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.
This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress, is an allegorical representation of the modernization of the new west.
^ In 1872, John Gast created an allegorical representation of Manifest Destiny called American Progress.
  • t r u t h o u t | Kill the Indian. Save the Man. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Show students the painting American Progress.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This painting called 'American Progress' was painted by John Gast, (circa 1872).
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

.Here Columbia, intended as a personification of the United States, leads civilization westward with American settlers, stringing telegraph wire as she travels; she holds a school book.^ Here Columbia, a personification of the United States, leads civilization westward with American settlers, stringing telegraph wire as she travels and carrying a school book.

^ Here we see Columbia, a personification of the United States, as she leads civilization westward with the American settlers.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I also see an angel holding a book with wires in it.
  • Kellner’s EduBlog » Blog Archive » Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC henricoenglish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The different economic activities of the pioneers are highlighted and, especially, the changing forms of transportation.^ The different economic activities of the pioneers are highlighted and, especially, the changing forms of transportation.

The Native Americans and wild animals flee.
.Manifest Destiny was the 19th century belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean.^ The focus of the unit is Manifest Destiny in Texas.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Manifest Destiny is the idea that the United States was destined to be a two-ocean country.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Manifest Destiny Facts Manifest Destiny is a term that was used in the 19th century to designate the belief that the United States was destined, even divinely ordained, to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Manifest Destiny (Belief, Political, Doctrine) @ Manifestly.net 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.manifestly.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was used by Democrats in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico; the concept was denounced by Whigs, and fell into disuse after the mid 1850s.^ Expansionists used the concept to justify their cruel treatment of those peoples, critics asserted.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.philwrites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Explain how Mexico justified the war because they felt they were defending their territory.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ July 14 - we entered into a military alliance with the freedom-loving people of Texas, currently in a war with a heartless Mexico.
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

.Advocates of Manifest Destiny believed that expansion was not only wide but that it was readily apparent ("manifest") and inexorable ("destiny").^ Expansion & Manifest Destiny - detailed outline .
  • weblinks-Westward Expansion & Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.historyteacher.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expansion was articulated as a democratic Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manifest Destiny, as I have advocated, was going to happen .
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.The term, which first appeared in print in 1839, was used in 1845 by a New York journalist, John L. O'Sullivan, to call for the annexation of Texas.^ Treaty for the Annexation of Texas (March 1, 1845) .
  • weblinks-Westward Expansion & Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.historyteacher.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They called for annexation of Texas.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New York and Pennsylvania called to duty....
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] .It was primarily used by Democrats to support the expansion plans of the Polk Administration, but opposed by Whigs who wanted to deepen the economy rather than broaden its expanse.^ The Democrats rejected Martin Van Buren, a former president and member of their own party, in favor of James K. Polk of Tennessee, who strongly favored Texas statehood and westward expansion.
  • Manifest Destiny: Westward Expansion and 49er Gold Rush Resultin Branch Mints. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.us-coin-values-advisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, socialism manage democracy better than any "democratic" country because all power of election (including government plans) are decided by citizens .
  • The North American Jihad (Manifest Destiny) 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.satanspace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidential candidate James K. Polk used this popular outcry to his advantage, and the Democrats called for the annexation of "All Oregon" in the 1844 U.S. Presidential election.

It fell out of favor by 1860[2].
.The belief in an American "mission" to promote and defend democracy throughout the world, as expounded by Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson and Ronald Reagan continues to have an influence on American political ideology.^ He traces the roots of manifest destiny from the British settlement of North America and the rise of Puritanism through Woodrow Wilson's efforts to "make the world safe for democracy" and Ronald Reagan's struggle against the "evil empire" of the Soviet Union.
  • Amazon.com: Manifest Destiny: American Expansion and the Empire of Right (Critical Issue Book) (9780809015849): Anders Stephanson: Books 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Following World War I, President Woodrow Wilson gave new emphasis to the redeemer nation concept, proclaiming that it was America's destiny to help bring freedom, democracy, and prosperity to the nations of the globe.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MANIFEST DESTINY  The 19th-century political and philosophical belief that it was America's divinely assigned mission to expand westward across the North American continent and to establish democratic and Protestant ideals was known as Manifest Destiny.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

[3]

Contents

Context and interpretations

.Manifest Destiny was always a general notion rather than a specific policy.^ Manifest Destiny was always a general notion rather than a specific policy.

^ The Fenian raids after the American Civil War shared some resemblances to the actions of the Hunters but were otherwise unrelated to the idea of Manifest Destiny or any policy of American expansionism.

^ The notion of manifest destiny rested on the view that Anglo-Saxons...one of the most articulate exponents of manifest destiny , used it according to the intentions of...
  • Manifest Destiny – Dictionary definition of Manifest Destiny | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term combined a belief in expansionism with other popular ideas of the era, including American exceptionalism, Romantic nationalism, and a belief in the natural superiority of what was then called the "Anglo-Saxon race". While many writers focus primarily upon American expansionism when discussing Manifest Destiny, others see in the term a broader expression of a belief in America's "mission" in the world, which has meant different things to different people over the years.^ The focus of the unit is Manifest Destiny in Texas.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While many writers focus primarily upon American expansionism when discussing Manifest Destiny, others see in the term a broader expression of a belief in America's "mission" in the world, which has meant different things to different people over the years.

^ Expansion & Manifest Destiny - detailed outline .
  • weblinks-Westward Expansion & Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.historyteacher.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This variety of possible meanings was summed up by Ernest Lee Tuveson, who wrote:
.A vast complex of ideas, policies, and actions is comprehended under the phrase 'Manifest Destiny'. They are not, as we should expect, all compatible, nor do they come from any one source.^ Manifest Destiny was a political phrase of the 1800s.
  • Facts Oregon Trail Markers Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny Historical Maps Pictures 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one had any idea of what was to come, or what to expect.
  • Myers Homepage 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.accd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can all be specified in the manifest.
  • Manifest Destiny | JAVA Developer's Journal 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC java.sys-con.com [Source type: General]
  • Manifest Destiny | Norman Richards 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC normanrichards.sys-con.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
John L. O'Sullivan, sketched in 1874, was an influential columnist as a young man, but is now generally remembered only for his use of the phrase "Manifest Destiny" to advocate the annexation of Texas and Oregon.
.Journalist John L. O'Sullivan, an influential advocate for the Democratic Party, wrote an article in 1839 which, while not using the term "Manifest Destiny", did predict a "divine destiny" for the United States based upon values such as equality, rights of conscience, and personal enfranchisement-- "to establish on earth the moral dignity and salvation of man". This destiny was not explicitly territorial, but O'Sullivan predicted that the United States would be one of a "Union of many Republics" sharing those values.^ The focus of the unit is Manifest Destiny in Texas.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republic eventually added over one million square miles of territory to the United States.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term was used to justify the United States territorial expansion to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Facts Oregon Trail Markers Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny Historical Maps Pictures 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.Six years later O'Sullivan wrote another essay which first used the phrase Manifest Destiny.^ The was the first and only time a President had used the phrase "Manifest Destiny" in his annual address.

^ The phrase "Manifest Destiny" was first used primarily by the Jacksonian era in the 1840s.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Manifest Destiny was a political phrase of the 1800s.
  • Facts Oregon Trail Markers Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny Historical Maps Pictures 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1845, he published a piece entitled Annexation in the Democratic Review,[6] in which he urged the United States to annex the Republic of Texas, not only because Texas desired this, but because it was "our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions".[7] Amid much controversy, Texas was annexed shortly thereafter, but O'Sullivan's first usage of the phrase "Manifest Destiny" attracted little attention.^ The focus of the unit is Manifest Destiny in Texas.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ John O'Sullivan, a journalist, coined the phrase in a 1845 newspaper editorial about the annexation of Texas, in which he spoke of America's "manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our multiplying millions."
  • MANIFEST DESTINY 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The phrase "Manifest Destiny" was first used primarily by Jacksonian Democrats in the 1840s to promote the annexation of much of what is now the Western United States (the Oregon Territory, the Texas Annexation, and the Mexican Cession).

[8]
.O'Sullivan's second use of the phrase became extremely influential.^ O'Sullivan's second use of the phrase became extremely influential.

^ O’Sullivan’s second use of the phrase became extremely influential.

^ However, when on 27 December 1845, in an editorial on "The True Title" in New York Morning News, O'Sullivan again used the phrase, it became the focus of national debate.
  • Manifest Destiny: American History Through Literature 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On December 27, 1845 in his newspaper the New York Morning News, O'Sullivan addressed the ongoing boundary dispute with Great Britain in the Oregon Country.^ On December 27, 1845 in his newspaper the New York Morning News, O’Sullivan addressed the ongoing boundary dispute with Great Britain in the Oregon Country.

^ New York Morning News, 27 December 1845.
  • Manifest Destiny: American History Through Literature 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On December 27, 1845, in his newspaper the New York Morning News , O'Sullivan addressed the ongoing boundary dispute with Great Britain in the Oregon Country.

O'Sullivan argued that the United States had the right to claim "the whole of Oregon":
.And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us.^ The continent was destined to be American by a nonsectarian Providence for a great experiment in freedom and self-government.

^ And that claim is by the right of our Manifest Destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent that Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us.
  • t r u t h o u t | Kill the Indian. Save the Man. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us.

[9]
.That is, O'Sullivan believed that Providence had given the United States a mission to spread republican democracy ("the great experiment of liberty") throughout North America.^ Many in the Republican Party believe that it is America's "mission" to promote and defend democracy internationally.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That is, O'Sullivan believed that God (" Providence") had given the United States a mission to spread republican democracy ("the great experiment of liberty") throughout North America.

^ That is, O’Sullivan believed that God (“Providence”) had given the United States a mission to spread republican democracy (“the great experiment of liberty”) throughout North America.

.Because Britain would not use Oregon for the purposes of spreading democracy, thought O'Sullivan, British claims to the territory should be overruled.^ Because Britain would not use Oregon for the purposes of spreading democracy, thought O'Sullivan, British claims to the territory should be overruled.

^ Because Britain would not use Oregon for the purposes of spreading democracy, thought O’Sullivan, British claims to the territory should be overruled.

^ The term was used to express the belief that the United States was divinely inspired to spread democracy and freedom across North America.
  • Facts Oregon Trail Markers Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny Historical Maps Pictures 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.O'Sullivan believed that Manifest Destiny was a moral ideal (a "higher law") that superseded other considerations.^ O'Sullivan believed that Manifest Destiny was a moral ideal (a "higher law") that superseded other considerations.

^ O’Sullivan believed that Manifest Destiny was a moral ideal (a “higher law”) that superseded other considerations.

^ John L. O'Sullivan, editor of the Democratic Review, captured the dominant expansionist theme of republican mission when he famously proclaimed the "manifest destiny" of the United States in 1845.

[10]
.O'Sullivan's original conception of Manifest Destiny was not a call for territorial expansion by force.^ O'Sullivan's original conception of Manifest Destiny was not a call for territorial expansion by force.

^ O’Sullivan’s original conception of Manifest Destiny was not a call for territorial expansion by force.

^ Expansion & Manifest Destiny - detailed outline .
  • weblinks-Westward Expansion & Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.historyteacher.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He believed that the expansion of the United States would happen without the direction of the U.S. government or the involvement of the military.^ He believed that the expansion of the United States would happen without the direction of the U.S. government or the involvement of the military.

^ They also assumed Great Britain would come to their aid, because the British had opposed the United States' annexation of Texas.
  • Manifest Destiny: Westward Expansion and 49er Gold Rush Resultin Branch Mints. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.us-coin-values-advisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States also felt that by putting Native Americans onto smaller tracts of land, it would be easier to try and teach and convert them to the way of life of the Americans.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After "Anglo-Saxons" emigrated to new regions, they would set up new democratic governments, and then seek admission to the United States, as Texas had done.^ Should the United States annex Texas?
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After "Anglo-Saxons" emigrated to new regions, they would set up new democratic governments and then seek admission to the United States, as Texas had done.

^ If the United States meant to have Texas, it would have to fight.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1845, O'Sullivan predicted that California would follow this pattern next, and that Canada would eventually request annexation as well.^ In 1845, O'Sullivan predicted that California would follow this pattern next and that Canada would eventually request annexation as well.

^ In 1845, O’Sullivan predicted that California would follow this pattern next, and that Canada would eventually request annexation as well.

^ The next step would include Mexico's recognition of Texan independence, followed by a joint MexicanAmerican agreement guaranteeing an independent Texas republic.
  • John Tyler and the pursuit of national destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He disapproved of the outbreak of the Mexican-American War in 1846, although he came to believe that the outcome would be beneficial to both countries.^ The Mexican American War: 1846-1848 .
  • weblinks-Westward Expansion & Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.historyteacher.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He disapproved of the outbreak of the Mexican-American War in 1846, although he came to believe that the outcome would be beneficial to both countries.

^ Both, Americans and Mexicans had God on their side.
  • t r u t h o u t | Kill the Indian. Save the Man. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

[11]
.Ironically, O'Sullivan's term became popular only after it was criticized by Whig opponents of the Polk administration.^ Ironically, O’Sullivan’s term became popular only after it was criticized by Whig opponents of the Polk administration.

^ O'Sullivan's term became popular only after it was criticized by Whig opponents of the Polk administration .

