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Marriage is a social union or legal contract between individuals that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found. Such a union may also be called matrimony, while the ceremony that marks its beginning is usually called a wedding.
People marry for many reasons, most often including one or more of the following: legal, social, emotional, economical, spiritual, and religious. These might include arranged marriages, family obligations, the legal establishment of a nuclear family unit, the legal protection of children and public declaration of love.[1][2]
Marriage practices are very diverse across cultures, may take many forms, and are often formalized by a wedding.[3] The act of marriage usually creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved. In some societies these obligations also extend to certain family members of the married persons. Almost all cultures that recognize marriage also recognize adultery as a violation of the terms of marriage.[4]
External recognition can manifest in a variety of ways. Some examples include the state, a religious authority, or both. It is often viewed as a contract. Civil marriage is the legal concept of marriage as a governmental institution irrespective of religious affiliation, in accordance with marriage laws of the jurisdiction. If recognized by the state, by the religion(s) to which the parties belong or by society in general, the act of marriage changes the personal and social status of the individuals who enter into it.

Contents

Definitions

Marriage is the union of two different surnames, in friendship and in love, in order to continue the posterity of the former sages, and to furnish those who shall preside at the sacrifices to heaven and earth, at those in the ancestral temple, and at those at the altars to the spirits of the land and grain.

Confucius, [5]

Anthropologists have proposed several competing definitions of marriage so as to encompass the wide variety of marital practices observed across cultures.[6] In his book The History of Human Marriage (1921), Edvard Westermarck defined marriage as "a more or less durable connection between male and female lasting beyond the mere act of propagation till after the birth of the offspring."[7] In The Future of Marriage in Western Civilization (1936), he rejected his earlier definition, instead provisionally defining marriage as "a relation of one or more men to one or more women that is recognised by custom or law".[8]
The anthropological handbook Notes and Queries (1951) defined marriage as "a union between a man and a woman such that children born to the woman are the recognized legitimate offspring of both partners."[9] In recognition of a practice by the Nuer of Sudan allowing women to act as a husband in certain circumstances, Kathleen Gough suggested modifying this to "a woman and one or more other persons."[10]
Edmund Leach criticized Gough's definition for being too restrictive in terms of recognized legitimate offspring and suggested that marriage be viewed in terms of the different types of rights it serves to establish. Leach expanded the definition and proposed that "Marriage is a relationship established between a woman and one or more other persons, which provides that a child born to the woman under circumstances not prohibited by the rules of the relationship, is accorded full birth-status rights common to normal members of his society or social stratum"[11] Leach argued that no one definition of marriage applied to all cultures. He offered a list of ten rights associated with marriage, including sexual monopoly and rights with respect to children, with specific rights differing across cultures.[12]
Duran Bell also criticized the legitimacy-based definition on the basis that some societies do not require marriage for legitimacy, arguing that in societies where illegitimacy means only that the mother is unmarried and has no other legal implications, a legitimacy-based definition of marriage is circular. He proposed defining marriage in terms of sexual access rights.[6]
Various definitions of marriage often include the concept of conjugal rights which may include mutual rights of companionship and support (consortium), co-habitation, joint property rights, and sexual relations. The concept of conjugal rights may be applied to "traditional" or non-traditional definitions of marriage. In June 2007, the California Department of Corrections announced it would allow same-sex conjugal visits. The policy was enacted to comply with a 2005 state law requiring state agencies to give the same rights to domestic partners that heterosexual couples receive.[13]
In the 21st century United States, it has become popular to describe marriages as either traditional or non-traditional. Traditional marriage has been conservatively described as being a life-long legal union between one man and one woman for the support of family and presumably offspring. Following the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, the marriage vows of many Christian denominations included "Till death do us part" as part of the marriage liturgy. With the advent of No-fault divorce in 1970, and the widespread acceptance of Birth control, the definition of traditional marriage has become less narrowly defined as a legal bond "between a man and a woman". The Defense of Marriage Act, DOMA, of 1996 uses this definition. Non-traditional marriage assumes a conjugal relationship other than that assumed in the traditional definition, and most commonly refers to Same-sex marriage.

Etymology

The modern English word "marriage" derives from Middle English mariage, which first appears in 1250–1300 C.E. This in turn is derived from Old French marier (to marry) and ultimately Latin marītāre (to marry) and marītus (of marriage).[14]

History

Although the institution of marriage pre-dates reliable recorded history, many cultures have legends concerning the origins of marriage. The way in which a marriage is conducted and its rules and ramifications has changed over time, as has the institution itself, depending on the culture or demographic of the time.[15]
One of the oldest known and recorded marriage laws is discerned from Hammurabi's Code, enacted in ancient Mesopotamia (widely considered as the cradle of civilization). Various cultures have had their own theories on the origin of marriage. One example may lie in a man's need for assurance as to paternity of his children. He might therefore be willing to pay a bride price or provide for a woman in exchange for exclusive sexual access.[16] Legitimacy is the consequence of this transaction rather than its motivation. In Comanche society, married women work harder, lose sexual freedom, and do not seem to obtain any benefit from marriage.[17] But nubile women are a source of jealousy and strife in the tribe, so they are given little choice other than to get married. "In almost all societies, access to women is institutionalized in some way so as to moderate the intensity of this competition."[18]
In English common law, a marriage was a voluntary contract by a man and a woman, in which by agreement they choose to become husband and wife.[19] Edvard Westermarck proposed that "the institution of marriage has probably developed out of a primeval habit".[20]
Forms of group marriage which involve more than one member of each sex, and therefore are not either polygyny or polyandry, have existed in history. However, these forms of marriage are extremely rare. Of the 250 societies reported by the American anthropologist George P. Murdock in 1949, only the Caingang of Brazil had any group marriages at all.[21]

European marriages

For most of European history, marriage was more or less a business agreement between two families who arranged the marriages of their children. Romantic love, and even simple affection, were not considered essential.[22] Historically, the perceived necessity of marriage has been stressed.[23]
In Ancient Greece, no specific civil ceremony was required for the creation of a marriage - only mutual agreement and the fact that the couple must regard each other as husband and wife accordingly.[24] Men usually married when they were in their 20s or 30s [25] and expected their wives to be in their early teens. It has been suggested that these ages made sense for the Greek because men were generally done with military service by age 30, and marrying a young girl ensured her virginity.[26] Married Greek women had few rights in ancient Greek society and were expected to take care of the house and children.[27] Time was an important factor in Greek marriage. For example, there were superstitions that being married during a full moon was good luck and, according to Robert Flacelière, Greeks married in the winter.[26] Inheritance was more important than feelings: A woman whose father dies without male heirs can be forced to marry her nearest male relative—even if she has to divorce her husband first.[28]
There were several types of marriages in ancient Roman society. The traditional ("conventional") form called conventio in manum required a ceremony with witnesses and was also dissolved with a ceremony.[23] In this type of marriage, a woman lost her family rights of inheritance of her old family and gained them with her new one. She now was subject to the authority of her husband.[29] There was the free marriage known as sine manu. In this arrangement, the wife remained a member of her original family; she stayed under the authority of her father, kept her family rights of inheritance with her old family and did not gain any with the new family.[29] The minimum age of marriage for girls was 12.[30]
A woodcut of a medieval wedlock ceremony from Germany.
From the early Christian era (30 to 325 CE), marriage was thought of as primarily a private matter,[citation needed] with no uniform religious or other ceremony being required. However, bishop Ignatius of Antioch writing around 110 to bishop Polycarp of Smyrna exhorts, "[I]t becomes both men and women who marry, to form their union with the approval of the bishop, that their marriage may be according to God, and not after their own lust."[31]
In the 12th century women were obligated to take the name of their husbands and starting in the second half of the 16th century parental consent along with the churches consent was required for marriage .[32]
With few local exceptions, until 1545, Christian marriages in Europe were by mutual consent, declaration of intention to marry and upon the subsequent physical union of the parties.[33][34] The couple would promise verbally to each other that they would be married to each other; the presence of a priest or witnesses was not required.[35] This promise was known as the "verbum." If freely given and made in the present tense (e.g., "I marry you"), it was unquestionably binding;[33] if made in the future tense ("I will marry you"), it would constitute a betrothal. One of the functions of churches from the Middle Ages was to register marriages, which was not obligatory. There was no state involvement in marriage and personal status, with these issues being adjudicated in ecclesiastical courts. During the Middle Ages marriages were arranged, sometimes as early as birth, and these early pledges to marry were often used to ensure treaties between different royal families, nobles, and heirs of fiefdoms. The church resisted these imposed unions, and increased the number of causes for nullification of these arrangements.[32] As Christianity spread during the roman period and the Middle Ages, the idea of free choice in selecting marriage partners increased and spread with it.[32]
The average age of marriage in the late 1200s into the 1500s was around 25 years of age.[36]
As part of the Counter-Reformation, in 1563 the Council of Trent decreed that a Roman Catholic marriage would be recognized only if the marriage ceremony was officiated by a priest with two witnesses. The Council also authorized a Catechism, issued in 1566, which defined marriage as, "The conjugal union of man and woman, contracted between two qualified persons, which obliges them to live together throughout life."[37]
In England, under the Anglican Church, marriage by consent and cohabitation was valid until the passage of Lord Hardwicke's Act in 1753. This act instituted certain requirements for marriage, including the performance of a religious ceremony observed by witnesses.[38]
As part of the Reformation, the role of recording marriages and setting the rules for marriage passed to the state. By the 1600s many of the Protestant European countries had a state involvement in marriage. As of 2000, the average marriage age range was 25–44 years for men and 22–39 years for women.

Recognition by the state

In the early modern period, John Calvin and his Protestant colleagues reformulated Christian marriage by enacting the Marriage Ordinance of Geneva, which imposed "The dual requirements of state registration and church consecration to constitute marriage"[37] for recognition.
In England and Wales, Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act 1753 required a formal ceremony of marriage, thereby curtailing the practice of Fleet Marriage.[39] These were clandestine or irregular marriages performed at Fleet Prison, and at hundreds of other places. From the 1690s until the Marriage Act of 1753 as many as 300,000 clandestine marriages were performed at Fleet Prison alone.[40] The Act required a marriage ceremony to be officiated by an Anglican priest in the Anglican Church with two witnesses and registration. The Act did not apply to Jewish marriages or those of Quakers, whose marriages continued to be governed by their own customs.
In England and Wales, since 1837, civil marriages have been recognized as a legal alternative to church marriages under the Marriage Act of 1836. In Germany, civil marriages were recognized in 1875. This law permitted a declaration of the marriage before an official clerk of the civil administration, when both spouses affirm their will to marry, to constitute a legally recognized valid and effective marriage, and allowed an optional private clerical marriage ceremony.

Chinese marriage

The mythological origin of Chinese marriage is a story about Nüwa and Fu Xi who invented proper marriage procedures after becoming married.
In ancient Chinese society, people of the same surname were not supposed to marry and doing so was seen as incest. However, because marriage to one's maternal relatives was not thought of as incest, families sometimes intermarried from one generation to another. Over time, Chinese people became more geographically mobile. Individuals remained members of their biological families. When a couple died, the husband and the wife were buried separately in the respective clans’ graveyard. In a maternal marriage, a male would become a son-in-law who lived in the wife's home.

Same-sex marriage

Various types of same-sex marriages have existed,[41] ranging from informal, unsanctioned relationships to highly ritualized unions.[42]
While it is a relatively new practice that same-sex couples are being granted the same form of legal marital recognition as commonly used by mixed-sex couples, recent publicity and debate over the past decade gives an impression that civil marriage for lesbian and gay couples is novel and untested. There is a long history of recorded same-sex unions around the world.[43] It is believed that same-sex unions were celebrated in Ancient Greece and Rome,[43] some regions of China, such as Fujian, and at certain times in ancient European history.[44] A law in the Theodosian Code (C. Th. 9.7.3) issued in 342 CE prohibited same-sex marriage in ancient Rome, but the exact intent of the law and its relation to social practice is unclear, as only a few examples of same-sex marriage in that culture exist.[45]

Selection of a partner

An arranged marriage between Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain.
The selection of a marriage partner may involve either the couple going through a selection process of courtship or the marriage may be arranged by the couple's parents or an outside party, a matchmaker.
A pragmatic (or 'arranged') marriage is made easier by formal procedures of family or group politics. A responsible authority sets up or encourages the marriage; they may, indeed, engage a professional matchmaker to find a suitable spouse for an unmarried person. The authority figure could be parents, family, a religious official, or a group consensus.
In some cases, the authority figure may choose a match for purposes other than marital harmony.
In rural Indian villages, child marriage is also practiced, with parents at times arranging the wedding, sometimes even before the child is born. This practice is now illegal under the Child Marriage Restraint Act.
In some societies ranging from Central Asia to the Caucasus to Africa, the custom of bride kidnapping still exists, in which a woman is captured by a man and his friends. Sometimes this covers an elopement, but sometimes it depends on sexual violence. In previous times, raptio was a larger-scale version of this, with groups of women captured by groups of men, sometimes in war; the most famous example is The Rape of the Sabine Women, which provided the first citizens of Rome with their wives.
Other marriage partners are more or less imposed on an individual. For example, widow inheritance provides a widow with another man from her late husband's brothers.

