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The Mariinsky Theatre, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Logo of The Mariinsky Theatre, Saint Petersburg, Russia

The Mariinsky Theatre (Russian: Мариинский театр, Mariinskiy Teatr, also spelled Maryinsky, Mariyinsky) is a historic theatre of opera and ballet in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Opened in 1860, it became the preeminent music theatre of late 19th century Russia, where many of the stage masterpieces of Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky, and Rimsky-Korsakov received their premieres. The Mariinsky Theatre is home to the Mariinsky Ballet, Mariinsky Opera and Mariinsky Orchestra. Since Yuri Temirkanov's retirement in 1988, the conductor Valery Gergiev has served as its general director.

Contents

Name

The theatre is named after Empress Maria Alexandrovna, wife of Tsar Alexander II. There is a bust of the Empress in the main entrance foyer. The theatre's name has changed throughout its history, reflecting the political climate of the time:

From To Russian English
1860
1920
Императорский Мариинский театр Imperial Mariinsky Theatre
1920
1924
Государственный академический театр оперы и балета State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet
1924
1935
Ленинградский государственный академический театр оперы и балета Leningrad State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet
1935
1992
Государственный академический театр оперы и балета имени С.М. Кирова Kirov State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet
1992
Present
Государственный aкадемический Мариинский театр State Academic Mariinsky Theatre

Note: The acronym "GATOB" (Gosudarstvennïy Akademicheskiy Teatr Operï i Baleta) is often encountered in historical accounts.

The theatre building is commonly called the Mariinsky Theatre. The companies that operate within it have for brand recognition purposes retained the famous Kirov name, acquired during the Soviet era to commemorate the assassinated Leningrad Communist Party leader, Sergey Kirov (1886-1934).

Origins

The stage of the Mariinsky Theatre with Alexandre Golovine's luxury curtain of 1914

The Imperial opera and ballet theatre in Saint Petersburg was established in 1783 at the behest of Catherine the Great, although an Italian ballet troupe had performed at the Russian court since the early 18th century. Originally, the ballet and opera performances were given in the wooden Karl Knipper Theatre on Tsaritsa Meadow, near the present-day Tripartite Bridge (also known as the Little Theatre or the Maly Theatre). The Hermitage Theatre, next door to the Winter Palace, was used to host performances for an elite audience of aristocratic guests invited by the Empress.

A permanent theatre building for the new company of opera and ballet artists was designed by Antonio Rinaldi and opened in 1783. Known as the Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre the structure was situated on Theatre Square. Both names were coined to distinguish it from the wooden Little Theatre: "Kamenny" is the Russian word for "stone" and "Bolshoi" is the Russian word for "big". In 1836, the Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre was renovated to a design by Albert Cavos (son of Catterino Cavos, an opera composer), and served as the principal theatre of the Imperial Ballet and opera.

On 29 January 1849, the Equestrian circus (Конный цирк) opened on Theatre Square. This was also the work of the architect Cavos. The building was designed to double as a theatre.[1] It was a wooden structure in the then-fashionable neo-Byzantine style. Ten years later, when this circus burnt down, Cavos rebuilt it as an opera and ballet house with the largest stage in the world. With a seating capacity of 1,625 and a U-shaped Italian-style auditorium, the theatre opened on 2 October 1860 with a performance of A Life for the Tsar. The new theatre was named Mariinsky after its imperial patroness, Empress Maria Alexandrovna.

Leading Role

The Imperial Mariinsky Theatre and its predecessor, the Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre, hosted the premieres of many of the operas of Mikhail Glinka, Modest Mussorgsky, and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. At the behest of the theatre director Ivan Vsevolozhsky, both the Imperial Ballet and the Imperial Opera were relocated to the Mariinsky Theatre in 1886, as the Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre was considered unsafe. It was there that the renowned choreographer Marius Petipa presented many of his masterpieces, including such staples of the ballet repertory as the The Sleeping Beauty in 1890, The Nutcracker in 1892, Raymonda in 1898, and the definitive revival of Swan Lake (with Lev Ivanov) in 1895.

