Maribor: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Maribor
—  City  —
Center of Maribor

Flag

Seal
Location of the Municipality of Maribor
Maribor is located in Slovenia
Maribor
Location of the city of Maribor in Slovenia
Coordinates: 46°33′N 15°39′E / 46.55°N 15.65°E / 46.55; 15.65
Country  Slovenia
Municipality Maribor
Government
 - Mayor Franc Kangler
Area
 - City 57 sq mi (147.5 km2)
Population (17.05.2007)
 - Urban 140.000
 - Metro 230.000
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Post code 2000
Area code(s) 02
Average age 40.81 years
Residential areas 28.82 m2 (310.2 sq ft)/person
Households 43,900
Families 32,685
Website Official site
Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, census of 2002.

Maribor (German: Marburg an der Drau) is the second largest city in Slovenia, with 106,308 inhabitants as of 2008.[1] Maribor lies on the river Drava at the meeting point of the Pohorje mountain, the Drava Valley, the Drava Plain, and the Kozjak and Slovenske gorice hill ranges. Maribor's coat of arms features a white dove flying downwards above a white castle with two towers and a portcullis on a red shield.

Maribor is also the seat of the Urban Municipality of Maribor, which has 140.000 inhabitants as of 2007 [2], and the center of the Slovenian region of Lower Styria and its largest city. Maribor Airport is the second largest international airport in Slovenia.

Contents

History

Middle age Maribor
Maribor City Hall
Lent - the oldest part of Maribor
Franciscan Church

In 1164 a castle known as the Marchburch (Middle High German for "March Castle") was documented in Styria. It was first built on Piramida Hill, just above the city. Maribor was first mentioned as a market near the castle in 1204, and received town privileges in 1254. It began to grow rapidly after the victory of Rudolf I of Habsburg over Otakar II of Bohemia in 1278. Maribor withstood sieges by Matthias Corvinus in 1480 and 1481 and by the Ottoman Empire in 1532 and 1683, and the city remained under the control of the Habsburg Monarchy until 1918. Maribor, previously in the Catholic Diocese of Graz-Seckau, became part of the Diocese of Lavant on 1 June 1859, and the seat of its Prince-Bishop. The name of the diocese (the name of a river in Carinthia flowing into the Drava at the Slovenian village of Dravograd) was changed to the Diocese of Maribor on 5 March 1962. It was elevated to an archdiocese by Pope Benedict XVI on 7 April 2006.

Before the First World War, the city had a population of 80% Germans and 20% Slovenes, and most of the city's capital and public life was in German control. Therefore, it was mainly known by its German name Marburg an der Drau. According to the last Austro-Hungarian census in 1910, Maribor and the suburbs Studenci (Brunndorf), Pobrežje (Pobersch), Tezno (Thesen), Radvanje (Rothwein), Krčevina (Kartschowin), and Košaki (Leitersberg) were composed of 31,995 Germans (including Jews) and 6,151 ethnic Slovenes. The wider surrounding area was populated almost exclusively by Slovenes, although many Germans lived in smaller towns like Ptuj.

During World War I, many Slovenes in Carinthia and Styria were detained for allegedly being enemies of the Austrian Empire, which led to further conflicts between German Austrians and Slovenes. After the collapse of Austria-Hungary, Maribor was claimed by both the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and by German Austria. On 1 November 1918, a meeting was held by Colonel Anton Holik in Melje's barracks, where it was determined the city would be part of German Austria. Ethnic Slovene major Rudolf Maister, who was present at the meeting, renounced the decision. He was awarded the rank of General[3] by the National Council for (Slovenian) Styria on the same day and organized Slovenian military units in Maribor to successfully take control of the city. All German soldiers and officers were demobilized and sent home to new German Austria. The city council held a secret meeting where a decision was taken to do whatever possible to gain Maribor for German Austria. They organized a military unit, the so-called Green Guard (Schutzwehr). The approximately 400 well-armed soldiers of this ethnic German-Austrian unit threatened pro-Slovenian and pro-Yugoslav major Maister, leading the Slovenian troops to disarm them in the early morning of 23 November. Thereafter there was no real threat to the authority of Maister in the city.