Marriage ceremony

Couple married in a Shinto ceremony in Takayama, Gifu prefecture.
A marriage is usually formalized at a wedding or marriage ceremony. The ceremony may be officiated either by a religious official, by a government official or by a state approved celebrant. In many European and some Latin American countries, any religious ceremony must be held separately from the required civil ceremony. Some countries - such as Belgium, Bulgaria, France, the Netherlands, Romania and Turkey[46] - require that a civil ceremony take place before any religious one. In some countries - notably the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Norway and Spain - both ceremonies can be held together; the officiant at the religious and civil ceremony also serving as agent of the state to perform the civil ceremony. To avoid any implication that the state is "recognizing" a religious marriage (which is prohibited in some countries) - the "civil" ceremony is said to be taking place at the same time as the religious ceremony. Often this involves simply signing a register during the religious ceremony. If the civil element of the religious ceremony is omitted, the marriage is not recognized by government under the law.
While some countries, such as Australia, permit marriages to be held in private and at any location, others, including England and Wales, require that the civil ceremony be conducted in a place open to the public and specially sanctioned by law. In England, the place of marriage need no longer be a church or register office, but could also be a hotel, historic building or other venue that has obtained the necessary license. An exception can be made in the case of marriage by special emergency license, which is normally granted only when one of the parties is terminally ill. Rules about where and when persons can marry vary from place to place. Some regulations require that one of the parties reside in the locality of the registry office.
Within the parameters set by the law of the jurisdiction in which a marriage or wedding takes place, each religious authority has rules for the manner in which weddings are to be conducted by their officials and members.

Cohabitation

Marriage is an institution which can join together people's lives in a variety of emotional and economic ways. In many Western cultures, marriage usually leads to the formation of a new household comprising the married couple, with the married couple living together in the same home, often sharing the same bed, but in some other cultures this is not the tradition.[47] Among the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, residency after marriage is matrilocal, with the husband moving into the household of his wife's mother.[48] Residency after marriage can also be patrilocal or avunculocal. Such marriages have also been increasingly common in modern Beijing. Guo Jianmei, director of the center for women's studies at Beijing University, told a Newsday correspondent, "Walking marriages reflect sweeping changes in Chinese society."[49] A similar arrangement in Saudi Arabia, called misyar marriage, also involves the husband and wife living separately but meeting regularly.[50]
Conversely, marriage is not a prerequisite for cohabitation. In some cases couples living together do not wish to be recognized as married, such as when pension or alimony rights are adversely affected, or because of taxation consideration, or because of immigration issues, and for many other reasons. In modern western societies some couples cohabitate before marriage to test whether such an arrangement might work in the long term.
In some cases cohabitation may constitute a common-law marriage, and in some countries the laws recognize cohabitation in preference to the formality of marriage for taxation and social security benefits. This is the case, for example, in Australia.[51]

Sex and procreation

Many of the world's major religions look with disfavor on sexual relations outside of marriage.[52] Many nonsecular states, mostly with Muslim majorities, sanction criminal penalties for sexual intercourse before marriage. Sexual relations by a married person with someone other than his/her spouse is known as adultery and is also frequently disapproved by the major world religions (some calling it a sin). Adultery is considered in many jurisdictions to be a crime and grounds for divorce.
On the other hand, marriage is not a prerequisite for having children. In the United States, the National Center for Health Statistics reported that in 1992, 30.1 percent of births were to unmarried women.[53][54] In 2006, that number had risen to 38.5 percent.[55] Children born outside of marriage, bastards and whoresons, were known as illegitimate and suffered legal disadvantages and social stigma. In recent years the legal relevance of illegitimacy has declined and social acceptance has increased, especially in western countries. In the United States, the highest judicial body ruled in the case Griswold v. Connecticut that procreation within marriage could be abridged by artificial insemination.
Some married couples choose not to have children and so remain childfree. Others are unable to have children because of infertility or other factors preventing conception or the bearing of children. In some cultures, marriage imposes an obligation on women to bear children. In northern Ghana, for example, payment of bridewealth signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face substantial threats of physical abuse and reprisals.[56]
According to a study, married men and women, on average, have sex with their spouse 58 times a year, which means little more than once a week. There is however, a tendency that the older the spouses are, the less sex they have. According to the same study, it seems that people under 30 years old have sex about 111 times a year and about 15% of married couples have not had sex with their spouse in the last six months to one year. [57]
Maintaining the passion alive is however one of the most common issues that a married couple is confronted with. This is normally due to the fact that individuals become accustomed or even bored to their spouse or due to the demands of raising a family or establishing a career and the stress that arises from these. There are also cases in which the individuals just have a low sex drive and they gradually become asexual.
Couples whom have a low sex standard during marriage usually have sexual intercourse or any kind of sexual, romantic activity, one or two times a month. They think of sex as a chore and they only practice it when it has been previously scheduled. [58]

Marriage law

Marriage laws refer to the legal requirements which determine the validity of a marriage, which vary considerably between countries.

Common-law marriage

In some jurisdictions but not all, marriage relationships may be created by the operation of the law alone, as in common-law marriage, sometimes called "marriage by habit and repute (cohabitation)." A de facto common-law marriage without a license or ceremony is legally binding in some jurisdictions but has no legal consequence in others.[59]

Rights and obligations

A Ketubah in Hebrew, a Jewish marriage-contract outlining the duties of each partner.
A marriage bestows rights and obligations on the married parties, and sometimes on relatives as well, being the sole mechanism for the creation of affinal ties (in-laws). These may include:
  • Giving a husband/wife or his/her family control over a spouse's sexual services, labor, and property.
  • Giving a husband/wife responsibility for a spouse's debts.
  • Giving a husband/wife visitation rights when his/her spouse is incarcerated or hospitalized.
  • Giving a husband/wife control over his/her spouse's affairs when the spouse is incapacitated.
  • Establishing the second legal guardian of a parent's child.
  • Establishing a joint fund of property for the benefit of children.
  • Establishing a relationship between the families of the spouses.
These rights and obligations vary considerably between societies, and between groups within society.[60]

Marriage restrictions

Marriage is an institution that is historically filled with restrictions. From age, to race, to social status, to consanguinity, to gender, restrictions are placed on marriage by society for reasons of benefiting the children, passing on healthy genes, maintaining cultural values, or because of prejudice and fear. Almost all cultures that recognize marriage also recognize adultery as a violation of the terms of marriage.[4]
The United States has had a history of marriage restriction laws. Many states enacted miscegenation laws which were first introduced in the late seventeenth century in the slave-holding colonies of Virginia (1691) and Maryland (1692) and lasted until 1967 (until it was overturned via Loving v. Virginia). Many of these states restricted several minorities from marrying whites. For example, Alabama, Arkansas, and Oklahoma banned Blacks in particular. States such as Mississippi and Missouri banned Blacks and Asians. States such as North Carolina and South Carolina banned Blacks and Native Americans, and some states such as Georgia, South Carolina, and Virginia banned all non-whites.
It is a relatively new practice that same-sex couples are being granted the same form of legal marital recognition available to mixed-sexed couples. In the United States, the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) explicitly defines marriage for the purposes of federal law as between a man and a woman and allows states to ignore same-sex marriages from other states (though states arguably could do this already).[61][62] Forty-one US states currently define marriage as between a man and a woman. Three of those states have statutory language that pre-dates DOMA (enacted before 1996) defining marriage as such. Thirty states have defined marriage in their constitutions. Arizona is the only state that has ever defeated a constitutional amendment defining marriage between a man and a woman (2006), but it subsequently passed one in 2008.[63]
Societies have often placed restrictions on marriage to relatives, though the degree of prohibited relationship varies widely. With few exceptions, marriages between parents and children or between full siblings have been considered incest and forbidden. However, marriages between more distant relatives have been much more common, with one estimate being that 80% of all marriages in history have been between second cousins or closer.[64] In modern times this proportion has fallen dramatically, but still more than 10% of all marriages are believed to be between first and second cousins.[65] In the United States, such marriages are now highly stigmatized, and laws ban most or all first-cousin marriage in 30 states. Specifics vary: in South Korea, historically it was illegal to marry someone with the same last name.[66]
Many societies have required a person to marry within their own general social group, which anthropologists refer to as endogamy. An example of such restrictions would be a requirement to marry someone from the same tribe.
Restrictions against polygamy have been common. Opposition to the recognition of Deseret as a State by the Federal government was founded on opposition to the once-practiced polygamous marriages of Mormons.

State recognition

In many jurisdictions, a civil marriage may take place as part of the religious marriage ceremony, although they are theoretically distinct. Some jurisdictions allow civil marriages in circumstances which are notably not allowed by particular religions, such as same-sex marriages or civil unions.

Marriage and religion

All mainstream religions have strong views relating to marriage. Most religions perform a wedding ceremony to solemnize the beginning of a marriage.

Bible-based faiths

In the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)

Rembrandt's depiction of Samson's marriage feast
The Hebrew Bible (Christian Old Testament) describes a number of marriages, including those of Isaac,[Gen 24:49-67] Jacob,[Gen 29:27] and Samson.[Judg 14:7-12] In those times the most common marital arrangement, of those that are mentioned at all, is for men to have multiple wives at once.[67]
Betrothal (erusin), which is merely a binding promise to get married, is distinct from marriage itself (nissu'in), with the time between these events varying substantially.[67][68] Since a wife was regarded as property in those days, the betrothal (erusin) was effected simply by purchasing her from her father (or guardian)[67][68]; the girl’s consent is not explicitly required by any biblical law.[68] Like the adjacent Arabic culture (in the pre-Islamic period),[69] the act of marriage appears mainly to have consisted of the groom fetching the bride, although among the Israelites (unlike the Arabs) the procession was a festive occasion, accompanied by music, dancing, and lights.[68][67] To celebrate the marriage, week-long feasts were sometimes held.[67][68]
In biblical times, a wife was regarded as chattel, belonging to her husband[68][67]; the descriptions of the bible suggest that she would be expected to perform tasks such as spinning, sewing, weaving, manufacture of clothing, fetching of water, baking of bread, and animal husbandry.[70] However, wives were usually looked after with care, and bigamous men were expected to ensure that they give their first wife food, clothing, and sexual activity.[Ex 21:10]
Since a wife was regarded as property, her husband was originally free to divorce her for any reason, at any time.[68] A divorced couple were permitted to get back together, unless the wife had married someone else after her divorce.[Deut 24:2-4]

Christianity

Christian wedding in Kyoto, Japan.
Christians believe that marriage is a gift from God, one that should not be taken for granted. They variously regard it as a sacrament, a contract, a sacred institution, or a covenant.[71] From the very beginning of the Christian Church, marriage law and theology have been a major matter.[72] The foundation of the Western tradition of Christian marriages have been the teachings of Jesus Christ and the Apostle Paul.[37]
Christians often marry for religious reasons ranging from following the biblical injunction for a "man to leave his father and mother and cleave to his wife, and the two shall become one,"[Gen. 2:24][73] to obeying Canon Law stating marriage between baptized persons is a sacrament.[74]
Divorce is not encouraged. Most Protestant churches allow people to marry again after a divorce. In the Roman Catholic Church, marriage can only be ended by an annulment where the Church for special reasons regards it as never having taken place.[75]
"'...So they are no longer two, but one. Therefore what God has joined together, let man not separate."

