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Mannheim
View of Mannheim's Centre
View of Mannheim's Centre
Coat of arms of Mannheim
Mannheim is located in Germany
Mannheim
Coordinates 49¬į29‚Ä≤20‚Ä≥N 8¬į28‚Ä≤9‚Ä≥EÔĽŅ / ÔĽŅ49.48889¬įN 8.46917¬įEÔĽŅ / 49.48889; 8.46917
Administration
Country Germany
State Baden-W√ľrttemberg
Admin. region Karlsruhe
District urbanB
Lord Mayor Dr. Peter Kurz (SPD)
Basic statistics
Area 144.96 km2 (55.97 sq mi)
Elevation 97 m  (318 ft)
Population 311,142  (31 December 2008)
 - Density 2,146 /km2 (5,559 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate MA
Postal codes 68001‚Äď68309
Area codes +49 621
Website www.mannheim.de
Wasserturm (water tower), Mannheim's landmark.
Mannheim on the Rhine and Neckar rivers.
Aerial map of Mannheim in 1900, showing the grid layout.

Mannheim is a city in Germany. With 311,342 inhabitants it is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-W√ľrttemberg after the capital Stuttgart.

Mannheim is situated at the confluence of the rivers Rhine and Neckar, in the northwestern corner of the state of Baden-W√ľrttemberg. The Rhine separates Mannheim from the adjacent Rhineland-Palatinate city of Ludwigshafen. The Hessian border is north of the city. Mannheim is the largest city of the Rhine Neckar Area, a metropolitan area with 2.4 million inhabitants.

Mannheim is unusual among German cities in that its central area is laid out in a grid pattern (called Quadrate, squares), much like many North American cities. Accordingly, its nickname is Quadratestadt (German: for "town of the squares"). The main route through the squares leads to an enormous 18th-century palace. This former seat of the Electors of the Palatinate now houses the University of Mannheim.

Mannheim's city symbol is der Wasserturm (the water-tower), located in the east of the city centre. Mannheim is start and finish of Bertha Benz Memorial Route.

Contents

History

"Mannenheim" (Home of Manno) is first mentioned in connection with a legal transaction in 766, in the "Codex Laureshamensis" from Lorsch Abbey. It remained a village until Frederick IV, Elector Palatine initiated building the fortress Friedrichsburg and the adjacent grid-like city core in 1606. On 24 January 1607 he gave Mannheim city privileges.

The city was destroyed subsequently in the Thirty Years' War in 1622 by Tilly's troops, and in the Nine Years War for the Palatinate succession in 1689 by the French.

After the rebuilding since 1698, the capital of the Electoral Palatinate was transferred from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1720. It was then that Karl III Philip, Elector Palatine began construction of the Mannheim Palace and the Jesuit Church. They were completed in 1760.

In the 18th century, Mannheim was home to the so-called Mannheim School of classical composers. It was reputed to have one of the best court orchestras in Europe under the leadership of Carlo Grua. The court left Mannheim in 1778 and two decades later, Mannheim was transferred to the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1802.

In 1819 Norwich Duff made the following observations:

Mannheim is in the Duchy of Baden and situated at the confluence of the Rhine and Neckar over both of which there is a bridge of boats. This is the third town of this name having been twice burnt. The houses are large, and the streets broad and at right angles to each other, and is one of the most airy clean towns I have seen in Germany. It was formerly fortified but the fortifications were rased in 1806 and gardens fill their places. There is a large Chateau here belonging to the Grand Duke and a very good garden; part of the Chateau was destroyed when the town was bombarded and has never since been repaired, the other part is occupied by the Grand Duchess widow of the late Grand Duke who was succeeded by his Uncle having left only three daughters. She is the sister of Eugene Beauharnais [sic, she was in fact his second cousin]. There is a Cathedral, a Theatre which is considered good, an observatory, a gallery of pictures at the Chateau and some private collections. About 2 km (1 mile) below the town the Russian Army crossed the Rhine in 1813. Population 18 300.

Inventions

Some important inventions were made in Mannheim.