On 27 January 1919, Germans awaiting the United States peace delegation at the city's marketplace were taken under fire by Slovenian troops which feared this crowd of thousands of ethnic German citizens. Nine people were killed and more than eighteen were seriously wounded;[4] who was responsible for the shooting has not been conclusively established. German sources accused Maister's troops of shooting without cause, while Slovene witnesses, such as Dr. Maks Pohar, claimed that the Germans attacked Slovenian soldiers guarding the Maribor city hall. Anyway, the killed Germans had been unarmed. German media called the incident Marburg's Bloody Sunday.

Since Maribor was firmly in the hands of the Slovenian forces and encircled with completely Slovenian territory, it was recognized as part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes without a plebiscite in the Treaty of Saint-Germain of September 1919 between the victors of WWI and German Austria.

After 1918, many of Maribor's Germans emigrated from the Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs into Austria, especially German-speaking officials who did not originate from the region. German schools, clubs, and organisations were closed in the new state of Yugoslavia, although ethnic Germans still made up more than 25% of the city's total population in the 1930s. A policy of cultural assimilation was pursued in Yugoslavia against the German minority in response to the Germanization policy of Austria against its Slovene minority in Carinthia. However, in the late 1930s this policy was abandoned and German minority's position improved significantly in order to gain better diplomatic relations with Nazi Germany.

In 1941, Lower Styria, the Yugoslav part of Styria, was annexed by Nazi Germany. In late April Adolf Hitler, who encouraged his followers to "make this land German again," visited Maribor where a grand reception was organized by local Germans in the city castle. Immediately after the occupation, Nazi Germany began mass expulsions of Slovenes to the Independent State of Croatia, Serbia, and later on to the concentration and work camps in Germany. The Nazi goal was to exterminate or Germanize the Slovene population of Lower Styria after the war. Many patriots were taken hostages and later shot in the prisons of Maribor and Graz. This led to organized partisans resistance. The city, a major industrial center with extensive armaments industry, was systematically bombed by the Allies in the last years of World War II. Many local Germans were involved in crimes against local Slovenes; the remaining German population, except those that actively collaborated with the resistance during the war, was summarily expelled after the end of the war in 1945. The Slovenian members of the Slovenian Home Guard, which had fought in alliance with Nazi German forces against the Yugoslav partisans, were rounded up and many of them summarily executed.

After the liberation, Maribor capitalized on its proximity to Austria as well as its skilled workforce, and developed into a major transit and cultural center of Northern Slovenia and the biggest industrial city in Yugoslavia, – enabled by Tito's decision not to build an Iron Curtain at the borders towards Austria and Italy and to provide passports to the citizens.

When Slovenia seceded from Yugoslavia in 1991, the loss of the Yugoslav market severely strained the city's economy which was based on heavy industry, resulting in record levels of unemployment of almost 25%. The situation has improved since the mid-1990s with the development of small and medium sized businesses and industry. So now Maribor has overcome the industry crisis and is looking forward to shinier days. Slovenia entered the European Union in 2004, introduced the Euro currency in 2007 and joined the Schengen treaty; accordingly all border controls between Slovenia and Austria ceased at Christmas of 2007.

Unemployment was 11.5% (ILO: 7.8%) in June 2007.

Revolution Square


Contemporary Maribor

Maribor at night

Popular tourist sites in Maribor include the 12th century cathedral in the Gothic style and the town hall constructed in the Renaissance fashion. The castle dates from the 15th century.

The city hosts the University of Maribor, established in 1975,[5] and many other schools. It is also home to the oldest grapevine in the world, called Stara trta,[6] which is more than 400 years old.

Maribor is hometown of NK Maribor,[7] a Slovenian football team. They participated in the UEFA Champions League in the 1999-2000 season.

Every January, the skiing centre of Mariborsko Pohorje,[8] situated on the outskirts of the city on the slopes of the Pohorje mountain range, hosts women's slalom and giant slalom races for the Alpine Skiing World Cup known as Zlata lisica (The Golden Fox). Every June, the two-week Festival Lent[9] (named after the waterfront district called Lent) is held, with hundreds of musical, theatrical and other events.

