The Full Wiki

Mania: Wikis

  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Mania

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Manic episode
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F30.
ICD-9 296.0 Single manic episode, 296.4 Most recent episode manic, 296.6 Most recent episode mixed
MeSH D001714

Mania (from Greek μανία from μαίνομαι - mainomai, "to rage, to be furious") is a state of abnormally elevated or irritable mood, arousal, and/ or energy levels, which is a criterion for certain psychiatric diagnoses.[1]

There are several possible causes for mania outside of mood disorders, including drug abuse and brain tumors, but it is most often associated with bipolar disorder, where episodes of mania alternate with episodes of major depression. These cycles may relate to diurnal rhythms and environmental stressors. Mania varies in intensity, from mild mania (known as hypomania) to full-blown psychotic features including hallucinations and delusions. Naturally, since mania and hypomania have also been associated with creativity and artistic talent[2], it is not always the case that the clearly manic bipolar person will need or want medical assistance; such people will often either retain sufficient amount of control to function normally or be unaware that they have "gone manic" severely enough to be committed or to commit themselves. Manic individuals can often be mistaken for being on drugs or other mind-altering substances.

Contents

Classification

Mixed states

Mania can be experienced at the same time as depression, in a mixed episode. Dysphoric mania is primarily manic and agitated depression is primarily depressed. This has caused speculation amongst doctors that mania and depression are two independent axes in a bipolar spectrum, rather than opposites.

There is an increased probability of suicide in the mixed state, as depressed individuals who are also manic have the energy needed to commit the act and the thoughts of depression that would lead them initially to suicide.

Mania can be the result of using drugs. Quitting drugs can create situations in your mind similar to the symptoms of mania such as constant racing of the mind; diagnosis of mania in these situations is often temporary.

Hypomania

Hypomania is a lowered state of mania that does little to impair function or decrease quality of life[3]. In hypomania there is less need for sleep, and both goal-motivated behavior and metabolism increase. Though the elevated mood and energy level typical of hypomania could be seen as a benefit, mania itself generally has many undesirable consequences including suicidal tendencies.

Associated disorders

A single manic episode is sufficient to diagnose Bipolar I Disorder. Hypomania may be indicative of Bipolar II Disorder or Cyclothymia. However, if prominent psychotic symptoms are present for a duration significantly longer than the mood episode, a diagnosis of Schizoaffective Disorder is more appropriate.Several types of Mania such as kleptomania and pyromania are related more closely to OCD than to Bipolar Disorder, depending on the seriousness of these disorders. For instance, someone with kleptomania who suffers from impulses to steal things such as pencils, pens, and paperclips is better diagnosed with a form of OCD or Hypomania, but someone with pyromania who receives impulses to commit serious acts of arson (setting fire to large areas of private and/or public property) would be diagnosed with a very serious case of Mania or Bipolar Disorder.

B12 deficiency can also cause characteristics of mania and psychosis.[4][5]

Prominent hypomaniacs likely include Endymion (a mythological figure, probably describing the real person/s), Rudyard Kipling, Vincent Van Gogh, John Keats, and Andy Warhol.[citation needed]

Signs and symptoms

Characteristics of mania include rapid speech, racing thoughts, decreased need for sleep, hypersexuality, euphoria, impulsiveness, grandiosity, and an uncontrollably intense interest in goal-directed activities. Some people also have physical symptoms, such as sweating, pacing, and weight loss. In full-blown mania, often the manic person will feel as though his or her goal(s) trump all else, that there are no consequences or that negative consequences would be minimal, and that they need not exercise restraint in the pursuit of what they are after.[6] Hypomania is different as it can cause little or no impairment in function — the hypomanic person's connection with the external world, and its standards of interaction remain intact, although intensity of moods is heightened. But those who suffer from prolonged unresolved hypomania do run the risk of developing full mania, and indeed may cross that "line" without even realising they have done so.[7]

One of the most signature symptoms of mania (and to a lesser extent, hypomania) is what many have described as racing thoughts. These usually occur in which the manic person is excessively distracted by objectively unimportant stimuli.[8] This experience creates an absentmindedness where the manic individual's thoughts totally preoccupy him or her, making him or her unable to keep track of time, or be aware of anything besides the flow of thoughts. Racing thoughts also interfere with the ability to fall asleep.