  • Karl Drais built the first two-wheeled draisine in 1817.
  • Karl Benz' first car appeared on the streets of Mannheim in 1886. At his workshop in Mannheim he produced a lightweight three-wheeled vehicle powered by a single cylinder petrol/gasoline-fueled engine, first shown in public around 1886. This powered tricycle subsequently came to be widely regarded as the original automobile/motor car.
  • The Lanz Bulldog, a popular tractor with a rugged, simple Diesel engine was introduced in 1921.
  • Julius Hatry built the world's first rocket plane in 1929.

World War II

During World War II, Mannheim (as a key industrial center) was heavily damaged by U.S. and British bombing. The inner city area was practically annihilated.

The first deliberate "terror bombing" of German civilians was the December 16, 1940 bombing of Mannheim.[1]

The city was occupied by the U.S. Army on March 29, 1945. There has been a large American military presence in the Mannheim area ever since (see United States military installations below).

In 2007, Mannheim celebrated its 400th birthday with a series of cultural and other events spread over the whole year. The 400th birthday proper was in 2006, since Frederick IV, Elector Palatine laid the foundations of the Mannheim citadel, on March 17, 1606.

Theatre

The "Nationaltheater Mannheim" was founded in 1779 and is the oldest "Stage" in Germany. In 1782 the premier of "Die Räuber" written by Friedrich Schiller was shown.

Climate


Weather data for Mannheim, Germany
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high ¬įC (¬įF) 3
(37)
5
(41)
10
(50)
14
(57)
19
(66)
22
(72)
25
(77)
24
(75)
20
(68)
14
(57)
7
(45)
5
(41)
14
(57)
Average low ¬įC (¬įF) 0
(32)
2
(36)
3
(37)
5
(41)
10
(50)
13
(55)
15
(59)
15
(59)
11
(52)
7
(45)
3
(37)
1
(34)
7
(45)
Precipitation cm (inches) 2
(0.8)
2
(0.8)
2
(0.8)
3
(1.2)
7
(2.8)
6
(2.4)
6
(2.4)
4
(1.6)
4
(1.6)
3
(1.2)
4
(1.6)
4
(1.6)
55
(21.7)
Source: Weatherbase[2] Feb 2007

Mannheim is located in Germany's warmest region, the "Rhine shift". In summer, temperatures sometimes rise up to 35 C¬į and higher. The highest recorded temperature was 41 C¬į during the 2003 European heat wave. The daily lows during that time were also very high (around 25 C¬į). In comparison to other regions of Germany, Mannheim has a higher humidity in summer which causes a higher heat index. Snow is rare, even in the cold months. Precipitation occurs mostly during afternoon thunderstorms during the warmer period (average days of thunderstorms in a year is 40-50).

Main sights

Former City Hall and Market Square
Mannheim University in the palace.
Jesuit Church.
Telecommunication tower and Luisenpark
American bison at the Tierpark
  • Fernmeldeturm Mannheim
  • Luisenpark - named one of the most beautiful parks of Europe
  • Pylon test facility Mannheim
  • Mannheim Palace (Mannheimer Schloss) - the city castle and main building of the University of Mannheim
  • Wasserturm - the town's landmark
  • Jesuit Church
  • SAP Arena - multifunctional Stadium, home of the Mannheim Ice-hockey Team "Die Adler", which means "The Eagles."
  • Breite Strasse, Kunststrasse and Kapuzinerplanken - Mannheims main shopping destination
  • International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg
  • Wildpark and Waldvogelpark am Karlstern
  • City centre, designed in squares (Quadratestadt)
  • Rei√üinsel, a nice part of nature which a former honorary citizen of Mannheim, Carl Rei√ü, bequeathed to the Mannheim habitants
  • Marktplatz (Market place), this is the square where fresh farmer's market takes place every Monday and Wednesday. Fresh fruits, veggies, and flowers can be purchased.
  • Caf√© Samo, the most beloved cafe in town (especially by the university students) where you can drink quality coffee for a very affordable price. Located at Paradeplatz, on the way to Schloss Mannheim

Industry

The successor to the Karl Benz automobile manufacturing companies begun in Mannheim, Daimler AG has had a large presence in Mannheim. Today, diesel engines and buses are assembled there. The Swiss Roche Diagnostic group (formerly known as Boehringer Mannheim) has its division headquarters in Mannheim. Additionally, the city also hosts large factories and offices of ABB, Alstom, BASF (Ludwigshafen), Bilfinger Berger, Bombardier, Fuchs Petrolub AG, John Deere, Siemens, SCA, S√ľdzucker and other companies.