^ The only president ever to achieve all of his platform goals, Polk declined to run for a second term.
  • Manifest Destiny: Westward Expansion and 49er Gold Rush Resultin Branch Mints. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.us-coin-values-advisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On January 3, 1846, Representative Robert Winthrop ridiculed the concept in Congress, saying "I suppose the right of a manifest destiny to spread will not be admitted to exist in any nation except the universal Yankee nation." Winthrop was the first in a long line of critics who suggested that advocates of Manifest Destiny were citing "Divine Providence" for justification of actions that were motivated by chauvinism and self-interest. .Despite this criticism, expansionists embraced the phrase, which caught on so quickly that its origin was soon forgotten.^ Despite this criticism, expansionists embraced the phrase, which caught on so quickly that its origin was soon forgotten.

.O'Sullivan died in obscurity in 1895, just as his phrase was being revived.^ O'Sullivan died in obscurity in 1895, just as his phrase was being revived; in 1927, a historian determined that the phrase had originated with him.

^ O’Sullivan died in obscurity in 1895, just as his phrase was being revived.

.In 1927, a historian determined that the phrase had originated with him.^ O'Sullivan died in obscurity in 1895, just as his phrase was being revived; in 1927, a historian determined that the phrase had originated with him.

[12]

Themes and influences

Historian William E. Weeks has noted that three key themes were usually touched upon by advocates of Manifest Destiny:
.
  1. the virtue of the American people and their institutions;
  2. the mission to spread these institutions, thereby redeeming and remaking the world in the image of the U.S.; and
  3. the destiny under God to accomplish this work.^ The mission to spread these institutions, thereby redeeming and remaking the world in the image of the US. 3.
    • t r u t h o u t | Kill the Indian. Save the Man. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The virtue of the American people and their institutions; 2.
    • t r u t h o u t | Kill the Indian. Save the Man. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The destiny under God to accomplish this work.
    • t r u t h o u t | Kill the Indian. Save the Man. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

    [13]
.The origin of the first theme, later known as American Exceptionalism, was often traced to America's Puritan heritage, particularly John Winthrop's famous "City upon a Hill" sermon of 1630, in which he called for the establishment of a virtuous community that would be a shining example to the Old World.^ John Winthrop and the Puritan dream of a shining 'city upon a hill'.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The origin of the first theme, later known as American Exceptionalism, was often traced to America's Puritan heritage, particularly John Winthrop's famous " City upon a Hill" sermon of 1630, in which he called for the establishment of a virtuous community that would be a shining example to the Old World.

^ Their Puritan vision was for the New World to be a 'city set upon a hill' , and a light to the world.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

In his influential 1776 pamphlet Common Sense, Thomas Paine echoed this notion, arguing that the American Revolution provided an opportunity to create a new, better society:
.We have it in our power to begin the world over again.^ We have it in our power to begin the world over again.

^ In his influential 1776 pamphlet Common Sense , Thomas Paine echoed this notion, arguing that the American Revolution provided an opportunity to create a new, better society: We have it in our power to begin the world over again.

.A situation, similar to the present, hath not happened since the days of Noah until now.^ A situation, similar to the present, hath not happened since the days of Noah until now.

^ But, once again as Man over-spread the land it was used up, worn out, and abused until now (in our days) North Africa is also mostly desert wasteland, too.
  • New Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC business.gorge.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Being stationary for so long (six days now, and five more to go until John flies back here to me) has created a drag effect.

.The birthday of a new world is at hand...^ The birthday of a new world is at hand....

.Many Americans agreed with Paine, and came to believe that the United States had embarked upon a special experiment in freedom and democracy—and a rejection of Old World monarchy in favor of republicanism—an innovation of world historical importance.^ Many Americans agreed with Paine and came to believe that the United States had embarked upon a special experiment in freedom and democracy—and a rejection of Old World monarchy in favour of republicanism, an innovation of world-historical importance.

^ Many Americans agreed with Paine, and came to believe that the United States had embarked upon a special experiment in freedom and democracy—and a rejection of Old World monarchy in favor of republicanism—an innovation of world historical importance.

^ The term was used to express the belief that the United States was divinely inspired to spread democracy and freedom across North America.
  • Facts Oregon Trail Markers Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny Historical Maps Pictures 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.President Abraham Lincoln's description, in his December 1, 1862 message to Congress, of the United States as "the last, best hope of Earth" is a well-known expression of this idea.^ President Abraham Lincoln 's description of the United States as "the last, best hope of Earth" is a well-known expression of this idea.

^ President Abraham Lincoln’s description of the United States as “the last, best hope of Earth” is a well-known expression of this idea.

^ Acting as secretary of state in the Monroe administration, Adams in 1819 acquired Florida from Spain and convinced President James Monroe (1758–1831) to assert in his 1823 annual message the principles that came to be known as the Monroe Doctrine.
  • Manifest Destiny: American History Through Literature 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.novelguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, in which he interpreted the Civil War as a struggle to determine if any nation with America's ideals could survive, has been called by historian Robert Johannsen "the most enduring statement of America's Manifest Destiny and mission".[14]
.Not all Americans who believed that the United States was a divinely favored nation thought that it ought to expand.^ Americans increasingly believed that Native Americans would fade away as the United States expanded.

^ The American people largely believed it was the Manifest Destiny of the United States to expand westward.
  • Manifest Destiny: Westward Expansion and 49er Gold Rush Resultin Branch Mints. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.us-coin-values-advisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dreams of all Americans who had believed in their nation's Manifest Destiny had materialized.
  • Manifest Destiny: Westward Expansion and 49er Gold Rush Resultin Branch Mints. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.us-coin-values-advisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Whigs especially argued that the "mission" of the United States was only to serve as virtuous example to the rest of the world.^ Whigs especially argued that the "mission" of the United States was only to serve as virtuous example to the rest of the world.

^ John L. O'Sullivan, editor of the Democratic Review, captured the dominant expansionist theme of republican mission when he famously proclaimed the "manifest destiny" of the United States in 1845.

^ According to proponents, not only did the United States need to defend itself in an undemocratic world, but also the corrupt Mexican state resembled European autocracies rather than a true republic.

.If the United States was successful as a shining "city on a hill," people in other countries would seek to establish their own democratic republics.^ Obviously the United States is not a Catholic country.
  • Separation of Church and State: Manifest Destiny or Manifest Heresy? (Seattle Catholic) 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.seattlecatholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the United States was successful as a shining "city on a hill", people in other countries would seek to establish their own democratic republics.

^ If the United States was successful as a shining “city on a hill,” people in other countries would seek to establish their own democratic republics.

Thomas Jefferson initially did not believe it necessary that the United States should grow in size, since he predicted that other, similar republics would be founded in North America, forming what he called an "empire for liberty." However, with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, which doubled the size of the United States, Jefferson set the stage for the continental expansion of the United States. Many began to see this as the beginning of a new "mission"—what Andrew Jackson in 1843 famously described as "extending the area of freedom." As more territory was added to the United States in the following decades, whether or not "extending the area of freedom" also meant extending the institution of slavery became a central issue in a growing divide over the interpretation of America's "mission."

Effect on continental expansion

.
John Quincy Adams, painted above in 1816 by Charles Robert Leslie, was an early proponent of continentalism.
^ John Quincy Adams, a member of the House of Representatives, however, thought Texas' annexation was a slaveholder's conspiracy.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Quincy Adams had previously sold out America when he signed the Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814....
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The former president, John Quincy Adams, was so moved by the plight of Joseph Cinque and his fellow Africans, that he volunteered to represent them.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Late in life he came to regret his role in helping U.S. slavery to expand, and became a leading opponent of the annexation of Texas.
The phrase "Manifest Destiny" is most often associated with the territorial expansion of the United States from 1812 to 1860. This era, from the end of the War of 1812 to the beginning of the American Civil War, has been called the "Age of Manifest Destiny." During this time, the United States expanded to the Pacific Ocean—"from sea to shining sea"—largely defining the borders of the contiguous United States as they are today.[15]

Continentalism

.The nineteenth century belief that the United States would eventually encompass all of North America is known as "continentalism".[16] An early proponent of this idea was John Quincy Adams, a leading figure in U.S. expansion between the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and the Polk administration in the 1840s.^ An early proponent of this idea was John Quincy Adams, a leading figure in U.S. expansion between the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and the Polk Administration in the 1840s.

^ However, with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, which doubled the size of the United States, Jefferson set the stage for the continental expansion of the United States.

^ The nineteenth century belief that the United States would eventually encompass all of North America is known as "continentalism".

In 1811, Adams wrote to his father:
.The whole continent of North America appears to be destined by Divine Providence to be peopled by one nation, speaking one language, professing one general system of religious and political principles, and accustomed to one general tenor of social usages and customs.^ The idea of "the people," is one required principle.
  • Re: [Futurework] Manifest Destiny? 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.mail-archive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1811, Adams wrote to his father, John Adams : The whole continent of North America appears to be destined by Divine Providence to be peopled by one nation , speaking one language, professing one general system of religious and political principles, and accustomed to one general tenor of social usages and customs.

^ We are one people, we all speak the same language.
  • t r u t h o u t | Kill the Indian. Save the Man. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

.For the common happiness of them all, for their peace and prosperity, I believe it is indispensable that they should be associated in one federal Union.^ For the common happiness of them all, for their peace and prosperity, I believe it is indispensable that they should be associated in one federal Union.

^ They are not, as we should expect, all compatible, nor do they come from any one source.

^ "Already endangered by our greatness, we cannot advance without imminent peril to our institutions, union, prosperity, virtue, and peace."
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.philwrites.com [Source type: Original source]

[17]
.Adams did much to further this idea.^ Adams did much to further this idea.

.He orchestrated the Treaty of 1818, which established the United States-Canada border as far west as the Rocky Mountains, and provided for the joint occupation of the region known in American history as the Oregon Country and in British and Canadian history as the New Caledonia and Columbia Districts.^ Obviously the United States is not a Catholic country.
  • Separation of Church and State: Manifest Destiny or Manifest Heresy? (Seattle Catholic) 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.seattlecatholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Long before Americans explored the Far West the country had been known to the French and Spanish.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1818, the United States and the United Kingdom (controlling British Canada) established a joint claim over the Oregon Territory - the region west of the Rocky Mountains and between 42° North and 54°40' North (the southern boundary of Russia's Alaska territory).
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He negotiated the Transcontinental Treaty in 1819, purchasing Florida from Spain and extending the U.S. border with Spanish Mexico all the way to the Pacific Ocean.^ Under his watch, the US expanded all the way to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Manifest Destiny: Westward Expansion and 49er Gold Rush Resultin Branch Mints. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.us-coin-values-advisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He negotiated the Transcontinental Treaty in 1819, purchasing Florida from Spain and extending the U.S. border with Spanish Mexico all the way to the Pacific Ocean.

^ The United States gained control of all territories from the 49th parallel to the Gulf of Mexico with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 and Florida was ceded by Spain in 1819.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And he formulated the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, which warned Europe that the Western Hemisphere was no longer open for European colonization.^ And he formulated the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, which warned Europe that the Western Hemisphere was no longer open for European colonization.

^ Under President Theodore Roosevelt , the role of the United States in the New World was defined, in the 1904 Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, as being an "international police power" to secure American interests in the Western Hemisphere.

^ Flanking had always been a big part of European doctrine, although in World War II generals like Patton, with new, faster mechanized weaponry at their disposal, no longer relied on it as near-Biblical military strategy.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Monroe Doctrine and Manifest Destiny were closely related ideas: historian Walter McDougall calls Manifest Destiny a corollary of the Monroe Doctrine, because while the Monroe Doctrine did not specify expansion, expansion was necessary in order to enforce the Doctrine.^ Expansion & Manifest Destiny - detailed outline .
  • weblinks-Westward Expansion & Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.historyteacher.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Monroe Doctrine and Manifest Destiny were closely related ideas: historian Walter McDougall calls Manifest Destiny a “corollary” of the Monroe Doctrine, because while the Monroe Doctrine did not specify expansion, expansion was necessary in order to enforce the Doctrine.

^ Expansion was articulated as a democratic Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Concerns in the United States that European powers (especially Great Britain) were seeking to acquire colonies or greater influence in North America led to calls for expansion in order to prevent this.^ Great Britain led the international protests and the United States joined in.

^ The so-called Monroe Doctrine stated that the U.S. would not tolerate any new intervention by a European colonial power in the Americas.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.philwrites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Concerns in the United States that European powers (especially Great Britain) were seeking to acquire colonies or greater influence in North America led to calls for expansion in order to prevent this.

.In his influential 1935 study of Manifest Destiny, Albert Weinberg wrote that "the expansionism of the [1830s] arose as a defensive effort to forestall the encroachment of Europe in North America."^ Expansion & Manifest Destiny - detailed outline .
  • weblinks-Westward Expansion & Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.historyteacher.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expansion was articulated as a democratic Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his 1935 study of Manifest Destiny, Albert Weinberg wrote that "the expansionism of the [1840s] arose as a defensive effort to forestall the encroachment of Europe in North America".

[18]

British North America

.Although Manifest Destiny was primarily directed at territory inhabited by Mexicans and Native Americans, the concept played a role in U.S. relations with British North America (later Canada) to the north.^ Although Manifest Destiny was primarily directed at territory inhabited by Mexicans and American Indians, the concept played a role in U.S. relations with British North America (later Canada) to the north.

^ The Mexicans were scared of fighting the Native Americans.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I mean, look what "Manifest Destiny" did to the Native Americans.
  • WW PHILLY: X-MEN: MANIFEST DESTINY - NEWSARAMA 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC forum.newsarama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the time of the American Revolution, the United States had expressed an interest in expelling the British Empire from North America.^ United States at the time.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From the time of the American Revolution, the United States had expressed an interest in expelling the British Empire from North America.

