use of the internet, but is less efficient at preventing access to harmful material that is not on the list.
  • Internet Definitions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.netsmartz.org [Source type: General]

^ During this period Richard C. Tolman and Serber discuss the idea of using explosives to collapse a shell of fissile material in place of the gun assembly method.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gopher was designed to be much easier to use than FTP , while still using a text-only interface.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

At the bottom are "autocatalytic method" designs.
.The scientists at the Berkeley conference determined that there were many possible ways of arranging the fissile material into a critical mass, the simplest being the shooting of a "cylindrical plug" into a sphere of "active material" with a "tamper"—dense material which would focus neutrons inward and keep the reacting mass together to increase its efficiency (this model "avoids fancy shapes", Serber would later write).^ The alternative method to detonate the plutonium bomb, unlikely as it seemed at the time, was implosion, where a sub-critical mass of plutonium would be forced to collapse in on itself during a chemically-induced explosion, creating critical mass due to increased density.
  • Operation Trinity and Manhattan Project | World War II Database 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC ww2db.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What there is instead is an officially encouraged, and notably vague, group consensus -- a consensus shaped and reinforced by Washington's political and media institutions, which have carefully avoided fleshing out too many details.

^ These are serious issues: the poor, the deprived, and especially the Third World are being left behind in altogether new ways which could prove critical.
  • What is the Internet? - Journey to Forever - using the Internet, Internet forums, future of the Internet, digital divide, email mailing lists, Usenet newsgroups, IRC chat, ICQ, MOOs, search engines, search the Internet, news search 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC journeytoforever.org [Source type: News]

[10] .They also explored designs involving spheroids, a primitive form of "implosion" (suggested by Richard C. Tolman), and explored the speculative possibility of "autocatalytic methods" which would increase the efficiency of the bomb as it exploded.^ The alternative method to detonate the plutonium bomb, unlikely as it seemed at the time, was implosion, where a sub-critical mass of plutonium would be forced to collapse in on itself during a chemically-induced explosion, creating critical mass due to increased density.
  • Operation Trinity and Manhattan Project | World War II Database 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC ww2db.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Groves reports that the second plutonium core would be ready for shipment on August 12 or 13, with a bombing possible on August 17 or 18.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this period Richard C. Tolman and Serber discuss the idea of using explosives to collapse a shell of fissile material in place of the gun assembly method.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Considering the idea of the fission bomb theoretically settled—at least until more experimental data was available—the conference then turned in a different direction.^ Before 1943, work on the design and functioning of the bomb itself was largely theoretical, based on fundamental experiments carried out at a number of different locations.
  • Manhattan Project (United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This enables chunks of data from many different sources to co-mingle on the same lines, and be sorted and directed along different routes by special machines along the way.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Furthermore, there was no evidence prior to the Manhattan project that a fission bomb was even theoretically possible, let alone how practical it would be.

.Hungarian physicist Edward "Ede" Teller pushed for discussion on an even more powerful bomb: the "Super", which would use the explosive force of a detonating fission bomb to ignite a fusion reaction in deuterium and tritium.^ Brotherhood of the bomb: the tangled lives and loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller .
  • From the Manhattan Project to Chernobyl:A Guide to Exhibited Materials - Science Reference Guide - Science Reference Services, Library of Congress) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nobel Prize winning physicist Niels Bohr, to his colleague Edward Teller on the construction of an atomic bomb.
  • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The alternative method to detonate the plutonium bomb, unlikely as it seemed at the time, was implosion, where a sub-critical mass of plutonium would be forced to collapse in on itself during a chemically-induced explosion, creating critical mass due to increased density.
  • Operation Trinity and Manhattan Project | World War II Database 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC ww2db.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .Such a bomb, they calculated, would have an explosive yield of 10 megatons, hundreds of times more powerful than the atomic bomb.^ I already knew at that time about the hydrogen bomb which would be a thousand times more powerful.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The hydrogen bomb, developed in 1952, is even more powerful than the atomic bomb.
  • nuclear weapon :: Founding the Manhattan Project -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ "Such an attack would be more economically damaging than a dirty nuclear bomb set off in midtown Manhattan or across from the White House in Lafayette Square."

[12] .The concept was based on studies of energy production in stars made by Hans Bethe before the war, and suggested as a possibility to Teller by Enrico Fermi not long before the conference.^ This method was based on the principle of the self-sustaining nuclear reaction (nuclear pile) that had first been achieved under the leadership of Enrico Fermi at the metallurgical laboratory of the Univ.
  • Manhattan Project Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Manhattan Project: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the best known were Hans Bethe (Alsatian-German Jew), Albert Einstein (German Jew), Enrico Fermi (Italian with Jewish wife), Lise Meitner (Austrian Jew), Leo Szilard (Hungarian Jew working in Germany), Edward Teller (Hungarian Jew working in Germany), and Eugene Wigner (Hungarian Jew working in Germany).
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ted Long elr@bechteljacobs.org My father, Edward C. Long, received his BS in Physics at U. of GA just before the war started.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

.When the detonation wave from the fission bomb moved through the mixture of deuterium and tritium nuclei, these would fuse together to produce much more energy than fission could.^ Would it actually produce more energy than it cost?
  • USS Clueless - A new Manhattan Project 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC denbeste.nu [Source type: Original source]

^ We could produce much more power while spending much less money.
  • USS Clueless - A new Manhattan Project 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC denbeste.nu [Source type: Original source]

^ "Such an attack would be more economically damaging than a dirty nuclear bomb set off in midtown Manhattan or across from the White House in Lafayette Square."

But Bethe was skeptical. .As Teller pushed hard for his "superbomb"—now usually referred to as a "hydrogen bomb"—proposing scheme after scheme, Bethe refused each one.^ Teller is removed as head of the implosion theory group, and also from fission weapon research entirely, due to conflicts with Bethe and his increasing obsession with the idea of the Super (hydrogen bomb).
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Einstein hated the hydrogen bomb and believed that one weapon was enough.
  • Manhattan Project@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The fusion idea had to be put aside in order to concentrate on actually producing fission bombs.^ Although the problem of understanding, processing, and purifying fissionable materials was solved, the actual design of a working bomb had yet to be determined.
  • The Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liverpool, and put in the idea which I had, about ah, research to work on the feasibility of the atom bomb.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, the whole idea of uh, of uh, my research work could be applied to produce a bomb of this magnitude was completely abhorrent to me.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

.Teller also raised the speculative possibility that an atomic bomb might "ignite" the atmosphere because of a hypothetical fusion reaction of nitrogen nuclei.^ The atomic bomb was known to be possible to build.

^ Nobel Prize winning physicist Niels Bohr, to his colleague Edward Teller on the construction of an atomic bomb.
  • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Also during this month Tokutaro Hagiwara at the University of Kyoto delivers a speech in which he discusses the possibility of a fusion explosion being ignited by an atomic bomb, apparently the first such mention.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] Bethe calculated, according to Serber, that it could not happen.[14] .However, a report co-authored by Teller showed that ignition of the atmosphere was not impossible, just unlikely.^ Serber reports that they co-authored a short paper on the subject, although this paper has not been found.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today's report, however, shows real progress, across-the-board.
  • Pentagon Issues Iraq Progress Report - Political Radar 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC blogs.abcnews.com [Source type: General]

[15] .In Serber's account, Oppenheimer mentioned it to Arthur Compton, who "didn't have enough sense to shut up about it.^ She also met Alfred Compton (no relation), Dr. Oppenheimer, and other scientists who were working on the bomb.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

^ "I didn't know a single person at Los Alamos who wasn't enthusiastic about using it.
  • Manhattan Project Hits the Met - WSJ.com 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ I didn't know a cabal existed until a reporter called me up and asked me about the PPT, saying `you invented it,''' he said.
  • Guest Post: The Manhattan Project: Did Bernanke Use The Monetary Nuclear Option? | zero hedge 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.zerohedge.com [Source type: Original source]

It somehow got into a document that went to Washington" which led to the question being "never laid to rest".[16]
.The conferences in June 1942 provided the detailed theoretical basis for the design of the atomic bomb, and convinced Oppenheimer of the benefits of having a single centralized laboratory to manage the research for the bomb project rather than having specialists spread out at different sites across the United States.^ Job Spec - Capacity Management Specialist / Project Manager A central capacity practise...
  • Project manager jobs - Manhattan, NY - Political Job Hunt 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC jobs.politicalwire.com [Source type: News]

^ The project was led by the United States, and included ...
  • Manhattan Project - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the project of making an atomic bomb.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Project sites

.Though it involved over thirty different research and production sites, the Manhattan Project was largely carried out at four secret laboratories that were established by power of eminent domain in four cities: Los Alamos, New Mexico; Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Richland, Washington; Chalk River, Ontario, Canada.^ The main assembly plant was built at Los Alamos, New Mexico .
  • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A massive enrichment laboratory/plant was built in Oak ridge, Tennessee.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manhattan Project's "Los Alamos Limo" found .
  • Manhattan Project's "Los Alamos Limo" found — Autoblog 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.autoblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Tennessee site was chosen because of the vast quantities of cheap hydroelectric power already available there (from the Tennessee Valley Authority) to power uranium enrichment processes.^ The Tennessee Valley Authority has 7,000-8,000 megawatts – the equivalent of seven or eight nuclear power plants or 15 coal plants – of unused electric capacity most nights.
  • A NEW MANHATTAN PROJECT FOR CLEAN ENERGY INDEPENDENCE - Press Releases - Alexander for Senate 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.lamaralexander.com [Source type: News]

^ Abelson, then in the process of constructing a thermal diffusion uranium enrichment plant, learned about the problems with the Manhattan Project's gaseous diffusion plant, and leaked information about his technology to Oppenheimer.

^ In many cases, we are already there, and just have to devote the capital to building large scale power installations.