United States military installations

A number of United States military installations are present in Mannheim, including the headquarters of the 5th Signal Command, the Army's telecommunications command in the European area. The following installations make up the U.S. Army Garrison Mannheim:

The following installations are part of the U.S. Army Garrison Heidelberg but are within the area of the city of Mannheim:

  • Friedrichsfeld Service Center (Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld)
  • Hammonds Barracks (Mannheim-Seckenheim)
  • Stem Kaserne (Mannheim-Seckenheim)

The long-term future of the Mannheim military community is in doubt since it was not included in U.S. Army Europe's 2004 announcement of those military communities that would remain after a long-term restructuring and downsizing of U.S. forces in Europe. The U.S. Army has already closed installations in Mannheim such as the Rhine River Patrol compound in Sandhofen (1958), Gendarmerie Kaserne in Schönau, the NATO bunker in Feudenheim and Turley Barracks in Wohlgelegen.

Transportation

Roads

Roadmap of Mannheim.

The Mannheim/Ludwigshafen area is surrounded by a ring of motorways connecting it to Frankfurt in the north, Karlsruhe in the south, Saarbr√ľcken in the west and N√ľrnberg in the east.

Railway

Mannheim Hauptbahnhof (central station) is at the end of the Mannheim-Stuttgart high-speed rail line and is the most important railway junction in the southwest of Germany, served by ICE high-speed train system with connections to Frankfurt am Main / Berlin, Karlsruhe / Basel and Stuttgart / Munich. A new high speed line to Frankfurt is also planned to relieve the existing Ried Railway (Riedbahn). Mannheim Harbour is the second largest river port in Germany.

Airports

Although Frankfurt International Airport is only 65 km north, since 2004 there have been daily passenger flights from Mannheim City Airport (IATA code MHG) to Berlin, Hamburg and Saarbr√ľcken.

Local Public Transport

Local public transport in Mannheim includes the RheinNeckar S-Bahn, eleven tram lines and numerous bus lines operated by Rhein-Neckar-Verkehr (Rhine-Neckar transport).

The RheinNeckar S-Bahn, established in 2003, connects most of the Rhine-Neckar area including lines into the Palatinate, Odenwald and southern Hesse. All S-Bahn lines run through Mannheim Hauptbahnhof. Further S-Bahn stations are at present Mannheim-Rangierbahnhof, Mannheim-Seckenheim and Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld-S√ľd.

Metre-gauge trams are operated in Mannheim, Ludwigshafen and Heidelberg by Rhein-Neckar-Verkehr GmbH (RNV), a company wholly owned by the three cities mentioned and a couple of municipalities in the Palatinate. RNV is the result of a merger on 1 October 2009 between the region's five former municipal transportation companies.[3] Interurban trams are operated by RNV on a triangular route between Mannheim, Heidelberg and Weinheim, and the company also operates interurban trams between Bad D√ľrkheim, Ludwigshafen and Mannheim. In the 1970s a proposal to build a U-Bahn out of the Mannheim and Ludwigshafen tramways was begun, but only small sections were in fact built due to lack of funds. The only underground station in Mannheim is the Haltestelle Dalbergstra√üe. U-Bahn planning has now stopped. All public transport is offered at uniform prices set by the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Neckar (Rhine-Neckar transport union, VRN).

Sport

Mannheim SAP Arena

The football Bundesliga club TSG 1899 Hoffenheim was based in Mannheim's Carl-Benz-Stadion from July until December 2008 (until the completion of its new stadium, the Rhein-Neckar-Arena), as is the 4th-division club SV Waldhof Mannheim.

The Adler Mannheim is an ice hockey team playing (formerly MERC, Mannheimer Eis- und Rollhockey Club) in the professional Deutsche Eishockey Liga, having won the championship six times.

