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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Maple Tree
Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore Maple) foliage
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae[1], or Aceraceae
Subfamily: Hippocastanoideae
Genus: Acer
L.
Species

See List of Acer species

Distribution

Acer (pronounced /ˈeɪsər/)[2] is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as Maple.

Maples are variously classified in a family of their own, the Aceraceae, or together with the Hippocastanaceae included in the family Sapindaceae. Modern classifications, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system, favour inclusion in Sapindaceae. The type species of the genus is Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore Maple).[3]

There are approximately 125 species, most of which are native to Asia,[citation needed], with a number also appearing in Europe, northern Africa, and North America.

The word Acer is derived from a Latin word meaning "sharp", referring to the characteristic points on maple leaves. It was first applied to the genus by the French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort in 1700. A red maple leaf is the prominent feature of the flag of Canada.[4]

Contents

Morphology

Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple)

Maples are mostly trees growing to 10-45 metres (30-145 ft) in height. Others are shrubs less than 10 metres tall with a number of small trunks originating at ground level. Most species are deciduous, but a few in southern Asia and the Mediterranean region are evergreen. Most are shade-tolerant when young, and are often late-successional in ecology; many of the root systems are typically dense and fibrous. A few species, notably Acer cappadocicum, frequently produce root sprouts, which can develop into clonal colonies.[3]

Acer circinatum (Vine Maple) leaves showing the palmate veining typical of most species

Maples are distinguished by opposite leaf arrangement. The leaves in most species are palmate veined and lobed, with 3-9 (rarely to 13) veins each leading to a lobe, one of which is central or apical. A small number of species differ in having palmate compound, pinnate compound, pinnate veined or unlobed leaves. Several species, including Acer griseum (Paperbark Maple), Acer mandshuricum (Manchurian Maple), Acer maximowiczianum (Nikko Maple), and Acer triflorum (Three-flowered Maple), have trifoliate leaves. One species, Acer negundo (Box-elder), has pinnately compound leaves that may be simply trifoliate or may have five, seven, or rarely nine leaflets. A few, such as Acer laevigatum (Nepal Maple) and Acer carpinifolium (Hornbeam Maple), have pinnately-veined simple leaves.

Acer rubrum (Red Maple) flowers

The flowers are regular, pentamerous, and borne in racemes, corymbs, or umbels. They have four or five sepals, four or five petals about 1–6 mm long (absent in some species), four to ten stamens about 6-10 mm long, and two pistils or a pistil with two styles. The ovary is superior and has two carpels, whose wings elongate the flowers, making it easy to tell which flowers are female. Maples flower in late winter or early spring, in most species with or just after the leaves appear, but in some before them.[5]

Acer platanoides (Norway Maple) samaras

Maple flowers are green, yellow, orange or red. Though individually small, the effect of an entire tree in flower can be striking in several species. Some maples are an early spring source of pollen and nectar for bees.

The distinctive fruit are called samaras or "maple keys". These seeds, or 'whirlybirds,' occur in distinctive pairs each containing one seed enclosed in a "nutlet" attached to a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue. They are shaped to spin as they fall and to carry the seeds a considerable distance on the wind. Children often call them "helicopters" due to the way that they spin as they fall. Seed maturation is usually in a few weeks to six months after flowering, with seed dispersal shortly after maturity. However, one tree can release hundreds of the seeds at a time. Depending on the species, the seeds can be small and green to orange and big with thicker seed pods. The green seeds are released in pairs, sometimes with the stems still connected. The yellow seeds are released individually and almost always without the stems. Most species require stratification in order to germinate, and some seeds can remain dormant in the soil for several years before germinating.[3]

The genus is subdivided by its morphology into a multitude of sections and subsections. [6]

Pests and diseases

Rhytisma acerinum fungus on Acer pseudoplatanus leaf

The leaves are used as a food plant for the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species (see List of Lepidoptera that feed on maples). Aphids are also very common sap-feeders on maples. In horticultural applications a dimethoate spray will solve this.