.The Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, was chosen for its location near the Columbia River, a river that could supply water to cool the reactors which would produce the plutonium.^ The Hanford Engineer Works was built in Washington to produce plutonium.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The facilities at Hanford, Washington, which was near the Columbia River which supplied sufficient water to cool reactors, produced plutonium.
  • Operation Trinity and Manhattan Project | World War II Database 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC ww2db.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B Reactor on the Hanford site was, the world's first industrial-scale nuclear reactor, used to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons.
  • Deadly exposure: Cancers plague children of the Manhattan Project // Current 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Canadian site, Schomberg, Ontario, was chosen for its proximity to the industrial manufacturing of Ontario and Quebec, located on a rail head, adjacent to a large military base, Camp Petawawa, located on the Ottawa River it had access to abundant water.^ Before 1943, work on the design and functioning of the bomb itself was largely theoretical, based on fundamental experiments carried out at a number of different locations.
  • Manhattan Project (United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This car was used to shuttle Manhattan Project scientists between the Lamy train station in New Mexico and the project sites at Los Alamos and Trinity Base Camp.
  • Manhattan Project's "Los Alamos Limo" found — Autoblog 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.autoblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The news is also a mild shot in the arm for the U.S. economy, which given the large number of industrial jobs lost to cheaper overseas manufacturing zones, can use all of the domestic industrial jobs it can get.

.All the sites were suitably far from coastlines and therefore less vulnerable to possible enemy attack from Germany or Japan.^ All three locations were strategically located far enough in-land to minimize aerial attack by Germany or Japan.
  • Operation Trinity and Manhattan Project | World War II Database 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC ww2db.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan has so far remained free from air attacks (except for the symbolic Doolittle raid in 1942).
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Layers and layers of reinforced concrete and steel to protect against a potential enemy bombing attack at the height of WWII. Far-fetched?
  • E-Mail from Listeners and Readers 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.geoffmetcalf.com [Source type: General]

.The Los Alamos National Laboratory was built on a mesa that previously hosted the Los Alamos Ranch School, a private school for teenage boys.^ The first Cray-1 computer is shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory.
  • History of the Internet and Web 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.anderbergfamily.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trinity.” 2005 The Los Alamos National Laboratory 28 July 2005.

^ A program manager at DARPA submitted a POM for sizeable funding of extended research on our concept, both here and at Los Alamos National Laboratory.
  • A New Manhattan Project for Clean Energy 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.sciscoop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The site was chosen primarily for its remoteness. .Oppenheimer had known of it from his horse-riding near his ranch in New Mexico, and he showed it as a possible site to the government representatives, who promptly bought it for $440,000. In addition to being the main "think-tank", Los Alamos was responsible for final assembly of the bombs, mainly from materials and components produced by other sites.^ The main assembly plant was built at Los Alamos, New Mexico .
  • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The facilities at the remote Los Alamos, New Mexico housed the main group of researchers and was responsible for final assembly of the bombs.
  • Operation Trinity and Manhattan Project | World War II Database 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC ww2db.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Groves and Oppenheimer visit the Los Alamos mesa in New Mexico and select it for "Site Y".
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Manufacturing at Los Alamos included casings, explosive lenses, and fabrication of fissile materials into bomb cores.^ A meeting between Oppenheimer, Groves, and Los Alamos division leaders (February 28) fixed the design approach for the plutonium bomb.

^ The core is retrieved from car before it leaves Los Alamos.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The explosives are difficult materials to work with and made delicate castings, mold making was a slowly developing art, and the lenses required very good quality control.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oak Ridge facilities covered more than 60,000 acres (243 km²) of several former farm communities in the Tennessee Valley area.^ More than 1,000 witnesses are interviewed.

^ Nuclear facilities were built at Oak Ridge, Tennessee and Hanford, Washington.
  • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In a nutshell, Chertoff says federal agencies will cut the number of communication points through which agencies connect to the Internet from 4,000 to less than 100.
  • Attacks escalate on critical U.S. government networks: Will a Manhattan Project work? | Zero Day | ZDNet.com 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

.Some Tennessee families were given two weeks' notice to vacate family farms that had been their homes for generations.^ Next if you are a mother, it is important to consider the affects having an online business, generally home based will have on your family.

^ Today, high prices and supply shortages are hurting the families that depend on natural gas to heat their homes, as well as the businesses and farms that rely on it to do their work.
  • A New Manhattan Project - Council on Foreign Relations 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.cfr.org [Source type: News]

^ Assuming 125 million (approximately 50% of the United States population) employed with a five day work week and two weeks of vacation per year.
  • Geoengineering: A Climate Change Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.metatronics.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .So secret was the site during World War II that the state governor was unaware that Oak Ridge (which was to become the fifth largest city in the state) was being built.^ World War II (September 1939) .
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World war II (Sept.

^ And there will be a city on Black Oak Ridge....
  • Swords to Plowshares: A Short History of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1943-1993) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ornl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At one point Oak Ridge plants were consuming 1/6th of the electrical power produced in the U.S., more than New York City.^ One more point of clarification is necessary.
  • Princeton University researcher finds selective schools contribute to inequality in education | Bob Braun - NJ.com 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC blog.nj.com [Source type: General]

^ For more, see the New York Times .
  • Democracy in America | The Economist 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: General]

^ Rather than accepting racial categories...that would become New York Citys Lower Manhattan .
  • Manhattan Project: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

Oak Ridge mainly produced uranium-235.
.Chalk River, was established to house the allied effort that was going on at McGill University, in Montreal.^ The first effort, other than library catalogs, to index the Internet was created in 1989, as Peter Deutsch and his crew at McGill University in Montreal, created an archiver for ftp sites, which they named Archie .
  • A Brief History of the Internet 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.walthowe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McGill University, which hosted the first Archie, found out one day that half the Internet traffic going into Canada from the United States was accessing Archie.
  • A Brief History of the Internet 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.walthowe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the site was 120 miles west of Ottawa, a new community was also built at Deep River, Ontario to be the home of the project team members.^ February 2010 Military members who purchased a new home in 2009 may be eligible for a credit this tax season.
  • Department of Defense New Media - Top Stories 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dodvclips.mil [Source type: News]

^ To further broaden our reach into diverse corners of our community, MNMP has added three new members to its board of directors: .
  • The Manhattan New Music Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mnmp.org [Source type: General]

^ My name is Nicholas Bergh and I am a graduate student at UCLA. I am trying to confirm if Fred Van Eps from New Jersey built the escapements for the Manhattan Project.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

.Both were established in 1944, with scientists, engineers, trades from Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, France, Norway, etc.^ Sengier later became the only non-US citizen to win the Medal of Merit award from the United States; he also received honors from Belgium, the United Kingdom, and France.
  • Operation Trinity and Manhattan Project | World War II Database 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC ww2db.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 4 Dec., William Bundy had gone to New Zealand and Australia to present the new policy and seek support.
  • The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 3, Chapter 2, "Military Pressures Against North Vietnam, February 1964-January 1965," pp. 106-268 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nuclear-power opponents vigorously challenged nuclear engineers—an unnerving new experience for some scientists.
  • Swords to Plowshares: A Short History of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1943-1993) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ornl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

providing their contribution to the war effort.
.The Hanford Site, which grew to almost 1,000 square miles (2,600 km²), took over irrigated farm land, fruit orchards, a railroad, and two farming communities, Hanford and White Bluffs, in a highly populated area where three cities converge called the Tri Cities, (Kennewick, Pasco, and Richland.^ Originally based in Manhattan, a borough of New York City , the project eventually spread across the nation and was concentrated at three main sites located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, New Mexico.
  • Manhattan Project - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The large-scale production reactors were built on an isolated 1,000-square-mile (2,600-square-km) tract on the Columbia River north of Pasco, Washington—the Hanford Engineer Works .
  • Manhattan Project (United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January, 1943 - Groves acquires the Hanford Engineer Works, 780 square miles of land on the Columbia River in Washington for plutonium production reactors and separation plants.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

WA),adjacent to the Columbia River. .Hanford hosted nuclear reactors cooled by the river and was the plutonium production center.^ Construction begins on the cooling systems for the production reactors at Hanford.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The large-scale production reactors were built on an isolated 1,000-square-mile (2,600-square-km) tract on the Columbia River north of Pasco, Washington—the Hanford Engineer Works .
  • Manhattan Project (United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Huge plants for separating U235 were already under construction at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and plutonium reactors were being built on the Columbia River near Hanford, Washington.
  • Operation Silverplate 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.cybermodeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The existence of these sites and the secret cities of Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Richland, and Chalk River were not made public until the announcement of the Hiroshima explosion, and the sites remained secret until after the end of WWII.
.The project originally was headquartered at 270 Broadway in Manhattan.^ The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. .
  • Manhattan Project - MSN Encarta 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The goal of the original Manhattan Project was also tough and challenging.
  • USS Clueless - A new Manhattan Project 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC denbeste.nu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Manhattan Project us named after the New York borough where the first office headquarters was located and began June 1942.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other offices were scattered throughout the city,[18] including the New York Friars' Club building.^ Project Manager for their New York office.

^ Rather than accepting racial categories...that would become New York Citys Lower Manhattan .
  • Manhattan Project: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The primary effort, however, had come from British and American scientists, working in laboratories and offices scattered throughout the nation.
  • Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC web311.pavilion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .The Broadway headquarters lasted little more than a year before it was moved in 1943, although many of the other offices in Manhattan remained.^ Many years later, about 1967, after I became a nuclear reactor operator, I asked him again..about the company's part in the Manhattan Project, or his involvement.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

^ Irving needed a little drama to make Columbus more than a lucky thug, so he invented the flat-earthers.

^ We knew about the yard for more than five years and slowly removed the military trucks we were principally interested in.
  • Manhattan Project's "Los Alamos Limo" found — Autoblog 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.autoblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
A selection of U.S. sites important to the Manhattan Project.
Major Manhattan Project sites and subdivisions included:
.