When the theatre was designated as principal venue of the Imperial Ballet and Opera in 1886, the theatre was extensively renovated. A lavish inauguration celebration was given at the behest of Emperor Alexander III, in which the first original ballet to be produced at the Mariinsky was given—Petipa's Les Pilules magiques, to the music of Ludwig Minkus.

World premieres of Mussorgsky's Boris Godunov, Rimsky-Korsakov's The Golden Cockerel, Tchaikovsky's The Queen of Spades and Iolanthe, Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet and Cinderella, and Khachaturian's Spartacus were also produced there.

The imperial and Soviet theater was the home of numerous great impresarios, conductors, and musicians. The Vaganova Academy of Russia Ballet, the ballet school of the Mariinksy Theatre, spawned careers of Mathilde Kschessinskaya, Olga Preobrajenskaya, Anna Pavlova, Tamara Karsavina, Vaslav Nijinsky, Marina Semenova, George Balanchine, Galina Ulanova, Rudolf Nureyev, Natalia Makarova, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Irina Kolpakova, Galina Mezentseva, Altynai Asylmuratova, and in more recent times dancers of renown like Ulyana Lopatkina, Diana Vishneva, and Svetlana Zakharova.

The Mariinsky Theatre today

The original Tsar's Box of the Mariinsky Theatre

Under Yuri Temirkanov, Principal Conductor from 1976 to 1988, the Opera Company continued to stage innovative productions of both modern and classic Russian operas. However, since 1988, under the artistic leadership of Valery Gergiev, the Opera Company has entered a new era of artistic excellence and creativity.

Although functioning separately from the Theatre’s Ballet Company, both Opera and Ballet Companies are headed by Gergiev as Artistic Director of the entire Theatre. His tenure as head of the present day Opera Company at the Mariinsky Theatre began in 1988 and (especially since 1993), Gergiev’s impact on opera there has been enormous. Firstly, he reorganized the company’s operations and established links with many of the world's great opera houses, including the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, the Metropolitan Opera, the Opéra Bastille, La Scala, La Fenice, the Tel Aviv Opera, the Washington National Opera and the San Francisco Opera. Today, the Opera Company regularly tours to most of these cities.

Gergiev has also been innovative as far as Russian opera is concerned: in 1989 there was an all-Mussorgsky festival featuring the composer’s entire operatic output. Similarly, many of Prokofiev’s operas were presented from the late 1990s. Operas by non-Russian composers began to be performed in their original languages, which helped the Opera Company to incorporate world trends. The annual international "Stars of the White Nights Festival" in Saint Petersburg, started by Gergiev in 1993, has also put the Mariinsky on the world’s cultural map. That year, as a salute to the imperial origins of the Mariinsky, Verdi's La forza del destino, which received its premiere in Saint Petersburg in 1863, was produced with its original sets, costumes and scenery. Since then, it has become a characteristic of the "White Nights Festival" to present the premieres from the company’s upcoming season during this magical period, when the hours of darkness practically disappear as the summer solstice approaches.

Presently, the Company lists on its roster 22 sopranos (of which Anna Netrebko may be the best known); 13 mezzo-sopranos (with Olga Borodina familiar to US and European audiences); 23 tenors; eight baritones; and 14 basses. With Gergiev in charge overall, there is a Head of Stage Administration, a Stage Director, Stage Managers and Assistants, along with 14 accompanists.

In 2003 construction began on a new home for the theatre, to be named The Second Stage. Technical difficulties connected with sub-soil problems have led to a slowing down in its progress, but work is continuing.

The Canadian firm, Diamond and Schmitt Architects, along with its local partner KB ViPS Architects have designed a building with 2,000 seats, which will complement the existing 1,600-seat Mariinsky and the nearby Mariinsky Theatre Concert Hall, which was designed by French architects Xavier Fabre and opened in spring 2007 with room for 1,100 patrons. The completion of the new Mariinsky will result in what some have called Saint Petersburg's equivalent of New York's Lincoln Center.

References

Bibliography

  • Krasovskaya V.M. Балет Ленинграда: Академический театр оперы и балета им. С.М. Кирова. Leningrad, 1961.
  • Beauvert, Thierry. Opera Houses of the World, The Vendome Press, New York, 1995. ISBN 0-86565-978-8
  • Allison, John (ed.), Great Opera Houses of the World, Supplement to Opera Magazine, London, 2003.