Maples are affected by a number of fungal diseases. Several are susceptible to Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium species, which can cause significant local mortality. Sooty bark disease, caused by Cryptostroma species, can kill trees which are under stress due to drought. Death of maples can rarely be caused by Phytophthora root rot and Ganoderma root decay. Maple leaves in late summer and autumn are commonly disfigured by "tar spot" caused by Rhytisma species and mildew caused by Uncinula species, though these diseases do not usually have an adverse effect on the trees' long-term health.[7]

Uses

Horticulture

A red Maple tree between pine trees.
Acer palmatum (Japanese Maple) has over 1,000 cultivars. This cultivar is A. palmatum 'Sango kaku', sometimes called "coralbark maple".

Maples are planted as ornamental trees by homeowners, businesses and municipalities. Acer platanoides (Norway Maple) is especially popular as it is fast-growing and extremely cold-resistant, though it is also an invasive species in some regions. Other maples, especially smaller or more unusual species, are popular as specimen trees.[3]

Cultivars

Numerous maple cultivars which have been selected for particular characteristics can be propagated only by asexual reproduction such as cuttings, tissue culture, budding or grafting. Acer palmatum (Japanese Maple) alone has over 1,000 cultivars, most selected in Japan, and many of them no longer propagated or not in cultivation in the western world. Some delicate cultivars are usually grown in pots and rarely reach heights of more than 50-100 cm. Maple is also a key wood in the construction of percussion instruments like drum kits. Some of the best drum building companies like DW (Drum Workshop) use maple extensively throughout their mid-pro range.[3]

Bonsai

Bonsai "Roter Fächerahorn"

Maples are a popular choice for the art of bonsai. Acer palmatum (Japanese Maple), Acer buergerianum (Trident Maple), Acer ginnala (Amur Maple), Acer campestre (Field Maple) and Montpellier Maple (A. monspessulanum) are popular choices and respond well to techniques that encourage leaf reduction and ramification, but most species can be used.[3]

Collections

Acer griseum is widely grown for its decorative bark

Maple collections, sometimes called aceretums, occupy space in many gardens and arboreta around the world including the "five great W's" in England: Wakehurst Place Garden, Westonbirt Arboretum, Windsor Great Park, Winkworth Arboretum and Wisley Garden. In the United States, the aceretum at the Harvard-owned Arnold Arboretum in Boston is especially notable. In the number of species and cultivars, the Esveld Aceretum in Boskoop, Netherlands is the largest in the world.[3]

Tourism

Many maples have bright autumn foliage, and many countries have leaf-watching traditions. In Japan, the custom of viewing the changing colour of maples in the autumn is called "momijigari". Nikko and Kyoto are particularly favoured destinations for this activity. In addition, in Korea, the same viewing activity is called "Danpung-Nori" and Seoraksan and Naejang-san mountains are very famous places for it.

The particularly spectacular fall colours of the Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple) are a major contributor to the seasonal landscape in southeastern Canada and in New England. Fall tourism is a boon to the economy of this region, especially in Quebec, Vermont, New Hampshire and Western Massachusetts. In the American Pacific Northwest and British Columbia it is the spectacular fall colours of Acer circinatum (Vine Maple) that draw tourists and photographers.

Commercial uses

Maples are important as source of syrup and wood. Dried wood is often used for the smoking of food. They are also cultivated as ornamental plants and have benefits for tourism and agriculture.

Maple syrup

The Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) is tapped for sap, which is then boiled to produce maple syrup or made into maple sugar or maple taffy. It takes about 40 litres of Sugar Maple sap to make a litre of syrup. Syrup can be made from closely-related species as well, but their output is inferior.

Food

The seeds are sometimes consumed after they are boiled in water to remove bitter tasting compounds and are ground up in some varieties of exotic coffee.[citation needed]

Timber

A bench made of highly-figured maple wood

Some of the larger maple species have valuable timber, particularly Sugar Maple in North America, and Sycamore Maple in Europe. Sugar Maple wood, often known as "hard maple", is the wood of choice for bowling pins, bowling alley lanes, pool cue shafts, and butcher's blocks. Maple wood is also used for the production of wooden baseball bats, though less often than ash or hickory due to the tendency of maple bats to shatter when broken. The maple bat was introduced to Major League Baseball (MLB) in 1998 by Sam Holman of Sam Bats. Today it is the standard maple bat most in use by professional baseball. [8]

Maple wood is often graded based on physical and aesthetic characteristics. The most common terminology includes the grading scale from common #2 which is unselected, and often used for craft woods, common #1 used for commercial and residential buildings, Clear, and select grade which saught out for fine woodworking. [9]


Some maple wood has a highly decorative wood grain, known as flame maple , quilt maple, birdseye maple and burl wood. This condition occurs randomly in individual trees of several species, and often cannot be detected until the wood has been sawn, though it is sometimes visible in the standing tree as a rippled pattern in the bark.