The Rhein-Neckar-Loewen (Rhine-Neckar-Lions) is a Handball team (formerly SG Kronau-Oestringen) playing in the professional German Handball League.

The WWE visited Mannheim in 2008 and grossed over half a million dollars with over 6500 fans attending the event.

Mannheim hosted the 2007 European Show Jumping Championships[4] 14 - 19 August, in the MVV-riding stadium. This is second time the city has hosted it, it previously held the championships in 1997.

International relations

Twin towns ‚ÄĒ Sister cities

Mannheim is twinned with:

Famous people from Mannheim

References

  1. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=8J2-kzMxbKYC&pg=PA507&dq=%22Germany+and+the+Second+World+War%22+%22deliberate+terror%22+Mannheim&as_brr=3&sig=bFzGao4uHyptBHQTiDx0y1DzXWg
  2. ^ Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Mannheim, Germany, Weatherbase, 2007, http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=82701&refer=&units=metric, retrieved 2007-02-04  
  3. ^ "Press release announcing the merger to form RNV (German-language)". of 23 September 2009. http://www.rnv-online.de/rnvGips/Gips;jsessionid=D599A53604ABB5F1D24D663A7F42FD3C?SessionMandant=RNV&Anwendung=CMSTickerEintrag&Methode=ShowHTMLAusgabe&SessionMandant=&RessourceID=56833. Retrieved 2009-10-06.  
  4. ^ FEI European Jumping Championship, Mannheim

External links


Flag of Germany
Important cities and tourist sites in Germany:
Area of Heidelberg / Rhine-Neckar
Flag of Germany
Major cities: Heidelberg | Kaiserslautern | Ludwigshafen | Mannheim | Neustadt | Speyer | Worms
Other tourist sites: Bad D√ľrkheim | Bad Rappenau | Buchen | Eberbach | Edenkoben | Ladenburg | Lorsch | Mosbach | Neckargem√ľnd | Sinsheim | Weinheim | Walld√ľrn
Landscapes: Kurpfalz | Neckar river | Odenwald | Pfalz (Palatinate) | Rhine river
Nearby areas: Frankfurt | German Wine Route |Heidelberg | Karlsruhe | Palatinate Forest | Stuttgart | Trier | W√ľrzburg, see also: Alsace (F) | Lorraine (F) | Wissembourg (F)

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Mannheim [1] is a city in the northwest corner of the state of Baden-W√ľrttemberg in Germany, at the confluence of the Rhine and Neckar rivers.

Understand

The center of Mannheim is laid out like a chess board, with no real street names. Addresses in the Quadrat take the form of a grid reference, such as Q3, 12 designating a block.

Mannheim was a small fishing village before it became a city at the beginning of the 17th century. It was constructed on the site of a fortress guarding the confluence of the rivers Rhine and Neckar. Even now a few remnants of the fortification can be seen, and the peculiar street layout owes to that part of its history. For 58 years, Mannheim served as a royal residence and gave Schiller, Lessing, Goethe and Mozart a home for some time. Before World War II Mannheim was a beautiful city, but was flattened in bomb raids due to its industrial significance. When it was time to rebuild the city, Mannheim, like many other German cities, opted for an all out modern approach to urban development. Thus, most of the old quarters were replaced by buildings typical of the 1950s. If you are not an adept to architecture, their appeal might not be easy to grasp. As a result, the impression is more of an industrial city with a few spots of beauty.

Modern Mannheim is the second biggest city in Baden-W√ľrttemberg and one of the hotspots of immigration. Because of that you'll encounter a lively and colorful mixture of nationalities and cultures in the city. The Mannheim/Heidelberg area hosts the largest concentration of US military personnel in Germany, and barracks are found in many of the suburbs.

Get in and away

By plane

Transport from Frankfurt airport, to Mannheim or neighboring Ludwigshafen, is by ICE high speed train (30 minutes, 25‚ā¨), or Lufthansa Airport Shuttle bus (60 minutes, 35‚ā¨). The Lufthansa Airport Shuttle may be ticketed together with the airfare and Lufthansa (also Condor, SAS or South African Airways) passengers can have luggage checked in directly to the final destination. The shuttle arrives/departs at the front of [www.dorint.com Dorint] Kongresshotel on Friedrichsring 6 near the Water Tower (Wasserturm). The old departure near the central station no longer exists.

