|History of South Asia
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The Maratha Empire (Marathi: मराठा साम्राज्य Marāṭhā Sāmrājya; also transliterated Mahratta) or the Maratha Confederacy was a Hindu state located in present-day India. It existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire's territories covered much of South Asia.
It expanded greatly after the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, only to lose the Punjab region at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. Later, the empire was divided into a confederacy of Maratha states which eventually were lost to the British in the Anglo-Maratha wars by 1818.
After a lifetime of exploits and guerrilla warfare with Adilshah of Bijapur and Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, the local king Shivaji the Great founded an independent Maratha kingdom in 1674 with Raigad as its capital. Shivaji died in 1680, leaving a large, but vulnerably located kingdom. The Mughals invaded, fighting an unsuccessful War of 27 years from 1681 to 1707. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji, ruled as emperor until 1749. During his reign, Shahu appointed a Peshwa (prime minister) as head of government under certain conditions. After the death of Shahu, the Peshwas became the de facto leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering a large part of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during the 18th century, until dissension between the Peshwas and their sardars (or army commanders) saw a gradual downfall of the empire
The Maratha Empire was at its height in the 18th century under Shahu and the Peshwa Baji Rao I. Losses at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 suspended further expansion of the empire in the North-west and reduced the power of the Peshwas. In 1761, after severe losses in the Panipat war, the Peshwas slowly started losing the control of the kingdom. Many sardars like Shinde, Holkar, Gaikwad, PantPratinidhi, Bhosale of Nagpur, Pandit of Bhor, Patwardhan, and Newalkar started to work towards their ambition of becoming kings in their respective regions. However, under Madhavrao Peshwa, Maratha authority in North India was restored, 10 years after the battle of Panipat. After the death of Madhavrao, the empire gave way to a loose Confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five mostly Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior; the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi-independent princely states until India became independent in 1947.
The Hindu Marathas had lived in the Desh region around Pune for a long time, in the western portion of the Deccan plateau, where the plateau meets the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. They had resisted incursions into the region by the Mughal rulers of northern India. Under their leader Shivaji Maharaj, the Marathas freed themselves from the Muslim sultans of Bijapur to the southeast, and became much more aggressive, frequently raiding Mughal territory and ransacking the Mughal port of Surat in 1664. In 1674 Shivaji proclaimed himself king taking the title (Chhatrapati). By Shivaji Maharaja's death in 1680, the Marathas had expanded their territory to include some parts of central India but later lost it to the Mughals and the British. According to Indian historian Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar, Shivaji was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against Muslim invasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji . According to legend, Shivaji was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion).
Chatrapati Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was very popular among the courtiers. He was a poet, great politician and a great warrior. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as all Deccan Sultanates, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south in 1682. With his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops he proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During the eight years that followed, Sambhaji led the Marathas, never losing a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb had almost lost the battle. In early 1689, Sambhaji called his commanders for a strategic meeting at Sangameshwar to decide on the final onslaught on the Mughal forces. In a meticulously planned operation, Ganoji Shirke and Aurangzeb's commander, Mukarrab Khan attacked Sangameshwar when Sambhaji was accompanied by few of his men and was about to leave the town. A small ambush followed and Sambhaji was captured by Mughal troops on 1 Feb, 1689. He and his advisor, Kavi Kalash were taken to Bahadurgad. Sambhaji and Kavi Kalash were killed on March 11, 1689. After this the Maratha kingdom fell to Aurangzeb
Rajaram, Chattrapati Sambhaji's brother, now assumed the throne. Mughals laid siege to Raigad. Rajaram fled to Vishalgad and then to Jinji for safety. From there Marathas raided the Mughal territory and many forts were captured by Maratha commanders Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. In 1697, Rajaram offered a truce but this was rejected by the emperor. Rajaram died in 1700 at Sinhagad. His widow, Tarabai, assumed control in the name of her son Ramaraja (Shivaji II). Then Tarabai heroically led the Marathas against the Mughals; by 1705, they had crossed the Narmada River and entered Malwa, then in Mughal possession.
Malwa was a decisive battle for the Maratha empire. The Mughals lost their eminent position on the Indian subcontinent forever and the subsequent Mughal Emperors became titular kings. The Marathas emerged victorious after a long drawn-out and fiercely-fought battle. The soldiers and commanders who participated in this war achieved the real expansion of the Maratha empire. The victory also set the foundations for the imperial conquests achieved later, under the Peshwas.