Maribor was named as an Alpine city in 2000 and chosen as European Capital of Culture 2012 alongside with Guimarães, Portugal. Maribor will be the host city of the 2013 Winter Universiade.


Demography

Population Development[10]

1991 1996 2002 2004 2007
119.828 116.147 110.668 112.558 119.071


City Districts

The city districts (Slovene: mestne četrti)

City districts and other parts of the municipality of Maribor

The city of Maribor has 12 districst as listed below, but the whole Municipality of Maribor also includes Kamnica, Pekre, Limbuš, Razvanje, Malečnik-Ruperče and Brestrenica-Gaj. The river Drava divides the districts Center, Koroška Vrata, Melje and Ivan Cankar from the other districts of the city. They are all very good connected with 4 traffic bridges, 1 train bridge and 1 pedestrian bridge.

No. District
1. Center
2. Koroška vrata
3. Melje
4. Ivan Cankar
5. Magdalena
6. Tabor
7. Studenci
8. Pobrežje
9. Nova Vas
10. Tezno
11. Brezje - Dogoše - Zrkovci
12. Radvanje



Climate

Weather data for Maribor
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.4
(60)
21.5
(71)
24.5
(76)
28.0
(82)
30.9
(88)
34.7
(94)
34.2
(94)
36.8
(98)
29.9
(86)
26.2
(79)
20.5
(69)
15.8
(60)
36.8
(98)
Average high °C (°F) 4.3
(40)
7.9
(46)
11.7
(53)
16.3
(61)
21.2
(70)
24.4
(76)
26.3
(79)
26.6
(80)
21.4
(71)
15.4
(60)
8.8
(48)
3.9
(39)
15.7
(60)
Average low °C (°F) -2.9
(27)
-2.3
(28)
1.9
(35)
5.9
(43)
10.4
(51)
13.9
(57)
15.6
(60)
15.8
(60)
11.4
(53)
6.9
(44)
2.2
(36)
-2.3
(28)
6.4
(44)
Record low °C (°F) -16.0
(3)
-15.7
(4)
-8.2
(17)
-3.1
(26)
3.0
(37)
4.6
(40)
8.1
(47)
5.5
(42)
1.0
(34)
-4.0
(25)
-11.0
(12)
-17.1
(1)
-17.1
(1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 30
(1.18)
34
(1.34)
54
(2.13)
68
(2.68)
97
(3.82)
123
(4.84)
116
(4.57)
118
(4.65)
100
(3.94)
116
(4.57)
107
(4.21)
84
(3.31)
1,047
(41.22)
Avg. precipitation days 5.1 3.3 6.6 8.0 10.7 10.2 10.0 9.1 8.2 8.2 9.4 8.0 96.8
Source: http://www.arso.gov.si/vreme/napovedi%20in%20podatki/podneb_10_tabele.html {{{accessdate}}}


Panorama of Maribor center


Famous natives and residents

List of notable individuals who were born or lived in Maribor:

Picture gallery

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Maribor is twinned with:

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Maribor Municipality site
  3. ^ Maister's rank of General was recognized by the Ministry of Defence of the National Government of SHS on 14 December 1918; published in Official Journal No. 1.
  4. ^ The German Wikipedia gives the figures of 13 killed and more than 60 wounded.
  5. ^ Univeristy of Maribor site.
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ Official website of NK Maribor
  8. ^ Official website of Mariborsko Pohorje
  9. ^ Festival Lent website
  10. ^ [3]
  11. ^ "Twin Towns - Graz Online - English Version". www.graz.at. http://www.graz.at/cms/beitrag/10045157/606819/. Retrieved 2010-01-05.  

External links

Coordinates: 46°33′N 15°39′E / 46.55°N 15.65°E / 46.55; 15.65


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

The centre of Maribor
The centre of Maribor

Maribor, the second most important centre and the second largest city of Slovenia. It has about 114.000 inhabitants who live embraced in its wine growing hills and Mariborsko Pohorje. Located near Slovenian border with Austria, beside the Drava River and at the centre of five natural geographic regions.

Phone: The local area code is (0)2. The country code for Slovenia is +386. Internet TLD .si.