Since 2004 there have been daily passenger flights from Mannheim City Airport (IATA code MHG) to Berlin, Hamburg and Saarbr√ľcken.

By train

Mannheim is a regional transport hub with ICE, IC and regional trains all stopping in Mannheim Hauptbahnhof.

By bus

Mannheim is served by Eurolines (Deutche Touring) with overnight long distance services to destinations in France, UK and other neighboring countries. The bus station (ZOB) is at Heinrich-von-Stephan-Str, near the Main Station (Hauptbahnhof).

Deutche Touring also offer an inexpensive overnight bus service to Hamburg via Frankfurt and Hannover, known as ab9‚ā¨(from 9 euro).

Get around

The public transportation system is quite extensive. Bus routes cover Mannheim, and the street car system connects Mannheim to Ludwigshafen across the river, Heidelberg a few minutes away, and Weinheim, in addition to major routes across and through the city.

Water tower in winter
Water tower in winter
  • Water tower: One of the most famous icons of the Jugendstil (Arte-Nouveau style) in Germany, the water tower (and small park surrounding it) is a great place to sit in the summer for a picnic or just a little rest. The park is surrounded by the Rosengarten, a conference hall of reddish brick, and the colors on a sunny day are amazing.
  • Mannheim's Palace (part of the University of Mannheim). It is right next to the main train station.
  • Paradeplatz: the center of the city, pedestrians-only. A small park.
  • Konkordienkirche (church):
  • Luisenpark (one side is free, one side is pay)
  • Herzogenriedpark
  • Reiss-Engelhorn Museum [2]. At D5 and C5 (see above for explanation of downtown addresses), the REM houses a permanent exhibit on world cultures along with an exhibition hall whose contents range from photography to astronomy.
  • Landesmuseum f√ľr Technik und Arbeit, LTA (Museum of Technology), Museumsstra√üe 1, 0621/4298-9 [3].
  • Kunsthalle (Art Gallery), Friedrichsplatz 4 [4].

Do

The National Theater [5] has a different show almost every night (for some shows, like ballets or opera, the language barrier is not an issue). The street car stops right outside the theater, and student tickets are much reduced (5 or 15 euro).

Stay safe

The most parts of Mannheim are safe, but there are a couple of districts that have higher crime rates. Examples are Vogelstang, Neckarstadt-West, Jungbusch (night) and some others. Street crime and violence, however, are very rare, so you will be perfectly ok if you simply use your common sense. In particular, it is not dangerous at all to visit the pubs and clubs of the Jungbusch or the Neckarstadt.

Eat

Restaurantguide Mannheim

  • Mannheim is known for its many pretzel stands. Little pretzel baguettes with mozzarella and tomato are quite yum.
  • The D√∂ner is a kind of Turkish kebab found throughout Germany and is definitely worth trying! One of the most popular D√∂ner stalls is located right across the train station, called City D√∂ner. It is very common to have a D√∂ner there after partying.

Drink

Blau (german for "blue") is the favourite hangout for leftists, post-punks and alternative culture adepts. It is also here where you are likely to run into activities of the "B√ľro f√ľr angewandten Realismus" (office for applied realism), a group of artists that organise cultural events every now and then. Additionally, there are displays of their artwork in the pub. Jungbuschstrasse 14, 68059 Mannheim

The Onyx is bustling with activity almost every night after normal working hours. They offer a full bar and excellent menu for breakfast, lunch, or dinner. It is located near the Wasserturm (water tower). Typically more dressy than other hangouts. Friedrichsplatz 12, 68165 Mannheim. Tel: 0621/1286888

Café Bernstein is a nice french style Bar/Café that offers a good selection of beers and wines. They also offer a small but fine selection of lunch/dinner. Reasonable prices. Exceptional friendly staff! Bernstein is located in the Schwetzinger Vorstadt. 10 min walk from Main station. Seckenheimer Straße 58, 68167 Mannheim. Tel: 0621/4949159

