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Marcian
Emperor of the
Eastern Roman Empire
Solidus Marcian RIC 0509.jpg
Solidus of Marcian celebrating his victories.
Reign 450 - 457
Full name Flavius Marcianus
Born 396
Birthplace Illyricum
Died January 457 (aged 60)
Predecessor Theodosius II
Successor Leo I
Wife Pulcheria
Offspring Marcia Euphemia
Column of Marcian (Turkish: Kıztaşı) in the Fatih district of Istanbul (Constantinople) inside the historic city walls

Flavius Marcianus, known in English as Marcian, (396 – January 457) was the emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire from 450 until his death. Marcian's rule marked a recovery of the Eastern Empire, which the emperor protected from external menaces and reformed economically and financially. On the other side, the isolationistic policies of Marcian left the Western Roman Empire without help against barbarian attacks, which materialized in the Italian campaigns of Attila and in the Vandal sack of Rome (455).

Contents

Rise to power

Marcian was born in Illyricum. He spent his early life as an obscure soldier. He subsequently served for nineteen years under Ardaburius and Aspar, and took part in the wars against the Persians and Vandals. In 431, Marcian was taken prisoner by the Vandals in the fighting near Hippo Regius; brought before the Vandal King Geiseric (428–477), he was released on his oath never to take up arms against the Vandals.

Through the influence of these generals he became a captain of the guards, and was later raised to the rank of tribune and senator. On the death of Theodosius II (408–450) he was chosen as consort by the latter's sister and successor, Pulcheria, and called upon to govern an empire greatly humbled and impoverished by the ravages of the Huns.

Rule

Upon becoming emperor, Marcian repudiated the embarrassing payments of tribute to Attila the Hun (434–453), which the latter had been accustomed to receiving from Theodosius II in order to refrain from attacks on the eastern empire. Aware that he could never capture the eastern capital of Constantinople, Attila turned to the west and waged his famous campaigns in Gaul 451 and Italy (452) while leaving Marcian's dominions alone.

Marcian reformed the finances, checked extravagance, and repopulated the devastated districts. He repelled attacks upon Syria and Egypt (452), and quelled disturbances on the Armenian frontier (456). The other notable event of his reign is the Council of Chalcedon (451), in which Marcian endeavoured to mediate between the rival schools of theology.

The 5th century Column of Marcian displays a "chi-rho" inside a wreath.

Marcian generally ignored the affairs of the Western Roman Empire, leaving that tottering half of the empire to its fate. He did nothing to aid the west during Attila's campaigns, and, living up to his promise, ignored the depredations of Geiseric even when the Vandals sacked Rome in 455. It has recently been argued, however, that Marcian was more actively involved in aiding the western Empire than historians had previously believed and that Marcian's fingerprints can be discerned in the events leading up to, and including, Attila's death.[1]

Shortly before Attila's death in 453, conflict had begun again between him and Marcian. However, the powerful Hun king died before all-out war broke out. In a dream, Marcian claimed he saw Attila's bow broken before him, and a few days later, he got word that his great enemy was dead.

Marcian died in 457 of disease, possibly gangrene contracted during a long religious journey. Despite his short reign and his writing off of the west Marcian is considered one of the best of the early Eastern Roman emperors. The Eastern Orthodox Church recognizes him and his wife Pulcheria as saints, with their feast day on February 17.

Marriages

Marcia Euphemia was the only known daughter of Marcian, Eastern Roman Emperor. The identity of her mother is unknown. [2] [3][4]

Pulcheria was his second wife. Pulcheria had taken a religious vow of chastity. The second marriage was a mere political alliance, establishing Marcian as a member of the Theodosian dynasty by marriage. The marriage of Marcian to Pulcheria was never consummated, consequently Euphemia never had younger half-siblings.[5][6]

Depiction in Fiction

Marcian was played by the Hollywood star Jeff Chandler in the film Sign of the Pagan (1954).

References

External links

Marcian
Born: c. 390 Died: January 457
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Theodosius II
Roman Emperor
450-457
Succeeded by
Leo I
Political offices
Preceded by
Imp. Caesar Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VII,
Gennadius Avienus
Consul of the Roman Empire
451
with Valerius Faltonius Adelfius
Succeeded by
Flavius Bassus Herculanus,
Flavius Sporacius
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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