After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahuji, son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Azam Shah, the next Mughal emperor under conditions which rendered him a vassal of the Mughal emperor but his mother was still held captive to ensure good behaviour from Shahuji. He immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai and her son. This promptly turned the now-spluttering Mughal-Maratha war into a three-cornered affair. The states of Satara and Kolhapur came into being in 1707, because of the succession dispute over the Maratha kingship. By 1710 two separate principalities had become an established fact, eventually confirmed by the Treaty of Warna in 1731.
In 1713 Farrukhsiyar had declared himself Mughal emperor. His bid for power had depended heavily on two brothers, known as the Saiyids, one of whom had been the governor of Allahabad and the other the governor of Patna. However, the brothers had a falling-out with the emperor. Negotiations between the Saiyids and Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, a civilian representative of Shahu, drew the Marathas into the vendetta against the emperor.
An army of Marathas commanded by Parsoji Bhosale, and Mughals, marched up to Delhi unopposed and managed to depose the emperor. In return for this help, Balaji Vishwanath managed to negotiate a substantial treaty. Shahuji would have to accept Mughal rule in the Deccan, furnish forces for the imperial army, and pay an annual tribute. But in return he received a firman, or imperial directive, guaranteeing him Swaraj, or independence, in the Maratha homeland, plus rights to chauth and sardeshmukh (amounting to 35 percent of the total revenue) throughout Gujarat, Malwa, and the now six provinces of the Mughal Deccan. This treaty also released Yesubai, Shahuji's mother, from Mughal prison.
Among the Chhatrapatis of the Maratha empire, Shahu Maharaj controlled the largest territory, with the help of his renowned sardars, namely Raghuji Bhonsale Nagpurkar, Shinde, Bajirao Bhat Peshwe, Bhaskar Ram, Holkar, Gaikwad, Nanasaheb Peshwe. He had in possession large parts of present day India including (present day region names:) Maharashtra, Karnataka, Vidarbha, Gujarat, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Tamil Nadu up to Tanjavur (Tanjore), Orissa, Jharkhand, Bihar (where he had Chauthai rights), West Bengal along with East Bengal up to Chittagong (where he had chauthai & sardeshmukhi rights). Marwar and Punjab weren't under the rule of Shahuji because he had friendly relations with their rulers as they were sovereign Hindu emperors. The same applied to the less prominent kings of Kerala. Chhatrapati Shahu didn't rule the following states unofficially, namely Delhi, Agra, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir as the Mughuls were prominent in these areas. Otherwise, the rest of India, including East Bengal (present day Bangladesh), was part of the Maratha empire.
|Maratha Emperors (1674-1818)|
|Shivaji||(1674 - 1680)|
|Sambhaji||(1680 - 1689)|
|Rajaram||(1689 - 1700)|
|Queen Tarabai||(1700 - 1707)|
|Shahu||(1707 - 1749)|
|Ramaraja||(1749 - 1777)|
|The Peshwas (Prime Ministers) (1712-1818)|
Ramchandra Pant Amatya Bawdekar was a court administrator who rose from the ranks of a local Kulkarni to the ranks of Ashtapradhan under guidance and support of Shivaji. He was one of the prominent Peshwas from the time of Shivaji, prior to the rise of the later Peshwas who controlled the empire after Shahuji.
When Chhatrapati Rajaram fled to Jinji in 1689 leaving Maratha empire, he gave a "Hukumat Panha" (King Status) to Pant before leaving. Ramchandra Pant managed the entire state under many challenges like influx of Mughals, betrayal from Vatandars (local satraps under the Maratha kingdom) and social challenges like scarcity of food. With the help of Pantpratinidhi, Sachiv, he kept the economic condition of Maratha empire in an appropriate state. He received military help from the Maratha commanders - Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. On many occasions he himself participated in battles against Mughals and played the role of shadow king in absence of Chhatrapati Rajaram.
In 1698, he happily stepped down from the post of "Hukumat Panha" when Rajaram offered this post to his wife, Tarabai. Tarabai gave an important position to Pant among senior administrators of Maratha State. He wrote "Adnyapatra" (मराठी आज्ञापञ) in which he has explained different techniques of war, maintenance of forts and administration etc. But owing to his loyalty to Tarabai against Shahuji (who was supported by more local satraps), he was sidelined after arrival of Shahuji in 1707. The post of the Peshwa was given to Balaji Vishwanath in 1713. Ramchandra Pant died in 1716 on Panhala fort.