These select decorative wood pieces also have subcategories which further filter the aesthetic looks. Crotch Wood, Bees Wing, Cats Paw, Old Growth and Mottled are some terms used to describe the look of these decorative woods.[10]

Tonewood

Maple is considered a tonewood, or a wood that carries sound waves well, and is used in numerous musical instruments. Maple is harder and has a brighter sound than Mahogany, which is the other major tonewood used in instrument manufacture.[citation needed]

The back, sides, and neck of most violins, violas, cellos, double basses and many guitars are made from maple.

Electric guitar necks are commonly made from maple. The necks of the Fender Stratocaster and Telecaster were originally an entirely maple one piece neck, but later were also available with rosewood fingerboards. Maple fingerboards have a brighter sound than rosewood. The tops of Gibson's Les Paul guitars are made from carved maple. Many Les Pauls have quilted or flamed maple tops, and these models are particularly prized by players and collectors. Very few solid body guitars are made entirely from maple, as it is considered too heavy. Many guitars do, however, have maple tops or veneers. Gibson uses laminated maple in the manufacture of many of its semi-hollowbody guitars.

Maple is also often used to make bassoons and sometimes for other woodwind instruments.

Most drums are made from maple. From the 70s to the 90s, maple drum kits were a vast majority of all drum kits made. In recent years, Birch has become popular for drums once again.

Agriculture

As they are a major source of pollen in early spring before many other plants have flowered, maples are important to the survival of honeybees that play a commercially-important role later in the spring and summer.

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008 [and more or less continuously updated since]. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/.
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  3. ^ a b c d e f g van Gelderen, C. J. & van Gelderen, D. M. (1999). Maples for Gardens: A Color Encyclopedia
  4. ^ Marlatt, Craig I.W., CanadaInfo: Symbols, Facts, & Lists: Official Symbols, http://www.craigmarlatt.com/canada/symbols_facts&lists/symbols.html, retrieved 2008-10-23 
  5. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  6. ^ Classification of maples
  7. ^ Phillips, D. H. & Burdekin, D. A. (1992). Diseases of Forest and Ornamental Trees. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-49493-8.
  8. ^ Sam Holman Maple Baseball Bats
  9. ^ The Illustrated Grading Guide to American Hardwoods
  10. ^ Wood Terms and Examples

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MAPLE, in botany. The maple (0. E. mapel-treow, mapulder) and sycamore trees are species of Acer, of the order Acerineae. The genus includes about sixty species, natives of Europe, North America and Asia, especially the Himalayas, China and Japan. Maples are for the most part trees with opposite, longstalked, palmately lobed leaves. The flowers are in fascicles, appearing before the leaves as in the Norway maple, or in racemes or panicles appearing with, or later than, the leaves as in sycamore. Some of the flowers are often imperfect, the stamens or pistil being more or less aborted. The fruit is a two-winged "samara." The genus was represented in the Tertiary flora of Europe, when it extended into the polar regions; nineteen species have been recorded from the Miocene strata of Oeningen in Switzerland. The common maple, A. campestre, is the only species indigenous to Great Britain. This and the sycamore were described by Gerard in 1597 (Herball, p. 1299), the latter being "a stranger to England." Many species have been introduced, especially from Japan, for ornamental purposes. The following are more especially worthy of notice.

Acer campestre, the common maple, is common in hedgerows, but less often seen as a tree, when it is seldom more than 20 ft. high, though in sheltered situations 30 ft. or more is attained. The leaves are generally less than 2 in. across, and the five main lobes are blunter than in the sycamore. The clusters of green flowers terminate the young shoots and are erect; the two wings of the fruit spread almost horizontally, and are smaller than in the sycamore. It occurs in northern Europe, the Caucasus, and northern Asia. The wood is excellent fuel, and makes the best charcoal. It is compact, of a fine grain, sometimes beautifully veined, and takes a high polish. Hence it has been celebrated from antiquity for tables, &c. The wood of the roots is frequently knotted, and valuable for small objects of cabinet work. The young shoots, being flexible and tough, are employed in France as whips.