^ The term was used to express the belief that the United States was divinely inspired to spread democracy and freedom across North America.
  • Facts Oregon Trail Markers Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny Historical Maps Pictures 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Failing to do that in both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, Americans came to accept the British presence on their northern border, but fears of possible British expansion elsewhere in North America were a recurrent theme of Manifest Destiny.^ Expansion & Manifest Destiny - detailed outline .
  • weblinks-Westward Expansion & Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.historyteacher.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Failing to do that in both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, Americans came to accept the British presence on their northern border, but fears of possible British expansion elsewhere in North America were a recurrent theme of Manifest Destiny.

^ Failing to do that in both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812, Americans came to accept the British presence on their northern border, but fears of possible British expansion elsewhere in North America was a recurrent theme of Manifest Destiny.

Before 1815

.During the American Revolution and the early years of independence there were both peaceful and violent attempts to include Canada in the United States.^ During the American Revolution and the early years of independence, there were both peaceful and violent attempts to include Canada in the United States.

^ Industry developed early in the United States.
  • thinkLets / Manifest Destiny mapXchange 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC futurethought.pbworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the American Revolution and the early years of independence there were both peaceful and violent attempts to include Canada in the United States.

.The Revolutionaries hoped French Canadians would join the Thirteen Colonies in the effort to throw off the rule of the British Empire.^ The Revolutionaries hoped French Canadians would join the Thirteen Colonies in the effort to throw off the rule of the British Empire.

^ Therefore, July 4 of the year 1876 was of prime significance and the festivities planned to celebrate the throwing off of American subservience to British rule were replete with patriotism and celebrities.
  • Chapter I - A Tale of Two Countries 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.dickshovel.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Americans, especially those along the border, were hopeful that the Rebellions of 1837 would bring an end to the British Empire in North America and the establishment of a republican government in Canada.

.Canada was invited to send representatives to the Continental Congress, and was pre-approved for joining the United States in the Articles of Confederation.^ Canada was invited to send representatives to the Continental Congress, and was pre-approved for joining the United States in the Articles of Confederation.

^ Canada was invited to send representatives to the Continental Congress and was pre-approved for joining the United States in the Articles of Confederation.

^ During this time, the United States expanded to the Pacific Ocean—" from sea to shining sea"—largely defining the borders of the continental United States as they are today.

.In the Paris peace negotiations, Benjamin Franklin attempted to persuade Britain to cede Canada to the United States.^ In the Paris peace negotiations, Benjamin Franklin attempted to persuade Britain to cede Canada to the United States.

^ The United States gained control of all territories from the 49th parallel to the Gulf of Mexico with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 and Florida was ceded by Spain in 1819.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also assumed Great Britain would come to their aid, because the British had opposed the United States' annexation of Texas.
  • Manifest Destiny: Westward Expansion and 49er Gold Rush Resultin Branch Mints. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.us-coin-values-advisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Canada fought off invasion during the War of Independence, and again during the War of 1812.^ Canada was invaded during the War of Independence and again during the War of 1812.

^ Astor's Pacific Fur Company established the trading post of Astoria, Oregon, in 1811, but lost it during the War of 1812.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Civil War, some tribes fought for the South, such as the Cherokees.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.None of these measures proved successful in bringing Canada onto the side of the Thirteen Colonies.^ None of these measures proved successful in bringing Canada to the side of the Thirteen Colonies.

^ None of these measures proved successful in bringing Canada onto the side of the Thirteen Colonies.

^ We bring all these aspects to work in a synegistic fashion so that your life is effective, successful, meaningful and has a positive impact in the world.

.These attempts to expel the British Empire from North America are sometimes cited as early examples of Manifest Destiny in action.^ These attempts to expel the British Empire from North America are sometimes cited as early examples of Manifest Destiny in action.

^ The Fenian raids after the American Civil War shared some resemblances to the actions of the Hunters but were otherwise unrelated to the idea of Manifest Destiny or any policy of American expansionism.

^ MANIFEST DESTINY  The 19th-century political and philosophical belief that it was America's divinely assigned mission to expand westward across the North American continent and to establish democratic and Protestant ideals was known as Manifest Destiny.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some scholars, however, including Canadian historian Reginald Stuart, argue that these events were different in character from those during the "Era of Manifest Destiny."^ Some scholars, including Canadian historian Reginald Stuart, argue that these events were different in character from those during the "Era of Manifest Destiny".

^ As historian Reginald Horsman argued in his influential study Race and Manifest Destiny , racial rhetoric increased during the era of Manifest Destiny.

^ Songs of the Era: Manifest Destiny (1845) .
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.philwrites.com [Source type: Original source]

.Before 1815, writes Stuart, "what seemed like territorial expansionism actually arose from a defensive mentality, not from ambitions for conquest and annexation."^ Before 1815, writes Stuart, "what seemed like territorial expansionism actually arose from a defensive mentality, not from ambitions for conquest and annexation."

^ Some scholars, however, including Canadian historian Reginald Stuart, argue that these events were different in character from those during the “Era of Manifest Destiny.” Before 1815, writes Stuart, “what seemed like territorial expansionism actually arose from a defensive mentality, not from ambitions for conquest and annexation.” From this point of view, Manifest Destiny was not a factor in the outbreak of the War of 1812, but rather emerged as a popular belief in the years after the war.

^ In his 1935 study of Manifest Destiny, Albert Weinberg wrote that "the expansionism of the [1840s] arose as a defensive effort to forestall the encroachment of Europe in North America".

[19] .From this point of view, Manifest Destiny was not a factor in the outbreak of the War of 1812, but rather emerged as a popular belief in the years after the war.^ From this point of view, Manifest Destiny was not a factor in the outbreak of the War of 1812, but rather Manifest Destiny emerged as a popular belief in the years after the war.

^ The Fenian raids after the American Civil War shared some resemblances to the actions of the Hunters but were otherwise unrelated to the idea of Manifest Destiny or any policy of American expansionism.

^ This U.S. vision of itself as the leader of the " free world" would grow stronger in the 20th century after World War II , although rarely would it be described as "Manifest Destiny", as Wilson had done.

[19]

Filibustering in Canada

.Americans became increasingly accepting of the presence of British colonies to the north after the War of 1812, although Anglophobia continued to be widespread in the United States.^ Americans became increasingly accepting of the presence of British colonies to the north after the War of 1812, although Anglophobia continued to be widespread in the United States.

^ Britain ceded the Oregon Territory in 1846; Texas was annexed in 1845 and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which brought the Mexican-American War to an end, together with the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, completed the territorial acquisition of the entire North American continent for the United States.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term was used to express the belief that the United States was divinely inspired to spread democracy and freedom across North America.
  • Facts Oregon Trail Markers Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny Historical Maps Pictures 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many Americans, especially those along the border, were hopeful that the Rebellions of 1837 would bring an end to the British Empire in North America and the establishment of a republican government in Canada.^ Many Americans, especially those along the border, were hopeful that the Rebellions of 1837 would bring an end to the British Empire in North America and the establishment of a republican government in Canada.

^ MANIFEST DESTINY  The 19th-century political and philosophical belief that it was America's divinely assigned mission to expand westward across the North American continent and to establish democratic and Protestant ideals was known as Manifest Destiny.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 1830s Canadian nationalists rebelled against British rule, and many of them took refuge across the border in the US. They viewed their American bases as safe havens, and used the American ship called the Caroline to bring them supplies.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.emayzine.com [Source type: Original source]

.Of those events John O'Sullivan wrote: "If freedom is the best of national blessings, if self-government is the first of national rights, ...^ Of those events John O'Sullivan wrote: "If freedom is the best of national blessings, if self-government is the first of national rights, ...

^ Of those events John O’Sullivan wrote: “If freedom is the best of national blessings, if self-government is the first of national rights, … then we are bound to sympathise with the cause of the Canadian rebellion.” Americans like O’Sullivan viewed the Rebellions as a reprise of the American Revolution, and—unlike most Canadians at the time—considered Canadians to be living under oppressive foreign rule.

^ President John Tyler's flexibility on the issues of executive power and the desirability of an energetic centralized national government at the expense of states' rights was consistent with the practices of his idols Jefferson and Madison when they occupied the White House.
  • John Tyler and the pursuit of national destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Original source]

then we are bound to sympathise with the cause of the Canadian rebellion."[20] .Americans like O'Sullivan viewed the Rebellions as a reprise of the American Revolution, and—unlike most Canadians at the time—considered Canadians to be living under oppressive foreign rule.^ Americans like O'Sullivan viewed the Rebellions as a reprise of the American Revolution, and—unlike most Canadians at the time—considered Canadians to be living under oppressive foreign rule.

^ Of those events John O’Sullivan wrote: “If freedom is the best of national blessings, if self-government is the first of national rights, … then we are bound to sympathise with the cause of the Canadian rebellion.” Americans like O’Sullivan viewed the Rebellions as a reprise of the American Revolution, and—unlike most Canadians at the time—considered Canadians to be living under oppressive foreign rule.

^ In the 1830s Canadian nationalists rebelled against British rule, and many of them took refuge across the border in the US. They viewed their American bases as safe havens, and used the American ship called the Caroline to bring them supplies.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.emayzine.com [Source type: Original source]

.Despite this sympathy with the cause of the rebels, belief in Manifest Destiny did not result in widespread American reaction to the Rebellions, in part because the Rebellions were over so quickly.^ Despite this sympathy with the cause of the rebels, belief in Manifest Destiny did not result in widespread American reaction to the Rebellions, in part because the Rebellions were over so quickly.

^ PART 37, MANIFEST DESTINY .
  • STORM FRONT/ MANIFEST DESTINY: By Lori Titus | 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC flashesinthedark.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I mean, look what "Manifest Destiny" did to the Native Americans.
  • WW PHILLY: X-MEN: MANIFEST DESTINY - NEWSARAMA 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC forum.newsarama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.O'Sullivan, for his part, advised against U.S. intervention.^ O'Sullivan, for his part, advised against U.S. intervention.

^ O’Sullivan, for his part, advised against U.S. intervention.

^ O’Sullivan against intervention: Stuart p.

.Some American "filibusters"—unauthorized volunteer soldiers often motivated by a belief in Manifest Destiny—went to Canada to lend aid to the rebels, but President Martin Van Buren sent General Winfield Scott to arrest the filibusters and keep peace on the border.^ Some American “filibusters”—unauthorized volunteer soldiers often motivated by a belief in Manifest Destiny—went to Canada to lend aid to the rebels, but President Martin Van Buren sent General Winfield Scott to arrest the filibusters and keep peace on the border.

^ Some American " filibusters"—unauthorized volunteer soldiers often motivated by a belief in Manifest Destiny—went to Canada to lend aid to the rebels, but President Martin Van Buren sent General Winfield Scott to arrest the filibusters and keep peace on the border.

^ The Democrats rejected Martin Van Buren, a former president and member of their own party, in favor of James K. Polk of Tennessee, who strongly favored Texas statehood and westward expansion.
  • Manifest Destiny: Westward Expansion and 49er Gold Rush Resultin Branch Mints. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.us-coin-values-advisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some filibusters persisted in secretive groups known as the Hunter Patriots, and tried to stir up war in order to "liberate" Canada—the so-called "Patriot War" was one such event—but American sentiment and official government policy were against these actions.^ Over time, the American people have tried to justify these actions.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some filibusters persisted in secretive groups known as the Hunters’ Lodges, and tried to stir up war in order to “liberate” Canada—the so-called “Patriot War” was one such event—but American sentiment and official government policy were against these actions.

^ Some filibusters persisted in secretive groups known as the Hunters' Lodges, and tried to stir up war in order to "liberate" Canada—the so-called " Patriot War" was one such event—but American sentiment and official government policy were against these actions.

.The Fenian raids after the American Civil War shared some resemblances to the actions of the Hunters, but were otherwise unrelated to the idea of Manifest Destiny or any policy of American expansionism.^ Expansion & Manifest Destiny - detailed outline .
  • weblinks-Westward Expansion & Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.historyteacher.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Fenian raids after the American Civil War shared some resemblances to the actions of the Hunters but were otherwise unrelated to the idea of Manifest Destiny or any policy of American expansionism.

^ A vast complex of ideas, policies, and actions is comprehended under the phrase ‘Manifest Destiny’.

[21]

"All Oregon"

.Manifest Destiny played its most important role in, and was coined during the course of, the Oregon boundary dispute with Great Britain.^ Manifest Destiny played its most important role in the Oregon boundary dispute with Great Britain.

^ On the northern border of the United States, Manifest Destiny played its most important role in the Oregon boundary dispute with Great Britain.

^ On December 27, 1845, in his newspaper the New York Morning News , O'Sullivan addressed the ongoing boundary dispute with Great Britain in the Oregon Country.

.The Anglo-American Convention of 1818 had provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country, and thousands of Americans migrated there in the 1840s over the Oregon Trail.^ Under the Convention of 1818, the two countries had agreed to joint occupation.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.emayzine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Anglo-American Convention of 1818 had provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country, and thousands of Americans migrated there in the 1840s via the Oregon Trail.

^ The Anglo-American Convention of 1818 had provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country, and thousands of Americans migrated there in the 1840s over the Oregon Trail.

.The British rejected a proposal by President John Tyler to divide the region along the 49th parallel, and instead proposed a boundary line further south along the Columbia River, which would have made what is now the state of Washington part of British North America.^ The British rejected a proposal by President John Tyler to divide the region along 49th parallel, and instead proposed a boundary line further south along the Columbia River, which would have made what is now the state of Washington part of British North America.

^ British North America is now just an item in a history book.....
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States gained control of all territories from the 49th parallel to the Gulf of Mexico with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 and Florida was ceded by Spain in 1819.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Advocates of Manifest Destiny protested and called for the annexation of the entire Oregon Country up to the Alaska line (54°40ʹ N).^ Advocates of Manifest Destiny protested and called for the annexation of the entire Oregon Country up to the Alaska line (54°40ʹ N).

