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Manuel Gómez Pedraza

In office
December 27, 1832 – April 1, 1833
Preceded by Melchor Múzquiz
Succeeded by Valentín Gómez Farías

Born April 22, 1789(1789-04-22)
Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro
Died May 14, 1851 (aged 62)
Mexico City
Nationality Mexican
Political party Moderate

Manuel Gómez Pedraza (Querétaro, April 22, 1789 – May 14, 1851 in Mexico City) was a Mexican general and president of the country from 1832 to 1833.

Born into the upper middle class, Gómez Pedraza was a student at the time of the Grito de Dolores (Cry of Independence) by Miguel Hidalgo in 1810. He enlisted in the royalist army under General Félix María Calleja del Rey, becoming a lieutenant. He fought the Mexican insurgents during the War of Independence, and contributed to the capture of José María Morelos. He was a New Spain deputy to the Spanish Parliament in 1820. In 1821, after the fall of the viceregal government, he joined with Agustín de Iturbide, who became a personal friend. Iturbide made him commander of the Mexico City garrison. Under the empire, Gómez was an antifederalist, but after the fall of Iturbide he converted to federalism.

In 1824 he was governor and military commander of Puebla. In 1825 President Guadalupe Victoria made him minister of war and the navy. He was later minister of internal and external affairs in Victoria's cabinet. He formed a political party with a diverse membership. This became the Partido Moderador (Moderate Party).

He was a candidate for president of the Republic in 1828 in opposition to Vicente Guerrero, and actually won the elections. However, on December 3, 1828 under military threat (the National Palace had been bombarded) by his adversaries, including Antonio López de Santa Anna, he renounced his victory and left the country. The election was annulled, and under the Plan de Perote, Vicente Guerrero assumed the presidency.

He returned to Veracruz in October 1830 from Bordeaux, but was immediately sent back into exile by his enemies. He then went to New Orleans, where he published a manifesto against the government of Anastasio Bustamante.

Gómez Pedraza returned to Mexico on November 5, 1832. The Plan de Zavaleta recognized him as president, and he took office on December 24, 1832 in Puebla. He entered Mexico City the following January 3, accompanied by Santa Anna. One of his first official acts was to enforce the decree of February 22, 1832 expelling the remaining Spanish citizens from the country.

Soon after being named president, he convoked the Congress, which, however, elected Santa Anna president and Valentín Gómez Farías vice-president. Because of the former's illness, Gómez Farías took office as president, on April 1, 1833, replacing Gómez Pedraza.

In 1841 Gómez Pedraza was named to Santa Anna's cabinet as minister of internal and external affairs. Also in 1841 he was a deputy to the constituent congress, and was detained when that congress was dissolved. As a federal deputy beginning in 1844 he was known for his eloquent orations. That year he spoke in the Senate against the personal dictatorship of Santa Anna.

In 1846 he became a member of the Council of Government, and the following year he returned as minister of relations, when the government was transferred to Querétaro because of the U.S. occupation of Mexico City. He was president of the Mexican Senate during the debate and approval of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo that ended the war (February 1848). He speech to the Senate on May 24, 1848 about the war with the United States has been described as "one of the most brilliant pieces of oratory in the history of the Mexican Parliament."[1]

In 1850 he ran again for president, but was defeated by General Mariano Arista. He was director of the national Monte de Piedad (pawn shop) when he died in Mexico City in 1851, refusing the last rites. The clergy did not allow his burial in sacred ground.


  1. ^ García Puron, México y sus gobernantes, v. 2, p. 22.


  • (Spanish) "Gómez Pedraza, Manuel," Enciclopedia de México, vol. 6. Mexico City, 1996, ISBN 1-56409-016-7.
  • (Spanish) García Puron, Manuel, México y sus gobernantes, v. 2. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrua, 1984.
  • (Spanish) Orozco Linares, Fernando, Gobernantes de México. Mexico City: Panorama Editorial, 1985, ISBN 968-38-0260-5.
Preceded by
Melchor Múzquiz
President of Mexico
Succeeded by
Valentín Gómez Farías

Redirecting to Manuel Gómez Pedraza


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