Mania is always relative to the normal rate of intensity of the person being diagnosed with it; therefore, an easily-angered person may exhibit mania by getting even angrier even more quickly, and an intelligent person may adopt seemingly "genius" characteristics and an ability to perform and to articulate thought beyond what they can do in normal mood. But perhaps the easiest indicator of mania would be if a noticeably clinically depressed person becomes suddenly cheerful, optimistic, happy, and full of energy. Other elements of mania can and often do include delusions (of grandeur, potential, or otherwise), hypersensitivity, hypersexuality, hyper-religiosity, hyperactivity, impulsiveness, talkativeness, an internal pressure to keep talking (over-explanation) or rapid speech, grandiose ideas and plans, and decreased need for sleep (e.g. feels rested after 3 or 4 hours of sleep). In manic and hypomanic cases, the afflicted person may engage in out of character behavior such as questionable business transactions, wasteful expenditures of money, risky sexual activity, recreational drug abuse, abnormal social interaction, or highly vocal arguments uncharacteristic of previous behaviors. These behaviors may increase stress in personal relationships, problems at work and increase the risk of altercations with law enforcement as well as being at high risk of impulsively taking part in activities potentially harmful to self and others.[citation needed]

Although "severely elevated mood" sounds somewhat desirable and enjoyable, the experience of mania is ultimately often quite unpleasant and sometimes disturbing, if not frightening, for the person involved and those close to them, and may lead to impulsive behavior that may later be regretted. It can also often be complicated by the sufferer's lack of judgment and insight regarding periods of exacerbation of characteristic states. Manic patients are frequently grandiose, obsessive, impulsive, irritable, belligerent, and frequently deny anything is wrong with them. Because mania frequently encourages high energy and decreased perception of need or ability to sleep, within a few days of a manic cycle, sleep-deprived psychosis may appear, further complicating the ability to think clearly. Racing thoughts and misperceptions lead to frustration and decreased ability to communicate with others.

There are different "stages" or "states" of mania. A minor state is essentially hypomania and, like hypomania's characteristics, may involve increased creativity, wit, gregariousness, and ambition. Full-blown mania will make a person feel elated, but perhaps also irritable, frustrated, and even disconnection from reality.

Cause

Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a sympathomimetic drug similar in structure to amphetamine which was formerly present in over 130 medications, primarily decongestants, cough/cold remedies, and anorectic agents.

A report on PPA, from the Dept. of Psychiatry, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. Pharmacopsychiatry 1988 stated:

We have reviewed 37 cases (published in North America and Europe since 1960) that received diagnoses of acute mania, paranoid schizophrenia, and organic psychosis and that were attributed to PPA product ingestion. Of the 27 North American case reports, more reactions followed the ingestion of combination products than preparations containing PPA alone; more occurred after ingestion of over-the-counter products than those obtained by prescription or on-the-street; and more of the cases followed ingestion of recommended doses rather than overdoses.
Failure to recognize PPA as an etiological agent in the onset of symptoms usually led to a diagnosis of schizophrenia or mania, lengthy hospitalization, and treatment with substantial doses of neuroleptics or lithium.

PPA is no longer available in any medication in the United States as of the year 2000.

Treatment

Before beginning treatment for mania, careful differential diagnosis must be performed to rule out non-psychiatric causes.

Acute mania in bipolar disorder is typically treated with mood stabilizers and/or antipsychotic medication. Note that these treatments need to be prescribed and monitored carefully to avoid harmful side-effects such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome with the antipsychotic medications. It may be necessary to temporarily admit the patient involuntarily until the patient is stabilized. Antipsychotics and mood stabilizers help stabilize mood of those with mania or depression. They work by blocking the receptor for the neurotransmitter dopamine and allowing serotonin to still work, but in diminished capacity.

When the manic behaviours have gone, long-term treatment then focuses on prophylactic treatment to try to stabilize the patient's mood, typically through a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy.

Lithium is the classic mood stabilizer to prevent further manic and depressive episodes. Anticonvulsants such as valproic acid and carbamazepine are also used for prophylaxis. More recent drug solutions include lamotrigine. Clonazepam (Rivotril, Ravotril or Rivatril) is also used.