^ Manifest Destiny, as I have advocated, was going to happen .
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1872, John Gast created an allegorical representation of Manifest Destiny called American Progress.
  • t r u t h o u t | Kill the Indian. Save the Man. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

.Presidential candidate James K. Polk used this popular outcry to his advantage, and the Democrats called for the annexation of "All Oregon" in the 1844 U.S. Presidential election.^ Presidential candidate James K. Polk used this popular outcry to his advantage, and the Democrats called for the annexation of “All Oregon” in the 1844 U.S. Presidential election.

^ It was used as a campaign slogan in the presidential election of 1844 by Democrat James K. Polk , who was elected.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the election of 1844, Whig candidate Henry Clay and the presumed Democratic candidate, ex-President Van Buren, both declared themselves opposed to the annexation of Texas, each hoping to keep the troublesome topic from becoming a campaign issue.

.As president, however, Polk renewed the earlier offer to divide the territory along the 49th parallel, to the dismay of the most ardent advocates of Manifest Destiny.^ As president, however, Polk renewed the earlier offer to divide the territory along the 49th parallel, to the dismay of the most ardent advocates of Manifest Destiny.

^ Manifest Destiny, as I have advocated, was going to happen .
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States gained control of all territories from the 49th parallel to the Gulf of Mexico with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 and Florida was ceded by Spain in 1819.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the British refused the offer, American expansionists responded with slogans such as "The Whole of Oregon or None!"^ Wal-Mart responded with a campaign using slogans first coined by labor organizer Cesar Chavez, such as Si se puede or "yes, we can."
  • Wal-Mart’s Manifest Destiny — High Country News 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.hcn.org [Source type: News]

^ The British fur companies now use both lines; the Americans, in their emigration to Oregon, have begun to follow the one which leads towards the United States.
  • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British eventually decided to compromise with the Americans over the Oregon territory.
  • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

and ."Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!", referring to the northern border of the region.^ Fifty-four Forty or Fight!
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the British refused the offer, American expansionists responded with slogans such as “The Whole of Oregon or None!” and “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!”, referring to the northern border of the region.

^ The 1844 Democratic presidential candidate James K. Polk ran on a platform of taking control over the entire Oregon Territory and used the famous campaign slogan, "Fifty-four Forty or Fight!"
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(The latter slogan is often mistakenly described as having been a part of the 1844 presidential campaign.^ (The latter slogan is often mistakenly described as having been a part of the 1844 presidential campaign.

^ The 1844 Democratic presidential candidate James K. Polk ran on a platform of taking control over the entire Oregon Territory and used the famous campaign slogan, "Fifty-four Forty or Fight!"
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was used as a campaign slogan in the presidential election of 1844 by Democrat James K. Polk , who was elected.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) When Polk moved to terminate the joint occupation agreement, the British finally agreed to divide the region along the 49th parallel, and the dispute was settled by the Oregon Treaty of 1846.
.
American westward expansion is idealized in Emanuel Leutze's famous painting Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way (1861).
^ Are any of the benefits or disadvantages apparent in the painting Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way?
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the United States was very successful in the acquisition of land, there was yet another obstacle that stood in the way of their westward settlement: the Native Americans.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Summarize the effects of westward expansion on Native Americans.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The title of the painting, from a 1726 poem by Bishop Berkeley, was a phrase often quoted in the era of Manifest Destiny, expressing a widely held belief that civilization had steadily moved westward throughout history.^ Manifest Destiny was a political phrase of the 1800s.
  • Facts Oregon Trail Markers Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny Historical Maps Pictures 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Songs of the Era: Manifest Destiny (1845) .
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.philwrites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John L O'Sullivan, emboldened by our policy of relentless anti-enslavement, publishes a stirring work on freedom titled Manifest Destiny that speaks to the heart as to what this mission is "the far-reaching, the boundless future will be the era of American greatness.
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

(more)
.Despite the earlier clamor for "All Oregon," the treaty was popular in the U.S. and was easily ratified by the Senate, particularly because the United States was by that time at war with Mexico.^ United States at the time.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ November 8 - declared war on United States of Central America and Mexico..
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At this time, Mexico and the United States were in a border dispute over the limits of Texas.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Many Americans believed that the Canadian territories would eventually merge with the United States anyway, and that war was unnecessary—and counterproductive—in fulfilling that destiny.^ Many Americans believed that the Canadian provinces would eventually merge with the United States anyway, and that war was unnecessary—and counterproductive—in fulfilling that destiny.

^ The United States gained control of all territories from the 49th parallel to the Gulf of Mexico with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 and Florida was ceded by Spain in 1819.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Britain ceded the Oregon Territory in 1846; Texas was annexed in 1845 and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which brought the Mexican-American War to an end, together with the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, completed the territorial acquisition of the entire North American continent for the United States.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The most fervent advocates of Manifest Destiny had not prevailed along the northern border because, according to Reginald Stuart, "the compass of Manifest Destiny pointed west and southwest, not north, despite the use of the term 'continentalism'."[22]

Mexico and Texas

.Manifest Destiny proved to be more consequential in U.S. relations with Mexico.^ Manifest Destiny proved to be more consequential in U.S. relations with Mexico.

^ Manifest Destiny and the Trans-Mississippi South: Natural Laws and the Extension of Slavery into Mexico.” Journal of Popular Culture 2001 35(2): 111-127.

^ Both brought down an avalanche of public criticism.” More importantly, says Potter, they permanently discredited Manifest Destiny and popular sovereignty.

.In 1836, the Republic of Texas declared independence from Mexico and, after the Texas Revolution, sought to join the United States as a new state.^ Texas, why do you think you will benefit from joining the United States?
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Should the United States annex Texas?
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ November 8 - declared war on United States of Central America and Mexico..
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

.This was an idealized process of expansion which had been advocated from Jefferson to O'Sullivan: newly democratic and independent states would request entry into the United States, rather than the United States extending its government over people who did not want it.^ This was an idealized process of expansion which had been advocated from Jefferson to O’Sullivan: newly democratic and independent states would request entry into the United States, rather than the United States extending its government over people who did not want it.

^ O'Sullivan, the editor of the United States Magazine and Democratic Review, coined a now familiar term when in 1845 he wrote that "our manifest destiny is to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions."
  • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson initially did not believe it necessary that the United States should grow in size, since he predicted that other, similar republics would be founded in North America, forming what he called an “empire for liberty.” However, with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, which doubled the size of the United States, Jefferson set the stage for the continental expansion of the United States.

.The annexation of Texas was controversial as it would add another slave state to the Union.^ The annexation of Texas was controversial, however, since it would add another slave state to the Union.

^ It was also understood that Texas would come in as a slave state.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.philwrites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They also assumed Great Britain would come to their aid, because the British had opposed the United States' annexation of Texas.
  • Manifest Destiny: Westward Expansion and 49er Gold Rush Resultin Branch Mints. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.us-coin-values-advisor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren declined Texas's offer to join the United States in part because the slavery issue threatened to divide the Democratic Party.^ Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren declined Texas’s offer to join the United States in part because the slavery issue threatened to divide the Democratic Party.

^ Texas, why do you think you will benefit from joining the United States?
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Should the United States annex Texas?
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Before the election of 1844, Whig candidate Henry Clay and the presumed Democratic candidate, former President Van Buren, both declared themselves opposed to the annexation of Texas, each hoping to keep the troublesome topic from becoming a campaign issue.^ Before the election of 1844, Whig candidate Henry Clay and the presumed Democratic candidate, ex-President Van Buren, both declared themselves opposed to the annexation of Texas, each hoping to keep the troublesome topic from becoming a campaign issue.

^ When the Democrats recaptured the White House in 1852 with the election of Franklin Pierce, a filibustering effort by John A. Quitman to acquire Cuba received the tentative support of the president.

^ After his presidency, Jackson remained a potent force in American politics and the success of two of his protégés, Martin Van Buren and James Polk, can be traced to "Old Hickory."
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This unexpectedly led to Van Buren being dropped by the Democrats in favor of Polk, who favored annexation.^ This unexpectedly led to Van Buren being dropped by the Democrats in favor of Polk, who favored annexation.

^ After his presidency, Jackson remained a potent force in American politics and the success of two of his protégés, Martin Van Buren and James Polk, can be traced to "Old Hickory."
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Van Buren's position against the annexation of Texas became known, ex-president Andrew Jackson and others threw their support behind Polk, as an expansionist candidate.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Polk tied the Texas annexation question with the Oregon dispute, thus providing a sort of regional compromise on expansion.^ Polk tied the Texas annexation question with the Oregon dispute, thus providing a sort of regional compromise on expansion.

^ When Polk moved to terminate the joint occupation agreement, the British finally agreed to divide the region along the 49th parallel, and the dispute was settled diplomatically with the Oregon Treaty of 1846.

^ Presidential candidate James K. Polk used this popular outcry to his advantage, and the Democrats called for the annexation of “All Oregon” in the 1844 U.S. Presidential election.

.(Expansionists in the North were more inclined to promote the occupation of Oregon, while Southern expansionists focused primarily on the annexation of Texas.^ (Expansionists in the North were more inclined to promote the occupation of Oregon, while Southern expansionists focused primarily on the annexation of Texas.

^ In addition, Tyler and Upshur, and later Calhoun, had a territorial expansionist agenda that sought to secure Pacific Ocean ports in California, and included the speedy annexation of Texas coupled with a diplomatic strategy to secure Oregon for the North and West as a sectional trade-off for Texas.
  • John Tyler and the pursuit of national destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The phrase “Manifest Destiny” was first used primarily by Jackson Democrats after 1845 to promote the annexation of much of what is now the Western United States (the Oregon Territory, the Texas Annexation, and the Mexican Cession).

) .Although elected by a very slim margin, Polk proceeded as if his victory had been a mandate for expansion.^ Although elected by a very slim margin, Polk proceeded as if his victory had been a mandate for expansion.

"All Mexico"

.After the election of Polk, but before he took office, Congress approved the annexation of Texas.^ After the election of Polk, but before he took office, Congress approved the annexation of Texas.

^ The great expansionist, Zachary Taylor, created the opportunity for the United States to annex Texas, after the election, but before Polk was inaugurated President of the United States.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidential candidate James K. Polk used this popular outcry to his advantage, and the Democrats called for the annexation of “All Oregon” in the 1844 U.S. Presidential election.

.Polk moved to occupy a portion of Texas which was also claimed by Mexico, paving the way for the outbreak of the Mexican-American War on April 24, 1846. With American successes on the battlefield, by the summer of 1847 there were calls for the annexation of "All Mexico," particularly among Eastern Democrats, who argued that bringing Mexico into the Union was the best way to ensure future peace in the region.^ Polk's Request for War with Mexico (1846) .
  • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Part of this settlement was the Mexican Government relinquishing any claims over the annexing of Texas into the Union.
  • Facts Oregon Trail Markers Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny Historical Maps Pictures 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They called for annexation of Texas.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

[23]
.This was a controversial proposition for two reasons.^ This was a controversial proposition for two reasons.

.First, idealistic advocates of Manifest Destiny like John L. O'Sullivan had always maintained that the laws of the United States should not be imposed on people against their will.^ The focus of the unit is Manifest Destiny in Texas.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Should the United States annex Texas?
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ First, idealistic advocates of Manifest Destiny like John L. O’Sullivan had always maintained that the laws of the United States should not be imposed on people against their will.

.The annexation of "All Mexico" would be a violation of this principle.^ Mexico asserted that the annexation of Texas - whether by treaty or in a U.S. Congressional resolution - was a violation of the 1828 border treaty.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The treaty determined that Mexico would retain all lands south of the Rio Grande, and that the disputed Texas territory, and the California and New Mexico territories, would be ceded to the United States.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.And secondly, the annexation of Mexico was controversial because it would mean extending U.S. citizenship to millions of Mexicans.^ And secondly, the annexation of Mexico was controversial because it would mean extending U.S. citizenship to millions of Mexicans.

^ To incorporate Mexico, would be the very first instance of the kind, of incorporating an Indian race; for more than half of the Mexicans are Indians, and the other is composed chiefly of mixed tribes.

^ The annexation of Texas was controversial, however, since it would add another slave state to the Union.

.Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, who had approved of the annexation of Texas, was opposed to the annexation of Mexico, as well as the "mission" aspect of Manifest Destiny, for racial reasons.^ The focus of the unit is Manifest Destiny in Texas.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In an article written in support of U.S. annexation of Texas, O'Sullivan referred to the " manifest destiny " of the United States to "overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions."
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.philwrites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John L O'Sullivan, emboldened by our policy of relentless anti-enslavement, publishes a stirring work on freedom titled Manifest Destiny that speaks to the heart as to what this mission is "the far-reaching, the boundless future will be the era of American greatness.
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

He made these views clear in a speech to Congress on January 4, 1848:
[W]e have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race—the free white race. .To incorporate Mexico, would be the very first instance of the kind, of incorporating an Indian race; for more than half of the Mexicans are Indians, and the other is composed chiefly of mixed tribes.^ By the mid-19th century, Mexicans had been living in Mexico for more than a century.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, Mexico bit off more than she could chew.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mexican-American conflict generated massive casualties, and when it was over, the US controlled all of New Mexico and California, and more of the territory of Texas.
  • t r u t h o u t | Kill the Indian. Save the Man. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

.I protest against such a union as that!^ I protest against such a union as that!

.Ours, sir, is the Government of a white race....^ [W]e have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race—the free white race.

^ Ours, sir, is the Government of a white race….