Jesus[Matthew 19:6]

Liturgical Christianity
Anglicans, Catholics, and Eastern Orthodox consider marriage termed holy matrimony to be an expression of divine grace, termed a sacrament or mystery. In Western ritual, the ministers of the sacrament are the husband and wife themselves, with a bishop, priest, or deacon merely witnessing the union on behalf of the church, and adding a blessing. In Eastern ritual churches, the bishop or priest functions as the actual minister of the Sacred Mystery (Eastern Orthodox deacons may not perform marriages). Western Christians commonly refer to marriage as a vocation, while Eastern Christians consider it an ordination and a martyrdom, though the theological emphases indicated by the various names are not excluded by the teachings of either tradition. Marriage is commonly celebrated in the context of a Eucharistic service (a nuptial Mass or Divine Liturgy). The sacrament of marriage is indicative of the relationship between Christ and the Church.[Eph. 5:29-32]
Roman Catholicism
The Roman Catholic tradition of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries defined marriage as a sacrament ordained by God,[37] signifying the mystical marriage of Christ to his Church.[76]
"The matrimonial covenant, by which a man and a woman establish between themselves a partnership of the whole of life, is by its nature ordered toward the good of the spouses and the procreation and education of offspring; this covenant between baptized persons has been raised by Christ the Lord to the dignity of a sacrament." [77]
The mutual love between man and wife becomes an image of the eternal love with which God loves humankind. The celebration of marriage between two Catholics normally takes place during the public liturgical celebration of the Holy Mass, because of its sacramental connection with the unity of the Paschal mystery of Christ (Communion). Sacramental marriage confers a perpetual and exclusive bond between the spouses. By its nature, the institution of marriage and conjugal love is ordered to the procreation and upbringing of offspring. Marriage creates rights and duties in the Church between the spouses and towards their children: "[e]ntering marriage with the intention of never having children is a grave wrong and more than likely grounds for an annulment."[78]
According to current Catholic legislation governing marriage, "The essential properties of marriage are unity and indissolubility; in Christian marriage they acquire a distinctive firmness by reason of the sacrament.[79] Divorce is not recognized, but annulments predicated upon previously existing impediments may be granted. Offspring resulting from annulled relationships are considered legitimate. The remarriage of persons divorced from a living, lawful spouse are not separated from the Church, but they cannot receive Eucharistic communion.[80]
Protestantism
Protestant denominations see the primary purpose of marriage to be to glorify[81] God by demonstrating his love to the world.[citation needed] Other purposes of marriage include intimate companionship, rearing children and mutual support for both husband and wife to fulfill their life callings. Protestants generally approve of birth control[citation needed] and consider marital sexual pleasure to be a gift of God.
Most Reformed Christians would deny the elevation of marriage to the status of a sacrament, nevertheless it is considered a covenant between spouses before God.cf.[Ephesians 5:31-33]
Historically, five competing models of marriage in Christianity have shaped Western marriage and legal tradition:
  • The Protestant Reformationists replaced the Roman Catholic sacramental model.
  • Martin Luther saw it as a social "estate of the earthly kingdom…subject to the prince, not the Pope."
  • John Calvin taught that marriage was a covenant of grace that required the coercive power of the state to preserve its integrity.
  • Anglicans regarded marriage as a domestic commonwealth within England and the church. By the seventeenth century, Anglican theologians had begun to develop a theology of marriage to replace the sacramental model of marriage. These "regarded the interlocking commonwealths of state, church, and family as something of an earthly form of heavenly government."
  • The secularism of the Enlightenment emphasized marriage as a contract "to be formed, maintained, and dissolved as the couple sees fit."[37]
John Witte, Professor of Law and director of the Law and Religion Program at Emory University, warns that contemporary liberal attitudes toward marriage ultimately will produce a family that is "haphazardly bound together in the common pursuit of selfish ends."[37]
Latter-day Saints
A couple following their marriage in the Manti Utah Temple.
Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) believe that "marriage between a man and a woman is ordained of God and that the family is central to the Creator's plan for the eternal destiny of His children." The LDS belief is that marriage between a man and a woman can last beyond death and into eternity.[82]

Judaism

A Jewish wedding, painting by Jozef Israëls, 1903.
In Judaism, marriage is viewed as a contractual bond commanded by God in which a man and a woman come together to create a relationship in which God is directly involved.[Deut. 24:1] Though procreation is not the sole purpose, a Jewish marriage is also expected to fulfill the commandment to have children.[Gen. 1:28] The main focus centers around the relationship between the husband and wife. Kabbalistically, marriage is understood to mean that the husband and wife are merging together into a single soul. This is why a man is considered "incomplete" if he is not married, as his soul is only one part of a larger whole that remains to be unified.[83]

Islam

A Muslim bride of Pakistan origin signing the nikkah nama or marriage certificate.
A Muslim couple being wed alongside the Tungabhadra River at Hampi, India.
Islam also commends marriage, with the age of marriage being whenever the individuals feel ready, financially and emotionally.
In Islam, polygamy is allowed for men, with the specific limitation that they can only have up to four wives at any one time, given the religious requirement that they are able to and willing to partition their time and wealth equally among the respective wives.
For a Muslim wedding to take place, the bride and her guardian must both agree on the marriage. Should either the guardian or the girl disagree on the marriage, it may not legally take place. In essence, while the guardian/father of the girl has no right to force her to marry, he has the right to stop a marriage from taking place, given that his reasons are valid. The professed purpose of this practice is to ensure that a woman finds a suitable partner whom she has chosen not out of sheer emotion.
From an Islamic (Sharia) law perspective, the minimum requirements and responsibilities in a Muslim marriage are that the groom provide living expenses (housing, clothing, food, maintenance) to the bride, and in return, the bride's main responsibility is raising children to be proper Muslims. All other rights and responsibilities are to be decided between the husband and wife, and may even be included as stipulations in the marriage contract before the marriage actually takes place, so long as they do not go against the minimum requirements of the marriage.
In Shia Islam marriage must take place in the presence of at least two reliable witnesses, with the consent of the guardian of the bride and the consent of both spouses (including the girl). Following the marriage, the couple is immediately allowed to consummate the marriage. To create a religious contract between them, it is sufficient that a man and a woman indicate an intention to marry each other and recite the requisite words in front of a Muslim priest The wedding party can be held days, or months later, whenever the couple and their families want to announce the marriage in public.[84][85][86][87]
In Sunni Islam, marriage must take place in the presence of witnesses, with the consent of the bride and the consent of both spouses (including the girl). Following the marriage they may consummate their marriage.

Bahá'í

In the Bahá'í Faith marriage is encouraged and viewed as a mutually strengthening bond, but is not obligatory. A Bahá'í marriage requires the couple to choose each other, and then the consent of all living parents.[88]

Hinduism

Hindu marriage ceremony from a Rajput wedding.
.Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty that entails both religious and social obligations.^ Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty that entails both religious and social obligations.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ A Brahmin (Hindu priest) arranges a sacred yajna (fire-sacrifice), and the sacred fire (Agni) is considered the prime witness (sākshī) of the marriage.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ The Bahá'í Faith sees marriage as a foundation of the structure of society, and considers it both a physical and spiritual bond that endures into the afterlife.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

Old Hindu literature in Sanskrit gives many different types of marriages and their categorization ranging from "Gandharva Vivaha" (instant marriage by mutual consent of participants only, without any need for even a single third person as witness) to normal (present day) marriages, to "Rakshasa Vivaha" ("demoniac" marriage, performed by abduction of one participant by the other participant, usually, but not always, with the help of other persons). Hindu widows cannot remarry.[89]

Sikhism

In a Sikh marriage, the couple make rounds around the holy book called Guru Granth Sahib four times and the holy man speaks some words from the Guru Granth Sahib in the form of kirtan. The ceremony is known as 'Anand Karaj' and represents the holy union of between two souls that are united as one.

Same-sex marriage

A same-sex couple exchanging wedding vows in an Unitarian Universalist Fellowship.
For the most part, religious traditions in the world reserve marriage to heterosexual unions, but there are exceptions including Unitarian Universalist, Metropolitan Community Church, Quaker, United Church of Canada, United Church of Christ and Reform Jewish congregations, and some Anglican dioceses.[90][91] This model is currently recognized by various jurisdictions[92] and religious denominations.[93][94][95]

Financial considerations

The financial aspects of marriage vary between cultures and have changed over time.
In some cultures, dowries and bride prices continue to be required today. In both cases, the financial arrangements are usually made between the groom (or his family) and the bride's family; with the bride in many cases not being involved in the arrangement, and often not having a choice in whether to participate in the marriage.
In Early Modern Britain, the social status of the couple was supposed to be equal. After the marriage, all the property (called "fortune") and expected inheritances of the wife belonged to the husband.

Dowry

A dowry was not an unconditional gift,[in Early Modern Britain?] but was usually a part of a wider marriage settlement. For example, if the groom had other children, they could not inherit the dowry, which had to go to the bride's children. In the event of her childlessness, the dowry had to be returned to her family, but sometimes not until the groom's death or remarriage.
In some cultures, dowries continue to be required today (for example, in Sudan), while some countries impose restrictions on the payment of dowry. In India, nearly 7,000 women are killed annually in disputes over dowries,[96] and activists believe that figures represent only a third of the actual number of such murders.[97]

Bride price and dower

In other cultures, the groom or his family were expected to pay a bride price to the bride's family for the right to marry the daughter, or dower, which was payable to the bride. This required the groom to work for the bride's family for a set period of time.
In the Jewish tradition, the rabbis in ancient times insisted on the marriage couple entering into a marriage contact, called a ketubah. Besides other things, the ketubah provided for an amount to be paid by the husband in the event of a divorce or his estate in the event of his death. This amount was a replacement of the biblical dower or bride price, which was payable at the time of the marriage by the groom to the father of the bride.[citation needed] [Exodus 22:15-16] This innovation was put in place because the biblical bride price created a major social problem: many young prospective husbands could not raise the bride price at the time when they would normally be expected to marry. So, to enable these young men to marry, the rabbis, in effect, delayed the time that the amount would be payable, when they would be more likely to have the sum. It may also be noted that both the dower and the ketubah amounts served the same purpose: the protection for the wife should her support cease, either by death or divorce. The only difference between the two systems was the timing of the payment. It is the predecessor to the wife's present-day entitlement to maintenance in the event of the breakup of marriage, and family maintenance in the event of the husband not providing adequately for the wife in his will. Another function performed by the ketubah amount was to provide a disincentive for the husband contemplating divorcing his wife: he would need to have the amount to be able to pay to the wife.
Morning gifts, which might also be arranged by the bride's father rather than the bride, are given to the bride herself; the name derives from the Germanic tribal custom of giving them the morning after the wedding night. She might have control of this morning gift during the lifetime of her husband, but is entitled to it when widowed. If the amount of her inheritance is settled by law rather than agreement, it may be called dower. Depending on legal systems and the exact arrangement, she may not be entitled to dispose of it after her death, and may lose the property if she remarries. Morning gifts were preserved for many centuries in morganatic marriage, a union where the wife's inferior social status was held to prohibit her children from inheriting a noble's titles or estates. In this case, the morning gift would support the wife and children. Another legal provision for widowhood was jointure, in which property, often land, would be held in joint tenancy, so that it would automatically go to the widow on her husband's death.
Islamic tradition has similar practices. A 'mahr', either immediate or deferred, is the woman's portion of the groom's wealth (divorce) or estate (death). These amounts are usually set on the basis of the groom's own and family wealth and incomes, but in some parts these are set very high so as to provide a disincentive for the groom exercising the divorce, or the husband's family 'inheriting' a large portion of the estate, especially if there are no male offspring from the marriage. In some countries, including Iran, the mahr or alimony can amount to more than a man can ever hope to earn, sometimes up to US$1,000,000 (4000 official Iranian gold coins). If the husband cannot pay the mahr, either in case of a divorce or on demand, according to the current laws in Iran, he will have to pay it by installments. Failure to pay the mahr might even lead to imprisonment.[98]

Modern customs

In many countries today, each marriage partner has the choice of keeping his or her property separate or combining properties. In the latter case, called community property, when the marriage ends by divorce each owns half. In many legal jurisdictions, laws related to property and inheritance provide by default for property to pass upon the death of one party in a marriage firstly to the spouse and secondly to the children. Wills and trusts can make alternative provisions for property succession.
In some legal systems, the partners in a marriage are "jointly liable" for the debts of the marriage. This has a basis in a traditional legal notion called the "Doctrine of Necessities" whereby a husband was responsible to provide necessary things for his wife. Where this is the case, one partner may be sued to collect a debt for which they did not expressly contract. Critics of this practice note that debt collection agencies can abuse this by claiming an unreasonably wide range of debts to be expenses of the marriage. The cost of defense and the burden of proof is then placed on the non-contracting party to prove that the expense is not a debt of the family. The respective maintenance obligations, both during and eventually after a marriage, are regulated in most jurisdictions; alimony is one such method.
Some have attempted to analyze the institution of marriage using economic theory; for example, anarcho-capitalist economist David D. Friedman has written a lengthy and controversial study of marriage as a market transaction (the market for husbands and wives).[99] As the economic status of woman was enhanced through marrige in the past, nowadays, as more wives work, more man than woman gain economicly. [100]

Taxation

In some countries, spouses are allowed to average their incomes; this is advantageous to a married couple with disparate incomes. To compensate for this somewhat, many countries provide a higher tax bracket for the averaged income of a married couple. .While income averaging might still benefit a married couple with a stay-at-home spouse, such averaging would cause a married couple with roughly equal personal incomes to pay more total tax than they would as two single persons.^ With Jared so much taller than he, it still felt weird when they kissed standing up, but after the first couple of seconds, Jensen stopped thinking about it and let the kiss -- and Jared -- have their way with him.
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I guess I would if you stayed, but I'd rather go home."
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "If you don't want to marry me, you can still stay and live independently.
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

This is commonly called the marriage penalty.
Moreover, when the rates applied by the tax code are not based on averaging the incomes, but rather on the sum of individuals' incomes, higher rates will definitely apply to each individual in a two-earner households in progressive tax systems. This is most often the case with high-income taxpayers and is another situation where some consider there to be a marriage penalty.
Conversely, when progressive tax is levied on the individual with no consideration for the partnership, dual-income couples fare much better than single-income couples with similar household incomes. The effect can be increased when the welfare system treats the same income as a shared income thereby denying welfare access to the non-earning spouse. Such systems apply in Australia and Canada, for example.