A. pseudo-platanus, the sycamore or great maple, is a handsome tree of quick growth, with a smooth bark. The leaves are large, with finely acute and serrated lobes, affording abundant shade. The flowers are borne in long pendulous racemes, and the two wings of the fruit are ascending. It lives from 140 to 200 years. It is found wild chiefly in wooded mountainous situations in central Europe. The wood when young is white, but old heartwood is yellow or brownish. Like the common maple it is hard and takes a high polish. It is much prized by wheelwrights, cabinet-makers, sculptors, &c., on the Continent; while knotted roots are used for inlaying. Sugar has been obtained from the sap of this as from other species, the most being one ounce from a quart of sap. The latter has also been made into wine in the Highlands of Scotland. It withstands the sea and mountain breezes better than most other timber trees, and is often planted near farm-houses and cottages in exposed localities for the sake of its dense foliage. Its wood is valued in turnery for cups, bowls and pattern blocks. It produces abundance of seeds, and is easily raised, but it requires good and tolerably dry soil; it will not thrive on stiff clays nor on dry sands or chalks. There are many varieties, the variegated and cutleaved being the most noticeable. The lobed shape of its leaf and its dense foliage caused it to be confused with the true sycamore - Ficus sycamorus - of scripture.

A. platanoides, the Norway maple, is met with from Norway to Italy, Greece, and central and south Russia. It was introduced into Britain in 1683. It is a lofty tree (from 40 to 70 ft.), resembling the sycamore, but with yellow flowers, appearing before the leaves, and more spreading wings to the fruit. There are several varieties. The wood is used for the same purposes as that of the sycamore. Sugar has been made from the sap in Norway and Sweden.

Many varieties of A. palmatum, generally known as polymorphum, with variously laciniated and more or less coloured foliage, have been introduced from Japan as ornamental shrubs. The branches and corolla are purple, the fruit woolly. The foliage of the typical form is bright green with very pointed lobes. It occurs in the central mountains of Nippon and near Nagasaki. Beautiful varieties have been introduced under the varietal names, ampelopsifolium, atropurpureum, dissectum, &c. They are remarkable for the coppery purple tint that pervades the leaves and young growths of some of the varieties. Other Japanese species are A. japonicum, the varieties of which are among the most handsome of small deciduous shrubs; A. rufinerve, with the habit of the sycamore; A. distylum, bearing leaves without lobes; A. diabolicum, with large plane-like leaves; and A. carpinifolium, with foliage resembling that of the hornbeam.

A. saccharinum, a North American species, the sugar, rock, or bird's-eye maple, was introduced in 1735. It sometimes attains to 70 or even over 100 ft., more commonly 50 to 60 ft. It is remarkable for the whiteness of the bark. The wood is white, but acquires a rosy tinge after exposure to light. The grain is fine and close, and when polished has a silky lustre. The timber is used instead of oak where the latter is scarce, and is employed for axle-trees and spokes, as well as for Windsor chairs, &c. It exhibits two accidental forms in the arrangement of the fibres, an undulated one like those of the curled maple (A. rubrum), and one of spots, which gives the name bird's-eye to the wood of this species. Like the curled maple, it is used for inlaying mahogany. It is much prized for bedsteads, writing-desks, shoe-lasts, &c. The wood forms excellent fuel and charcoal, while the ashes are rich in alkaline principles, furnishing a large proportion of the potash exported from Boston and New York. Sugar is principally extracted from this species, the sap being boiled and the syrup when reduced to a proper consistence runs into moulds to form cakes. Trees growing in low and moist situations afford the most sap but least sugar. A cold north-west wind, with frosty nights and sunny days in alternation, tends to incite the flow, which is more abundant during the day than the night. A thawing night is said to promote the flow, and it ceases during a south-west wind and at the approach of a storm; and so sensitive are the trees to aspect and climatic variations that the flow of sap on the south and east side has been noticed to be earlier than on the north and west side of the same tree. The average quantity of sap per tree is from 12 to 24 gallons in a season.