Need for coordination

.The measurements of the interactions of fast neutrons with the materials in a bomb were essential; because the scientists needed to know the number of neutrons produced in the fission of uranium and plutonium, and because the substance surrounding the nuclear material needed the ability to reflect, or scatter, neutrons back into the chain reaction before it was blown apart—this in order to increase the energy produced.^ A uranium 238 tamper, or shell, surrounded the fissionable critical mass in both bombs, functioning to deflect any stray neutrons back into the chain reaction.
  • The Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nuclear chain reaction .
  • Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discovery of nuclear fission - Producing a controlled chain reaction .
  • nuclear weapon :: Founding the Manhattan Project -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Therefore, the neutron scattering properties of materials had to be measured to find the best reflectors.
.Estimating the explosive power required knowledge of many other nuclear properties, including the cross section (a measure of the probability of an encounter between particles that result in a specified effect) for nuclear processes of neutrons in uranium and other elements.^ This included experiments where elements such as uranium were bombarded with neutrons.
  • Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC web311.pavilion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During March the first American measurements of the U-235 fission cross section allow Peierls to calculate the first experimentally supported estimate of a critical mass for U-235 (18 lb as a bare sphere, 9-10 lb when surrounded by a reflector).

^ Terrorism, thin coalitions, harmful effects on business, restrictions on travel, declines in cross border tourism and education flows, and damaging consequences for other elements of U.S. soft power are tactical manifestations of a pervasive atmosphere of hostility.
  • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Fast neutrons could only be produced in particle accelerators, which were still relatively uncommon instruments in 1942.
The need for better coordination was clear. .By September 1942, the difficulties in conducting studies on nuclear weapons at universities scattered throughout the country indicated the need for a laboratory dedicated solely to that purpose.^ Manhattan Project: The U.S. Government project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. Started in 1942, the Manhattan Project formally ended in 1946.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - M 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The primary effort, however, had come from British and American scientists, working in laboratories and offices scattered throughout the nation.
  • Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC web311.pavilion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The head of a team of Princeton University researchers that conducted a seven-year study of students enrolled in the nation’s most prestigious universities contends such a project is essential.
  • Princeton University researcher finds selective schools contribute to inequality in education | Bob Braun - NJ.com 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC blog.nj.com [Source type: General]

.A greater need was the construction of industrial plants to produce uranium-235 and plutonium—the fissionable materials to be used in the weapons.^ By July 1943 two essential and encouraging pieces of experimental data had been obtained—plutonium did give off neutrons in fission, more than uranium-235; and the neutrons were emitted in a short time compared to that needed to bring the weapon materials into a supercritical assembly.
  • nuclear weapon :: Founding the Manhattan Project -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ California at Berkeley costly efforts were made to separate the two uranium isotopes using cyclotrons, but only about a gram of pure uranium-235 was obtained.
  • Manhattan Project Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Very soon after taking over three methods of producing fissionable material are chosen for full scale development: plutonium production in uranium-graphite reactors, and uranium enrichment using gaseous diffusion and electromagnetic separation.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vannevar Bush, the head of the civilian Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), asked President Roosevelt to assign the operations connected with the growing nuclear weapons project to the military.^ Manhattan Engineer District, or Manhattan Project the code name for Americas...Groves, military head of the Manhattan Project , selected the region as the...gripes, it is doubtful that the Manhattan Project could have succeeded as well...
  • Manhattan Project: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Manhattan Project: The U.S. Government project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. Started in 1942, the Manhattan Project formally ended in 1946.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - M 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ During World War II, urged by physicists Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd , President Franklin Roosevelt sanctioned a secret government project to develop the world’s first atomic bomb.
  • Manhattan Project – Neatorama 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

.Roosevelt chose the Army to work with the OSRD in building production plants.^ Sachs chose not to contact Roosevelt immediately, and on 1 September Hitler's armies invaded Poland; matters concerning the European war filled the President's schedule.
  • Manhatten Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.virtualology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vannevar Bush decided that the army should be brought into the production plant construction activities.
  • nuclear weapon :: Founding the Manhattan Project -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The Army Corps of Engineers selected Col. James Marshall to oversee the construction of factories to separate uranium isotopes and manufacture plutonium for the bomb.
Marshall and his deputy, Col. Kenneth Nichols, struggled to understand the proposed processes and the scientists with whom they had to work. .Thrust into the new field of nuclear physics, they felt unable to distinguish between technical and personal preferences.^ "Smart" bombs may be more accurate, since they are guided by complex terrain-mapping programs, but they do not distinguish between civilians and military targets.
  • THE PENTAGON'S NEW CLOTHES: 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.fiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you read the report carefully, you will see that they do not distinguish between intended audiences for their information campaign.
  • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fittingly, or ironically—perhaps both—ORNL galloped into the environmental field on the broad back of nuclear power.
  • Swords to Plowshares: A Short History of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1943-1993) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ornl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although they decided that a site near Knoxville, Tennessee, would be suitable for the first production plant, they did not know how large the site needed to be, and thus delayed its acquisition.^ But how did it happen in the first place?
  • Internet History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.netvalley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They later decided that Hiroshima would be the first target.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Would they really have been so blind as to keep pushing forward, deciding that when fossil fuels got scarce that the best thing to do was double their dependency on them?

.Because of its experimental nature, the nuclear weapons work could not compete for priority with the Army's more urgent tasks.^ (This last objection could apply to more than just nuclear energy—but that just reinforces my general point.

^ "In recent years, I've argued that dropping the bomb was the proper thing to do," he explains, "because it was the only way to impress on humanity the terrible nature of nuclear weapons.
  • Swords to Plowshares: A Short History of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1943-1993) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ornl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further more, the designers of these reactors would have been viewed as completely unqualified to perform this task, because they lacked the proper educational background.

.The scientists' construction of the work and production plants were often delayed by Marshall's inability to obtain critical materials—such as steel—needed in other military projects.^ These connections access other internet materials such as images, sounds, animations, videos, or other web pages.
  • Internet Definitions 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.netsmartz.org [Source type: General]

^ Philip Morrison, a scientist, worked on the Manhattan Project at Alamogordo, New Mexico .
  • Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC web311.pavilion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vannevar Bush decided that the army should be brought into the production plant construction activities.
  • nuclear weapon :: Founding the Manhattan Project -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Even selecting a name for the project was difficult.^ Concerned that even that name would attract too much attention, the military changed it to the Manhattan Engineer District or the Manhattan Project for short.
  • Manhattan Project – Neatorama 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

The title chosen by Gen. Brehon B. Somervell, "Development of Substitute Materials," was objectionable because it seemed to reveal too much.

Manhattan Engineer District

General Leslie Groves (left) was appointed the military head of the Manhattan Project, while Robert Oppenheimer (right) was the scientific director.
Vannevar Bush became dissatisfied with Col. James Marshall's failure to get the project moving forward expeditiously and made this known to Secretary of War Stimson and Army Chief of Staff George Marshall. Marshall then directed General Somervell to replace Col. Marshall with a more energetic officer as director. In the summer of 1942, Col. Leslie Groves was deputy to the chief of construction for the Army Corps of Engineers and had overseen the very rapid construction of the Pentagon, the world's largest office building. .He was widely respected as an intelligent, hard driving, though brusque officer who got things done in a hurry.^ You try so hard by making up your own facts to cover up the obvious fact that David Axelrod is a bonehead who keeps f-ing things up.
  • TPM Election Central | Talking Points Memo | Pentagon Confirms That It Told Obama He Couldn't Visit Army Base With Campaign Staff 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC tpmelectioncentral.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hoping for an overseas command, Groves vigorously objected when Somervell appointed him to the weapons project.^ In 1942 the Manhattan Engineer Project was set up in the United States under the command of Brigadier General Leslie Groves .
  • Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC web311.pavilion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ October 15, 1942 - Groves asks Oppenheimer to head Project Y, planned to be the new central laboratory for weapon physics research and design.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brehon Somervell that his assignment overseas has been cancelled and that he will take another assignment - command of the Manhattan Engineer District.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His objections were overruled, and Groves resigned himself to leading a project he thought had little chance of success.^ The project originated in the Pentagon in 1942 when General Groves was told, by the White House, he was to lead the Manhattan Project.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Groves appointed Oppenheimer as the project's scientific director, to the surprise of many.^ The previous month, Groves had decided to choose Oppenheimer to be the scientific director of the laboratory where the design, development, and final manufacture of the weapon would take place.
  • nuclear weapon :: Founding the Manhattan Project -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ October 15, 1942 - Groves asks Oppenheimer to head Project Y, planned to be the new central laboratory for weapon physics research and design.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ General Groves was in charge of the military or security part of the project, while Oppenheimer was in charge of the organization of the scientists and ideas.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(Oppenheimer's radical political views were thought to pose security problems). .However, Groves was convinced Oppenheimer was a genius who could talk about and understand nearly anything, and he was convinced such a man was needed for a project such as the one being proposed.^ She lived in Washington, D.C. with her husband, Alfred Marvin Compton, Jr. World War II. Marvin thought Alice was having an affair because she could never talk about her work nor could she ever discuss who she was seeing or meeting.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

^ Hence we are talking about 5 poles here not one!
  • Flight 77 and the Pentagon Crash - What Really Happened Here? 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.freedomfiles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of our viewers has a friend who worked on the Manhattan Project and whose health was negatively affected.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

.Groves renamed the project The Manhattan Engineer District.^ The Manhattan Engineer District (MED) was the official name of the project.
  • Manhattan Project: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Manhattan Engineer District (MED) was the official name of the project .
  • Manhattan Project: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Manhattan Engineer District, or Manhattan Project the code name for Americas...Groves, military head of the Manhattan Project , selected the region as the...gripes, it is doubtful that the Manhattan Project could have succeeded as well...
  • Manhattan Project: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The name evolved from the Corps of Engineers practice of naming districts after its headquarters' city (Marshall's headquarters were at 270 Broadway in New York City).^ Rather than accepting racial categories...that would become New York Citys Lower Manhattan .
  • Manhattan Project: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Manhattan Engineer District, or Manhattan Project the code name for Americas...Groves, military head of the Manhattan Project , selected the region as the...gripes, it is doubtful that the Manhattan Project could have succeeded as well...
  • Manhattan Project: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Soon an office in New York City was opened, and in August the project was officially given the name Manhattan Engineer District—hence Manhattan Project , the name by which this effort would be known ever afterward.
  • nuclear weapon :: Founding the Manhattan Project -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.At that time, Groves was promoted to brigadier general, giving him the rank necessary to deal with senior people whose cooperation was required, or whose own projects were hampered by Groves' top-priority project.^ September 23, 1942 - Groves is promoted to Brigadier General.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manhattan Project was directed by longtime Woody Allen collaborator Marshall Brickman , whose expert sense of comic timing obscures the thickheaded "message" of this picture.
  • The Manhattan Project - Ask.com 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Should any such people care, the New York Times reports that the reason why Mr Abdulmutallab is providing FBI interrogators with valuable information about terrorist networks is that his family persuaded him to cooperate.
  • Democracy in America | The Economist 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: General]

.Within a week of his appointment, Groves had solved the Manhattan Project's most urgent problems.^ Last week Department of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff outlined plans for a federal Manhattan Project to bolster cyber security.
  • Attacks escalate on critical U.S. government networks: Will a Manhattan Project work? | Zero Day | ZDNet.com 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ A week ago, Voodoo Extreme published their review of Duke Nukem: Manhattan Project.
  • 3D Realms News: Manhattan Project Archives 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.3drealms.com [Source type: General]

^ And yes, the success of the Manhattan Project was not guaranteed, but it was judged to be probable, and the prospect of the Nazis producing an atomic bomb of their own within a few years created an urgent need to make the attempt.