Other considerations

Sometimes people marry for purely pragmatic reasons, sometimes called a marriage of convenience or sham marriage. For example, according to one publisher of information about "green card" marriages, "Every year over 450,000 United States citizens marry foreign-born individuals and petition for them to obtain a permanent residency (Green Card) in the United States."[101] While this is likely an over-estimate, in 2003 alone 184,741 immigrants were admitted to the U.S. as spouses of U.S. citizens.[102] Many more were admitted as fiancés of US citizens for the purpose of being married within 90 days. Regardless of the number of people entering the US to marry a US citizen, it does not indicate the number of these marriages that are convenience marriages, which number could include some of those with the motive of obtaining permanent residency, but also include many people who are US citizens. One example would be to obtain an inheritance that has a marriage clause. Another example would be to save money on health insurance or to enter a health plan with preexisting conditions offered by the new spouse's employer. Many other situations exist, and, in fact, all marriages have a complex combination of conveniences motivating the parties to marry. A marriage of convenience is one that is devoid of normal reasons to marry.
Some people want to marry a person with higher or lower status than them. Others want to marry people who have similar status. Hypergyny refers to the act of seeking out those who are of slightly higher social status. In most cases, hypergyny refers to women wanting men of higher status. Isogyny refers to the act of seeking out those who are of similar status.

Termination

In most societies, the death of one of the partners terminates the marriage, and in monogamous societies this allows the other partner to remarry, though sometimes after a waiting or mourning period.
Many societies also provide for the termination of marriage through divorce. Marriages can also be annulled in some societies, where an authority declares that a marriage never happened. In either event the people concerned are free to remarry (or marry). After divorce, one spouse may have to pay alimony.
The absolute right of two married partners to consent to divorce was only recognized in western nations in recent decades. In the United States no-fault divorce was first recognized in California in 1969 and the final state to recognize it was New York in 1989 [2].
Several cultures have practiced temporary and conditional marriages. Examples include the Celtic practice of handfasting and fixed-term marriages in the Muslim community. Pre-Islamic Arabs practiced a form of temporary marriage that carries on today in the practice of Nikah Mut'ah, a fixed-term marriage contract. Muslim controversies related to Nikah Mut'ah have resulted in the practice being confined mostly to Shi'ite communities.

Societal considerations

President of the Institute for American Values David Blankenhorn claims that children who grow up in homes where parents are married to one another are less likely to be impoverished, to have emotional or behavioral problems, to engage in premature sexual relations, to use drugs, or to commit suicide.[103]

Post-marital residence

Early theories explaining the determinants of postmarital residence (e.g., Lewis Henry Morgan, Edward Tylor, or George Peter Murdock) connected it with the sexual division of labor. However, to date, cross-cultural tests of this hypothesis using worldwide samples have failed to find any significant relationship between these two variables. However, Korotayev's tests show that the female contribution to subsistence does correlate significantly with matrilocal residence in general; however, this correlation is masked by a general polygyny factor. Although an increase in the female contribution to subsistence tends to lead to matrilocal residence, it also tends simultaneously to lead to general non-sororal polygyny which effectively destroys matrilocality. If this polygyny factor is controlled (e.g., through a multiple regression model), division of labor turns out to be a significant predictor of postmarital residence. Thus, Murdock's hypotheses regarding the relationships between the sexual division of labor and postmarital residence were basically correct, though, as has been shown by Korotayev, the actual relationships between those two groups of variables are more complicated than he expected.[104][105]
In modern societies we observe a trend toward the neolocal residence.[106]

Contemporary views on marriage

Criticisms

Many people have proposed arguments against marriage for various reasons. These include political and religious criticisms, reference to the divorce rate, as well as celibacy for religious or philosophical reasons.

Controversial views

Many controversies have arisen over the centuries in relation to marriage - including issues relating to the suitability of partners of different denominations, faiths, tribes or races, the acceptable number and minimum age of wives, the rights of partners, especially wives, and wider family obligations. For example, a contemporary controversy of particular significance in the USA concerns the exclusion of homosexual relationships from legal and social recognition and the rights and obligations it provides. Social conservatives opposed to same-sex marriage in some countries claim that any attempt to define marriage to include anything other than the union of one man and one woman would "deprive the term of its fundamental and defining meaning."[107] In other countries, polygamy is a "socially conservative" practice.[citation needed] Advocates of same-faith marriage and same-race marriage may criticize the legalization of interfaith marriage[108] and interracial marriage,[109] respectively.
Currently 37 U.S. states have passed laws which define marriage as limited to a union between one man and one woman: 33 state legislatures have passed statutes to that effect, and 4 states (Alaska, Hawaii, Nebraska and Nevada) have, by popular vote, passed Defense of Marriage Acts (DOMAs) as constitutional amendments; the Ohio state legislature is currently debating a Defense of Marriage Act. Thirteen states, therefore, do not currently have laws on their books which limit marriage to a union between one man and one woman.[110]
The state of Massachusetts has sued the U.S. federal government over its definition of marriage. The lawsuit, brought by the first state to legalize gay marriage, said the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) infringed on a state's sovereign right to define marital status. The lawsuit alleges that DOMA infringed on a state's sovereign right to define marital status and is unconstitutional.[111]

See also

Views of marriage

Types of marriages

Events and situations related to marriage

Legal issues and implications of marriage

  • Adultery - Sexual intercourse between a married person and a partner other than the lawful spouse.
  • Alimony - obligation of support.
  • Annulment - legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void.
  • Bride Price - The amount of money or property or wealth paid by the groom or his family to the parents of a woman upon the marriage of their daughter to the groom
  • Dowry - the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage
  • Head and Master laws
  • Inheritance
  • Marriage law

Other Related concepts

References

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  73. ^ See also [Mark 10:7], Gen. 2:24, Matt. 19:5, Eph. 5:31
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  86. ^ Conditions of pronouncing Nikah
  87. ^ Women with whom matrimony is Haraam
  88. ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Marriage". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 232–233. ISBN 1-85168-184-1. 
  89. ^ "Shunned from society, widows flock to city to die". CNN.com. July 5, 2007.
  90. ^ "World Religions and Same-Sex Marriage", Marriage Law Project, Columbus School of Law at The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., July 2002 revision
  91. ^ Affirming Congregations, The Episcopal Church and Ministries of the United Church of Canada
  92. ^ Arce, Rose. Massachusetts court upholds same-sex marriage. Feb. 6, 2004. CNN. Retrieved Feb. 17, 2007.
  93. ^ "Religious Groups' Official Positions on Same-Sex Marriage". pewforums.org. http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=291. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  94. ^ Shaila Dewan (July 5, 2005). "United Church of Christ Backs Same-Sex Marriage". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/05/national/05church.html. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  95. ^ "Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations BLGT Community guide". http://www.uua.org/visitors/justicediversity/6252.shtml. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  96. ^ "India's dowry deaths". BBC News. July 16, 2003.
  97. ^ "Women: killed by greed and oppression". TIME Magazine. September 11, 1995 Volume 146, No. 11
  98. ^ A translation of some parts of the Civil Code of Iran
  99. ^ The Economics of Love and Marriage
  100. ^ Richard Fry, D’Vera Cohn: Women, Men and the New Economics of Marriage, Pew Reserch Center, January 19, 2010
  101. ^ USA Immigration Support.com - Green Card Through Marriage
  102. ^ Immigration to the United States: Fiscal years 1820-2003PDF (2.03 MB)
  103. ^ Ellen McCarthy (2009-10-23). "For better or worse:Report says marriage's best days have gone by". Washington Post. Washington Post. pp. 10E. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/10/23/AR2009102300119.html. 
  104. ^ Korotayev A. Form of marriage, sexual division of labor, and postmarital residence in cross-cultural perspective: A reconsideration. Journal of anthropological research ISSN 0091-7710. 2003, Vol. 59, No. 1, pp. 69-89
  105. ^ Korotayev A. Division of Labor by Gender and Postmarital Residence in Cross-Cultural Perspective: A Reconsideration. Cross-Cultural Research. 2003, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp.335-372 (DOI: 10.1177/1069397103253685)
  106. ^ Marriage, Family, and Kinship: Comparative Studies of Social Organization, by Melvin Ember and Carol R. Ember. New Haven: HRAF Press, 1983)
  107. ^ Rabbinical Council of America (2004-03-30). "Same-Sex Marriage". Press release. http://www.rabbis.org/news/article.cfm?id=100556. 
  108. ^ 2 Corinthians 6:14 Do not be yoked together with unbelievers. For what do righteousness and wickedness have in common? Or what fellowship can light have with darkness?
  109. ^ Werner Sollors (2000-10-19). Interracialism: Black-White Intermarriage in American History, Literature, and Law (Sollors, Werner ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195128567
  110. ^ "Legal Definitions of Marriage in the United States." August 1, 2009. http://www.clgs.org/marriage/state-definitions.
  111. ^ Shishkin, Philip. "Massachusetts Sues U.S. Over Definition of Marriage." Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition; 7/9/2009, Vol. 254 Issue 7, pA3, 0p, 1 bw

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Quotes about marriage.

Contents

Sourced

  • A husband is what is left of a lover, after the nerve has been extracted.
  • Marge: Homer, is this the way you pictured married life?
    Homer: Yup, pretty much. Except we drove around in a van solving mysteries.
  • Now non-Indian people think they know all about arranged marriages. 'So I hear that when you're born, the first thing your parents do is chose a nice girl for you to marry when you're old enough.' 'No, No! It doesn't work like that. Arranged marriages are more like going to a car show. Your dad lets you look at, and compare all the cars. 'Oh that one is nice. You would like that one, you like it? Ya, you are going to get that one.' - 'Don't I get to test drive it?' - 'No, not now, wait until you are married, then you can test drive it all you want.
  • A marriage so free, so spontaneous, that it would allow of wide excursions of the pair from each other, in common or even in separate objects of work and interest, and yet would hold them all the time in the bond of absolute sympathy, would by its very freedom be all the more poignantly attractive, and by its very scope and breadth all the richer and more vital -- would be in a sense indestructible.
    • Edward Carpenter, Love's Coming of Age
  • Marriage is wonderful when it lasts forever, and I envy the old couples in When Harry Met Sally who reminisce tearfully about the day they met 50 years before. I no longer believe, however, that a marriage is a failure if it doesn't last forever. It may be a tragedy, but it is not necessarily a failure. And when a marriage does last forever with love alive, it is a miracle.
    • Peggy O'Mara, Mothering, Fall 1989
  • Marriage, n. A community consisting of a master, a mistress, and two slaves, making in all, two.
  • A bad marriage is like an electrical thrilling machine: it makes you dance, but you can't let go.
  • There's nothing a woman hates more than her fiance's best friend. He knows all the secrets she's going to spend the rest of her life trying to find out.
  • Marriage? That's for life! It's like cement!
  • Marrying means doing whatever possible to become repulsed of each other.
  • Young men not ought to marry yet, and old men never ought to marry at all.
    • Diogenes of Sinope, from Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, by Diogenes Laertus.
  • I am not against hasty marriages, where a mutual flame is fanned by an adequate income.
  • Sir, it is so far from being natural for a man and a woman to live in a state of marriage, that we find all the motives that they have for remaining in that connection, and the restraints which civilized society imposes to prevent separation, are hardly sufficient to keep them together.
  • The tragedy of marriage is that while all women marry thinking that their man will change, all men marry believing their wife will never change.
  • In the marriage ceremony, that moment when falling in love is replaced by the arduous drama of staying in love, the words "in sickness and in health, for richer, for poorer, till death do us part" set love in the temporal context in which it achieves its meaning. As time begins to elapse, one begins to love the other because they have shared the same experience... Selves may not intertwine; but lives do, and shared memory becomes as much of a bond as the bond of the flesh.
  • A man expects an angel for a wife; [yet] he knows that she is like himself -- erring, thoughtless and untrue; but like himself also, filled with a struggling radiancy of better things. ... You may safely go to school with hope; but ere you marry, should have learned the mingled lesson of the world: that hope and love address themselves to a perfection never realized, and yet, firmly held, become the salt and staff of lift; that you yourself are compacted of infirmities ... and yet you have a something in you lovable and worth preserving; and that, while the mass of mankind lies under this scurvy condemnation, you will scarce find one but, by some generous reading, will become to you a lesson, a model and a noble spouse through life. So thinking, you will constantly support your own unworthiness and easily forgive the failings of your friend. Nay, you will be wisely glad that you retain the ... blemishes; for the faults of married people continually spur up each of them, hour by hour, to do better and to meet and love upon a higher ground.
  • The godly union of souls in mutual forebearance with each other's infirmities, and mutual stimulating each other's graces--this surely is a fragment of true happiness that has survived the Fall.
    • Charles Bridges, An Exposition of Ecclesiastes, comment on Ecclesiastes 4:7-9.