After Balaji Vishwanath's death in April, 1719, his son, Baji Rao I was appointed as Peshwa by Chattrapati Shahuji, one of the most liberal emperors. Shahuji possessed a strong capacity for recognising talent, and actually caused a social revolution by bringing capable people into power irrespective of their social status. This was an indication of a great social mobility within the Maratha empire, enabling its rapid expansion.
Shrimant Baji Rao Vishwanath Bhatt (August 18, 1699- April 25, 1740), also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (Emperor) Shahu between 1719 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorala (Marathi for Elder) Baji Rao. Like his father, despite being a Brahmin, he took up leading his troops. During his lifetime, he never lost a battle. He is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire that reached its zenith twenty years after his death. Baji Rao is thus acknowledged as the most famous of the nine Peshwas.
Baji Rao's son, Balaji Bajirao (Nanasaheb), was appointed as a Peshwa by Shahuji. The period between 1741 and 1745 was one of comparative calm in the Deccan. Shahuji died in 1749. Nanasaheb encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers, and brought about a marked improvement in the state of the territory. Continued expansion saw Raghunath Rao, the brother of Nanasaheb, pushing into in the wake of the Afghan withdrawal after Ahmed Shah Abdali's plunder of Delhi in 1756. In Lahore, as in Delhi, the Marathas were now major players. By 1760, with defeat of the Nizam in the Deccan, Maratha power had reached its zenith with a territory of 2,800,000 km² (1,081,086 sq mi) of the Indian sub-continent.
The Peshwa sent an army to challenge the Afghan led alliance of small Indian Muslim rulers that included Rohillas, Shuja-ud-daula, Najib-ud-daula. The Maratha army was decisively defeated on January 14, 1761 at the Third Battle of Panipat. The defeat at Paniput checked Maratha expansion towards Northwest and fragmented the empire. After the battle, the Maratha Confederacy never fought again as one unit.
The Marathas had antagonised the Jats and Rajputs by taxing them heavily, punishing them after defeating the Mughals and interfering in their internal affairs. The Marathas were abandoned by Raja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur and the Rajputs who quit the Maratha alliance at Agra before the start of the great battle and withdrew their troops, as the arrogant and over-confident Maratha general Sadashivrao Bhau did not heed the advice to leave soldiers' families (women and children) and pilgrims at Agra and not take them to the battle field with the soldiers, rejected their cooperation, insulted them and even tried to arrest them. Their supply chains (earlier assured by Raja Suraj Mal and Rajputs before they were insulted by the Marathas) did not exist, they lost the cooperation of the local populace and they foolishly spread their troops thin trying to pursue the enemy on both sides of river Yamuna leading to killing of their general, Govind Pant Bundela, near Meerut. The Afghans on the other side (left bank) of Yamuna backtracked from south and encircled the Marathas from rear. The encircled Marathas attacked the Afghans in an act of desperation as their forces had not had a meal in three days and were thoroughly annihilated. Ten of thousands of Maratha women were captured by Afghans as slaves.
After 1761, young Madhavrao Peshwa tried his best to rebuild the empire in spite of his frail health and reinstated the Maratha authority over North India, 10 years after the battle of Panipat. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, semi-autonomy was given to strongest of the knights. Thus, the autonomous Maratha states came into being in far flung regions of the empire:
In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (also called Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty.
The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well.
The last Peshwa, Nana Sahib, born as Govind Dhondu Pant, was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. He was one of the main leaders of the 1857 battles against British rule. He encouraged the people and the Indian Princes to fight against the British. Tantya Tope, his general, led the war and struck terror into the hearts of the British. Rani Lakshmibai was his childhood playmate and he had brotherly relations with her. Both of them fought against the British. He encouraged Indian soldiers to rise against the British. Though he was defeated in this war of independence he is viewed as a glorious patriot in Indian history.
Today the spirit of the Maratha Empire is preserved in the Indian state of Maharashtra (meaning "Great Nation") which was created in 1960 as a Marathi-speaking state in Republic of India. The territories of Baroda were combined with Kutch to form the state of Gujarat. Gwalior, Jhansi and Indore were merged with Madhya Pradesh. Vestiges of Maratha control over Delhi can still be found in Old Delhi in area surrounding the "Nutan Marathi" school and Maharashtra Bhavan.
Often painted as a kind of loose military organization, the Maratha empire was actually revolutionary in nature. It brought certain fundamental changes initiated by its founder, Shivaji. They can be summarized as below:
See also Bhosale family ancestry