.We are anxious to force free government on all; and I see that it has been urged ...^ We urge governments at all levels to open the door to Aboriginal participation in the life and governance of Canada.
  • The Davin Report: Shakespeare and Canada's Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.canadianshakespeares.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are anxious to force free government on all; and I see that it has been urged … that it is the mission of this country to spread civil and religious liberty over all the world, and especially over this continent.

that it is the mission of this country to spread civil and religious liberty over all the world, and especially over this continent. It is a great mistake.[24]
.This debate brought to the forefront one of the contradictions of Manifest Destiny: on the one hand, while racist ideas inherent in Manifest Destiny suggested that Mexicans, as non-whites, were a lesser race and thus not qualified to become Americans, the "mission" component of Manifest Destiny suggested that Mexicans would be improved (or "regenerated," as it was then described) by bringing them into American democracy.^ This debate brought to the forefront one of the contradictions of Manifest Destiny: on the one hand, while racist ideas inherent in Manifest Destiny suggested that Mexicans, as non-Anglo-Saxons, were a lesser race and thus not qualified to become Americans, the “mission” component of Manifest Destiny suggested that Mexicans would be improved (or “regenerated,” as it was then described) by bringing them into American democracy.

^ The idea of Manifest Destiny was one component of the process which captured the popular imagination.
  • t r u t h o u t | Kill the Indian. Save the Man. 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Manifest destiny touched on issues of religion, money, race, patriotism, and morality.
  • Manifest Destiny [ushistory.org] 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

.Racism was used to promote Manifest Destiny, but, as in the case of Calhoun and the resistance to the "All Mexico" movement, racism was also used to oppose Manifest Destiny.^ Racism was used to promote Manifest Destiny, but, as in the case of Calhoun and the resistance to the “All Mexico” movement, racism was also used to oppose Manifest Destiny.

^ Manifest Destiny and the Trans-Mississippi South: Natural Laws and the Extension of Slavery into Mexico.” Journal of Popular Culture 2001 35(2): 111-127.

^ To use all available resources to resist such an annexation to the very end."
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

[25] .Conversely, proponents of annexation of "All Mexico" regarded it as an anti-slavery measure.^ Mexican journalists and politicians, regarding annexation, said Mexico had no other choice but "to impede the United States from appropriating Texas using all means necessary."
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

[26]
.The controversy was eventually ended by the Mexican Cession, which added the territories of Alta California and Nuevo México to the United States, both more sparsely populated than the rest of Mexico.^ The Republic eventually added over one million square miles of territory to the United States.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The controversy was eventually ended by the Mexican Cession, which added the territories of California and New Mexico to the United States, both more sparsely populated than the rest of Mexico.

^ By the mid-19th century, Mexicans had been living in Mexico for more than a century.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.Like the "All Oregon" movement, the "All Mexico" movement quickly abated.^ Like the “All Oregon” movement, the “All Mexico” movement quickly abated.

^ Despite the earlier clamor for “All Oregon,” the treaty was popular in the U.S. and was easily ratified by the Senate, particularly because the United States was by that time at war with Mexico.

^ Historian Frederick Merk, in Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History: A Reinterpretation (1963), argued that the failure of the “All Oregon” and “All Mexico” movements indicates that Manifest Destiny had not been as popular as historians have traditionally portrayed it to have been.

.Historian Frederick Merk, in Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History: A Reinterpretation (1963), argued that the failure of the "All Oregon" and "All Mexico" movements indicates that Manifest Destiny had not been as popular as historians have traditionally portrayed it to have been.^ Historian Frederick Merk, in Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History: A Reinterpretation (1963), argued that the failure of the “All Oregon” and “All Mexico” movements indicates that Manifest Destiny had not been as popular as historians have traditionally portrayed it to have been.

^ Like the “All Oregon” movement, the “All Mexico” movement quickly abated.

^ With American successes on the battlefield, by the summer of 1847 there were calls for the annexation of “All Mexico,” particularly among Eastern Democrats, who argued that bringing Mexico into the Union was the best way to ensure future peace in the region.

.Merk wrote that, while belief in the beneficent "mission" of democracy was central to American history, aggressive "continentalism" were aberrations supported by only a very small (but influential) minority of Americans.^ Merk wrote that, while belief in the beneficent “mission” of democracy was central to American history, aggressive “continentalism” were aberrations supported by only a very small (but influential) minority of Americans.

^ Manifest Destiny, the belief that the United States had a Divinely ordained mission to "fill her natural boundaries" from the Atlantic to Pacific guided the actions of this nation to a large degree throughout her history, and provided the psychological underpinnings to the American character.

^ Manifest Destiny is a phrase that expressed the belief that the United States had a mission to expand, spreading its form of democracy and freedom.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

.Merk's interpretation is probably still a minority opinion; scholars generally see Manifest Destiny, at least in the 1840s, as a popular belief among Democrats and an unpopular one among Whigs.^ Expansion was articulated as a democratic Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manifest Destiny is a phrase that expressed the belief that the United States had a mission to expand, spreading its form of democracy and freedom.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But the phrase itself, "Manifest Destiny ," is a very telling one, which I happen to agree with wholeheartedly.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

Filibustering in the South

.After the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, disagreements over the expansion of slavery made further territorial annexation too divisive to be official government policy.^ That year, the Mexican government prohibited further immigration of Americans to Tejas.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An essay written from the Mexican perspective of the Mexican- American War and that it was a means of U.S. expansionism.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, disagreements over the expansion of slavery made further territorial annexation too divisive to be official government policy.

.Many Northerners were increasingly opposed to what they believed to be efforts by Southern slave owners—and their friends in the North—to expand slavery at any cost.^ Many Northerners were increasingly opposed to what they believed to be efforts by Southern slave owners—and their friends in the North—to expand slavery at any cost.

^ North of the Mason-Dixon line, many citizens were deeply concerned about adding any more slave states.
  • Manifest Destiny [ushistory.org] 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1843, Southerners said that Great Britain was engaged in a plot to abolish slavery in North America, causing outcry in the South.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.The proposal of the Wilmot Proviso during the war, and the emergence of various "Slave Power" conspiracy theories thereafter, indicated the degree to which Manifest Destiny had become controversial.^ "Mexico's Vision of Manifest Destiny during the 1847 War."
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The proposal of the Wilmot Proviso during the war, and the emergence of various “Slave Power” conspiracy theories thereafter, indicated the degree to which Manifest Destiny had become controversial.

^ With formal hostilities over, the United States had succeeded in becoming a two-ocean country, and Manifest Destiny was now a reality.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Without official government support, the most radical advocates of Manifest Destiny increasingly turned to military filibustering.^ Without official government support, the most radical advocates of Manifest Destiny increasingly turned to military filibustering.

^ Manifest Destiny, as I have advocated, was going to happen .
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most fervent advocates of Manifest Destiny had not prevailed along the northern border because, according to Reginald Stuart, “the compass of Manifest Destiny pointed west and southwest, not north, despite the use of the term ‘continentalism’.”[17] .

.While there had been some filibustering expeditions into Canada in the late 1830s, the primary target of Manifest Destiny’s filibusters was Latin America, particularly Mexico and Cuba.^ While there had been some filibustering expeditions into Canada in the late 1830s, the primary target of Manifest Destiny’s filibusters was Latin America, particularly Mexico and Cuba.

^ Some American “filibusters”—unauthorized volunteer soldiers often motivated by a belief in Manifest Destiny—went to Canada to lend aid to the rebels, but President Martin Van Buren sent General Winfield Scott to arrest the filibusters and keep peace on the border.

^ With American successes on the battlefield, by the summer of 1847 there were calls for the annexation of “All Mexico,” particularly among Eastern Democrats, who argued that bringing Mexico into the Union was the best way to ensure future peace in the region.

.Though illegal, the filibustering operations in the late 1840s and early 1850s were romanticized in the U.S. press.^ Though illegal, the filibustering operations in the late 1840s and early 1850s were romanticized in the U.S. press.

^ In the late 1830s and early 1840s the northern antislavery enterprise laid claim to a virtually identical republicanism that stressed liberty, freedom, and patriotic virtue.
  • John Tyler and the pursuit of national destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On several occasions in the late 1840s and 1850s in private correspondence with relatives and friends, Tyler made his case.
  • John Tyler and the pursuit of national destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Wealthy American expansionists financed dozens of expeditions, usually based out of New Orleans.^ Wealthy American expansionists financed dozens of expeditions, usually based out of New Orleans.

^ The new nation of Mexico had initially encouraged American immigration into Texas, but when the government changed hands and the Americans out-numbered the Mexicans in the territory, the welcome withered.
  • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American military bases are now being strung out across the cradle of civilization.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

Filibuster William Walker, who launched several expeditions to Mexico and Central America, ruled Nicaragua, and was captured and executed in Honduras
.The United States had long been interested in acquiring Cuba from the declining Spanish Empire.^ The United States had long been interested in acquiring Cuba from the declining Spanish Empire.

^ There were several points at issue: € The United States had recently acquired a vast territory -- the result of its war with Mexico.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each foursome will get copies of the different maps of the United States (with each of the different land acquisitions) and index cards that have the dates the land was acquired by the United States, the means by which it was acquired (bought, taken in war, by treaty, etc.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.As with Texas, Oregon, and California, American policy makers were concerned that Cuba would fall into British hands, which, according to the thinking of the Monroe Doctrine, would constitute a threat to the interests of the United States.^ Texas, why do you think you will benefit from joining the United States?
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Should the United States annex Texas?
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Macedonia and the Greek states would have to fall and then...
  • IMPERIUM ROMANUM: Manifest Destiny AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

.Prompted by John L. O'Sullivan, in 1848 President Polk offered to buy Cuba from Spain for $100 million.^ Prompted by John L. O’Sullivan, in 1848 President Polk offered to buy Cuba from Spain for $100 million.

^ When the Democrats recaptured the White House in 1852 with the election of Franklin Pierce, a filibustering effort by John A. Quitman to acquire Cuba received the tentative support of the president.

^ Pierce backed off, however, and instead renewed the offer to buy the island, this time for $130 million.

.Polk feared that filibustering would hurt his effort to buy the island, and so he informed the Spanish of an attempt by the Cuban filibuster Narciso López to seize Cuba by force and annex it to the U.S., and the plot was foiled.^ Polk feared that filibustering would hurt his effort to buy the island, and so he informed the Spanish of an attempt by the Cuban filibuster Narcisco Lopez to seize Cuba by force and annex it to the U.S., and the plot was foiled.

^ When the Democrats recaptured the White House in 1852 with the election of Franklin Pierce, a filibustering effort by John A. Quitman to acquire Cuba received the tentative support of the president.

^ The Leadership Council informs me that it would take 60+ divisions plus naval superiority to force Britain to relinquish one colony, let alone bring it to its knees, so have postponed the planned island invasions...
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless, Spain declined to sell the island, which ended Polk's efforts to acquire Cuba.^ Nevertheless, Spain declined to sell the island, which ended Polk’s efforts to acquire Cuba.

^ Polk sought to purchase Cuba from its Spanish colonizers, but Spain refused to sell the island.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.philwrites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Polk feared that filibustering would hurt his effort to buy the island, and so he informed the Spanish of an attempt by the Cuban filibuster Narcisco Lopez to seize Cuba by force and annex it to the U.S., and the plot was foiled.

.O'Sullivan, on the other hand, continued to raise money for filibustering expeditions, eventually landing him in legal trouble.^ O’Sullivan, on the other hand, continued to raise money for filibustering expeditions, eventually landing him in legal trouble.

^ His friends' paths of resistance struck him on the one hand as too negative and on the other as too defensive.
  • John Tyler and the pursuit of national destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Southern extremists sponsored filibuster expeditions into Latin America with the objective of gaining new lands to extend slavery.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

[27]
.Filibustering continued to be a major concern for presidents after Polk.^ President James Polk had to pay attention to these concerns.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.Whigs presidents Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore tried to suppress the expeditions.^ Whigs presidents Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore tried to suppress the expeditions.

^ The great expansionist, Zachary Taylor, created the opportunity for the United States to annex Texas, after the election, but before Polk was inaugurated President of the United States.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He succeeded from the Vice Presidency on the death of President Zachary Taylor, who died of acute indigestion, becoming the second U.S. President to gain the office in this manner.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the Democrats recaptured the White House in 1852 with the election of Franklin Pierce, a filibustering effort by John A. Quitman to acquire Cuba received the tentative support of the president.^ Attention turned to Cuba again during the presidency of Franklin Pierce (D, 1853-57).
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.philwrites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President John Tyler's flexibility on the issues of executive power and the desirability of an energetic centralized national government at the expense of states' rights was consistent with the practices of his idols Jefferson and Madison when they occupied the White House.
  • John Tyler and the pursuit of national destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Not coincidentally, he was able to purge anyone who supported his hated vice president, John Calhoun.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pierce backed off, however, and instead renewed the offer to buy the island, this time for $130 million.^ Pierce backed off, however, and instead renewed the offer to buy the island, this time for $130 million.

^ Prompted by John L. O’Sullivan, in 1848 President Polk offered to buy Cuba from Spain for $100 million.

^ But (un)fortunately we were pushing ourselves to get off the island and back to the homeland in Washington and didn't get to enjoy the island more (guess we'll just have to come back).