Unsourced

  • Hard work is damn near as overrated as monogamy.
  • Marrying is all about just obtaining a piece of paper. Divorcing is just obtaining another.
    • Celeste Tan
  • An archaeologist is the best husband any woman can have; the older she gets, the more interested he is in her.
  • He's a wonderful first husband.
    • James Goldsmith, on his daughter Jemima's marriage to Imran Khan
  • I believe in tying the marriage knot, as long as it's around the woman's neck.
  • I first learned the concepts of non-violence in my marriage.
  • I was married by a judge. I should have asked for a jury.
  • Garth, marriage is a punishment for shoplifting in some countries.
    • Mike Myers (As Wayne Campbell)
  • Marriage is a wonderful invention; but then again, so is a bicycle puncture repair kit.
  • Marriage is the dark side of the honeymoon.
    • Leonard S. Wisdon
  • Marriage is really tough because you have to deal with feelings...and lawyers.
  • Marriage is a wonderful institution ... but who wants to live in an institution?
  • Nearly all marriages, even happy ones, are mistakes: in the sense that almost certainly (in a more perfect world, or even with a little more care in this very imperfect one) both partners might be found more suitable mates. But the real soul-mate is the one you are actually married to.
  • No man should marry until he has studied anatomy and dissected at least one woman.
  • On rare occasions one does hear of a miraculous case of a married couple falling in love after marriage, but on close examination it will be found that it is a mere adjustment to the inevitable.
  • Some people ask the secret of our long marriage. We take time to go to a restaurant two times a week. A little candlelight, dinner, soft music and dancing. She goes Tuesdays, I go Fridays.
  • The concept of marriage must have been thought up by an unimaginative pig.
  • If you want to appreciate the Sun, be a miner; to value the land, be a sailor and to long for freedom, get married!..
  • There's only one way to have a happy marriage and as soon as I learn what it is I'll get married again.
  • Thus Dante's motto over Inferno applies with equal force to marriage: "Ye who enter here leave all hope behind."
  • You only know what happiness is once you're married. But then it's too late.
  • Any marriage where the bride is allowed to speak and wear clothes is doomed to failure.
    • Quark (Star Trek: DS9)
  • Worf: "Before the wedding we must endure 5 tests. Blood, pain, sacrifice, suffering and finally, death." "Sounds like marriage all right."
    • Star Trek DS9 (You are cordially invited...)
  • Marriage is the triumph of imagination over intelligence.
  • Bigamy is having one wife too many. Monogamy is the same.
  • How marriage ruins a man! It is as demoralizing as cigarettes, and far more expensive.
  • The one charm about marriage is that it makes a life of deception absolutely necessary for both parties.
  • The proper basis for a marriage is mutual misunderstanding.
  • No one can consider themselves truly married until they understand every word their spouse is not saying.
    • Lord Mancroft
  • So heavy is the bond of marriage that it takes two, and sometimes three to bear it.
  • Instead of getting married again, I'm going to find a woman I don't like and just give her a house.
    • Louis Grizzard Quoted in Readers Digest
  • Marriage is a great institution, but I'm not ready for an institution yet.
  • A man in love is incomplete until he has married. Then he is finished.
    • Zsa Zsa gabor
  • In married life, a little hypocricy has always greased the works.
    • Swami Raj
  • A man may be a fool and not know it, but not if he is married.
  • No matter how happily a woman may be married, it always pleases her to discover that there is a nice man who wishes that she were not.
    • H L Mencken

Unknown / Anonymous

  • It is possible to affirm God's desire for committed, long-lasting intimate relationship without concluding that every marriage is ordained by God.
  • Marriage isn't a word--- it's a sentence.
  • Before marriage, boys will be boys and girls will be virgins. After marriage, boys will be boys and girls will be faithful.
  • Life is a bitch, and then you marry one.
  • As soon as you find the one to marry, just shut up and listen.
  • Weddings are the most grotesque human ceremony; Marriage the most cruel of human bondage
  • You don't marry someone you can live with, you marry the person who you cannot live without.
  • Marriage is the institution where the woman loses her name and the man his solvency.
  • Never marry someone whom you wouldn't want to be divorced from.
  • Every man should marry - after all, happiness is not the only thing in life.
  • Marriage is like falling into a black hole,you only want to do it with someone that you can take a long ride with.
  • Marriage is a relationship in which one side is always right and the other is the husband.
  • Why is marriage so expensive? Because it is worth it.
  • A wife lasts as long as a life. An ex-wife lasts forever.
  • A fate worse than death is to be married alive.
  • If you marry for love and not for money, then you'll have warm nights and cold days.
  • Why did the polygamist cross the aisle? To get to the other bride.
  • If you don't want to be tied to a raving lunatic for the rest of your life, buy a dog licence, not a marriage licence.
  • The difference between a married man and a zombie is a checkbook.
  • A man and a woman should marry when they can happily not stand each other for the rest of their lives.
  • All men are free in their minds until they get married.
  • A relationship is like taking a holiday cruise, an affair is like a being briefly on a yacht, a marriage is like staying on a raft.
  • There are always some quarrels in a relationship, there is sometimes love in a marriage.
  • Marriage is a respectable way to end a loving relationship.
  • With friends you may laugh; with your mistress you can be passionate; with your wife you should be silent.
  • Let him go let him tarry,
    Let him sink or let him swim;
    If he doesn't care for me then I don't care for him.
    For I'm going to marry a far nicer boy.
    • Old English West Country rhyme
  • The game of life ends when marriage begins.
  • Marriage is a romance in which the hero dies in the first chapter.
  • "I am" is said to be the shortest sentence in the English language. "I do" is the longest.

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up marriage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Marriage
by Susan Edmonstoune Ferrier
Information about this edition
characterised by racy humour and acute character-painting. — Excerpted from Susan Edmonstoune Ferrier on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
MARRIAGE
A Novel by Susan Ferrier
"Life consists not of a series of illustrious actions; the greater part of our time passes in compliance with necessities—in the performance of daily duties—in the removal of small inconveniences—in the procurement of petty pleasures; and we are well or ill at ease, as the main stream of life glides on smoothly, or is ruffled by small and frequent interruption." -JOHNSON.
Edinburgh Edition
IN TWO VOLUMES
VOLUME I.
LONDON
RICHARD BENTLEY & SON
Publishers in Ordinary to Her Majesty the Queen
1881
Printed by R. & R. CLARK, Edinburgh.

Table of Contents

PD-icon.svg This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MARRIAGE. Marriage (Fr. man age, from marier, to marry; Lat. maritare, from mas, maxis, a male), or " matrimony " (Lat. matrimonium, from mater, a mother), may be defined either (a) as the act, ceremony, or process by which the legal relationship of husband and wife is constituted; or (b) as a physical, legal and moral union between man and woman in complete community of life for the establishment of a family.' It is possible to discriminate between three stages, taking marriage in the latter sense as an institution - the animal or physical stage, the proprietary or legal stage, and the personal or moral stage. In the first or physical stage the relation of the sexes was unregulated, and in many cases of brief duration. In the second or legal stage greater permanence was secured in marriage by assigning the husband a property right in his wife or wives. .In the last stage the proprietary relation falls more and more into the background, and the relation of husband and wife approximates that of two individuals entirely equal before the law.^ Before Jensen could do more than step into the room, Bobby was on him, wrapping his arms and legs around Jensen.
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I've lost both my wife and my father in the last two years."
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

Although in the history of marriage these three stages have been roughly successive, the order of their entering the conscious experience of the individual is usually the reverse of their order in the development of the race; and in the solemnization of a marriage based upon affection and choice the growth of the relation begins with the moral, advances to the legal and culminates in the physical union, each one of these deriving its meaning and its worth from the preceding. In most legal systems marriage, in the sense of a ceremony, takes the form of a contract - the mutual assent of the parties being the prominent and indispensable feature. .Whether it is really a contract or not, and if so to what class of contracts it belongs, are questions which have been much discussed, but into which it is not necessary to enter.^ Jordan launched into a long discussion on his classes and teachers.
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

While the consent of parties is universally deemed one of the conditions of a legal marriage, all the incidents of the relationship constituted by the act are absolutely fixed by law. The jurist has to deal with marriage in so far as it creates the legal status of husband and wife. It should be added that, while marriage is generally spoken of by lawyers as a contract, its complete isolation from all other contracts is invariably recognized. Its peculiar position may be seen at once by comparing it with other contracts giving rise to continuous relationships with more or less indefinite obligations, like those of landlord and tenant, master and servant, &c. In these the parties may in general make their rights and duties what they please, the law only intervening when they are silent. In marriage every resulting right and duty is fixed by the law.
Besides true marriage, inferior forms of union have from time to time been recognized, and may be briefly noticed here. These have all but disappeared from modern society, depending as they do on matrimonial restrictions now obsolete.
The institution of slavery is a fruitful source of this kind of debased matrimony. In Roman law no slave could contract marriage whether with another slave or a free person. .The union of male and female slaves (contubernium) was recognized for various purposes; a free woman entering into a union with a slave incurred under the S.C. Claudianum the forfeiture of her own liberty; but the bondwoman might be the concubine of a freeman.^ The smooth hard taste, the musky smell, the feel of Jared shuddering under his hands made his own cock ache, tightening with each stroke of Jared's cock into his mouth.
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

In the United States, where slavery was said to be regulated by the principle of the civil) law, the marriage of slaves was so far recognized that on emancipation complete matrimony took effect and the children became legitimate without any new ceremony.
It is doubtless true, as anthropologists have pointed out, that in the history of the race " marriage is rooted in the family rather than the family in marriage " (Westermarck: History of Human Marriage, p. 22); but in that conscious experience of the individual with which law and ethics are especially concerned, this relationship is reversed, and the family originates in marriage (see Family, and allied headings).
In Roman law no legal marriage could be contracted unless there was connubium between the parties. Originally there was no connubium between plebs and patricians, and the privilege was conceded after a long struggle by the Lex Canuleia. In later times Latini and Peregrini were excluded from connubium except where the right had been expressly conferred. The great matrimonial law of the early empire (Lex Julia et Papia Poppaea) introduced restrictions depending on the condition of the parties which later legislation extended and perpetuated. Senators under that law were forbidden to marry freedwomen or women of inferior rank, and the husband of a freedwoman becoming a senator was set free from his marriage. In the canon law new restrictions were developed. Persons who bound themselves not to marry were deemed incapable of marrying. The order of the clergy were forbidden to marry. And disparity of faith was recognized by the early church as a bar to matrimony, e.g. between Christians and pagans .and between orthodox and heretics (see Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, art. " Marriage ").
Concubinage, which such restrictions tended to develop, is noticed under a separate heading (q.v.). .It might be described as marriage which has no consequences, or only slight and peculiar consequences, in legal status. In the left-handed or " morganatic " marriages of the German royal families we have the nearest approach ever made by concubinage to true marriage, the children being legitimate, but neither they nor the wife acquiring any right to the rank or fortune of the husband.^ "They did marry, and I was legitimized, but that isn't nearly as good as being born legitimate.
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