.His forceful and effective manner was soon to become all too familiar to the atomic scientists.^ Steve: If you didn't catch Doctor Atomic when it aired on PBS, look for it to be rerun or to become available on DVD soon.
  • The Manhattan Project and the Met: Scientific American Podcast 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, researchers are still struggling to grasp all the destructive effects of the force that these scientists distilled from fractured bonds of matter.
  • Manhattan Project Hits the Met - WSJ.com 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ In time of war, therefore, Rumsfeld was effectively the president’s partner, the direct link to the fighting forces, and all orders had to go through him.
  • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first major scientific hurdle of the project was solved on December 2, 1942, beneath the bleachers of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, where a team led by Enrico Fermi, for whom Fermilab is named, initiated the first artificial [22] self sustaining nuclear chain reaction in an experimental nuclear reactor named Chicago Pile-1.^ A breakthrough occurred in December 1942 when Fermi led a group of physicists to produce the first controlled nuclear chain reaction under the grandstands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago.
  • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Manhattan Project: The U.S. Government project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. Started in 1942, the Manhattan Project formally ended in 1946.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - M 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus from December 1942, when Enrico Fermi's Chicago pile went critical, and November 1944, the design of reactors leaped forward by would have required a business as usual approach a generation to accomplish.

.A coded phone call from Compton saying, "The Italian navigator [referring to Fermi] has landed in the new world, the natives are friendly" to Conant in Washington, D.C., brought news of the experiment's success.^ I suppose that a conspiratorial view of the world would say that these phone calls were pre-planned.
  • E-Mail from Listeners and Readers 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.geoffmetcalf.com [Source type: General]

^ But if models of climate change are correct, New England will experience a warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius, which will render Walden woods unable to sustain its native flora.
  • Geoengineering: A Climate Change Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.metatronics.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After events in New York make it clear the US is under attack, the phones there light up with calls from local people wanting to know what to do.
  • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Uranium bomb

A gun-type nuclear bomb.
.The Hiroshima bomb, Little Boy, was made from uranium-235, a rare isotope of uranium that has to be physically separated from the more plentiful uranium-238 isotope, which is not suitable for use in an explosive device.^ The Bomb that destroyed this historic city was made of plutonium (Hiroshima's was uranium).

^ He was getting off a streetcar when the "Little Boy" bomb exploded above Hiroshima.

^ He had worked alongside the scientists responsible for Little Boy, the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, and Fat Man, the bomb that exploded three days later over Nagasaki.
  • University of Rochester: Medical Experimentation During Cold War 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since U-235 makes up only 0.7% of raw uranium and is chemically identical to the 99.3% of U-238, various physical methods were considered for separation.^ Simple electrolysis winds up being an inefficient way of storing electricity, and I have no idea which of the "water separation" methods are real OR workable.
  • Energy "Manhattan Project" Needed To Wean US Off Of Oil 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ The only uranium available for study was the isotope mixture of natural uranium, in which U-235 comprised only 0.71%.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then out of this Uranium metal 99% of it is U-238 which is non-fissionable.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the uranium enrichment work was performed at Oak Ridge.^ A massive enrichment laboratory/plant was built in Oak ridge, Tennessee.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My aunt worked at Oak Ridge during World War II. Her name was Freddie Giles, or she may have been known by her married name of Stripling.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

^ Also, for interviews, I am seeking Blacks who either lived and worked in Oak Ridge during the war, or knows someone who did.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

Operators at their calutron control panels at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
.One method of separating uranium 235 from raw uranium ore was devised by Franz Simon and Nicholas Kurti, at Oxford University.^ H.C. Urey and other associates at Columbia University devised a system that separated the Uranium using the principle of gaseous diffusion.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A second uranium separation process was housed at K-25, which when finished was the largest building under one roof in the world.

^ Franz Simon begins research on isotope separation through gaseous diffusion.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their method using gaseous diffusion was scaled up in a large separation plant at Oak Ridge, using uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas as the process fluid.^ Another facility, K25 used the gaseous diffusion method.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three separate uranium enrichment projects were developed in Oak Ridge.

^ A massive enrichment laboratory/plant was built in Oak ridge, Tennessee.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the war this method was important primarily for producing partly enriched material to feed the electromagnetic separation process undertaken in calutrons (see below).^ Manhattan Project: The U.S. Government project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. Started in 1942, the Manhattan Project formally ended in 1946.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - M 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Very soon after taking over three methods of producing fissionable material are chosen for full scale development: plutonium production in uranium-graphite reactors, and uranium enrichment using gaseous diffusion and electromagnetic separation.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kellex immediately begins work on a process for producing usable barrier material on an industrial scale.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another method—electromagnetic isotope separation—was developed by Ernest Lawrence at the University of California Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley.^ Urey is appointed to develop gaseous diffusion and heavy water production at Columbia; Lawrence will investigate electromagnetic separation at Berkeley; and Eger Murphree will develop centrifuge separation and oversee engineering issues.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometime in 1943, General Groves, while visiting the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, which was at work separating U-235 by electromagnetic means, attempted to spur Ernest O. Lawrence (the director of the lab) on by saying to him, "You know, Dr. Lawrence, I hope you realize that your reputation is at stake here".
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

^ They also estimate the likely effects of the bomb, and possible assembly methods, as well as estimates of the feasibility of isotope separation.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This method was implemented in Oak Ridge at the Y-12 Plant, employing devices known as calutrons, which were effectively mass spectrometers.^ A massive enrichment laboratory/plant was built in Oak ridge, Tennessee.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My aunt worked at Oak Ridge during World War II. Her name was Freddie Giles, or she may have been known by her married name of Stripling.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

^ The Y-12 Plant at Oak Ridge provided the bomb-grade U-235 used for the Little Boy bomb.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Copper was originally intended for electromagnet coils, but there was an insufficient amount available due to war shortages.^ He said he had not originally intended to propose any solutions but was disturbed by the amount of inequality he discovered.
  • Princeton University researcher finds selective schools contribute to inequality in education | Bob Braun - NJ.com 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC blog.nj.com [Source type: General]

.The project engineers were forced to borrow silver from the U.S. Treasury.^ The calutrons required a huge amount of copper wire, and when copper was in short supply, the Manhattan project borrowed 14,700 tons of another electrical conductive metal, silver, from the United States Treasury to wire the magnets.

.A total of 70,000,000 pounds of silver from the U.S. Treasury reserves was used for coils, and was returned after the project ended.^ Manhattan Project was using 70% of the silver produced in the United States.
  • Energy "Manhattan Project" Needed To Wean US Off Of Oil 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Use Treasurys project management methodology to monitor...
  • Project manager jobs - Manhattan, NY - Political Job Hunt 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC jobs.politicalwire.com [Source type: News]

^ During the last year of the project over 20,000 test lenses were actually used, many times this number were made and rejected.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Initially the method seemed promising for large scale production but was expensive and produced insufficient material and was later abandoned after the war.^ Large scale plutonium production begins.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very soon after taking over three methods of producing fissionable material are chosen for full scale development: plutonium production in uranium-graphite reactors, and uranium enrichment using gaseous diffusion and electromagnetic separation.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kellex immediately begins work on a process for producing usable barrier material on an industrial scale.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other techniques were also tried, such as thermal diffusion and the use of high-speed centrifuges.^ H.C. Urey and other associates at Columbia University devised a system that separated the Uranium using the principle of gaseous diffusion.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He selects liquid thermal diffusion as the technique to pursue.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We use the terms “computer,” “computer resources” and “computation” to mean not only traditional computers, but also devices that can be controlled digitally over a network, information resources such as mobile programs and other computational capabilities.

.Thermal diffusion was not used to produce highly-enriched uranium, but was used during the war in the S-50 facility to begin enrichment of the uranium, and its product was passed as the feed into the other facilities.^ The total production of highly enriched uranium to date is a few grams.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manhattan Project: The U.S. Government project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. Started in 1942, the Manhattan Project formally ended in 1946.
  • Dictionary of Energy - definisions - Energy Glossary - M 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.photius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ H.C. Urey and other associates at Columbia University devised a system that separated the Uranium using the principle of gaseous diffusion.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The uranium bomb was a gun-type fission weapon.^ He was riding a high-flying B-29 fleeing the scene after dropping the gun-type, fission weapon dubbed "Little Boy" only seconds before.

^ The only workable bomb design at hand, the gun-type weapon, requires U-235 which has no practical production methods available.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fissioning, or splitting, of uranium's nucleus could unleash energy of unprecedented might and destructiveness, these physicists realized, if it could be harnessed for a bomb.
  • Swords to Plowshares: A Short History of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1943-1993) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ornl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One mass of U-235, the "bullet," is fired down a more or less conventional gun barrel into another mass of U-235, rapidly creating the critical mass of U-235, resulting in an explosion.^ July 4, 1934 - Leo Szilard files patent application describing the use of neutron induced chain reactions to create explosions, and the concept of the critical mass.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Internet as a tool to create " critical mass " of intellectual resources .
  • Internet History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.netvalley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than three-quarters of Asian students graduated in the top 10 percent of their high school class, in contrast to less than one-half of black students.
  • Views: A New Manhattan Project - Inside Higher Ed 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.insidehighered.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The method was so certain to work that no test was carried out before the bomb was dropped over Hiroshima, though extensive laboratory testing was undertaken to make sure the fundamental assumptions were correct.^ The first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had worked alongside the scientists responsible for Little Boy, the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, and Fat Man, the bomb that exploded three days later over Nagasaki.
  • University of Rochester: Medical Experimentation During Cold War 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.fluoridealert.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Make money: without leaving your house; with your PC as the only tool; using a method that turns your time into a FORTUNE in no-time!