.When the public learned of the Ostend Manifesto in 1854, which argued that the United States could seize Cuba by force if Spain refused to sell, this effectively killed the effort to acquire the island.^ The United States gained control of all territories from the 49th parallel to the Gulf of Mexico with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 and Florida was ceded by Spain in 1819.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were several points at issue: € The United States had recently acquired a vast territory -- the result of its war with Mexico.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prince Haolilio also raised the possibility of the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands by the United States.
  • John Tyler and the pursuit of national destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The public now linked expansion with slavery; if Manifest Destiny had once enjoyed widespread popular approval, this was no longer true.^ Expansion was articulated as a democratic Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would no longer be the country they once loved and enjoyed.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With formal hostilities over, the United States had succeeded in becoming a two-ocean country, and Manifest Destiny was now a reality.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

[28]
.Filibusters like William Walker continued to garner headlines in the late 1850s, but with the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1860, the "Age of Manifest Destiny" came to an end.^ Designed by Bill Crenshaw as the successor to the Age of Renaissance, and developed by Ken Gutermuth, Manifest Destiny combines the strategic components of earlier, longer civilization-based games with the elegance of streamlined European gaming.
  • Manifest Destiny | Board Game | BoardGameGeek 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC www.boardgamegeek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States fought Mexico for several reasons: annexation of Texas to the United States, the American belief in Manifest Destiny, political instability in Mexico, and a desire for war in both countries” (Robinson 1).
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Using specific examples, such as the treatment and removal of Native Americans, the annexation of Texas, and the Mexican War as concrete illustrations of the abstract concept of Manifest Destiny, we will foster the growth of the middle-school mind.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Expansionism was among the various issues that played a role in the coming of the war.^ Expansionism was among the various issues that played a role in the coming of the war.

^ This book is very detailed in the role that Texas played in the Mexican War and how the war affected Texas.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Explain to students that they will be role playing a meeting between ambassadors to try to come to a peaceful solution to the issue of what to do with Texas.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.With the divisive question of the expansion of slavery, Northerners and Southerners, in effect, were coming to define Manifest Destiny in different ways, undermining nationalism as a unifying force.^ Have students define Manifest Destiny in their notebooks.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Expansion was articulated as a democratic Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the divisive question of the expansion of slavery, Northerners and Southerners, in effect, were coming to define Manifest Destiny in different ways, undermining nationalism as a unifying force.

.According to Frederick Merk, "The doctrine of Manifest Destiny, which in the 1840s had seemed Heaven-sent, proved to have been a bomb wrapped up in idealism."^ According to Frederick Merk, “The doctrine of Manifest Destiny, which in the 1840’s had seemed Heaven-sent, proved to have been a bomb wrapped up in idealism.”[21] .

^ O’Sullivan believed that Manifest Destiny was a moral ideal (a “higher law”) that superseded other considerations.

^ Advocates of Manifest Destiny protested and called for the annexation of the entire Oregon Country up to the Alaska line (54°40ʹ N).

[29]

Native Americans

.Manifest Destiny had serious consequences for Native Americans, since continental expansion implicitly meant the occupation and annexation of Native American land.^ Manifest Destiny had serious consequences for American Indians.

^ I mean, look what "Manifest Destiny" did to the Native Americans.
  • WW PHILLY: X-MEN: MANIFEST DESTINY - NEWSARAMA 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC forum.newsarama.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expansion was articulated as a democratic Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States continued the European practice of recognizing only limited land rights of indigenous peoples.^ The United States purchased land rights by treaty from the Indian tribes.

^ The United States expanded into the Oregon Territory, annexed Texas, and also gained land in the southwest by the Mexican Cession.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The acquisition of land in this purchase secured the final boundaries of the continental United States.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a policy formulated largely by Henry Knox, Secretary of War in the Washington Administration, the U.S. government sought to expand into the west through the legal purchase of Native American land in treaties.^ The United States expanded into the Oregon Territory, annexed Texas, and also gained land in the southwest by the Mexican Cession.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The settlers wanted to drive the Native Americans off any farmable land.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States also felt that by putting Native Americans onto smaller tracts of land, it would be easier to try and teach and convert them to the way of life of the Americans.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Indians were encouraged to sell their vast tribal lands and become "civilized", which meant (among other things) for Native American men to abandon hunting and become farmers, and for their society to reorganize around the family unit rather than the clan or tribe.^ White Americans took the land that Native Americans had taken from other Native Americans.
  • Facts Oregon Trail Markers Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny Historical Maps Pictures 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National policy was that Indians had to become “civilized” and abandon hunting and become farmers.

^ To incorporate Mexico, would be the very first instance of the kind, of incorporating an Indian race; for more than half of the Mexicans are Indians, and the other is composed chiefly of mixed tribes.

.The United States therefore acquired lands by treaty from Indian nations, usually under circumstances which suggest a lack of voluntary and knowing consent by the native signers.^ The United States expanded into the Oregon Territory, annexed Texas, and also gained land in the southwest by the Mexican Cession.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States also felt that by putting Native Americans onto smaller tracts of land, it would be easier to try and teach and convert them to the way of life of the Americans.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There were several points at issue: € The United States had recently acquired a vast territory -- the result of its war with Mexico.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Advocates of civilization programs believed that the process of settling native tribes would greatly reduce the amount of land needed by the Indians, making more land available for homesteading by white Americans.^ White Americans took the land that Native Americans had taken from other Native Americans.
  • Facts Oregon Trail Markers Westward Expansion Manifest Destiny Historical Maps Pictures 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.thefurtrapper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Advocates of “civilization” programs believed that the process would greatly reduce the amount of land needed by the Indians, thereby making more land available for purchase by white Americans.

^ To incorporate Mexico, would be the very first instance of the kind, of incorporating an Indian race; for more than half of the Mexicans are Indians, and the other is composed chiefly of mixed tribes.

.Thomas Jefferson believed that while American Indians were the intellectual equals of whites, they had to live like the whites or inevitably be pushed aside by them.^ Thomas Jefferson believed that while American Indians were the intellectual equals of whites, they had to live like the whites or inevitably be pushed aside by them.

^ Advocates of “civilization” programs believed that the process would greatly reduce the amount of land needed by the Indians, thereby making more land available for purchase by white Americans.

^ These stories may have been invented or exaggerated by liberals who wanted to create the fiction that Indians were on some level worthy of equality with white settlers.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed], Jefferson's belief, rooted in Enlightenment thinking, that whites and Native Americans would merge to create a single nation did not last his lifetime, and he began to believe that the natives should emigrate across the Mississippi River and maintain a separate society, an idea made possible by the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.[citation needed]
.In the age of Manifest Destiny, this idea, which came to be known as "Indian Removal", gained ground.^ Manifest Destiny is about the United States simply being more excellent than the Mexicans and the Indians.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Manifest Destiny is the idea that the United States was destined to be a two-ocean country.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Discuss with the class the idea that at the time, many Americans believed it was our destiny to spread across the continent and that we call this our Manifest Destiny.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Although some humanitarian advocates of removal believed that American Indians would be better off moving away from whites, an increasing number of Americans regarded the natives as nothing more than savages who stood in the way of American expansion.^ To incorporate Mexico, would be the very first instance of the kind, of incorporating an Indian race; for more than half of the Mexicans are Indians, and the other is composed chiefly of mixed tribes.

^ Advocates of “civilization” programs believed that the process would greatly reduce the amount of land needed by the Indians, thereby making more land available for purchase by white Americans.

^ Jefferson’s belief, rooted in Enlightenment thinking, that whites and Native Americans would merge to create a single nation did not last his lifetime, and he began to believe that the natives should emigrate across the Mississippi River and maintain a separate society, an idea made possible by the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.

.As historian Reginald Horsman argued in his influential study Race and Manifest Destiny, racial rhetoric increased during the era of Manifest Destiny.^ Some scholars, however, including Canadian historian Reginald Stuart, argue that these events were different in character from those during the “Era of Manifest Destiny.” Before 1815, writes Stuart, “what seemed like territorial expansionism actually arose from a defensive mentality, not from ambitions for conquest and annexation.” From this point of view, Manifest Destiny was not a factor in the outbreak of the War of 1812, but rather emerged as a popular belief in the years after the war.

^ The proposal of the Wilmot Proviso during the war, and the emergence of various “Slave Power” conspiracy theories thereafter, indicated the degree to which Manifest Destiny had become controversial.

^ Indeed, as Reginald Horsman (1981) makes clear in Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Anglo-Saxonism , by 1850 US expansion was located within a powerful discourse of Anglo-Saxon superiority and inevitable racial destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Americans increasingly believed that Native Americans would fade away as the United States expanded.^ Many Americans agreed with Paine, and came to believe that the United States had embarked upon a special experiment in freedom and democracy—and a rejection of Old World monarchy in favor of republicanism—an innovation of world historical importance.

^ The United States expanded into the Oregon Territory, annexed Texas, and also gained land in the southwest by the Mexican Cession.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States also felt that by putting Native Americans onto smaller tracts of land, it would be easier to try and teach and convert them to the way of life of the Americans.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

As an example, this idea was reflected in the work of one of America's first great historians, Francis Parkman, whose landmark book The Conspiracy of Pontiac was published in 1851. Parkman wrote that Indians were "destined to melt and vanish before the advancing waves of Anglo-American power, which now rolled westward unchecked and unopposed."[30]

Beyond North America

.As the Civil War faded into history, the term Manifest Destiny experienced a brief revival.^ Manifest Destiny in the U.S. ran into internal divisions over slavery, and was interrupted by the Civil War.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, in which he interpreted the Civil War as a struggle to determine if any nation with America’s ideals could survive, has been called by historian Robert Johannsen “the most enduring statement of America’s Manifest Destiny and mission”.

^ Manifest Destiny and the Trans-Mississippi South: Natural Laws and the Extension of Slavery into Mexico.” Journal of Popular Culture 2001 35(2): 111-127.

In the 1892 U.S. presidential election, the Republican Party platform proclaimed: "We reaffirm our approval of the Monroe doctrine and believe in the achievement of the manifest destiny of the Republic in its broadest sense." What was meant by "manifest destiny" in this context was not clearly defined, particularly since the Republicans lost the election. .In the 1896 election, however, the Republicans recaptured the White House and held on to it for the next 16 years.^ By 1829, however, Meek had signed on with William Sublette as a Rocky Mountain trapper, and for the next eleven years he lived the strenuous life of a mountain man.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 16 - finally, after almost four years of fighting and one year of negotiation, Britain agrees to a white peace...
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ September - A land-grab scandal shakes the White House and forces a new election...
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

.During that time, Manifest Destiny was cited to promote overseas expansion.^ Expansion was articulated as a democratic Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Mexico's Vision of Manifest Destiny during the 1847 War."
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Both the idea of manifest destiny and the reality of expansion showed the nature of the American character and nation and profoundly influenced their continuing development.
  • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

.Whether or not this version of Manifest Destiny was consistent with the continental expansionism of the 1840s was debated at the time, and long afterwards.^ Manifest Destiny was the dream, the ideology, and the motivation for this national expansion and the westward movement.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By examining the different aspects of Manifest Destiny through the lens of the Texas perspective, students are able to see direct consequences of the United States westward expansion.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The phrase "Manifest Destiny" was first used primarily by the Jacksonian era in the 1840s.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

[31]
.For example, when President William McKinley advocated annexation of the Territory of Hawaii in 1898, he said that "We need Hawaii as much and a good deal more than we did California.^ There was much more to it than that.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Marlon Brando said as Colonel Kurtz in "Apocalypse Now", "there is nothing I hate more than the stench of lies."
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not being much of a fisherman, I found the sight actually unsettling more than thrilling.

It is manifest destiny." On the other hand, former President Grover Cleveland, a Democrat who had blocked the annexation of Hawaii during his administration, wrote that McKinley's annexation of the territory was a "perversion of our national destiny." Historians continued that debate; some have interpreted the overseas expansion of the 1890s of other Pacific island groups as an extension of Manifest Destiny across the Pacific Ocean. .Others have regarded it as the antithesis of Manifest Destiny and merely imperialism.^ Manifest Destiny is the worst form of historical progress that could have happened there, with the exception of all other forms of historical progress that could happened there.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

[32]

Spanish-American War and the Philippines

.In 1898, after the sinking of the USS Maine in the harbor at Havana, Cuba, the United States intervened on the side of Cuban rebels who were fighting the Spanish Empire, beginning the Spanish-American War.^ Both sides chose war against Texas, not the United States.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States also felt that by putting Native Americans onto smaller tracts of land, it would be easier to try and teach and convert them to the way of life of the Americans.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Approximately 14,000 Americans and 25,000 Mexican troops died in battle before the United States captured Mexico City and forced the Mexican government to sign the peace treaty that marked the end of the war (Henderson 179).
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Although advocates of Manifest Destiny in the 1840s had called for the annexation of Cuba, the Teller Amendment, passed unanimously by the U.S. Senate before the war, proclaimed Cuba "free and independent" and disclaimed any U.S. intention to annex the island.^ Manifest Destiny, as I have advocated, was going to happen .
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Identify Manifest Destiny, Texas annexation and statehood, and border disputes as issues and events related to the outbreak of the Mexican War.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The events of the Mexican-American War, Manifest Destiny, the Indian Wars, and the rise of the American Empire are as real today as any events in the 19th Century.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the war, the Platt Amendment (1902) established Cuba as a virtual protectorate of the United States.^ There were several points at issue: € The United States had recently acquired a vast territory -- the result of its war with Mexico.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have students take on the role as a Sioux Indian who has been at war with the United States and is eventually pushed onto a reservation.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This article explores the fact that the United States used the War with Mexico as an excuse to take Mexican territory.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If Manifest Destiny meant the outright annexation of territory, it no longer applied to Cuba, since Cuba was never annexed.^ This massive increase in territory promoted the image of the US as a continental nation, the geographical counterpart to the ideology of Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The annexation of Texas was one giant step in the direction of completing Polk’s dream of Manifest Destiny, but it came at a price.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From the time of the annexation of Texas in 1845 to the Gadsden Purchase in 1853, the United States was able to acquire 869 million acres of territory, which completed the geographical expansion of the continental United States and accomplished the dreams of Manifest Destiny.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Unlike Cuba, the United States did annex Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines after the war with Spain.^ Should the United States annex Texas?
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States gained control of all territories from the 49th parallel to the Gulf of Mexico with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 and Florida was ceded by Spain in 1819.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States expanded into the Oregon Territory, annexed Texas, and also gained land in the southwest by the Mexican Cession.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