The marriage of persons of different religions frequently requires the intervention of the law as to the faith of the children, more particularly in Europe as between Roman Catholics and Protestants. English law gives the father, except under special circumstances, the right to dictate the faith of his children (see Infant). The practice on this point varies in Europe - the question being ignored in French law, Germany following in some parts the same rule as England, in others giving effect to ante-nuptial stipulations. In Ireland mixed marriages (i.e. between Roman Catholic and Protestant) were by 19 Geo. II. c. 13 null and void if celebrated by a Roman Catholic priest. This act was repealed by 33 & 34 Vict. c. I10, which permits mixed marriages to be validly celebrated by an Episcopalian or Roman Catholic clergyman, subject to conditions set forth in § 38.
Roman law. - The three primitive modes of marriage were confarreatio, coemptio in manum, and usus, all of which had the effect of placing the woman in the " power " (manus) of her husband, and on the same footing as the children. The first was a religious ceremony before ten witnesses, in which an ox was sacrificed and a wheaten cake broken and divided between the spouses by the priest. Coemptio was a conveyance of the woman by mancipatio, and might be described as a fictitious sale per aes et libram, like that employed in emancipation and testamentary disposition and other processes. Usus was the acquisition of the wife by prescription, through her cohabiting with the husband for one year, without having been absent from his house three continuous nights. .But a true marriage might be concluded without adopting any of these modes, and they all fell into desuetude and with them the subjection of the wife to the manus. Marriage without manus was contracted by the interchange of consent, without writing or formality of any kind.^ It might be easier for all of them if they did.
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

By some jurists it is regarded as incomplete until consummated by delivery of the woman, and is accordingly referred to the class of real contracts. The restrictions as to age, relationship by consanguinity and affinity, previous marriage, &c., were in the main those which have continued to prevail in modern Europe with one important exception. The consent of the paterfamilias to the marriage of the children undor his power was essential.
Canon law. - The canon law of marriage is based partly on the Roman law, the validity of which the Church from the first recognized, partly on the Jewish law as modified by the new principles introduced by Christ and his apostles, developed by the fathers of the Church and medieval schoolmen, and regulated and defined by popes and councils. The most important of these principles was that of the indissolubility of marriage, proclaimed by Christ without qualification according to Mark x. II, 12, and with the qualifying clause " saving for the cause of fornication " according to Matt. v. 32. This lofty view of marriage, according to which man and wife are made " one The restrictions are enumerated in the following lines: Error, Conditio, Votum, Cognatio, Crimen, Cultus, Disparitas, Vis, Ordo, Ligamen, Honestas, Aetas, Affinis, si Clandestinus et Impos, Raptave sit mulier nec parti reddita tutae.
flesh " by the act of God (" What therefore God hath joined together, let no man put asunder," Mark x. 9) was, however, modified by the idea of the consummating act of marriage as in itself something unholy, a result of the Fall. Christ himself, indeed, did not teach this; but for St Paul marriage is clearly a concession to the weakness of the flesh (i Cor. vii.). ." The time is short," and in view of the imminent coming of the Lord the procreation of children a matter of no importance (v.^ And yes, it did occur to him that he'd come a long way in a short time.
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

29), but " it is better to marry than to burn " (v. 9). He is, however, obviously not clear on the point, and at the end of his argument strikes a note of doubt (v. 40); elsewhere he defends marriage, against those who would have forbidden it altogether, as a gift of God (I Tit. iv. 3-5) and even, in seeming contradiction to i Cor. vii. 29, commands the bearing of children (I Tit. v. 14). Finally it is to St Paul that the idea of marriage as a sacrament is to be traced, in the mystic comparison of the relations of husband and wife to those of Christ and his Church (Eph. v. 23-32). These are the main foundations in Scripture on which the Christian law of marriage is built up, and they are obviously principles which admit of a large amount of variety of interpretation and of practice. They were developed in the early Church under the influence of the rapidly growing passion for the celibate life, partly an outcome of the same dualistic principle which produced the asceticism of the Jewish Essenes and of the Gnostics, partly perhaps a natural reaction from the appalling moral corruption of the decaying empire. .Marriage, it is true, from being no more than a terminable civil contract, became a thing holy, a mystic union of souls and bodies never to be divided; valid, indeed, but not spiritually complete, without the public blessing of the Church (Tertullian, Ad uxorem, lib.^ No one ever suggests it, like it's bad form or something, but I'm a lot more comfortable without the tie."
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

ii. cap. 9); and from Augustine's time onward it was reckoned as a sacrament. But at the same time there was a tendency to restrict its rights and its range. So far as marriage was a physical union, this had for its object solely the perpetuation of the race and the avoidance of fornication; the most that was conceded was that the intention of having offspring not only made the conjugal act blameless, but even gave to the desire that inspired it an element of good (Augustine, de nupt. et conc. 3). But the ideal married life was that attributed to Mary and Joseph. Thus Augustine cited this as an example that a true marriage may exist where there is a mutual vow of chastity (op. cit. 12), and held that the sooner this relation was established the better (de bono conjug. 22). Marriage being then an inferior state, to be discouraged rather than the reverse, the tendency was rapidly to narrow the field within which it might be contracted. Remarriage (bigamy) was only allowed after many struggles, and then only to the laity; St Paul had laid down that a " bishop " must be " the husband of one wife," and to this day the priests of the Orthodox Eastern Church may not remarry. Clerical celibacy, at first a counsel of perfection, was soon to become the rule of the Church, though it was long before it was universally enforced in the West; in the East it still applies only to monks, nuns and bishops (see Celibacy). The marriage of the laity was hampered by the creation of a number of impediments. The few and definite prohibitions of the Roman and of the Jewish law (Lev. xviii. 6-18; xx.) in the matter of marriage between kindred, were indefinitely extended; until in 506 the council of Agde laid it down that any consanguinity or affinity whatever constituted an impediment. 2 Moreover, man and wife being " one flesh," the Church exaggerated relationship by affinity into equal importance with that of consanguinity as an impediment to matrimony; and, finally, to all this added the impediments created by " spirtual affinity," i.e. the relations established between baptizer and baptized, confirmer and confirmed, and between godparents, their godchildren and their godchildren's relatives.
The result of this system was hopeless confusion and I Canon lxi. Aut qui ex propria consanguinitate aliquam, aut quam consanguineus habuit. duceret uxorem. .. incestos esse non dubitamus (Mansi Conc. viii. p. 336). According to the canon law " affinity " is the relation between two persons of whom one has had commerce, licit or illicit, with a relation of the other.
uncertainty, and it was early found necessary. to modify it. This was done by Pope Gregory I., who limited the impediment to the 7th degree of relationship inclusive (civil computation)' which was afterwards made the law of the empire by Charlemagne. Later still Innocent III. found it necessary again to issue a decree (4th Lateran Council) permitting marriages between a husband and the relations of his wife, and vice versa, beyond the 4th degree inclusive (canonical computation). 2 This remains the canonical rule of the Roman Catholic Church. As regards impediments due to spiritual affinity, these were limited by the Council of Trent to the relation of the baptizer and baptized; the baptizer and the parents of the baptized; the baptizer and the godfather and godmother; the godparents and the baptized and its parents: i.e. a godfather may not marry the mother of the child he has held at the font, nor the godmother the father of such child.
In the fully developed canon law impediments to marriage are of two kinds, public and private (impedimenta publica and privata), i.e. according as the objection arises out of the very nature of marriage itself or from consideration for the rights of particular persons; near relationship, for instance, is a public impediment, impotence (impotentia) and force (vis et metus) are private impediments. .Impediments are further divided into separating (impedimenta dirimentia) or merely suspensive (impedimenta tantum impedientia); to the first class belongs, e.g. a previous marriage not dissolved by death, which involves the nullification of the marriage even where through ignorance the crime of bigamy is not involved; to the second belongs the case of one or both of the contracting parties being under the age of puberty.^ Later that evening, when both boys were in bed and Jared's mom was in one of the many guest rooms, Jensen finally got back to their room.
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After they'd run the gantlet of Jared's mother and both boys, Jensen finally got Jared into one of the other guestrooms.
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