External links

Coordinates: 59°55′32″N 30°17′46″E / 59.92556°N 30.29611°E / 59.92556; 30.29611


Simple English

The Mariinsky Theatre [1] is a famous theatre of opera and ballet in Saint Petersburg, Russia. It was opened in 1860 and soon became the most important theatre for opera and ballet in Russia. Many great operas and ballets of the 19th century were first performed there, including the greatest stage works by Tchaikovsky, Mussorgsky, and Rimsky-Korsakov.

The Mariinsky Theatre is home to the Mariinsky Ballet, Mariinsky Opera and Mariinsky Orchestra. The conductor Valery Gergiev has been the general director there since 1988.

Contents

The theatre’s name

The theatre is named after Empress Maria Alexandrovna, wife of Tsar Alexander II. There is a bust of the Empress in the main entrance hall. The theatre's name has changed several times during its history, because of different political parties that were in power.[2]

From To Russian English
1860
1920
Императорский Мариинский театр Imperial Mariinsky Theatre
1920
1924
Государственный академический театр оперы и балета State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet
1924
1935
Ленинградский государственный академический театр оперы и балета Leningrad State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet
1935
1992
Государственный академический театр оперы и балета имени С.М. Кирова Kirov State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet
1992
Present
Государственный aкадемический Мариинский театр State Academic Mariinsky Theatre

The theatre building is commonly called the Mariinsky Theatre. The companies that use it have kept the famous Kirov name, which it got during the Soviet period in honour of the murdered Leningrad Communist Party leader, Sergey Kirov (1886-1934).

Origins

The first ballet groups to perform in St Petersburg were Italian ballet dancers in the early 18th century. Catherine the Great wanted a Russian theatre to be built. It was built in 1783. It was called Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre (“Kamenny” is the Russian word for “stone”. It was used to distinguish the building from the wooden theatre that was being used.). The building we see today dates from 1860. It opened with a performance of Glinka’s opera A Life for the Tsar. It was called the Mariinsky Theatre, named after the Empress Maria Alexandrovna. The great choreographer Marius Petipa put on the first performances of many famous ballets such as Tchaikovsky’s The Sleeping Beauty in 1890, The Nutcracker in 1892, Alexander Glazunov's ballet Raymonda in 1898, and an updated version of Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake (with Lev Ivanov) in 1895.

When the theatre became the main home of the Imperial Ballet and Opera in 1886, the theatre was improved. Many operas were performed there, including first performances of Mussorgsky's Boris Godunov, Rimsky-Korsakov's The Golden Cockerel, Tchaikovsky's The Queen of Spades and Iolanthe, Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet and Cinderella, and Khachaturian's Spartacus were also produced there.

The imperial and Soviet theater was the home of many great impresarios, conductors, and musicians. The Vaganova Academy of Russia Ballet, the ballet school of the Mariinksy Theatre, started the careers of Mathilde Kschessinskaya, Olga Preobrajenskaya, Anna Pavlova, Tamara Karsavina, Vaslav Nijinsky, Marina Semenova, George Balanchine, Galina Ulanova, Rudolf Nureyev, Natalia Makarova, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Irina Kolpakova, Galina Mezentseva, Altynai Asylmuratova, and in more recent times famous dancers like Ulyana Lopatkina, Diana Vishneva, and Svetlana Zakharova.

The Mariinsky Theatre today

Yuri Temirkanov was Principal Conductor from 1976 to 1988. He conducted many modern and classical operas. Since 1988, Valery Gergiev has brought even more fame to the theatre. It has now got links with many of the world's great opera houses, including the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, the Metropolitan Opera, the Opéra Bastille, La Scala, La Fenice, the Tel Aviv Opera, the Washington National Opera and the San Francisco Opera. Today, the Opera Company regularly tours to most of these cities.

Other websites

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References

  1. Russian: Мариинский театр, Mariinskiy Teatr, also spelled Maryinsky, Mariyinsky
  2. The acronym "GATOB" (Gosudarstvennïy Akademicheskiy Teatr Operï i Baleta, meaning: “State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet”) is often found in historical accounts.







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