The acquisition of these islands marked a new chapter in U.S. history. .Traditionally, territories were acquired by the United States for the purpose of becoming new states, on equal footing with already existing states.^ Vast new territories had been incorporated as part of the United States.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States gained control of all territories from the 49th parallel to the Gulf of Mexico with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 and Florida was ceded by Spain in 1819.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States expanded into the Oregon Territory, annexed Texas, and also gained land in the southwest by the Mexican Cession.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

.These islands, however, were acquired as colonies rather than prospective states, a process validated by the Insular Cases, in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that full constitutional rights did not automatically extend to all areas under American control.^ Levi-Strauss The most famous '49er of all did not make his fortune by finding gold, rather he sold pants -- his name was Levi-Strauss.
  • Manifest Destiny [ushistory.org] 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ September - the Supreme Court delivers its verdict in the Dred Scot case.
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mexico found itself under emperor's rule, but in 1824, the monarchy was overthrown and a constitutional Republic was started.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.In this sense, annexation was a violation of traditional Manifest Destiny.^ The annexation of Texas was one giant step in the direction of completing Polk’s dream of Manifest Destiny, but it came at a price.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This later overflowed into a sense of 'manifest destiny' and a belief that America will lead the world into a new era of peace and security.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Identify Manifest Destiny, Texas annexation and statehood, and border disputes as issues and events related to the outbreak of the Mexican War.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

.According to Frederick Merk, "Manifest Destiny had contained a principle so fundamental that a Calhoun and an O'Sullivan could agree on it—that a people not capable of rising to statehood should never be annexed.^ Newspaper editor John O'Sullivan coined the term " manifest destiny " in 1845 to describe the essence of this mindset.
  • Manifest Destiny [ushistory.org] 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Boudinot's An Address to the Whites (1826) linked the US democratic experiment with the Manifest Destiny of tribal people, arguing that on [the Cherokee] destiny hangs the destiny of many nations.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Greens have to tweak these pastoral images, must make people believe in what I would call Reverse Manifest Destiny — the belief that we can restore the lost Frontier.

.That was the principle thrown overboard by the imperialism of 1899."[33] (The Philippines was eventually given its independence in 1946; Guam and Puerto Rico have special status to this day, but all their people are full citizens of the United States.^ The United States gained control of all territories from the 49th parallel to the Gulf of Mexico with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 and Florida was ceded by Spain in 1819.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It rationalized the Louisiana Purchase and United States' support for Texas independence and annexation.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the debates have concluded, ask all students to answer the following question in their notebook three times, once from the view of Texas, once from the view of Mexico, and once from the view of the United States.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

)
.On the other hand, Manifest Destiny had also contained within it the idea that "uncivilized" peoples could be improved by exposure to the Christian, democratic values of the United States.^ The focus of the unit is Manifest Destiny in Texas.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Manifest Destiny is the idea that the United States was destined to be a two-ocean country.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Expansion was articulated as a democratic Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In his decision to annex the Philippines, President McKinley has been quoted as echoed this theme: "There was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them...." (this quotation has been disputed[34]). .Rudyard Kipling's poem "The White Man's Burden", which was subtitled "The United States and the Philippine Islands", was a famous expression of these sentiments,[35] which were common at the time.^ United States at the time.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After the debates have concluded, ask all students to answer the following question in their notebook three times, once from the view of Texas, once from the view of Mexico, and once from the view of the United States.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These presidents went to great lengths to make the geography of the United States the size that it is today.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

A nascent revolutionary government desirous of independence, however, resisted this effort to "uplift and civilize", resulting in the outbreak of the Philippine-American War in 1899. After the war began, William Jennings Bryan, an opponent of overseas expansion, wrote that "‘Destiny’ is not as manifest as it was a few weeks ago."[36]

Later usage

.After the turn of the nineteenth century to the twentieth, the phrase Manifest Destiny declined in usage, as territorial expansion ceased to be promoted as being a part of America's "destiny."^ PART 37, MANIFEST DESTINY .
  • STORM FRONT/ MANIFEST DESTINY: By Lori Titus | 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC flashesinthedark.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Expansion was articulated as a democratic Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Originally a political catch phrase of the nineteenth century, Manifest Destiny eventually became a standard historical term, often used as a synonym for the territorial expansion of the United States across North America towards the Pacific Ocean.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under President Theodore Roosevelt the role of the United States in the New World was defined, in the 1904 Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, as being an "international police power" to secure American interests in the Western Hemisphere.^ It would have turned into a New World Order police state.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States also felt that by putting Native Americans onto smaller tracts of land, it would be easier to try and teach and convert them to the way of life of the Americans.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For an analysis of the role of non-state actors and chosen instruments in American foreign relations, see Emily Rosenberg, Spreading the American Dream: American Economic and Cultural Expansion, 1890-1945 (New York, 1982).
  • John Tyler and the pursuit of national destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Original source]

Roosevelt's corollary contained an explicit rejection of territorial expansion. .In the past, Manifest Destiny had been seen as necessary to enforce the Monroe Doctrine in the Western Hemisphere, but now expansionism had been replaced by interventionism as a means of upholding the doctrine.^ Expansion was articulated as a democratic Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With formal hostilities over, the United States had succeeded in becoming a two-ocean country, and Manifest Destiny was now a reality.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Manifest Destiny was the dream, the ideology, and the motivation for this national expansion and the westward movement.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

.President Woodrow Wilson continued the policy of interventionism in the Americas, and attempted to redefine both Manifest Destiny and America's "mission" on a broader, worldwide scale.^ John L O'Sullivan, emboldened by our policy of relentless anti-enslavement, publishes a stirring work on freedom titled Manifest Destiny that speaks to the heart as to what this mission is "the far-reaching, the boundless future will be the era of American greatness.
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both the idea of manifest destiny and the reality of expansion showed the nature of the American character and nation and profoundly influenced their continuing development.
  • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dime novel it's not; it is more a narrative of nation-building, centered in President James K. Polk's vision of manifest destiny.
  • ILW.COM - immigration news: Monuments, Manifest Destiny, And Mexico 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.ilw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wilson led the United States into World War I with the argument that "The world must be made safe for democracy."^ There were several points at issue: € The United States had recently acquired a vast territory -- the result of its war with Mexico.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have students take on the role as a Sioux Indian who has been at war with the United States and is eventually pushed onto a reservation.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Free and unfettered trade would assure that the United States ultimately would become a leading world power.
  • John Tyler and the pursuit of national destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Original source]

In his 1920 message to Congress after the war, Wilson stated:
...I think we all realize that the day has come when Democracy is being put upon its final test. The Old World is just now suffering from a wanton rejection of the principle of democracy and a substitution of the principle of autocracy as asserted in the name, but without the authority and sanction, of the multitude. .This is the time of all others when Democracy should prove its purity and its spiritual power to prevail.^ What Munroe should have added, what Adams should have insisted on, is that Britain and Spain and all the other Old World nations get the hell of of the New World.
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Winston Churchill once said Democracy was the worst form of government known to man, with the exception of all other forms of government known to man.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Above all other men, he should most highly appreciate the value and importance of the union of the States."
  • John Tyler and the pursuit of national destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is surely the manifest destiny of the United States to lead in the attempt to make this spirit prevail.^ The focus of the unit is Manifest Destiny in Texas.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ O'Sullivan, the editor of the United States Magazine and Democratic Review, coined a now familiar term when in 1845 he wrote that "our manifest destiny is to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions."
  • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Manifest Destiny, the belief that the United States had a Divinely ordained mission to "fill her natural boundaries" from the Atlantic to Pacific guided the actions of this nation to a large degree throughout her history, and provided the psychological underpinnings to the American character.

.This was the only time a president had used the phrase "Manifest Destiny" in his annual address.^ In this section we will look at ways to use the Law of Attraction to manifest your destiny.
  • Manifest Your Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And so from the 19th century and up to the present time the concept of 'Manifest Destiny' has increasingly been formulated into U.S. foreign policy.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Manifest Destiny is a phrase that expressed the belief that the United States had a mission to expand, spreading its form of democracy and freedom.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

.Wilson's version of Manifest Destiny was a rejection of expansionism and an endorsement (in principle) of self-determination, emphasizing that the United States had a mission to be a world leader for the cause of democracy.^ The focus of the unit is Manifest Destiny in Texas.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Expansion was articulated as a democratic Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manifest Destiny was a phrase used by leaders and politicians in the 1840s to explain continental expansion by the United States.
  • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.This U.S. vision of itself as the leader of the "Free World" would grow stronger in the 20th century after World War II, although rarely would it be described as "Manifest Destiny", as Wilson had done.^ "Mexico's Vision of Manifest Destiny during the 1847 War."
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The term Manifest Destiny has not been used much in the 20th century.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Newspaper editor John O'Sullivan coined the term " manifest destiny " in 1845 to describe the essence of this mindset.
  • Manifest Destiny [ushistory.org] 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

[37]
.Today, in standard scholarly usage, Manifest Destiny describes a past era in American history, particularly the 1840s.^ Manifest Destiny [ushistory.org] Search: American History 1.
  • Manifest Destiny [ushistory.org] 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ John L O'Sullivan, emboldened by our policy of relentless anti-enslavement, publishes a stirring work on freedom titled Manifest Destiny that speaks to the heart as to what this mission is "the far-reaching, the boundless future will be the era of American greatness.
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Newspaper editor John O'Sullivan coined the term " manifest destiny " in 1845 to describe the essence of this mindset.
  • Manifest Destiny [ushistory.org] 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

However, the term is sometimes used by the political left and by critics of U.S. foreign policy to characterize interventions in the Middle East and elsewhere. .In this usage, Manifest Destiny is interpreted as the underlying cause of what is perceived by some as "American imperialism".^ Ask students to discuss some of the consequences of Manifest Destiny.
  • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Fremont’s expeditions, while not accomplishing a great deal scientifically, were very important in advancing the cause of Manifest Destiny.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manifest Destiny (44:13), pg An invisible alien race inhabits a spaceship and causes a salvage team to go insane.
  • Watch Manifest Destiny: The Outer Limits Full Length Episodes Online | Free on Fancast 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.fancast.com [Source type: General]

German Lebensraum

.German geographer Ratzel visited North America beginning in 1873[38] and saw the effects of American manifest destiny.^ Visit Manifest your Destiny .