3 Impediments, moreover, are absolute or relative, according as they are of universal application or only affect certain persons; near relationship, for instance, is an absolute impediment, difference of religion between the parties a relative impediment. In addition to consanguinity and affinity, impuberty and existing marriage, the canon law lays down as public and absolute impediments to marriage the taking of holy orders and the vows of chastity made on entering any of the religious orders approved by the Holy See. .In these impediments the canon law further distinguishes between those which are based on the law of nature (jus naturae) and those which are based on the law of the Church (jus ecclesiae). From impediments based on the law of nature, or of God, there is no power even in the pope to dispense; e.g. marriage of father and daughter, brother and sister, or remarriage of husband or wife during the lifetime of the wife or husband of another marriage, which is held to be a violation of the very nature of marriage as 1 The civil law counts, in the direct line, as many degrees as there are generations between the parties; e.g. the son is in regard to his father in the 1st degree, the grandson in the 2nd, and vice versa.^ Despite watching Welling delete the most graphic and intimate of the photos, there were still enough of them there to condemn him -- especially if they read between the lines.
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^ Even from far away there was no mistaking who they were or what they were doing.
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.In the collateral line it computes degrees by generations, i.e. from one of the relations to the common ancestor, without including him or her, and from him or her back to the other relation; e.g. two brothers are in the 2nd degree of relationship to one another, uncle and nephew in the 3rd, cousins-german in the 4th.^ One of Jared's hands was on Jensen's face, holding his jaw tenderly, and the other slid down to Jensen's arm to pull him closer.
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^ Jensen wanted to explore it all; he wrapped his other arm around Jared's wide shoulders and pulled him in for another kiss.
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^ For another second, Jensen stared at them and they stared back at him.
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The canon law, which in this case derives from the old Germanic law, has the same computation as regards the direct line. .In the case of collateral relations, however, it differs, having two rules: (1) In the case of equal line - i.e. when the collaterals are equally removed from the common progenitor, it reckons the same number of degrees between the collaterals as between one of them and the progenitor; e.g. brothers are related in the 1st degree, while cousinsgerman are related in the 2nd degree because they are two generations from the common grandfather.^ It shouldn't be the first thing people thought of when they saw two men together, especially when one of them was a freakin' king.
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^ Despite watching Welling delete the most graphic and intimate of the photos, there were still enough of them there to condemn him -- especially if they read between the lines.
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(2) In the case of unequal line - i.e. when the collaterals are unequally removed from the common ancestor, the degree of their relationship is that of the most remote from the common progenitor; e.g. uncle and niece are related in the 2nd degree - i.e. that of the niece to the grandfather.
The civil computation was furiously attacked by canonists as tending to laxity (see Peter Damianus, " De parentelae gradibus," in Migne, Patrol. Lat. cxlv. 191, &c.).
2 Innocent III. also decided that the husband's relations were not related to those of the wife, and vice versa, thus establishing the rule that " affinity does not breed affinity " (affinitas non parit affinitatem). This is fixed by the canon law at 14 for a male, 12 for a female. If, however, owing to the precocious physical development of a girl, the marriage has been consummated before she has reached this age, it cannot be nullified.
an indissoluble union. 4 From impediments arising out of the law of the Church dispensations are granted, more or less readily, either by the pope or by the bishop of the diocese in virtue of powers delegated by the pope (see Dispensation). Thus dispensations may be granted for marriage between persons related by consanguinity in any beyond the 2nd degree and not in the direct line of ascent or descent; e.g. between uncle and niece (confined by the council of Trent to the case of royal marriages for reasons of state) and between cousins-german, or in the case of marriage with a heretic. In this latter case a dispensation is now (i.e. since the papal decrees ne temere of the 2nd of August 1907, which came into force at Easter 1908) only granted on condition that the parties are married by a Catholic bishop, or a priest accredited by him, that no religious ceremony shall take place except in a Catholic church, and that all the children shall be brought up in the Roman Catholic faith.' In the absence of any impediment a marriage is according to the canon law completed between baptized persons by the facts of consent and consummation; the principle isstill maintained that the parties to the marriage, not the priest, are the " ministers of the sacrament " (ministri sacramenti). 6 From the first, however, the Church, while recognizing the validity of private contracts, enjoined the addition of a public religious ceremony, so that they might be " sanctified by the word of God and prayer " (1 Tim. iv. 5). 7 Tertullian (de pudicitia, cap. iv.) says that clandestine marriages, not professed in the Church, were reckoned among Christians as all but fornication, and he speaks of the custom of seeking permission to marry from the bishop, priests and deacons (de monogamia, cap. xi.). This latter precaution became increasingly necessary as impediments were multiplied, and Charlemagne, in a capitulary of 802, forbade the celebration of a marriage until " the bishops, priests and elders of the people " had made diligent inquiry into the question of the consanguinity of the parties. This was the origin of the publication of banns which, long customary in France, was made obligatory on the whole Church by Pope Innocent III. In the Eastern Church the primitive practice survives in the ceremonial blessing by the priest of the betrothal, as distinguished from the marriage ceremony. The ecclesiastical recognition of clandestine marriages, however, survived until the crying evil was remedied 4 It is maintained that no pope has ever given a dispensation for such a marriage. Such a case seems, however, to be narrated by Ordericus VitaIis (Hist. eccles. viii. 23; ed. A. le Prevost, Paris, 1838-855, t. iii. p. 408; ed. A. Duchesne, 1619, 704 B). Robert Mowbray, earl of Northumberland, had only been married to Maud de Laigle three months when he was condemned to perpetual imprisonment for rebellion against King William Rufus. After describing her forlorn state Orderic continues: " Nec ipsa eo vivente, secundum legem Dei, alteri nubere legitime valebat. Tandum, permissu Paschalis Papae (II.), cui res, a curiosis enucleata, patuit, post multos dies Nigellus de Albineo ipsam uxorem accepit." .This may mean no more, of course, than that the curiosi " untied the knot " by discovering an impediment - the usual expedient in such cases.^ He wanted nothing more than to strip Jared bare -- except for the boots of course -- and lie down in the grass so that Jared could fuck him.
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In any case the fact that Nigel de Albini, in his turn, soon afterwards obtained a " divorce " from her on the ground that her first husband was his relative by consanguinity, hardly points to a strict view of the sanctity of the marriage tie.
' The customary rule for more than three centuries after the Council of Trent was that male children followed the religion of the father, female children that of the mother. On the general subject of the attitude of the Church towards mixed marriages see O. D. Watkins, Holy Matrimony, pp. 468 et seq. For the Roman Catholic view see " An Instruction on Mixed Marriages " in Bishop Ullathorne's Eccl. Discourses (London, 1876).
Among the " errors " denounced by Pope Pius IX. in the Syllabus of 1864 is lxvi.: Matrimonii sacramentum non est, nisi quid contractui accessorium ab eoque separabile, ipsumque sacramentum in una tantum nuptiali benedictione situm est." This condemns the attempts of certain canonists (e.g. Melchior Cano) to distinguish between the contractus naturalis and sacramentalis. This view, which was first advanced by the jurist and theologian Johanna Gropper (1502-1559) at the council of Cologne (1536), and gained support especially in France, makes the " matter " of the sacrament the consent of the parties, the " form " the prayers and benedictions, the " minister " the priests (see e.g. " Du sacrament de mariage " in vol. v. of the Dissertationes selectae of Petrus de Marca, d. 1662, archbishop of Paris, Bamberg, 1789, p. 148).
See the list of quotations from the early fathers given by Watkins, Holy Matrimony, p. 93.
by a decree of the council of Trent (Sess. xiv. de matrim.), 1 which laid it down that for a valid marriage it was at least necessary that consent should be declared before a priest and in the presence of three witnesses. According to the actual law of the Roman Catholic Church, then, a civil marriage is only valid when the Tridentine decree has not been published; where this has been published, or has been in practice without publication, such a marriage can only become valid if followed by a religious ceremony in the prescribed form. Where such form has not followed the ecclesiastical courts must treat the marriage as voidable through the impedimentum clandestinitatis. Divorce, i.e. the annulment of marriage for any cause but an impediment which makes the marriage ipso facto void, is unknown to the Roman Catholic Church. Separation a vinculo matrimonii is only possible under the canon law by a judicial decree of nullity (annullatio matrimonii), which implies, not the severing of the ties of a real marriage, but the solemn declaration that such marriage has never existed. There may, however, be a " separation from bed and board " (a thoro et mensa), even perpetual, which does not however give either party the right to remarry during the lifetime of the other. But, marriage not being regarded as a sacrament until consummated, it may be dissolved, if non-consummation be proved, by one or both parties taking the religious vows, or by papal dispensation. The Church claims exclusive control over marriage, and the council of Trent anathematized the opinion held by Luther and other Reformers, that it was properly a subject for the civil courts (si quis dixerit causas matrimoniales non spectare ad judices ecclesiasticos anathema sit, Sess. xxiv. cap. 2). This attitude became of extreme political importance when even in Catholic countries the codes established civil marriage as the only legally binding form.
England.-Marriage may be the subject of an ordinary contract on which an action may be brought by either party. It is not necessary that the promise should be in writing, or that any particular time should be named. Promises to marry are not within the meaning of " agreement made in consideration of marriage " in the statute of frauds, which requires such agreements to be in writing. Contracts in restraint of marriage, i.e. whose object is to prevent a person from marrying anybody whatever, are void, as are also contracts undertaking for reward to procure a marriage between two persons. These latter are termed marriage brocage contracts.
Any man and woman are capable of marrying, subject to certain disabilities, some of which are said to be canonical as having been formerly under the cognisance of the ecclesiastical courts, others civil. The effect of a canonical disability as such was to make the marriage not void but voidable. The marriage must be set aside by regular process, and sentence pronounced during the lifetime of the parties. Natural inability at the time of the marriage to procreate children is a canonical disability. .So was relationship within the prohibited degrees, which has been made an absolute avoidance of marriage by the Marriage Act 1835. Civil disabilities are (1) the fact that either party is already married and has a spouse still living; 2 (2) the fact that either person is a party of unsound mind; (3) want of full age, which for this purpose is fixed at the age of puberty as defined in the Roman law, viz.^ "If you don't want to marry me, you can still stay and live independently.
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fourteen for males and twelve for females; 3 (4) relationship within the prohibited degrees.
The statute which lawyers regard as establishing the rule on 1 The later teaching of the Eastern Church is laid down in the Orthodox Confession of Peter Mogilas, patriarch of Kiev (2640). There are three essentials for a Christian marriage: (1) suitable matter (An ap, o&oc), i.e. a man and woman whose union no impediment bars, (2) a duly ordained bishop or priest, (3) the invocation of the Holy Ghost, and the solemnity of the formularies Ao'yLwv). 2 A divorce nisi does not enable the parties to marry until it is made absolute.
A marriage in which either of the parties is below the age of consent is, however, said to be not absolutely void; if the parties agree to continue together at the age of consent no new marriage is necessary, but either of them may disagree and avoid the marriage.
this last point is the 32 Hen. VIII. c. 38 (repealed in part by 2 & 3 Edw. VI. c. 23, in whole by i & 2 P. and M. c. 8, but revived by I Eliz. c. i, and so left as under the Act of Edward), which enacts that " no prohibition, God's law except, shall trouble or impeach any marriage without the Levitical degrees." The forbidden marriages, as more particularly specified in previous statutes, are those between persons in the ascending and descending line in infinitum, and those between collaterals to the third degree inclusive, according to the computation of the civil law. The prohibitions extend not only to consanguinei (related by blood) but to affines (related by marriage), now altered so far as a deceased wife's sister is concerned (see below). The act of 1835 enacted that " all marriages which shall hereafter be celebrated between persons within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity or affinity shall be absolutely null and void to all intents and purposes whatsoever." They had previously been only voidable. The act at the same time legalized marriages within the prohibited degrees of affinity (but not consanguinity) actually celebrated before the 31st of August 183 5.
For many years an active and ceaseless agitation was carried on on behalf of the legalization in England of marriage with a deceased wife's sister. In all the self-governing colonies, with the M arriage exception of Newfoundland, the restriction had ceased to kith a exist. The first act legalizing marriage with a deceased Deceased wife's sister was adopted by South Australia. The Wife's royal assent, however, was not given till the parliament Sister. of that state had five times passed the bill. In quick succession similar statutes followed in Victoria, Tasmania, New South Wales, Queensland, New Zealand, West Australia, Barbados, Canada, Mauritius, Natal and Cape Colony. As regards the Channel Islands, marriages of the kind in question were made legal in 1899, and in 1907 in the Isle of Man.
In England the bill to render marriage with a deceased wife's sister valid was first adopted by the House of Commons in 1850, and rejected by the House of Lords in 1851. It was subsequently brought before the legislature in 1855, 1856, 1858, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1866, 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1875, 1877 and 1878 (Colonial bills), 1879 (6th May, when in the House of Lords the prince of Wales and the duke of Edinburgh voted in favour of it), 1880, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1886, 1888, 1889, 1890, 1891, 1896, and 1898 and 1900 (Colonial bills). In most cases it passed the House of Commons but was rejected in the House of Lords. The bill of 1896, however, which was judiciously drafted to avoid the compulsory celebration by clergymen of marriages against which they had conscientious scruples, was carried in the Lords. Both the prince of Wales and the duke of York were among the " contents." The prime minister and eighteen bishops, including the two archbishops, voted against the bill, the earl of Rosebery and Lord Kimberley for it. At the third reading the bill was carried by 142 to 104 votes. Its promoters, however, did not succeed in getting an opportunity of bringing it before the House of Commons.
From 1896 to 1901 no further direct steps were taken, but in 1898 and again in 1900 (May 28) the subject was brought forward in the House of Lords by Lord Strathcona in the form of a bill under which marriages with a deceased wife's sister contracted in any British colony should be deemed valid for all purposes within the United Kingdom. In 1898, and again in 1900, the bill was carried on the third reading without a dissentient vote. The House of Commons took no action on either occasion. An imperial bill reached a second reading in the House of Commons in 1901 and again in 1902, but it was blocked by the High Church opponents of the measure when attempts were made to get it to the committee stage (Feb. 5 and June 6). The reform was, however, finally adopted in 1906 under the title of the Colonial Marriages (Deceased Wife's Sister) Act. .The effect of the act was to make such marriages legal in all respects, including the right of succession to real property and to honours and dignities within the United Kingdom.^ It so wouldn't be good for Chris to see his face right then, not with it turning such a brilliant shade of red and all.
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The natural sequence of the passing of the act of 1906 was the reintroduction in 2907 of the bill relating to England. Introduced by a private member, it was adopted by the government, passed the House of Commons, and finally the House of Lords (on the second reading by III votes to 79), and became law as the Deceased Wife's Sister Marriage Act, 1907. The act contains a proviso justifying clergymen in refusing to solemnize marriages with a deceased wife's sister, and it preserves the peculiar status of the wife's sister under the Matrimonial Causes Act 1857, under which adultery with her by the husband is incestuous adultery.
The celebration of marriages is now regulated wholly by statutory legislation. The most important acts in force are the Marriage Acts 1823, 1836, 1886 and 1898.4 The former regulates marriages 4 A complete list of the acts regulating the solemnization of marriage or confirming marriages, which through some defect might be void, will be found in Phillimore's Ecclesiastical Law (2nd ed. 1895).
within the Church of England, but was intended to be of universal application, Jews and Quakers only being excepted by section 31. It requires either the previous publication of banns, or a licence from the proper ecclesiastical authority. As to banns, the rule of the rubric, so far as not altered by the statute, is required to be observed. They must be published on three successive Sundays at morning service after the second lesson, in the church of the parish in which the parties dwell; the bishop may, however, authorize the publication of banns in a public chapel. Seven days' notice must be given to the clergyman of the names of the parties, their place of abode, and the time during which they have lived, there. If either party is under age, the dissent of the parents or guardians expressed at the time of publication of banns renders such publication null and void. Licence in lieu of banns may only be granted by the archbishop, bishop or other authority, for the solemnization of a marriage within the church of the parish in which one of the parties shall have resided for fifteen days before. Before a licence can be granted an oath must be taken as to the fact of residence and that the necessary consent has been obtained in the case of persons under age. The father, or lawful guardian, is the proper person to consent to the marriage of a minor, and the place of any such person incapacitated mentally is taken by the lord chancellor. The absence of such consent does not, however, avoid a marriage once solemnized. But if persons wilfully intermarry (unless by special licence) in a place not being a church or public chapel, or without due publication of banns or proper licence, or before a person not in holy orders, the marriage is null and void to all purposes. Marriage must be celebrated within three months after banns or licence, and between the hours of eight in the morning and three in the afternoon.
For the relief of the great body of Dissenters the act of 1836 was passed. Itermits marriage to be solemnized in two additional ways - viz. (11) by certificate of the superintendent registrar of a district without licence, and (2) by such certificate with licence. .In the first case, notice must be given to the registrar of the district or districts within which the parties have resided for seven days previous, which notice is inscribed in a marriage-notice book, open to public inspection at all reasonable times, and thereafter suspended for twenty-one days in some conspicuous place in the registrar's office.^ For some reason that Jensen wasn't ready to identify, he wanted to know all the little details about Jared's life.
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Any person whose consent is necessary to an ecclesiastical licence may forbid the issue of a certificate, but in default of such prohibition the certificate will issue at the end of the twenty-one days. .The marriage may then take place on any day within three months of the entry of notice, and in one of the following ways: (I) in a certified place of religious worship, registered for the solemnization of marriage; in that case a registrar of the district with two witnesses must be present, and the ceremony must include a mutual declaration of assent by the parties and a disavowal of any impediment; (2) at the superintendent registrar's office, with the same declaration, but with no religious service; (3) in a church according to the usual form, the consent of the minister thereof having been previously obtained; (4) according to the usages of Jews and Quakers.^ Everyone seemed to be the same rank, and no one was older than early twenties.
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The place of marriage in all cases must have been specified in the notice and certificate.
In the second case, when it is desired to proceed by licence, notice must be given to the registrar of the district in which one of the persons resides, together with a declaration that he or she has resided for fifteen days therein, that there is no impediment, and that the necessary consents if any have been obtained. The notice is not exhibited in the registrar's office, and the certificate may be obtained at the expiration of one whole day after entry, together with the licence. No registrar's licence can be granted for a marriage in church or according to the forms of the Church of England - the ecclesiastical authorities retaining their jurisdiction in that respect. It is also provided that in the case of persons wilfully intermarrying in a place other than that mentioned in the notice and certificate, or without notice or certificate, &c., the marriage shall be null and void.
The various rules as to consent of parents, &c., to the marriages of minors are regulations of procedure only. The absence of the necessary consent is not a disability invalidating a marriage actually solemnized.
The Act 26 Geo. II. c. 33, commonly known as Lord Hardwicke's Act, which forbids the solemnization of marriage without banns or licence, also enacts that " in no case whatsoever shall any suit or proceeding be had in any ecclesiastical court in order to compel a celebration in facie ecclesiae, by reason of any contract of matrimony whatsoever whether per verba de presenti or per verba de futuro." Blackstone observes that previous to this act " any contract made per verba de presenti, or in words of the present tense, and in case of cohabitation per verba de futuro also, was deemed valid marriage to many purposes; and the parties might be compelled in the spiritual courts to celebrate it in facie ecclesiae." Royal marriages in England have been subject to special laws. The Royal Marriage Act of 1772 (12 Geo. III. c. I I), passed in consequence of the marriages of the dukes of Cumberland and Gloucester, enacted that " no descendant of his late majesty George II. (other than the issue of princesses married or who may marry into foreign families) shall be capable of contracting matrimony without the previous consent of his majesty, his heirs and successors, signified under the Great Seal. But in case any descendant of George II., being above twenty-five years old, shall persist to contract a marriage disapproved of by his majesty, such descendant, after giving twelve months' notice to the privy council, may contract such marriage, and the same may be duly solemnized without the consent of his majesty, &c., and shall be good except both Houses of Parliament shall declare their disapprobation thereto." In 1886 an act was passed in the British parliament to remove doubts which had been entertained as to the validity of certain marriages solemnized in England when one of the parties was resident in Scotland. The Summary Jurisdiction (Married Women) Act of 1895 enabled a wife whose husband is convicted of an assault on her, or who has been deserted by him, or been obliged owing to his cruelty to live apart from him, to apply to the justices, who are empowered by the act to make an order for separation and for payment by the husband to his wife of such weekly sum, not exceeding two pounds, as they may consider reasonable. The Marriage Act 1898 authorized the celebration of marriages in places of worship duly registered for the solemnization of marriages under the Marriage Act of 1836 without the presence of the registrar, on condition of their being solemnized in the presence of a person duly authorized by the governing body of the place of worship in question. It also made further provision for the due recording of all marriages in the general registers. The Marriages Validity Act of 1899 removed doubts as to the validity of marriages in England on Irish banns and in Ireland on English banns. Lastly, the Marriage with Foreigners Act 1906 enabled a British subject desirous of marrying a foreigner in a foreign country to comply with the foreign law by obtaining from a registrar a certificate that no legal impediment to the marriage has been shown. Similar certificates, by arrangement between His Majesty and foreign countries, are issued in the case of a foreigner desirous of marrying a British subject in the United Kingdom.
The Foreign Marriage Act 1892 has consolidated the English law relating to marriages celebrated abroad, and brings it into harmony with the current tendencies of marriage law reform generally. Under it a marriage between British subjects abroad is as valid as a marriage duly solemnized in England (as heretofore), if celebrated in accordance with the local law or in the presence of diplomatic or consular agents who are appointed to act as " marriage officers." The old fiction of assimilation of a British embass y to British soil can no longer be relied upon to uphold a marriage at a British embassy solemnized by an ordained clergyman. An order in council of the 28th of October 1892, moreover, provides that in the case of any marriage under the act, if it appears to the marriage officer that the woman about to be married is a British subject, and that the man is an alien, he must be satisfied that the marriage will be recognized by the law of the foreign country to which the alien belongs.
A marriage may be solemnized on board one of His Majesty's ships at a foreign station, provided a warrant of a secretary of state has authorized the commanding officer to be a marriage officer. At sea, marriages on British public or private ships seem still valid at common law, if performed by an episcopally ordained minister. The Merchant Shipping Act 1894 (sect. 240) provides that the master of a ship for which an official log is required shall enter in it every marriage taking place on board, with the names and ages of the parties.
Again, under the Foreign Marriage Act all marriages solemnized within the British lines by a chaplain or officer or other person officiating under the orders of the commanding officer of a British army serving abroad, are as valid in law as if they had been solemnized within the United Kingdom subject to due observance of all forms required by law. The Naval Marriages Act 1908 authorizes, for the purpose of marriages in the United Kingdom, the publication of banns and the issue of certificates on board His Majesty's ships in certain cases, or when one of the parties to a marriage intended to be solemnized in the United Kingdom is an officer, seaman or marine, borne on the books of one of His Majesty's ships at sea.
The principle of the English law of marriage, that a marriage contracted abroad is valid if it has been solemnized according to the lex loci, may be now taken to apply just as much to a marriage in a heathen as in a Christian country. Whether the marriage has or has not been celebrated according to Christian laws has no bearing upon the question, providing it is a monogamous marriage - a marriage which prevents the man who enters into it from marrying any other woman while his wife continues alive.
Table of contents