.Also, the bomb that was dropped used all the existing extremely highly purified U-235 (and even most of the less highly purified material) so there was no U-235 available for such a test anyway.^ But they were also very highly motivated people, and I would say that all of us shared a considerable fear of Germany, and we're aware that if the Germans by any chance manage to have any success in building such a weapon, that they would not be very sentimental about using it.
  • The Manhattan Project and the Met: Scientific American Podcast 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As they are a military dictatorship that uses their population as slave labour and ruthlessly suppresses dissent there is no chance that anyone can look at their books.

^ There was a good deal of discussion between individuals and, heaven knows, probably quite a few discussions in living rooms, but there was no organizational discussion at all.
  • The Manhattan Project and the Met: Scientific American Podcast 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The bomb's design was known to be inefficient and prone to accidental discharge.

Plutonium bomb

.
The basic concept of an implosion-style nuclear weapon.
^ From the outset the basic plan for developing nuclear weapons at Los Alamos was to use gun assembly for both uranium and plutonium bombs.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Actual pictures and details of the bomb's inner workings remain classified.
.The bombs used in the first test at Trinity Site on July 16, 1945, in New Mexico (the gadget of the Trinity test), and in the Nagasaki bomb, Fat Man, were made primarily of plutonium-239, a synthetic element.^ The nuclear age began on July 16, 1945, when it was detonated in the New Mexico desert.
  • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By the summer of 1945, Oppenheimer was ready to test the first bomb.
  • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The bomb was tested at Trinity Test Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945 and was a complete success.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although uranium-238 is useless as a fissile isotope for an atomic bomb, it is key in producing plutonium[23].^ Key uncertainties were 1) the number of neutrons emitted per fission, and 2) the cross sections for fission and absorption at different energies for the uranium isotopes.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first step in building the bomb was to build the plants needed to produce bomb-grade uranium.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although no atomic bombs yet exist, there is no longer any doubt about their imminent availability.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fission of U-235 releases neutrons, which are absorbed by U-238, which creates uranium-239.^ Key uncertainties were 1) the number of neutrons emitted per fission, and 2) the cross sections for fission and absorption at different energies for the uranium isotopes.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then out of this Uranium metal 99% of it is U-238 which is non-fissionable.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This theory implies U-235 is more fissile than U-238, and that the undiscovered element 94-239 is also very fissile.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

U-239 rapidly decays to neptunium-239 (U-239 has a half-life of 23.45 minutes). .Neptunium-239 (with a half-life of 2.35 days) then decays into plutonium-239.^ March 6, 1941 - Seaborg and Wahl isolate the first pure neptunium-239 (0.25 micrograms), in a matter of days it decays into a (barely) visible speck of pure plutonium.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The production and purification of plutonium used techniques developed in part by Glenn Seaborg while working at Berkeley and Chicago.^ Seaborg arrives in Chicago and starts work on developing an industrial-scale plutonium separation and purification process.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very soon after taking over three methods of producing fissionable material are chosen for full scale development: plutonium production in uranium-graphite reactors, and uranium enrichment using gaseous diffusion and electromagnetic separation.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plutonium production has not yet begun, but the production techniques appear to have a high probability of success.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Beginning in 1943, huge plants were built to produce plutonium at the Hanford Site.^ The Hanford Engineer Works was built in Washington to produce plutonium.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plutonium begins arriving from Hanford.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January, 1943 - Groves acquires the Hanford Engineer Works, 780 square miles of land on the Columbia River in Washington for plutonium production reactors and separation plants.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A mock-up of the plutonium bomb, Fat Man
.In 1943–1944, development efforts were directed to a gun-type fission weapon with plutonium, called "Thin Man". Once this was achieved, the scientists thought the uranium version, "Little Boy," would require a relatively simple adaptation.^ The Little Boy (left) and Fat Man (right) were the only bombs used in war.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very soon after taking over three methods of producing fissionable material are chosen for full scale development: plutonium production in uranium-graphite reactors, and uranium enrichment using gaseous diffusion and electromagnetic separation.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This once classified photograph features the first atomic bomb — a weapon that atomic scientists had nicknamed "Gadget."
  • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.Initial research on the properties of plutonium was done using cyclotron-generated plutonium-239, which was extremely pure, but could only be created in very small amounts.^ Perl -- (Practical Extraction and Report Language) Perl is a programming language that is widely used for both very simple, small tasks and for very large complex applications.
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

^ But most important, it started as the creation of a small band of dedicated researchers, and has grown to be a commercial success with billions of dollars of annual investment.
  • Internet Society (ISOC) All About The Internet: History of the Internet 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.isoc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The planned plutonium gun had to be abandoned, and Oppenheimer was forced to make implosion research a top priority, using all available resources to attack it.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On April 5, 1944, Emilio Segrè at Los Alamos received the first sample of Hanford-produced plutonium.^ On April 5 the first sample of reactor produced plutonium arrives from Oak Ridge.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hanford Engineer Works was built in Washington to produce plutonium.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world's first sample of plutonium in metal form is produced by reducing PuF4 with Ba at the Met Lab.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within ten days, he discovered a problem: reactor-bred plutonium was far less isotopically pure than cyclotron-produced plutonium[24].^ It is conceivable that it will take 100% of tax revenues in less than ten years, at the current trajectory."
  • Guest Post: The Manhattan Project: Did Bernanke Use The Monetary Nuclear Option? | zero hedge 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.zerohedge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The *110 problems of discounting and deniability are reduced to the extent that geoengineering can take effect with less of a lag time than a GHG reduction regime.
  • Geoengineering: A Climate Change Manhattan Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.metatronics.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet we produce 39 percent less oil today than we did in 1970, leaving us ever more reliant on foreign suppliers.
  • America’s strategic imperative: a “Manhattan Project” for energy | Energy Bulletin 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.energybulletin.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • No Title 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.precaution.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A higher concentration of Pu-240, formed from Pu-239 by capture of an additional neutron, gave it a much higher spontaneous fission rate than U-235. Pu-240 was even harder to separate from Pu-239 than U-235 was to separate from U-238, so no purification was attempted.^ This was about the time that it was found that the isotope plutonium 240 had a very high spontaneous fission rate; and there was a great urgency to have a mass spectrometer set up to measure the amount of 240 that was in the plutonium that was coming down from Hanford.
  • The Manhattan Project and the Met: Scientific American Podcast 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But I also see no exit strategy other than flat out raising rates.
  • Guest Post: The Manhattan Project: Did Bernanke Use The Monetary Nuclear Option? | zero hedge 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.zerohedge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This gives cellulosic ethanol a much higher net energy balance than corn-based etha­nol.
  • America’s strategic imperative: a “Manhattan Project” for energy | Energy Bulletin 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.energybulletin.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This made the Hanford plutonium unsuitable for use in a gun-type weapon[citation needed].^ The planned plutonium gun had to be abandoned, and Oppenheimer was forced to make implosion research a top priority, using all available resources to attack it.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From swords to guns, the weapons used are always developing and becoming much more powerful.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was riding a high-flying B-29 fleeing the scene after dropping the gun-type, fission weapon dubbed "Little Boy" only seconds before.

.The gun-type bomb worked by mechanically assembling the critical mass from two subcritical masses: a "bullet" and a target.^ In the decades since World War II, dozens of historians have tried to model the mechanics of the two bombs - Little Boy and Fat Man.

^ This is a clear advantage for the technique which would make a bomb more efficient, and require a smaller critical mass.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (There were two types of atomic bombs developed and used.

.The chain reaction resulting from collision of the "bullet" with the target released tremendous energy, producing an explosion, but also blew apart the critical mass and ended the chain reaction.^ When this supercritical mass is obtained, a rapid self-sustained chain reaction is caused.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 4, 1934 - Leo Szilard files patent application describing the use of neutron induced chain reactions to create explosions, and the concept of the critical mass.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And if these fissions all these occur in a very short time, with all their energies released in an extremely short time, this will result in a mighty powerful explosion.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

.The configuration of the critical mass determined how much of the fissile material reacted in the interval between assembly and dispersal, and therefore the explosive yield of the bomb.^ This is a clear advantage for the technique which would make a bomb more efficient, and require a smaller critical mass.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Explosive lenses and nuclear material are not yet available, the bomb assemblies are used for airdrop and ground handling practice.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Strength determines how much power any message, such as a post or e-mail, has on its target.
  • Internet (video game) - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: General]

.Even a 1% fission of the material would result in a workable bomb, equal to thousands of tons of high explosive.^ Huge concentrations of highly radioactive materials resulted from the fission and were contained in this cloud.
  • Manhatten Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.virtualology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, there was no evidence prior to the Manhattan project that a fission bomb was even theoretically possible, let alone how practical it would be.

^ The major difficulty in building an atomic bomb was in obtaining the required quantity of fissionable material.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A poor configuration, or slow assembly, would release enough energy to disperse the critical mass quickly, and the yield would be greatly reduced, equivalent to only a few tons of high explosive.^ Only a few thousand are killed, urban inhabitants have learned to flee fire bomb attacks quickly and escape the flames.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a clear advantage for the technique which would make a bomb more efficient, and require a smaller critical mass.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chet November 13, 2008 12:13 PM Not only would our miracle battery have to store energy as well as gasoline does .