Understand

Maribor was first mentioned back in the 12th century. Though the city had been attacked by the Turks several times, it was constantly under the rule of the Austrian Habsburgs until the end of the World War I. After the war was over the city was claimed by both the Austrians and by the new state of Yugoslavia. Finally it fell to Yugoslavia. It was occupied by the Germans during World War II but became part of Yugoslavia again after the war was over. After Slovenia declared independence, back in 1991, the city suffered from the economic consequences. In 1975 the University of Maribor was founded and this has helped the city to become more and more an attractive, vibrant, student city. Maribor is now a trans-regional financial, educational, trade and cultural centre and grows as a tourist destination.

Get in

By car

Take road A1/E57 from Ljubljana. (about an hour). Arriving from Austria, take A9 and take road E57 and E59 then. Maribor is located only a few minutes away from the Austrian border. If you are in Zagreb take road 1/E59 (about 2 hours). There is no direct connection to Italy, so it takes about 2 and a half hour to get to Maribor from there.

By train

Maribor has direct connections with Ljubljana, Graz, Vienna, Zagreb, Rijeka, and Prague.

By plane

Maribor has an international airport, served only by seasonal flights to Priština (Kosovo).

Nearby airports include Graz, Ljubljana, and Zagreb, all of which are served by budget airlines (currently Ryanair, Easyjet and Wizzair respectively). Of these, Graz is the closest to Maribor in terms of travel time.

Get around

Maribor is quite a small town, so it's easy to get around on foot. Maribor has two tourist information centres: one is located opposite of the railway station and the other one (TIC) in Partizanska cesta. The tourist information centres are open every day, provide free maps, and will help you arrange accommodations. Maps of central Maribor (aerial photos) can also be found in the streets fitted on the walls of houses.

By bus

Maribor have a dedicated bus terminal. There is an extensive bus network as well though there is no need to use it unless you want to go to the outer districts of Maribor.

By car

If you go to Maribor by car, it might be difficult to find toll-free parking space during weekdays. Most of the inner city is covered by short-term-parking space. A good change to find toll-free space might be in the area of Mestni park. A good alternative is the parking garage below Trgovski center City, the parking garage Forum or parking garage Kolosej'. Expect to pay around 60 to 80 cents per hour. The longer you stay, the cheaper it gets. During the day there is possible to park free in shopping centre Europark.

By Bike

Maribor has a network of cyclepaths. Using a bike to get around, at least the central areas of Maribor, is one of the best choices. Bikes may be rented.

By Taxi

Taxis are available 24h a day. You can go to a taxi- rank or simply order one by phone.

The oldest vine in the world
The oldest vine in the world
  • Water tower (vodni stolp) - built in the 16th century.
  • Mariborski grad (Maribor's castle) - built by Emperor Frederick III in the 15th century. The castle was built to fortify the northwestern part of the town wall.
  • Stara trta (Old Vine) - Maribor has the Guinness Book-certified oldest vine in the world (about 440 years old) growing on the front of a house. (Located in district Lent.)
  • Stolnica (Cathedral) - Its History begins in 12th Century. First Bishop Beat. Anton Martin Slomšek.
  • Kulturni center Sinagoga (Cultural centre Synagogue) - Built in 14th Century is the second oldest in Europe (Židovska ulica 4).
  • Vinagova vinska klet (Vinag Wine Cellar) - positioned in the centre of the city (Trg Svobode 3), with 20.000 m2 surface and 2 km length has 5,5 millions litres of excellent wine.
  • Mestni park - despite of the relative small size of the city, Maribor has a surprisingly big park. The perfect place to have a break from sightseeing.
  • Lent - Lent is a district located at the waterfront of Drava river. It's a beautiful place with lovely small avenues, restaurants and bars.
  • Slovene National Theatre - with Opera and Ballet, Drama, Simphony Orchestra SNG Maribor attracts audience from Slovenia and Abroad. Opera is given in original languages, Drama in Slovene Language.
  • Adrenalinski park Pohorje - Adrenaline park Pohorje with High Ropes Course, one track line PohorJET, summer sledding and Bike park Pohorje.
  • Festival Lent - is ranking among the Top 50 of Europe's Best Local Festivities. A variety of more than 400 performances and half a million of visitors make “Festival Lent” one of the biggest festivals in Europe, moreover it is also known across the pond in America.
  • Pohorje Ski resort - the largest Ski centre in Slovenia. Night skiing is possible as well as snow boarding.
  • Terme Maribor - with well known wellness centre in Hotel Habakuk (thermal water), Hotel Bellevue and in Fontana (thermal water).
  • Casino Maribor - located in the beautiful belle epoque styled building on the Glavni trg (the main square). On the ground floor slot machines and electronic roulette are available, one floor higher is reserved for live games.
  • Planet Tuš - cinema multiplex (movies are presented in orginal audio language while equipped with Slovenian subtitles; this does not apply to computer-rendered and animated movies, which are dubbed for the children). Bowling centre. Shopping centre with free parking.
  • Kolosej - cinema multiplex (movies are presented in orginal audio language while equipped with Slovenian subtitles; this does not apply to computer-rendered and animated movies, which are dubbed for the children). Bowling centre.
  • Bowling center Strike - Bowling centre Strike offers 16 highly equipped, computerised Bowling Tracks, Restaurant and Bar.
  • Piramida Hill - Beautiful View over the City. The easiest way is to walk from the Mestni park (City Park).