^ After 4 Mexican-American wars (1836, 1843-1844, 1849-1851, 1857-1858), Mexico no longer has a presence in North America.
  • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This term was first used by John L. OSullivan in the Democratic Review in 1845, in a comment that brings together the twinned ideologies of Manifest Destiny and American Exceptionalism.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .Ratzel sympathized with the results of "manifest destiny", but he never used the term.^ The term Manifest Destiny has not been used much in the 20th century.
  • Puritan Belief 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC endtimepilgrim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This term was first used by John L. OSullivan in the Democratic Review in 1845, in a comment that brings together the twinned ideologies of Manifest Destiny and American Exceptionalism.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, by using the term Providence, he suggests more than this: he suggests that the Manifest Destiny of the United States is part of a sacred providential history, designed by God, and played out through His agents.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Instead he relied on the Frontier Theory of Frederick Jackson Turner.[40] .Ratzel promoted overseas colonies for Germany in Asia and Africa, but not an expansion into Slavic lands.^ Expanding Into Texas Extending his land speculation activities into Texas, Bowie quickly made the acquaintance of Stephen F. Austin at the San Felipe Colony in 1830.
  • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, some citizens promoted expansion as a way of incorporating other peoples into American culture, while others used it to push them out.
  • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The domestic expansion of the nation into the western territories of the North American continent was motivated by the acquisition of land, and by the control of commerce and trade routes that acquisition made possible.
  • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] Later German publicists misinterpreted Ratzel to argue for the right of the German race to expand within Europe; that notion was later incorporated into Nazi ideology.[39] Harriet Wanklyn, (1961) argues that Ratzel's theory was designed to advance science, and that politicians distorted it for political goals.[42]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The term first appeared in 1839 in the politically affiliated journal, United States Magazine and democratic Review. Although the term is generally attributed to editor John L. Sullivan, author Linda S. Hudson has argued that it was coined by writer Jane McManus Storm; Greenburg, p. 20; Hudson 2001; O'Sullivan biographer Robert D. Sampson disputes Hudson's claim for a variety of reasons (See note 7 at Sampson pp. 244–245).
  2. ^ As shown by the wide ridicule of the Alaska Purchase in 1867. By Frederick Merk, Manifest destiny and mission in American history: a reinterpretation (1995) p. 229
  3. ^ Stephanson's Manifest Destiny: American Expansionism and the Empire of Right examines the influence of Manifest Destiny in the 20th century, particularly as articulated by Woodrow Wilson and Ronald Reagan.
  4. ^ Tuveson quote, p. 91.
  5. ^ O’Sullivan, John L., A Divine Destiny for America, 1845.
  6. ^ O'Sullivan, John L. (July-August 1845). "Annexation". United States Magazine and Democratic Review 17 (1): 5–10. http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/HIS/f01/HIS202-01/Documents/OSullivan.html. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  7. ^ Howard Zinn, A people's history of the United States. 1492 - present, HarperCollins Publishers, New York,2005, p. 151.
  8. ^ Robert W. Johannsen, "The Meaning of Manifest Destiny", in Haynes.
  9. ^ McCrisken, Trevor B., Exceptionalism: Manifest Destiny (accessed 2008-05-20), in Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, Vol. 2, p. 68. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York (2002). ISBN 0-684-80657-6.
  10. ^ Weinberg, p. 145; Johannsen, p. 9.
  11. ^ Johannsen, p. 10.
  12. ^ Winthrop quote: Weinberg, p. 143; O'Sullivan's death, later discovery of phrase's origin: Stephanson, p. xii.
  13. ^ Weeks, p. 61.
  14. ^ Haynes, pp. 18–19.
  15. ^ Stuart and Weeks call this period the "Era of Manifest Destiny" and the "Age of Manifest Destiny," respectively.
  16. ^ Continental and Continentalism, sociologyindex.com.
  17. ^ Adams quoted in McDougall, p. 78.
  18. ^ McDougall, p. 74; Weinberg, p. 109.
  19. ^ a b Stuart, p. 76.
  20. ^ O'Sullivan and the U.S. view of the uprisings: Stuart, pp. 128-46.
  21. ^ O'Sullivan against intervention: Stuart p. 86; Filibusters: Stuart, ch. 6; Fenians unrelated: Stuart 249.
  22. ^ Treaty popular: Stuart, p. 104; compass quote p. 84.
  23. ^ Merk, pp. 144–47; Fuller; Thomas R. Hietala, Manifest design: American exceptionalism and Empire (2003)
  24. ^ Calhoun, John C. (1848). "Conquest of Mexico". TeachingAmericanHistory.org. http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=478. Retrieved 2007-10-19. 
  25. ^ McDougall, pp. 87–95.
  26. ^ Fuller pp. 119, 122, 162 and passim.
  27. ^ Crocker III, H. W. (2006). Don't Tread on Me. New York: Crown Forum. pp. 150. ISBN 9781400053636. 
  28. ^ Weeks, pp. 144–52.
  29. ^ Merk, p. 214.
  30. ^ Philip Fisher (1985), Hard Facts: Setting and Form in the American Novel (4, reprint ed.), Oxford University Press US, p. 26, ISBN 9780195041316, http://books.google.com/books?id=Y5msex2MZFAC 
  31. ^ Republican Party platform; context not clearly defined, Merk p. 241.
  32. ^ McKinley quoted in McDougall, pp. 112–13; "anithesis" of Manifest Destiny: Merk, p. 257.
  33. ^ Merk quote, p. 257
  34. ^ For a discussion of this question, see Gould 1980, pp. 140–142.
  35. ^ Kipling, Rudyard The White Man's Burden.
  36. ^ McKinley quoted in McDougall, p. 112; Bryan quoted in Weinberg, p. 283.
  37. ^ "Safe for democracy"; 1920 message; Wilson's version of Manifest Destiny: Weinberg, p. 471.
  38. ^ Mattelart, Armand. The Invention of Communication, pp. 212–216. University of Minnesota Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8166-2697-9
  39. ^ a b Klinghoffer, 2006, p. 86.
  40. ^ The Atlantic Monthly, January 1895, pp. 124–128. "A German Appraisal of the United States." Retrieved on October 17, 2009.
  41. ^ Woodruff D. Smith, "Friedrich Ratzel and the Origins of Lebensraum," German Studies Review, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Feb., 1980), pp. 51-68 in JSTOR
  42. ^ Harriet Wanklyn, Friedrich Ratzel: A Biographical Memoir and Bibliography (1961) pp 36-40

References

.
  • Greenberg, Amy S. Manifest Manhood and the Antebellum American Empire.^ The events of the Mexican-American War, Manifest Destiny, the Indian Wars, and the rise of the American Empire are as real today as any events in the 19th Century.
    • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums .
    • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR .
    • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

    Cambridge U. Press, 2005. 323 pp.
  • Haynes, Sam W. and Christopher Morris, eds. .Manifest Destiny and Empire: American Antebellum Expansionism.^ Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas UH Honors College .
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ By examining the different aspects of Manifest Destiny through the lens of the Texas perspective, students are able to see direct consequences of the United States westward expansion.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This book identifies the relationship between the War with Mexico and the American desire for Manifest Destiny.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-89096-756-3.
  • Hudson, Linda S. Mistress of Manifest Destiny: a biography of Jane McManus Storm Cazneau, 1807-1878 Texas State Historical Association, 2001. ISBN 978-0-87611-179-6
  • McDougall, Walter A. Promised Land, Crusader State: The American Encounter with the World Since 1776.^ The United States also felt that by putting Native Americans onto smaller tracts of land, it would be easier to try and teach and convert them to the way of life of the Americans.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The focus of the unit is Manifest Destiny in Texas.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1989.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
  • Merk, Frederick.^ Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
    • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History: A Reinterpretation.^ Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas UH Honors College .
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This term was first used by John L. OSullivan in the Democratic Review in 1845, in a comment that brings together the twinned ideologies of Manifest Destiny and American Exceptionalism.
    • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This book identifies the relationship between the War with Mexico and the American desire for Manifest Destiny.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .New York, Knopf, 1963.
  • Sampson, Robert.^ Bartolomé de las Casas: A Selection of His Writings (New York: Knopf, 1971), pp.
    • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Knopf.
    • Manifest Destiny 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC home.adm.unige.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .John L. O'Sullivan and his times Kent State University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-87338-745-3.
  • Stuart, Reginald C. United States Expansionism and British North America, 1775–1871.^ Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ United States at the time.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Mexicans, who upon their independence in 1821 had claimed the Spanish possessions in North America, and the British in Canada, who via the Hudson Bay Company had established posts in the Northwest, struggled to contain the expansion of the United States.
    • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

    Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1988. ISBN 0-8078-1767-8
  • Tuveson, Ernest Lee. Redeemer Nation: The Idea of America's Millennial Role. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.
  • Weeks, William Earl. .Building the Continental Empire: American Expansion from the Revolution to the Civil War.^ Expansionism faded in the years prior to the Civil War.
    • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This, combined with the desire to help spread American “civility,” was all it took for the United States to declare war on Mexico.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The events of the Mexican-American War, Manifest Destiny, the Indian Wars, and the rise of the American Empire are as real today as any events in the 19th Century.
    • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996. ISBN 1-56663-135-1
  • Weinberg, Albert K. Manifest Destiny: A Study of Nationalist Expansionism in American History.^ Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas UH Honors College .
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ By examining the different aspects of Manifest Destiny through the lens of the Texas perspective, students are able to see direct consequences of the United States westward expansion.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This book identifies the relationship between the War with Mexico and the American desire for Manifest Destiny.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1935.

Further reading

.
  • Brown, Charles H. Agents of Manifest Destiny: The Lives and Times of the Filibusters.^ Discuss with the class the idea that at the time, many Americans believed it was our destiny to spread across the continent and that we call this our Manifest Destiny.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The idea of Manifest Destiny was foreshadowed by some of the writings of revolutionary times.
    • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

    University of North Carolina Press, 1980. ISBN 0-8078-1361-3.
  • Burns, Edward McNall. .The American Idea of Mission: Concepts of National Purpose and Destiny.^ The concept that America, and American expansion, was endorsed by God was a totally mainstream idea at this time.
    • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Both the idea of manifest destiny and the reality of expansion showed the nature of the American character and nation and profoundly influenced their continuing development.
    • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, Manifest Destiny as an idea, as a policy and as historical fact remains one of the most controversial parts of this nation's history.
    • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

    New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1957.
  • Dunning, Mike. ."Manifest Destiny and the Trans-Mississippi South: Natural Laws and the Extension of Slavery into Mexico."^ Brack, Gene M. Mexico Views Manifest Destiny, 1821-1846: An Essay on the Origins of the Mexican War (1975).
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This book identifies the relationship between the War with Mexico and the American desire for Manifest Destiny.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Both the idea of manifest destiny and the reality of expansion showed the nature of the American character and nation and profoundly influenced their continuing development.
    • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Journal of Popular Culture 2001 35(2): 111-127. ISSN 0022-3840 Fulltext: Ebsco
  • Fresonke, Kris.^ Journal of Popular Culture 2001 35(2): 41-50.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .West of Emerson: The Design of Manifest Destiny. U. of California Press, 2003. 201 pp.
  • Gould, Lewis L. The Presidency of William McKinley 1980. Regents Press of Kansas.^ A painting of an Angel guiding settlers west; an interpretation of the idea of Manifest Destiny.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-7006-0206-2, ISBN 978-0-7006-0206-3.
  • Graebner, Norman A., ed. Manifest Destiny. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1968.
  • Fuller, John Douglas Pitts. .The movement for the acquisition of all Mexico: 1846-1848.^ The Mexican viewpoint is that the armed conflict between Mexico and the United States from 1846 to 1848 was the product of deliberate aggression and should therefore be referred to as "The U.S. War Against Mexico."
    • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Johns Hopkins Press, 1936.
  • Heidler, David S. and Jeanne T. Heidler.^ Heidler, David S., Jeanne T. Heidler.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Manifest Destiny. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2003.
  • Hietala, Thomas. .Manifest Design: American Exceptionalism and Empire, 2003. Previously published as Manifest Design: Anxious Aggrandizement in Late Jacksonian America], 1985.
  • Hofstadter, Richard.^ The events of the Mexican-American War, Manifest Destiny, the Indian Wars, and the rise of the American Empire are as real today as any events in the 19th Century.
    • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR "The American continents...are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers...
    • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums .
    • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

    ."Cuba, the Philippines, and Manifest Destiny" in The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays.^ The United States fought Mexico for several reasons: annexation of Texas to the United States, the American belief in Manifest Destiny, political instability in Mexico, and a desire for war in both countries” (Robinson 1).
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas UH Honors College .
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Brack, Gene M. Mexico Views Manifest Destiny, 1821-1846: An Essay on the Origins of the Mexican War (1975).
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .New York: Knopf, 1965.
  • Horsman, Reginald.^ Bartolomé de las Casas: A Selection of His Writings (New York: Knopf, 1971), pp.
    • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism.^ Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas UH Honors College .
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Brack, Gene M. Mexico Views Manifest Destiny, 1821-1846: An Essay on the Origins of the Mexican War (1975).
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This book identifies the relationship between the War with Mexico and the American desire for Manifest Destiny.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1981.
  • Klinghoffer, Arthur Jay. The power of projections: how maps reflect global politics and history. .Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. ISBN 0-275-99135-0
  • May, Robert E. Manifest Destiny's Underworld: Filibustering in Antebellum America.^ To those who choose to criticize it, Manifest Destiny was just more whites of European ancestry raping, pillaging and plundering the indigenous peoples of America.
    • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The champions of Manifest Destiny have been described as a "motley collection" of interest groups, motivated by varying objectives, not the least of which was greed.
    • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Manifest Destiny became the rallying cry throughout America.
    • Manifest Destiny 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .University of North Carolina Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8078-2703-7.
  • Morrison, Michael A. Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War University of North Carolina Press.^ After 4 Mexican-American wars (1836, 1843-1844, 1849-1851, 1857-1858), Mexico no longer has a presence in North America.
    • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The United States fought Mexico for several reasons: annexation of Texas to the United States, the American belief in Manifest Destiny, political instability in Mexico, and a desire for war in both countries” (Robinson 1).
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Using specific examples, such as the treatment and removal of Native Americans, the annexation of Texas, and the Mexican War as concrete illustrations of the abstract concept of Manifest Destiny, we will foster the growth of the middle-school mind.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .1997.
  • Pinheiro, John C. "'Religion Without Restriction': Anti-catholicism, All Mexico, and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo."^ The treaty was signed on February 2, 1848, in the village of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which lent its name to the document.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ From the separation of Texas to the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico defended its territory.
    • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Texas learned the price of turning on a friend on September 13, when she was forced to sign a humliating peace treaty where Mexico gained control of all but the capital of Texas...
    • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Journal of the Early Republic 2003 23(1): 69-96. ISSN 0275-1275
  • Sampson, Robert D. "The Pacifist-reform Roots of John L. O'Sullivan's Manifest Destiny" Mid-America 2002 84(1-3): 129-144. ISSN 0026-2927
  • Sampson, Robert D. John L. O'Sullivan and His Times Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2003.
  • Smith, Gene A. Thomas ap Catesby Jones: Commodore of Manifest Destiny (Library of Naval Biography Series.^ With formal hostilities over, the United States had succeeded in becoming a two-ocean country, and Manifest Destiny was now a reality.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
    • Great Films and How They Shaped American Politics: Manifest Destiny in Texas 9 February 2010 15:12 UTC hti.math.uh.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Manifest Destiny is about the United States simply being more excellent than the Mexicans and the Indians.
    • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

    ) Annapolis: Naval Inst. Press, 2000. 223 pp.
  • Stephanson, Anders. .Manifest Destiny: American Expansionism and the Empire of Right.^ Both the idea of manifest destiny and the reality of expansion showed the nature of the American character and nation and profoundly influenced their continuing development.
    • Chapter 14: Manifest Destiny | America: Narrative History 8 Full Edition: W. W. Norton StudySpace 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.wwnorton.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The events of the Mexican-American War, Manifest Destiny, the Indian Wars, and the rise of the American Empire are as real today as any events in the 19th Century.
    • MANIFEST DESTINY | Red Room 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums .
    • Manifest Destiny - An American Empire AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 18 January 2010 6:41 UTC www.europa-universalis.com [Source type: Original source]

    New York: Hill and Wang, 1995. ISBN 0-8090-1584-6

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Manifest Destiny, which are similar to those in the above article.








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