.The chain reaction of U-235 was slow enough that gun-type assembly would work, but in a gun-type bomb made with the Hanford plutonium, "early" neutrons from spontaneously fissioning Pu-240 would start the chain reaction more quickly during detonation.^ The neutron emission for reactor-produced plutonium is too high for gun assembly to work.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was about the time that it was found that the isotope plutonium 240 had a very high spontaneous fission rate; and there was a great urgency to have a mass spectrometer set up to measure the amount of 240 that was in the plutonium that was coming down from Hanford.
  • The Manhattan Project and the Met: Scientific American Podcast 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the neutrons freed by the fission chain reaction would be captured by uranium atoms; those atoms would thus be transformed into plutonium, which chemical engineers would figure out how to extract and purify.
  • Swords to Plowshares: A Short History of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1943-1993) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ornl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This would release enough energy to disperse the critical mass with only a minimal amount of plutonium reacted, reducing the resulting yield of the weapon.^ And if these fissions all these occur in a very short time, with all their energies released in an extremely short time, this will result in a mighty powerful explosion.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a clear advantage for the technique which would make a bomb more efficient, and require a smaller critical mass.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heat moving from one point to another only can theoretically yield a certain amount of energy, no matter what technology is used.
  • A New Manhattan Project for Clean Energy 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.sciscoop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In July 1944, based on the measurements of spontaneous fission for Hanford plutonium, the decision was made to cease work on a gun-type assembly for plutonium[24].^ This was about the time that it was found that the isotope plutonium 240 had a very high spontaneous fission rate; and there was a great urgency to have a mass spectrometer set up to measure the amount of 240 that was in the plutonium that was coming down from Hanford.
  • The Manhattan Project and the Met: Scientific American Podcast 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ March, 1944 - Segre has improved his spontaneous fission estimates in cyclotron plutonium (essentially pure Pu-239) to 11 fissions/kg-sec, this is still acceptable for gun assembly, but greatly narrows the margin of security.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hanford Engineer Works was built in Washington to produce plutonium.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There would be no "Thin Man."^ Furthermore, there was no evidence prior to the Manhattan project that a fission bomb was even theoretically possible, let alone how practical it would be.

^ And it was circling—it was coming down and fast.… [A]nd there was another target with no markings or anything—it was just a target,” with none of the accompanying information that would be emitted by a transponder.
  • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There would be no global control at the operations level.
  • Internet Society (ISOC) All About The Internet: History of the Internet 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.isoc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ideas for alternative detonation schemes had existed for some time at Los Alamos.^ At the same time, other resolution schemes exist as well.

^ February 16, 1944 - Kistiakowsky becomes full-time Los Alamos staff member, replacing Neddermeyer as leader of implosion research.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I-- at that time I was staying with the Chadwicks in their house, and uh...General Leslie Groves when he came from time to time to Los Alamos used to visit the Chadwicks and stay for dinner.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

.One of the more innovative was the idea of "implosion". Using chemical explosives, a sub-critical sphere of fissile material could be squeezed into a smaller and denser form.^ This is especially true if you plan to share your internet connection, i.e., have more than one computer using the internet.
  • Internet ADSL Broadband High Speed in Bangkok and Thailand 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.thailandguru.com [Source type: General]

^ Corn ethanol critics observe that it takes more energy (in the form of fertilizers, farm machinery, processing into ethanol, and so forth) to grow the corn and distill the ethanol than is available in the final product.

^ Holding 565 g of U-235 (in the form of 14.7% enriched uranyl sulfate), dissolved in a 12" sphere of water, this is the world's first reactor to use enriched uranium, and the first critical assembly constructed at Los Alamos.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the fissile atoms were packed closer together, the rate of neutron capture would increase, and the mass would become a critical mass.^ Some of the neutrons freed by the fission chain reaction would be captured by uranium atoms; those atoms would thus be transformed into plutonium, which chemical engineers would figure out how to extract and purify.
  • Swords to Plowshares: A Short History of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1943-1993) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ornl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 4, 1934 - Leo Szilard files patent application describing the use of neutron induced chain reactions to create explosions, and the concept of the critical mass.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Would it become a sole source of information for the surviving masses?
  • Internet History 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.netvalley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The metal needed to travel only very short distances, so the critical mass would be assembled in much less time than it would take to assemble a mass by a bullet impacting a target.^ I would rather be exposed to the inconveniencies attending too much liberty, than those attending too small a degree of it.
  • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is conceivable that it will take 100% of tax revenues in less than ten years, at the current trajectory."
  • Guest Post: The Manhattan Project: Did Bernanke Use The Monetary Nuclear Option? | zero hedge 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.zerohedge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only way out of that hole would to either work people until very close to death, or kill them at retirement.

.Initially, implosion had been entertained as a possible, though unlikely, method.^ January 31, 1945 - Robert Bacher reports to Oppenheimer that a Po-210/Be-9 implosion initiator (still to be designed) is possible.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gun method was further developed for uranium only, while most efforts were then directed towards rapidly developing an implosion system.^ Instead of being organized around scientific and engineering areas of expertise, all work is organized around whether it applies to implosion, or the uranium gun weapon, with the former receiving most of the resources.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This allows a substantial reduction in performance of the planned gun assembly method for uranium.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only workable bomb design at hand, the gun-type weapon, requires U-235 which has no practical production methods available.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oppenheimer chose to pursue a design based on the April 1944 suggestion by James L. Tuck to use explosive lenses to create spherical, converging implosion waves.^ James Tuck suggests idea of using explosive lenses to create spherical converging implosion waves.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James Tuck brings the idea of explosives lenses for detonation wave shaping (two-D lenses for plane wave generation originally proposed by M. J. Poole in England, 1942), but suggests developing 3-D lenses to create a spherical implosion.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PHP language is designed to be intermingled with the HTML that is used to create web pages .
  • Matisse's Glossary of Internet Terms 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.matisse.net [Source type: Reference]

.
In July 1944 the Los Alamos laboratory abandoned the plutonium gun-type bomb ("Thin Man", shown above) and focused almost entirely on the problem of implosion.
^ The second type of atomic bomb is an implosion bomb.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I went to Los Alamos in the middle of July of 1944.
  • The Manhattan Project and the Met: Scientific American Podcast 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A program manager at DARPA submitted a POM for sizeable funding of extended research on our concept, both here and at Los Alamos National Laboratory.
  • A New Manhattan Project for Clean Energy 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.sciscoop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(The Fat Man casing is also visible in the photo background.^ August 2, 1945 - Fat Man bomb cases F-31 and F-32 arrive on Tinian.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
.By the end of July 1944, the entire Manhattan Project had been reorganized around building the implosion-type bomb[24].^ Atomic bombs - Manhattan Project .

^ Atomic bombs - Manhattan Project ] .

^ The goal of the Manhattan Project was to build a bomb, to blow things up.

.The required implosion was achieved by using shaped charges with many explosive lenses to produce the perfectly spherical explosive wave which compressed the plutonium sphere.^ James Tuck suggests idea of using explosive lenses to create spherical converging implosion waves.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James Tuck brings the idea of explosives lenses for detonation wave shaping (two-D lenses for plane wave generation originally proposed by M. J. Poole in England, 1942), but suggests developing 3-D lenses to create a spherical implosion.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The planned plutonium gun had to be abandoned, and Oppenheimer was forced to make implosion research a top priority, using all available resources to attack it.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of the complexity of an implosion-style weapon, it was decided that, despite the waste of fissile material, an initial test would be required.^ The FDD engineering hardware design requirements would be to build a new style FDD solid state disk drive, hooked up on th..
  • SEO And Internet Marketing Services To Boost Sales For Your Business B2B And B2C Web Strategies 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC pwebs.net [Source type: General]

^ The unmistakable remains of nuclear testing and the nuclear weapons waste places like Oak Ridge and Hanford have produced will be with us for eons.

^ The rest of the nuclear stuff, the still-fissile material, will likely be recycled into newer nuclear plants or advanced weapons.

.The first nuclear test took place on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico, under the supervision of Groves's deputy Brig.^ The bomb was tested at Trinity Test Site in New Mexico on July 16, 1945 and was a complete success.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The atomic bomb, tested successfully at Alamogordo, New Mexico on 15 July 1945 and first used in warfare with chilling and awesome destructive effects less than a month later at Hiroshima (6 August), was the culmination of a massive and prolonged secret research project involving hundreds of American, British and European refugee scientists engineers and technicians.
  • Manhatten Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.virtualology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 0530, 16 July 1945, in a remote section of the Alamogordo Air Base, New Mexico, the first full scale test was made of the implosion type atomic fission bomb.
  • Manhatten Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.virtualology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gen. Thomas Farrell. Oppenheimer gave the test the code name "Trinity".

Similar efforts

.A similar effort was undertaken in the USSR in September 1941 headed by Igor Kurchatov (with some of Kurchatov's World War II knowledge coming secondhand from Manhattan Project countries, thanks to spies, including at least two on the scientific team at Los Alamos, Klaus Fuchs and Theodore Hall, unknown to each other).^ World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project .
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World war II (Sept.

^ I know he worked on the Manhattan Project in Los Alamos.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

.After the MAUD Committee's report, the British and Americans exchanged nuclear information but initially did not pool their efforts.^ December, 1940 - The MAUD Committee issues report on isotope separation authored by Simon.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the beginning, of course, was only the British Committee, which was called the MAUD Committee initially and later became the...
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ October 3, 1941 - The MAUD Committee Final Report reaches the US through official channels.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A British project, code-named Tube Alloys, was started but did not have United States resources.^ Well, we, of course, did not know at that time what was going on in the United States or other countries.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So, eventually you did come to the United States to join the Manhattan Project.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States must embark on a comprehensive plan to achieve energy independence -- a type of Manhattan Project for energy -- to deploy as many conservation and replacement measures as possible.

Consequently the British bargaining position worsened, and their motives were mistrusted by the Americans. .Collaboration therefore lessened markedly until the Quebec Agreement of August 1943, when a large team of British, Canadian and Australian scientists joined the Manhattan Project at McGill University in Montreal and at a new project site located at Chalk River, Ontario, with living facilities for those working in the newly created community of Deep River, Ontario.^ The Manhattan Project began in August of 1942, a couple of months before General George Patton invaded North Africa.
  • Big Hollywood » Blog Archive » Do The Warhol—Part 4: The Manhattan Project of the Culture War 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC bighollywood.breitbart.com [Source type: General]

^ That's not the case for things people propose a "Manhattan Project" for today; they basically want a large government project to discover things, which won't work.