A. rubrum, the red-flowering or scarlet maple, is a middle-sized tree, and was introduced in 1656. The bright scarlet or dull red flowers appear before the leaves in March and April. The wood, like that of other species, is applicable to many purposes - as for the seats of Windsor chairs, turnery, &c. The grain in very old trees is sometimes undulated, which suggested the name of curled maple, and gives beautiful effects of light and shade on polished surfaces. The most constant use of curled maple is for the stocks of fowling-pieces and rifles, as it affords toughness and strength combined with lightness and elegance. The inner bark is dusky red. On boiling, it yields a purple colour which with sulphate of iron affords a black dye. The wood is inferior to that of the preceding species in strength and as fuel. Sugar was made from the sap by the French Canadians, but the production is only half as great as that from the sugar maple. In Britain it is cultivated as an ornamental tree, as being conspicuous for its flowers in spring, and for its red fruit and foliage in autumn.

A. macrophyllum, a north-western American species, is a valuable timber tree.

For a good account of the North American species see C. S. Sargent's Silva of North America, vol. ii. See also under Sugar.


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Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Welcome to the Maple wikibook

Maple is a computer algebra system offering many possibilities for math problems. This Wikibook, based loosely on a previous work at http://alamanya.free.fr/, aims to give all tools needed to be autonomous with this software. I personally talked with the owner of this site, and told me I could translate it for the wikibook, so there is no copyright problem. There are going to be nine lessons offered, each with a series of exercises with answers. So far, one lesson has been published. Do not hesitate to add or modify anything.

Table of Contents

  1. Getting Started100%.png
  2. More in-depth look at Maple00%.png
  3. Programming with Maple00%.png
  4. Sequences, lists, sets and tables in Maple00%.png
  5. Polynoms and rational fractions in Maple00%.png
  6. Graphic functions25%.png
  7. Using Maple in Analysis00%.png
  8. Using Maple in Linear Algebra00%.png
  9. Using Maple in Geometry00%.png
  10. Using Maple in Calculus, PDEs and ODEs25%.png
  11. Saving results of Maple calculations25%.png
  12. Practice 1: Graphing equations related to special relativity25%.png

Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to MapleStory article)

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

MapleStory
Box artwork for MapleStory.
Developer(s) Wizet, Nexon
Publisher(s) Nexon
Latest version 1.2.90 (1.2.282*)
1.72 (0.12*)
0.78 (0.36*)
0.81 (0.05*)
0.86
1.05 (0.30*)
0.71
0.59 (0.3*)
0.19
1.2.0
* Test Server
Release date(s)
 December, 2004
Genre(s) RPG
System(s) Windows
Players MMOG
Rating(s)
ESRB: Everyone 10+
System requirements (help)
CPU clock speed

1GHz

System RAM

256MiB

Disk space

1.5GiB

Network connection speed

56Kibps

Direct3D

Website http://maplestory.com/
Series MapleStory

MapleStory (Korean: 메이플스토리) is an online computer game first developed by the South Korean company Wizet in 2003. It is a side-scrolling, 2D MMORPG. It is client-based, which means that you must download the software in order to play the game. The software can be downloaded at the official MapleStory website. However, at over 1GB, it is advisable to use a download manager to download the game. MapleStory is completely free to register and play, although there is a "Cash Shop" where players can use real-world money to buy items that aren't available through the in-game currency, Mesos.

Beginners find that the game is not dark or violent, and that the environment is actually a sunny, friendly place with small snails and mushrooms as some of the monsters. Overall, gameplay is fairly simple: attack monsters, gain levels, attack stronger monsters. As players spend time in game level up, they can equip new weapons and clothes, gain more Mesos, and interact with others. Participants can also receive tasks, known as quests, from NPCs (Non Playable Characters) to earn additional rewards. MapleStory is noted for its statistic intensive planning, where one wrong allocation can set your character back a few levels, or infinitely at higher levels (the wrong choice in a skill, for example, can be completely wasted). Fortunately there are Cash Shop items to help undo the damage, but it comes with a price.

In 2009, a mobile spin-off appeared for AT&T devices: MapleStory: Warrior.
A MapleStory DS version for the Nintendo DS is currently under development. This was originally projected to be released in September 2007 but was not. MapleStory DS is scheduled to be put on the market in 2010.

