Margaret II, Countess of Hainault: Wikis

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Margaret II, Countess of Hainault
Countess of Hainaut
Tenure 1345–1356
Queen consort of Germany
Tenure 1324–1347
Holy Roman Empress
Tenure 1328–1347
Spouse Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Issue
Margaret, Duchess of Slovania
Anna, Duchess of Bavaria
Louis VI the Roman
Elisabeth, Countess of Württemberg
William V, Count of Holland
Agnes of Bavaria
Albert of Holland
Otto V the Bavarian
Beatrix, Queen of Sweden
House House of Wittelsbach (by marriage)
House of Avesnes (by birth)
Father William I, Count of Hainaut
Mother Jeanne of Valois
Born 1311
Died 23 June 1356 (aged 44-45)

Margaret II of Avesnes (1311 – 23 June 1356) was Countess of Hainaut and Countess of Holland (as Margaret I) from 1345 to 1356. Margaret was the daughter of William I, Count of Hainaut and his wife, Jeanne of Valois. On 26 February 1324 in Cologne she married Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian.

Contents

Biography

She succeeded in 1345 her brother William IV following his death in battle: The emperor was conferring Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland upon his wife, and shortly later also upon their son William V. The hereditary titles of Margaret's sisters, including Philippa of Hainaut who was Queen consort of Edward III of England, were ignored. Due to the dangerous hostility of the House of Luxemburg Louis had increased his power base ruthlessly. Margaret then returned to Holland in 1346 to secure her position of power but did not manage to prevent the coronation of the Luxemburg Charles IV as anti-king in Aix-la-Chapelle by force.

When Louis IV died on 11 October 1347, he was succeeded by his six sons. In 1349 the brothers decided to partition their possessions; Louis V, Duke of Bavaria kept Brandenburg and Tyrol, he and his younger brothers Louis VI the Roman and Otto V the Bavarian received Upper Bavaria. Stephen II, William and Albert received Lower Bavaria, Holland and Hainaut. Louis V and Stephen were no sons of Margaret and her youngest sons Albert and Otto were still minors. Louis VI released Holland and Hainaut for his brothers William and Albert in 1349 since he expected the Polish crown by his marriage with Cunigunde of Poland. In 1353 also Stephen released Holland and Hainault to his brother William.

Also Margaret had resigned her sovereignty in favour of her son William. In 1350, the nobles of Holland asked Margaret to return to Holland again. She then battled for the power in Holland and Hainaut for some years with her son William who had refussed to pay her alimony. The Cod league was formed in 23 May 1350 by a number of supporters of William. On 5 September of the same year, the Hook league was formed. Soon afterward, these factions clashed, and a civil war began.

Edward III of England, Margaret's brother-in-law through her sister Philippa of Hainault, came to her aid, winning a naval engagement off Veere in 1351; a few weeks later the Hooks and their English allies were defeated by William and the Cods at Vlaardingen, an overthrow which ruined Margaret's cause. Edward III shortly afterwards changed sides, and the empress saw herself compelled (1354) to come to an understanding with her son, he being recognized as count of Holland and Zeeland, she of Hainaut. Margaret died two years later, leaving William, in possession of the entire Holland-Hainaut inheritance (July 1356). William was married to Matilda ("Maud" in the English style) of Lancaster, sister to Blanche of Lancaster.

Family and children

Coats of Arms of the Counts of Hainaut and Holland.

In 1324 she married Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor. Their children were:

  1. Margarete (1325–1374), married:
    1. in 1351 in Ofen Stephen, Duke of Slavonia (d. 1354) and had issue;
    2. 1357/58 Gerlach von Hohenlohe.
  2. Anna (c. 1326 – 3 June 1361, Fontenelles) married John I of Lower Bavaria (d. 1340)
  3. Louis VI the Roman (1328–1365), duke of Upper Bavaria, elector of Brandenburg. No issue.
  4. Elisabeth (1329 – 2 August 1402, Stuttgart), married with:
    1. Cangrande II della Scala, Lord of Verona (d. 1359) in Verona on 22 November 1350;
    2. Count Ulrich of Württemberg (d. 1388) in 1362.
  5. William V of Holland (1330–1389), as William I duke of Lower Bavaria, as Wiliam V count of Hainaut and Holland
  6. Agnes (Munich, 1335 – 11 November 1352, Munich)
  7. Albert I of Holland (1336–1404), duke of Lower Bavaria, count of Hainaut and Holland
  8. Otto V the Bavarian (1340–1379), duke of Upper Bavaria, elector of Brandenburg
  9. Beatrix of Bavaria (1344 – 25 December 1359), married bef. 25 October 1356 Eric XII of Sweden
  10. Louis (October 1347 – 1348)

Ancestry

See also

Preceded by
William IV
Countess of Hainaut Hainaut Modern Arms.svg
1345–1356
Succeeded by
William V
Countess of Holland Counts of Holland Arms.svg and Zeeland Coatofarmszeeland.PNG
1345–1354
Preceded by
Duchess consort of Bavaria
1341–1347
Succeeded by
Margarete Maultasch jointly with Elizabetta of Sicily, Kunigunde of Poland, Margaret of Brieg, Katharine of Bohemia
Preceded by
Beatrix von Silesia-Glogau
Countess (consort) Palatine of the Rhine
1324–1329
Succeeded by
Anna von Kärnten-Tirol
Preceded by
'Vacant
Title last held by
Bianca Lancia (possibly)
Isabella of England (definitely)'
Empress of the Holy Roman Empire
1328–1347
Succeeded by
Anna von Schweidnitz
Preceded by
Beatrix von Silesia-Glogau and Isabel of Aragon
German Queen
1324–1328 jointly with Isabel of Aragon

1324–1347
Succeeded by
Blanche of Valois
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