^ Were there any african Americans working on the Manhattan Project?
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

The German experimental nuclear pile at Haigerloch
The question of Axis efforts on the bomb has been a contentious issue for historians. .It is believed that efforts undertaken in Germany, headed by Werner Heisenberg, and in Japan, were also undertaken during the war with little progress.^ However, allied military successes against Germany and Japan make it a horse race to see whether it will matter to the war effort.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the War began to turn against Germany, resources became more difficult to obtain and the bomb project required a massive industrial effort.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was initially feared that Hitler was very close to developing his own bomb.^ In this video segment, Rotblat recounts his moment of disillusionment: realizing that stopping Hitler may not have been the objective of developing the atomic bomb.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So the British contribution to developing the atomic bomb was very successful.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is highly ironic that, despite his crucial role as a catalyst in initiating the research which led to the development of the atomic bomb, Einstein came to bitterly regret his involvement.
  • Manhatten Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.virtualology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many German scientists in fact expressed surprise to their Allied captors when the bombs were detonated in Japan.^ There were many factors that doomed the German atomic bomb program.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some authors believe that the dismissal of competent scientists and appointment of Party hacks was a major reason in the failure of the German bomb program.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many scientists manufactured and constructed the Atomic bomb, including Enrico Fermi, J. Robert Oppenheimer, and Harold Urey.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They were convinced that talk of atomic weapons was merely propaganda.^ Also Hitler was never convinced that the atomic bomb was a practical weapon.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Werner Heisenberg (by then imprisoned in Britain at Farm Hall with several other nuclear project physicists) almost immediately figured out what the Allies had done, explaining it to his fellow scientists (and hidden microphones) within days.^ And my own feeling is that uh..there were several reason why other scientists did not follow.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this letter Einstein and several other scientists told Roosevelt of the efforts Hitler was making to purify U-235 in which he hoped to make an atomic bomb.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1975 the entire CIA budget was hidden within a $2 billion appropriation for "Other Procurement, Air Force."
  • CIA PAPER 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www1.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Nazi reactor effort had been severely handicapped by Heisenberg's belief that heavy water was necessary as a neutron moderator (slowing preparation material) for such a device.^ We are making such material available to our readers under the provisions of "fair use" in an effort to advance a better understanding of political, economic and social issues.
  • Global Warfare USA: The World is the Pentagon's Oyster 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.globalresearch.ca [Source type: News]

^ June, 1942 - Oppenheimer joins the Met Lab to lead an effort on fast neutron physics, and prepares an outline for the entire neutron physics program.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conant urges proceeding with *all* options for producing fissionable material simultaneously: gaseous diffusion, centrifuges, electromagnetic separation, and plutonium breeding using both graphite and heavy water reactors.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Germans were short of heavy water throughout the war because of Allied efforts to prevent Germany from obtaining it, and the Germans never did stumble on the secret of purified graphite for making nuclear reactors from natural uranium.^ This reactor contains 200 tons of uranium metal, 1200 tons of graphite, and is cooled by 5 m^3 of water/sec.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Graphite Reactor—controlled from this console—irridiated uranium slugs, from which wartime chemists extracted the world's first grams of plutonium.
  • Swords to Plowshares: A Short History of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1943-1993) 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ornl.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was a development that would have affected Germany in the long term, but did not have an immediate impact on the German scientific capability during World War II. Kristallnacht (November 1938) .
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg and Enrico Fermi were all colleagues who were key figures in developing the quantum theory together with Wolfgang Pauli, prior to the war.^ Nobel Prize winning physicist Niels Bohr, to his colleague Edward Teller on the construction of an atomic bomb.
  • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen Bomb Niels Bohr: the Father of the Theory of Atomic Structure Bohr's work did a lot of explaining regarding the structure of the atom, including the explanation as to why it was limited in size; and, the fact that light did not include all colors.
  • Manhattan Project - Associated Content - Topic 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Quantum Theory A Just War is Hard to Find - Johnny Got His Gun & the Good War Analyses To find out if there is such a thing as a just or good war, we first have to look at the terms just and good.
  • Manhattan Project - Associated Content - Topic 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

They had known each other well in Europe and were friends. .Niels Bohr and Heisenberg even discussed the possibility of the atomic bomb prior to and during the war, before the United States became involved.^ The atomic bomb was known to be possible to build.

^ Was the United States justified in the dropping of the atomic bomb?
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States made the thought of the Atomic bomb and the building of it possible.
  • Manhattan Project | Essays & Term Papers Online 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bohr recalled that Heisenberg was unaware that the supercritical mass could be achieved with U-235, and both men gave differing accounts of their conversations at this sensitive time.^ Bohr and Heisenberg have very different accounts of their meeting.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ February 5, 1939 - Niels Bohr realizes that U-235 and U-238 must have different fission properties, that U-238 could be fissioned by fast neutrons but not slow ones, and that U-235 accounted for observed slow fission in uranium.
  • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (However, if I try to connect from two different computers at the same time, it disconnected us both.
  • Internet ADSL Broadband High Speed in Bangkok and Thailand 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.thailandguru.com [Source type: General]

.Bohr at the time did not trust Heisenberg, and never quite forgave him for his decision not to flee Germany before the war when given the chance.^ The decision to pursue the project was taken only 2 moths before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor bringing America into the war.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He didn't quite know the details since he was only a toddler at the time, but he did live in Los Alamos.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

^ I only found out about his place of work during the war long after his death and never had any conversation with him about it.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

.Heisenberg, for his part, seems to have thought he was proposing to Bohr a mutual agreement between the two sides not to pursue nuclear technology for destructive purposes.^ Heisenberg after the War maintained his purpose was to broker a deal between scientists on both sides not to pursue an atomic bomb.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I thought part of the idea of this was we were going to make 60 gazillion dollars by forging and selling new technology around the world.

^ It was a two-part explosion to me.… [I]t seemed like that there was a percussion blast that blew me kind of backwards in my cubicle to the side.
  • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If so, Heisenberg's message did not get through. .Heisenberg, to the end of his life, maintained that the partly-built German heavy-water nuclear reactor found after the war's end in his lab was for research purposes only, and a full bomb project had not been contemplated (there is no evidence to contradict this, but by this time late in the war, Germany was far from having the resources for a Hanford-style plutonium bomb, even if its scientists had decided to pursue one and had known how to do it).^ Heisenberg after the War maintained his purpose was to broker a deal between scientists on both sides not to pursue an atomic bomb.
  • war and social upheaval: World War II atomic bomb Manhattan Project 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Germans are not working on the atom bomb project.
  • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was an electrician there near the end of the war.
  • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

See also

Precursors
Asian events · European events · Timeline
1939 · 1940 · 1941 · 1942 · 1943 · 1944 · 1945
Eastern front · Western Front · Pacific War · Battles · Military operations · Commanders
Technology · Mediterranean, Middle East and African Campaigns · Manhattan project
Aerial warfare · Home front · Collaboration · Resistance
Aftermath
Casualties · Further effects · War crimes · Japanese War Crimes · Consequences of Nazism · Soviet occupation
Depictions

Notes

  1. ^ The most comprehensive history of the Manhattan Project is Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (Simon & Schuster, 1986).
  2. ^ Stephen I. Schwartz Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998. Manhattan Project expenditures
  3. ^ Broad, William J., "Why They Called It the Manhattan Project", New York Times, October 30, 2007.
  4. ^ Rhodes, 322-325
  5. ^ Rhodes, 369
  6. ^ Rhodes, 372
  7. ^ Rhodes, 416
  8. ^ Rhodes, 415
  9. ^ Rhodes, 381; 388-389
  10. ^ Serber, Robert. The Los Alamos Primer (Los Alamos Report LA-1, compiled April 1943, declassified 1965): p. 21.
  11. ^ Rhodes, 417
  12. ^ Rhodes, 421
  13. ^ The reaction Teller was most concerned with was N714 + N714 = Mg1224 + He24 (alpha particle) + 17.7 MeV
  14. ^ Rhodes, 419
  15. ^ Konopinski, E. J, C. Marvin; Edward Teller (1946, declassified February 1973). Ignition of the Atmosphere with Nuclear Bombs. Technical Report Los Alamos National Laboratory LA-602.
  16. ^ In Bethe's account, the possibility of this ultimate catastrophe came up again in 1975 when it appeared in a magazine article by H.C. Dudley, who got the idea from a report by Pearl Buck of an interview she had with Arthur Compton in 1959. The worry was not entirely extinguished in some people's minds until the Trinity test.
  17. ^ "Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review, Vol. 25, Nos. 3 and 4, 2002". ornl.gov. http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev25-34/chapter1.shtml. Retrieved 2010-03-09. 
  18. ^ "The Manhattan Project". nytimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2007/10/30/science/20071030_MANHATTAN_GRAPHIC.html. Retrieved 2007-11-02. 
  19. ^ "(comedian interview)", (tv show) (CBS), October 5, 2008 (7:47pm MDT), http://www.friarsclub.com/Facilities/clubhouse_history.htm, retrieved 2008-10-06 
  20. ^ Why They Called It the Manhattan Project, nytimes.com, accessed Nov 2, 2007.
  21. ^ Chris Waltham (June 20, 2002) (PDF). An Early History of Heavy Water. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia. http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0206076.pdf. 
  22. ^ Natural self-sustaining nuclear reactions have occurred in the distant past (circa two billion years ago); see Natural nuclear fission reactor
  23. ^ http://www.fas.org/nuke/intro/nuke/plutonium.htm
  24. ^ a b c The Atomic Heritage Foundation—Atomic History Timeline 1942–1944

References

Overall, administrative, and diplomatic histories of the Manhattan Project
  • DeGroot, Gerard, The Bomb: A History of Hell on Earth, London: Pimlico, 2005. ISBN 0-7126-7748-8
  • Feynman, Richard P. "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!". W. W. Norton & Company, 1997. ISBN 978-0393316049.
  • Groves, Leslie. .Now it Can be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project. New York: Harper, 1962. ISBN 0-306-70738-1.
  • Herken, Gregg.^ The new multimedia section of the Manhattan Project web site is where to grab this and plenty of screenshot goodies.
    • 3D Realms News: Manhattan Project Archives 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.3drealms.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Manhattan Project - Associated Content - Topic Associated Content Home News .
    • Manhattan Project - Associated Content - Topic 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    ^ New Duke Nukem: Manhattan Project Download .
    • 3D Realms News: Manhattan Project Archives 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.3drealms.com [Source type: General]

    .Brotherhood of the Bomb : The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2002. ISBN 0-8050-6588-1.
  • Hewlett, Richard G., and Oscar E. Anderson.^ NEW YORK POST March 7, 2002 -- WASHINGTON - The Sept.
    • E-Mail from Listeners and Readers 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.geoffmetcalf.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Nobel Prize winning physicist Niels Bohr, to his colleague Edward Teller on the construction of an atomic bomb.
    • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York Times, 5/4/2002 ; CBS News, 5/10/2002 ] An FAA official named John Anthony actually sits next to Hanjour in class and observes his skills.