The calcium-channel blocker, verapamil is useful in the treatment of hypomania and in those cases where lithium and mood stabilizers are contraindicated or ineffective.[9]. Verapamil is effective for both short-term and long-term treatment. [10]

Medications

The biological mechanism by which mania occurs is not yet known. One hypothesised cause of mania (among others), is that the amount of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the temporal lobe may be excessively high.[citation needed] Dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid also appear to play important roles. Imaging studies have shown that the left amygdala is more active in women who are manic and the orbitofrontal cortex is less active.[11]

Bipolar disorder is different for men than it is for women. Mania affects the hypothalamus and the pituitary-adrenal-axis by causing it to secrete hormones in different amounts, that accounts for hypersexuality, changes in metabolism, and misdiagnosis as hormonal imbalance. Because the hormone problem stems from a neurological problem hormone therapy is not the best solution. If serotonin levels are stable, hormones secreted by the pituitary gland will stabilize. Bipolar disorder is similar to a thought disorder combined with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.[citation needed]

In the study done by Brentwood VA Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, patients with bipolar II took antidepressants to measure their effect on mania. One third of bipolar patients developed antidepressant induced mania from their healthy state and one fourth developed antidepressant induced rapid cycling from their healthy state. For those with type II bipolar disorder, antidepressants decrease the gaps between the depression and mania. [12]

Society and culture

In Electroboy: A Memoir of Mania by Andy Behrman, he describes his experience of mania as "the most perfect prescription glasses with which to see the world...life appears in front of you like an oversized movie screen" [13]. Behrman indicates early in his memoir that he sees himself not as a person suffering from an uncontrollable disabling illness, but as a director of the movie that is his vivid and emotionally alive life. "When I'm manic, I'm so awake and alert, that my eyelashes fluttering on the pillow sound like thunder" .

See also

References

  1. ^ Berrios G.E. (2004) Of mania. History of Psychiatry 15: 105-124.
  2. ^ Jamison, Kay R. (1996), Touched with Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament, New York: Free Press, ISBN 0-684-83183-X
  3. ^ NAMI (July 2007). "The many faces & facets of BP". http://www.nami.org/Content/ContentGroups/bp_and_Schizophrenia_Digest/The_Many_Faces_and_Facets_of_BP.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  4. ^ Sethi NK, Robilotti E, Sadan Y (2005). "Neurological Manifestations Of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency". The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness 2 (1). 
  5. ^ Masalha R, Chudakov B, Muhamad M, Rudoy I, Volkov I, Wirguin I (2001). "Cobalamin-responsive psychosis as the sole manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency". Israeli Medical Association Journal 3: 701–703. http://www.ima.org.il/imaj/dynamic/web/ArtFromPubmed.asp?year=2001&month=09&page=701. 
  6. ^ DSM-IV
  7. ^ AJ Giannini. Biological Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry, NY Medical Examination Publishing Company, 1986.
  8. ^ Lakshmi N. Ytham, Vivek Kusumakar, Stanley P. Kutchar. (2002). Bipolar Disorder: A Clinician's Guide to Biological Treatments, page 3.
  9. ^ Giannini AJ, Houser WL Jr, Loiselle RH, Giannini MC, Price WA. (1984) "Antimanic effects of verapamil." American Journal of Psychiatry. 141:160-1604. PMID 6439057
  10. ^ Giannini AJ, Taraszewski RS, Loiselle RH. (1987) "Verapamil and lithium in maintenance therapy of manic patients. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 27:980-985 PMID 3325531
  11. ^ Altshuler L, Bookheimer S, Proenza MA, Townsend J, Sabb F, Firestine A, Bartzokis G, Mintz J, Mazziotta J, Cohen MS. (2005). "Increased Amygdala Activation During Mania: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study". Am J Psychiatry 162: 1211-13. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/162/6/1211. 
  12. ^ Altshuler LL, Post RM, Leverich GS, Mikalauskas K, Rosoff A, Ackerman L (1995). "Antidepressant-induced mania and cycle acceleration: a controversy revisited". Am J Psychiatry 152 (8): 1130-8. PMID 7625459. 
  13. ^ Behrman, Andy (2002). Electroboy: A Memoir of Mania. Random House Trade Paperbacks. pp. Preface: Flying High. ISBN 978-0812967081. 

Further Readings

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to mania article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also -mania, mánia, mânia, and manía

Contents

English

Etymology

From Latin mania from Ancient Greek μανία (mania), madness).