SOHO Club is a small club with reasonable prices, good music and relaxed guests between 20 and 40. Music varies from night to night, see Homepage for details (http://www.soho-club.de/). SOHO Club is located on the Ring-road that begirds the inner city. Don't miss the cocktail happy hour until 11 p.m. J7,16, 68159 Mannheim. Tel: 0621/13382

Murphy's Law Website/Calendar of Eventsis a great Irish pub that serves up Boddington's and Kilkenny on tap (a rare find), in addition to the usual suspects. The pub fare is better than most, especially the Irish breakfast, chili, and fish and chips. It's usually packed on the Weekend nights with English, Irish, Welsh, Scottish and American ex pats and a few Germans (typically University students) thrown in there for local flavor. Just a hop and a skip from the main train staion. Weeknds, Fall to Spring usually feature live music. Tuesday is trivia night. Be sure to say hello to John at the end of the bar. Kaiserring 10-12 (Bahnhofvorplatz), 68161 Mannheim. Tel: 0621/1563925

You might also want to have a look at http://www.schneckenhof.de (German language), which has a detailed Nightlife guide. http://www.meier-online.de has a calendar and guide for all kinds of events and locations in Mannheim, Heidelberg and Ludwigshafen.

  • Youth hostel
  • Etap Hotel - Langlachweg 18, about 8km east.
  • ACHAT Hotel Ludwigshafen/Frankenthal, Mahlastra√üe 18 (12km northwest), [6]. 55 ‚ā¨.  edit
  • Hotel Luxa, P 5, 5-6 (direct in the center), ‚ėé +49-621-106027, [7]. checkin: 13:00-22:30; checkout: 13:00. 49 ‚ā¨. (49,487,8,470) edit

Cope

Religious services

Overview of mass times in all Catholic churches in Mannheim

  • St. Ignatius und Franz-Xaver, Jesuitenkirche, A4, 2 (15 min from central station, direction Nordwest; bus 60 to "Mensa"). [8] Sat: 18:30; Sun: 9:30, 10:30 (span.), 11:30, 18:00; Mon-Fri: 18:00
  • Hl. Geist, Moltkestr. 14 (5-8 min from central station, direction east). Sun: 11:00, 13:00 (croat.), 19:00; Tue, Thu: 18:00, Fri: 10:00
  • St. Joseph , Bellenstr. 67 (8-10 min from central station, direction south).[9] Sat: 18:45; Sun: 11:00; Tue, Fri: 19:00; Thu: 9:00
  • Bertha Benz Memorial Route - Follow the tracks of the world's first automobile journey back in 1888 (Mannheim - Pforzheim - Mannheim)
  • Ludwigshafen is right across the river.
  • Heidelberg the most famous city near Mannheim and is reachable by tram/street car (40 minutes), regional train (15 minutes) or IC (10 minutes).
  • The cathedrals at Mainz and Speyer, and the cathedral and Nibelungen bridge at Worms are all about 30 minutes away.
  • The gardens at Schwetzingen are worth seeing (about 30 minutes away by regional train)
  • Weinheim is a nice little town with the traditional red roofs and is reachable with the tram no. 5.
  • Ladenburg is a idyllic and historical town with traditional red roofs reachable with the tram no. 5.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MANNHEIM, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Baden, lying on the right bank of the Rhine, at its confluence with the Neckar, 39 m. by rail N. of Karlsruhe, io m. W. of Heidelberg and 55 m. S. of Frankfort-on-Main. Pop. (1900), 141,131; (1905), 162,607 (of whom about 70,000 are Roman Catholics and 6000 Jews). It is perhaps the most regularly built town in Germany, consisting of twelve parallel streets intersected at right angles by others, which cut it up into 136 square sections of equal size. These blocks are distinguished, after the American fashion, by letters and numerals. Except on the south side all the streets debouch on the promenade, which forms a circle round the town on the site of the old ramparts. Outside this ring are the suburbs Schwetzinger-Vorstadt to the south and Neckar-Vorstadt to the north, others being Lindenhof, Miihlau, Neckarau and Kaferthal. Mannheim is connected by a handsome bridge with Ludwigshafen, a rapidly growing bornmercial and manufacturing town on the left bank of the Rhine, in Bavarian territory. The Neckar is spanned by two bridges.