    .The New World, 1939–1946. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1962.
  • Howes, Ruth H. and Herzenberg, Caroline L. Their Day in the Sun: Women of the Manhattan Project. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999. ISBN 1-56639-719-7.
  • Jungk, Robert.^ The moment we received the nine-level press demo of Duke Nukem: Manhattan Project, we were hooked.
    • 3D Realms News: Manhattan Project Archives 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.3drealms.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The new multimedia section of the Manhattan Project web site is where to grab this and plenty of screenshot goodies.
    • 3D Realms News: Manhattan Project Archives 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.3drealms.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Furthermore, there was no evidence prior to the Manhattan project that a fission bomb was even theoretically possible, let alone how practical it would be.

    Brighter Than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists. .New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1956, 1958.
  • Norris, Robert S., Racing for the Bomb: General Leslie R. Groves, The Manhattan Project's Indispensable Man.^ The Manhattan Project and the Atomic Bomb The Manhattan Project and the subsequent manufacturing of the atomic bomb changed our world forever.
    • Manhattan Project - Associated Content - Topic 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The new multimedia section of the Manhattan Project web site is where to grab this and plenty of screenshot goodies.
    • 3D Realms News: Manhattan Project Archives 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.3drealms.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Bury J. Robert Oppenheimer's The Day After Trinity A deeper look into the Manhattan Project and The Nuclear Bomb.
    • Manhattan Project - Associated Content - Topic 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    .Vermont: Steerforth Press, First Paperback edition, 2002. ISBN 1-58642-067-4.
  • Rhodes, Richard.^ An aircraft has crashed into the Pentagon, witnesses say.” [ Associated Press, 2001 ; Broadcasting and Cable, 8/26/2002 ] This is apparently the first news of the crash.
    • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986. ISBN 0-671-44133-7.
  • Rhodes, Richard. .Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. ISBN 0-684-80400-X.
  • Kelly, Cynthia.^ After events in New York make it clear the US is under attack, the phones there light up with calls from local people wanting to know what to do.
    • Complete 911 Timeline: Pentagon 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.historycommons.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York Example What if terrorists detonated an atomic bomb in New York City?
    • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Remembering the Manhattan Project: Perspectives on the Making of the Atomic Bomb and Its Legacy New Jersey: World Scientific, 2005. ISBN 978-981-256-040-7.
  • Kelly, Cynthia.^ Just as the Manhattan Project was conceived in 1942 to beat the Germans to the atomic bomb during World War II, the “Manhattan Beach Project” was founded as an “all-out assault on the world’s biggest killer – aging,” according to project organizer David A. Kekich.
    • The Manhattan Beach Project to End Aging by 2029 | h+ Magazine 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC hplusmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Program Description The violence, fear, and desperation of World War II propelled groundbreaking scientific experiments in atomic physics.
    • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The new multimedia section of the Manhattan Project web site is where to grab this and plenty of screenshot goodies.
    • 3D Realms News: Manhattan Project Archives 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.3drealms.com [Source type: General]

    Oppenheimer and the Manhattan Project: Insights into J Robert Oppenheimer, “Father of the Atomic Bomb” New Jersey: World Scientific, 2005. ISBN 978-981-256-418-4.
Technical histories
  • Groueff, Stephane. .Manhattan Project: The Untold Story of the Making of the Atomic Bomb. Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 1967.
  • Hoddeson, Lillian, Paul W. Henriksen, Roger A. Meade, and Catherine L. Westfall.^ The Manhattan Project and the Atomic Bomb The Manhattan Project and the subsequent manufacturing of the atomic bomb changed our world forever.
    • Manhattan Project - Associated Content - Topic 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It is quite a different story to make the actual bomb.
    • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Many years later, about 1967, after I became a nuclear reactor operator, I asked him again..about the company's part in the Manhattan Project, or his involvement.
    • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

    .Critical Assembly: A Technical History of Los Alamos During the Oppenheimer Years, 1943–1945. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-521-44132-3.
  • Serber, Robert.^ The main assembly plant was built at Los Alamos, New Mexico .
    • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Robert Oppenheimer was put in charge of putting the pieces together at Los Alamos.
    • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The interested reader is directed to several excellent books available (see bibliography), particularly the Pulitzer Prize winning book by Rhodes, and Critical Assembly: A Technical History of Los Alamos During the Oppenheimer Years 1943-1945 , from whom the bulk of the material for this timeline was extracted.
    • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Los Alamos Primer: The First Lectures on How to Build an Atomic Bomb. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. ISBN 0-520-07576-5—Original 1943, Los Alamos Report "LA-1", declassified in 1965. (Available on Wikimedia Commons).
  • Sherwin, Martin J. A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975. ISBN 0-394-49794-5.
  • Smyth, Henry DeWolf.^ The second very important point about Los Alamos was that they managed to get together so many of the great scientists of the world.
    • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ United Press International, 8/2/2001 ] It starts on the building’s first floor but extends up to the second floor.

    ^ He was at Los Alamos, and came from Iowa State University.
    • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

    .Atomic Energy for Military Purposes; the Official Report on the Development of the Atomic Bomb under the Auspices of the United States Government, 1940–1945. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1945. See Smyth Report.
  • Yenne, William.^ Keeping 120,000 people quiet would be impossible; therefore only a small privileged cadre of inner scientists and officials knew about the atomic bomb's development.
    • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Unless the next terrorist strike gets their motorcades, they'd be perfectly happy to see suicide bombings become daily events in the United States (well, now that the election is over anyway).
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ April 27, 1945 - The first meeting of the Target Committee to select targets for atomic bombing.
    • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."The Manhattan Project", Secret Weapons of World War II: The Techno-Military Breakthroughs That Changed History.^ My aunt worked at Oak Ridge during World War II. Her name was Freddie Giles, or she may have been known by her married name of Stripling.
    • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

    ^ His family said that after the war he received a letter from the government thanking him for his work on the Manhattan Project.
    • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

    ^ A proper history of the Manhattan Project, and the development of the first atomic bombs, is beyond the scope of this FAQ. I have included here a chronological listing of events and milestones leading up to the use of atomic weapons against Japan.
    • Chronology For The Origin Of Atomic Weapons 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC nuclearweaponarchive.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York: Berkley Books, 2003, p. 2–7.
Participant accounts
  • Badash, Lawrence, Joseph O. Hirschfelder, Herbert P. Broida, eds. .Reminiscences of Los Alamos, 1943–1945. Dordrecht, Boston: D. Reidel, 1980. ISBN 90-277-1097-X.
  • Bethe, Hans A. The Road from Los Alamos. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. ISBN 0-671-74012-1.
  • Nichols, Kenneth David.^ The main assembly plant was built at Los Alamos, New Mexico .
    • The Manhattan Project [ushistory.org] 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Beth Teel My father, Jack W. Aeby (still living), began in Los Alamos in 1943.
    • Manhattan Project Veteran Message Board 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC www.mphpa.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Los Alamos and the other places, and later on, about two years later in 1943, the agreement came, between uh, Roosevelt and Churchill, to collaborate on this...
    • Leaving the Bomb Project 3 February 2010 16:52 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The Road to Trinity: A Personal Account of How America's Nuclear Policies Were Made. New York: William Morrow and Company Inc, 1987. ISBN 0-688-06910-X.
  • Serber, Robert.^ On 4 Dec., William Bundy had gone to New Zealand and Australia to present the new policy and seek support.
    • The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition, Volume 3, Chapter 2, "Military Pressures Against North Vietnam, February 1964-January 1965," pp. 106-268 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Here is an article written by J. Orlin Grabbe, How Secure is America's Nuclear Arsenal?
    • Flight 77 and the Pentagon Crash - What Really Happened Here? 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.freedomfiles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Robert Jensen Dreams and Nightmares: How Would King Judge America?
    • Diane Farsetta: the Pentagon's Media Contracts 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

    .Peace and War: Reminiscences of a Life on the Frontiers of Science. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-231-10546-0.
  • Ulam, Stanisław.^ New York Daily News, 9/25/2001 ] Murad is sentenced in May 1998 and given life in prison plus 60 years.

    ^ New York Times, PR Newswire (which are just press releases) and the AP story, those are all foreign (non-US) news sources.
    • Daily Kos: Pentagon: Bush's 'hypocrisy' lost us hearts and minds 9 February 2010 15:49 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York University .
    • The New York City Organ Project — Organs in the Borough of Manhattan 28 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.nycago.org [Source type: General]

    Adventures of a Mathematician. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983. ISBN 0-520-07154-9.

External links

.

Simple English

The Manhattan Project was the program in which the United States tried to make the first nuclear weapons. The project went on during World War II, and was run by the U.S. Army. The head of the project was General Leslie R. Groves, who built the Pentagon, while the top scientist on the project was Robert Oppenheimer, a famous physicist. The project cost $2 billion, and created many secret cities and bomb-making factories, such as a laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, a nuclear reactor in Hanford, Washington, and a uranium processing plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The project was a success, and the United States created two nuclear bombs which they used against Japan in 1945.

Other websites


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