Pronunciation

  • (US): IPA: /ˈmeɪniə/, SAMPA: /"meIni@/
  • Hyphenation: ma‧nia
  • Rhymes: -eɪnɪə

Noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Singular
mania

Plural
manias

mania (plural manias)

  1. Violent derangement of mind; madness; insanity.
  2. Excessive or unreasonable desire; insane passion affecting one or many people; fanaticism

Related terms

Translations

Anagrams


Finnish

Noun

mania

  1. mania

Declension


French

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ma.nja/

Verb

mania

  1. First-person singular past historic of manier.

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of aaimn
  • anima

Italian

Noun

mania f. (plural manie)

  1. mania
  2. habit (if strange)
  3. quirk

Related terms

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of aaimn
  • anima

Simple English

Mania is a severe medical condition characterized by an extremely strong mood. Maniacs are very energetic, they have unusual thought patterns. Some maniacs show signs of psychosis. The word itself comes from from Greek μανία (Mania)[1] and that from μαίνομαι - mainomai, "to rage, to be furious".

Mania is just a symptom, and not an illness as such. There are many causes for it, including wrongly using drugs, or using them for fun, as well as tumors of the brain. Most of the time, it is associated with bipolar disorder, though. In bipolar disorder, there are episodes of mania that alternate with ones of clinical depression. These cycles may be influenced by patterns in nature, as well as stress.

Like with other illnesses, there are different levels of mania. Mild forms are usually known as hypomania, stronger forms may include psychosis, with hallucinations and delusions.

In some cases, manic patients need to be hospitalized for protection (against themselves, and so that they cannot harm others). On the other hand, mania and hypomania have also been associated with creavtivity and artistic talent.[2]

Contents

Symptoms

Symptoms of mania include talking very fast, racing thoughts, less need for sleep, impulsiveness, and increased interest in goal-directed activities.[3] The affected person may behave unusually. They may spend lots of money, engage in risky sexual activity, or act unusual around other people. These behaviors can cause stress in everyday life.[needs proof]

Another symptom of mania is racing thoughts during which the sufferer is excessively distracted by unimportant stimuli.[4] This negative experience creates an inability to function and an absentmindedness where the manic individual's thoughts totally preoccupy him or her, making him or her unable to keep track of time or be aware of anything besides the neurological pattern of thoughts.

Although "severely elevated mood" sounds somewhat desirable and enjoyable, the experience of mania is often quite unpleasant and sometimes disturbing, if not frightening, for the person involved (and those close to them), and may lead to impulsive behavior that may later be regretted. It can also often be complicated by the sufferer's lack of judgment and insight regarding periods of exacerbation of symptoms. There are different levels of mania.

Medical treatment

It is possible to treat mania using a combination of drugs and therapy. Before starting the treatment, an exact medical diagnosis of the causes of mania must be done. This needs to be done to rule out that the mania is caused for example by a tumor. If this was the case, treating the tumor would be better (and would also take care of the mania).

The mania in bipolar disorder is usually treated using a combination of mood stabilizers and antipsychotic drugs. During the treatment, the patient needs to be monitored to rule out (or treat) certain side-effects. The patient may also need medical supervision until he or she is stabilized, that is until no more manic episodes occur.

When the symptoms of mania have gone, long-term treatment then focuses on prophylactic treatment to try to stabilize the patient's mood. Very often, this is done using a combination of drugs and psychotherapy.

Lithium is the classic mood stabilizer to prevent further manic and depressive episodes. Anticonvulsants such as valproic acid and carbamazepine are also used for prophylaxis. More recent drug solutions include lamotrigine. Clonazepam (Rivotril, Ravotril or Rivatril) is also used.

The calcium-channel blocker, verapamil is useful in the treatment of hypomania and in those cases where lithium and mood stabilizers are contraindicated or ineffective.[5]. Verapamil is effective for both short-term and long-term treatment. [6]

Other pages

References

Notes

  1. Mania, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  2. Jamison, Kay R. (1996), Touched with Fire: Manic-Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament, New York: Free Press, ISBN 0-684-83183-X
  3. DSM-IV
  4. Lakshmi N. Ytham, Vivek Kusumakar, Stanley P. Kutchar. (2002). Bipolar Disorder: A Clinician's Guide to Biological Treatments, page 3.
  5. AJ Giannini, WA Price. Antimanic effects of verapamil . American Journal of Psychiatry. 141:160-1604,1984.
  6. AJ Giannini, RS Taraszewski, RH Loiselle. Verapamil and lithium in maintenance therapy of manic patients. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 27:980-985,1987.

More reading

Other websites

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message