Although new players may think that MapleStory is only about leveling up and hunting monsters, MapleStory is also a place to socialize. With the Maple Messenger, buddy lists, guilds, and family system, MapleStory is a typical MMORPG, where users don't always have to hunt monsters and level up; they can take a break and chat whenever and to whomever they like.

Versions

Several versions of the game are available for specific countries or regions, and each is published by various companies. There are localized versions for South Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, Thailand, South East Asia, Europe, Brazil, and Vietnam. All other players play on the Global version. Within each version are various "worlds" that characters exist in. Players may create up to fifteen characters in each world. All players are only given 3 slots in each world, to have another character, players must buy a character slot from the Cash Shop. In most versions, characters, items, and mesos are not transferable between worlds, but Global was the first version that added the ability to transfer characters between worlds with a Cash Shop item.

The following is a list of the game versions, their publishers, and their region(s) of interest:

Version Publisher Region(s) Website
MapleStory Korea (KMS) Nexon Korea maplestory.nexon.com
MapleStory Japan (JMS) Nexon Japan maplestory.nexon.co.jp
MapleStory China (CMS) Shanda China mxd.sdo.com
MapleStory Taiwan (TWMS) Gamania Taiwan tw.maplestory.gamania.com
MapleStory Thailand (TMS) AsiaSoft Thailand maple.asiasoft.co.th
MapleStory Global (GMS) Nexon North America (Global) maplestory.nexon.net
MapleSEA (MSEA) AsiaSoft Malaysia and Singapore (SEA) maple.playpark.net
MapleStory Europe (EMS) Nexon Europe maplestory.nexoneu.com
MapleStory Brazil (BMS) Level Up! Games Brazil maplestory.com.br
MapleStory Vietnam (VMS) VinaGame Vietnam ms.zing.vn

Table of Contents

Items

External links

  • BasilMarket Essentially, this site serves as an "eBay" for MapleStory. It includes price checking, multiple server search options, etc. Before bidding on an item, users can view a seller's feedback for prior auctions, and after a transaction, a user can choose to leave positive, neutral, or negative feedback.
  • Hidden-Street A Global/SEA MapleStory database, which includes an item database, guides, an active forum, etc.
  • MapleCave A Brazil MapleStory database, which includes an item database, guides, an active forum, etc.
  • MapleStory Soundtrack The complete MapleStory soundtrack from all versions of MapleStory. No longer updated.
  • MapleTip An English/Japanese database which includes an item database, guides, etc. It also has its very own wiki, known as MapleWiki.
  • Sauna A Global MapleStory database with information taken directly from the client data.
  • Sleepywood Forums Community of Maplers with acclaimed guides.
  • Perion Corner A site that provides thousands of images (and music) from MapleStory. Good for fan art, and forum signatures.
  • Maple Radio The first radio station based on MapleStory where the DJs are from GMS, EMS and MSEA. They also host a community forum.

editMapleStory series

MapleStory · MapleStory: Warrior · MapleStory DS


Simple English

This article is about the tree. For the computer program, see Maple (CAS).

Maple
File:Acer pseudoplatanus
Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore Maple) foliage
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae
Genus: Acer
L.
File:Map genus
Distribution

Maple (Latin name Acer) is a genus of trees or shrubs. Sometimes they are made a familiy of their own, the Aceraceae. At other times they are included in the Sapindaceae. To include them in the Sapindaceae is the more modern classification. There are between 100 and 200 species of Maples. Most species are native to Asia, but some also occur in Europe, Northern Africa, and North America.

The word Acer comes from a Latin word meaning "sharp". It was given because of the characteristic sharp points on the maple leaves. The first person to talk about the genus that way was French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort in 1700. The type species of the genus is Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore Maple).[1]

What are maples used for?

Maple trees are often planted as ornamental trees in cities. Some species resist the cold rather well. Maples are also grown to make Maple syrup. Some maples are grown for timber (wood that is used for furniture).

Symbolism

[[File:|thumb|Manitoba maple]] The flag of Canada shows a maple leaf.

References

Look up Acer in Wikispecies, a directory of species
  1. van Gelderen, C. J. & van Gelderen, D. M. (1999). Maples for Gardens: A Color Encyclopedia
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