Nearly the whole of the south-west side of the town is occupied by the palace (1720-1759), formerly the residence of the elector palatine of the Rhine. It is one of the largest buildings of the kind in Germany, covering an area of 15 acres, and having a frontage of about 600 yards. It has 1500 windows. The left wing was totally destroyed by the bombardment of 1795, but has since been restored. The palace contains a picture gallery and collections of natural history and antiquities, and in front of it are two monumental fountains and a monument to the emperor William I. The large and beautiful gardens at the back form the public park of the town. Among the other prominent buildings are the theatre, the arsenal, the synagogue, the "Kaufhaus," the town-hall (Rathaus, 1771) and the observatory. A newer building is the fine municipal Festhalle with magnificent rooms. The only noteworthy churches are the Jesuit church (1737-1760), the interior of which is lavishly decorated with marble and painting; the Koncordienkirche and the Schlosskirche. In front of the theatre are statues of Schiller, August Wilhelm Ifland the actor, and Wolfgang Heribert von Dalberg (1750-1806), intendant of the theatre in the time of Schiller. Mannheim is the chief commercial town on the upper Rhine, and yields in importance to Cologne alone among the lower Rhenish towns. It stands at the head of the effective navigation on the Rhine, and is not only the largest port on the upper course of that stream, but is the principal emporium for south Germany for such commodities as cereals, coal, petroleum, timber, sugar and tobacco, with a large trade in hops, wine and other south German produce. Owing to the rapid increase in the traffic, a new harbour at the mouth of the Neckar was opened in 1898. The industries are equal in importance to the transit trade, and embrace metalworking, ironfounding and machine building, the manufacture of electric plant, celluloid, automobiles, furniture, cables and chemicals, sugar refining, cigar and tobacco making, and brewing.

Mannheim is the seat of the central board for the navigation of the Rhine, of a high court of justice, and of the grand ducal commissioner for north Baden.

History

The name of Mannheim was connected with its present site in the 8th century, when a small village belonging to the abbey of Lorsch lay in the marshy district between the Neckar and the Rhine. To the south of this village, on the Rhine, was the castle of Eicholzheim, which acquired some celebrity as the place of confinement assigned to Pope John XXIII. by the council of Constance. The history of modern Mannheim begins, however, with the opening of the 17th century, when the elector palatine Frederick IV. founded a town here, which was peopled chiefly with Protestant refugees from Holland. The strongly fortified castle which he erected at the same time had the unfortunate result of making the infant town an object of contention in the Thirty Years' War, during which it was five times taken and retaken. In 1688 Mannheim, which had in the meantime recovered from its former disasters, was captured by the French, and in 1689 it was burned down. Ten years later it was rebuilt on an extended scale, and provided with fortifications by the elector John William. For its subsequent importance it was indebted to the elector Charles Philip, who, owing to ecclesiastical disputes, transferred his residence from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1720. It remained the capital of the Palatinate for nearly sixty years, being especially flourishing under the elector Charles Theodore. In 1794 Mannheim fell into the hands of the French, and in the following year it was retaken by the Austrians after a severe bombardment, which left scarcely a single building uninjured. In 1803 it was assigned to the grand duke of Baden, who caused the fortifications to be razed. Towards the end of the r8th century Mannheim attained great celebrity in the literary world as the place where Schiller's early plays were performed for the first time. It was at Mannheim that Kotzebue was assassinated in 1819. During the revolution in Baden in 1849 the town was for a time in the hands of the insurgents, and was afterwards occupied by the Prussians.

See Feder, Geschichte der Stadt Mannheim (1875-1877, 2 vols., new ed. 1903); Pichler, Chronik des Hof-und National Theaters in Mannheim (Mannheim, 1879); Landgraf, Mannheim and Ludwigshafen (Zurich, 1890); Die wirthschaftliche Bedeutung Mannheims, published by the Mannheim Chamber of Commerce (Mannheim, 1905); the Forschungen zur Geschichte Mannheims and der Pfalz, published by the Mannheimer Altertumsverein (Leipzig, 1898); and the annual Chronik der Hauptstadt Mannheim (1901 seq.).


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