Buy

Be sure to buy a bottle of wine. Wine from region around and included Maribor is one of best in the world. Especially the white wine. You can buy good quality wine at wine producers or at the normal supermarkets. Buy "bučno olje" (pumpkin seed oil). This oil is typical for Austrian and Slovenian part of Styria and has a very unique and wonderful taste. You can buy good quality oil at the normal supermarkets.

There are many possibilities to go shopping in Maribor. Maribor is now a trans - regional shopping centre. Good places to shop are: Shopping in old city or in shopping centres as Europark, Tuš, Mercator, Qlandia or shopping centres Rutar, Merkur, Bauhaus, Obi or BauMax.

  • Europark is one of the largest shopping centers in Central Europe with a wide variety of service - from clothing stores to restaurants.
  • Trgovski center City is a big shopping mall located in the heart of city offering plenty of shops after everyone's fancy.
  • Vetrinjska ulica is an avenue starting at Grajski trg place offering loads of boutiques containing all sorts of international brands.
  • Gostilna in Pivnica Štajerc (Vetrinjska ulica 30, Tel. 22344234) is a nice inn a few minutes away from Grajski trg. Offers rather traditional cuisine (including a great salad buffet) at reasonable prices. Starters are around 3 € to 6 €, main courses from 7 € to 10 €. Serves home-made beer, brewed in the cellar under the restaurant.
  • Kavarna Astoria - Slovenska 2, Tel. 22515250 - a nice coffeebar/restaurant right in the heart of the city. Serves excellent coffee. Open Mo-Fr 7am to 10pm, Sa 8am to 10pm.
  • Uni Hotel *** - a youth hostel located at Grajski trg in the centre of the city. Any sights are within 15min walking distance. Has single, double and triple rooms.
  • Hotel BAJT-garni *** [1]
  • Garni Hotel Tabor *** - close to Dvorana Tabor Hall and Ice Ring Tabor.
  • Hotel Kačar ***
  • Hotel Piramida **** - business hotel located in Maribor city centre.
  • Hotel Bellevue **** - situated on the Mariborsko Pohorje plateau. Wellness centre. Near the Ski slope and Cable Car.
  • Hotel Habakuk ***** - one of the best slovene hotels is situated in a beautiful natural setting at the beginning of the Mountain Pohorje, near the Ski Slope and Cable Car. Wellness-spa and Conference centre. Reachable by city bus.

Get out

Ski or snowboard at the local resort. There are a few parallel slopes with drag lifts. Moving between the different slopes can be hard work if the snow is sticky. During the summer, cycle trails are available.

Contact

There is an internet cafe in Partizanska cesta called Mark's cafe. The cafe can be found on the right side of the street (heading towards the centre of the city) between Cafova ulica and Cankarjeva ulica.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message