Scotland

The chief point of distinction, as compared with English law, is the recognition of irregular marriages. (1) " A public or regular marriage," says Fraser, " is one celebrated, after due proclamation of banns, by a minister of religion; and it may be celebrated either in a church or in a private house, and on any day of the week at any hour of the day." The ministers of the National Church at first alone could perform the ceremony; but the privilege was extended to Episcopalians by I o Anne c. 7 (1711), and to other ministers by 4 and 5 Will. IV. c. 28 (1834). (2) A marriage may also " be constituted by declarations made by the man and the woman that they presently do take each other for husband and wife." These declarations " may be emitted on any day at any time and without the presence of witnesses," and either by writing or orally or by signs, and in any form which is clearly expressive of intention. Such a marriage is as effectual to all intents and purposes as a public marriage. The children of it would be legitimate; and the parties to it would have all the rights in the property of each other, given by the law of Scotland to husband and wife. (3) A promise followed by copula does not constitute marriage, unless followed either by solemnization in facie ecclesiae or declarator. Lord Moncreiff's opinion in the case of Brown v. Burns is admitted to be good law, viz. that declarator is essential to the constitution of a marriage of this kind, so that, if no such declarator be brought in the lifetime of both parties, the marriage can never be established afterwards. The copula is presumed to have reference to the promise, but evidence may be adduced to show that such was not the case.
By the Marriage (Scotland) Act 1856 it is enacted that no irregular marriage shall be valid in Scotland, unless one of the parties has lived in Scotland for the twenty-one days next preceding the marriage, or has his or her usual residence there at the time.
" Habit and repute " has sometimes been spoken of as constituting marriage in the law of Scotland, but it is more correctly described as evidence from which marriage may be inferred. The repute must be the general, constant, and unvarying belief of friends and neighbours, not merely the controverted opinion of a section of them. The cohabitation must be in Scotland, but in one case proof of cohabitation in another country was allowed, as tending to throw light on the nature of the cohabitation in Scotland.
The consent of parents is not necessary to the validity of the marriage, even of minors, but marriage under the age of puberty with or without such consent is void.

United States

The absence of ecclesiastical courts has suggested difficulties as to the extent to which the law of England on this subject continued to prevail after the revolution. Bishop holds it to be the universal fact running through all the cases that everywhere in the country the English decisions on marriage and divorce are referred to with the same apparent deference which is shown on other subjects to the decisions of the English common law and equity tribunals. The same author observes that " all our marriage and divorce laws, and of course all our statutes on the subject, in so far as they pertain to localities embraced within the limits of particular states, are state laws and state statutes, the national power with us not having legislative or judicial cognisance of the matter within those localities." Some of the states have extended the ages below which marriage cannot take place. The common law of the states is assumed to be that " a contract per verba de presenti, or per verba de futuro cum copula, constitutes a complete marriage." Conditions, however, may be imposed by the various state legislatures, and as to these the rule has established itself in American jurisprudence that " a marriage good at common law is good notwithstanding the existence of any statute on the subject, unless the statute contains express words of nullity." Thus in Pennsylvania, where a statute provided that all marriages " should be solemnized before twelve witnesses," marriages not so celebrated were nevertheless held to be good. In New Hampshire justices and ministers of the gospel are authorized to solemnize marriage, and all other persons are forbidden to do so under penalties; yet a marriage by consenf, as at common law, without justice or minister, has been held valid. On the other hand, under a very similar statute in Massachusetts, it was held that " parties could not solemnize their own marriage," and that a marriage by mutual agreement, not in accordance with the statute, was void. Bishop regards this as an isolated exception to the general course of the decisions. So when state legislation requires any particular form to be used the want thereof only invalidates the act if the statute expressly so enacts. Many of the state codes inflict penalties on ministers or justices for celebrating the marriage of minors without the consent of the parents or guardians. The original law as to prohibited degrees has been considerably modified in the states. The prohibition of marriage with a deceased wife's sister has been abolished in the United States. But New Hampshire, Ohio, Indiana, Kansas, Arkansas, Nevada, Washington, the Dakotas and Montana have for long forbidden marriages between first cousins by blood, and Louisiana, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Nebraska, Utah and Wisconsin have since adopted the same principle. Virginia prohibits the marriage of a woman with the husband of her brother's or sister's daughter.
Attention is also being paid to the question of marriage from a physical point of view. New Jersey prohibits the marriage of any person who has been confined in any public asylum as an epileptic, insane or feeble-minded patient, without a medical certificate from two physicians of complete recovery, and that there is no probability of the transmission of such defects. This prohibits the granting of a marriage licence where either party is an habitual drunkard, epileptic, imbecile or insane, or where the applicant at the time of making application is under the influence of any intoxicant or narcotic drug. In Michigan, Minnesota, Kansas and Oregon, marriage is prohibited to epileptics, &c., except when the woman is over forty-five. In Michigan, also, marriage is forbidden to anyone who has suffered from a venereal disease and has not been cured. The equality of property rights between husband and wife is fully established in America. Indeed, in many states the movement has gone so far as to give the wife in matters of property and in reference to divorce greater privileges than the husband. Thus a husband is often liable for a wife's debts where a wife would not be, mutatis mutandis, for a husband's; and a wife may usually obtain a decree of divorce for any ground on which one may be awarded to the husband, and, in addition, for neglect to provide sustenance or support. Emphasis on the personal or moral relation of the parties in marriage tends to throw into the background the legal aspects and requirements; and it tends also to minimize, so far as the state is concerned, the religious and sacramental aspect of marriage, Marriage tends to become a relation established by parties between themselves, and one in which the consent of the parties becomes the only constitutive element. In the theory of American law no ceremony is essential to create the marriage relation. But this position has never been endorsed by any considerable proportion of the community, and in fact probably 1 oths and perhaps 1 oaths of the marriages in the United States are contracted through some ceremony.

France

Articles 144-226 of the Code Napoleon, as amended by an act of 1907, prescribe the qualifications and conditions of marriage. The man must be eighteen and the woman fifteen years of age. A son and daughter under twenty-one cannot marry without consent of the father and mother, or of the father only if they disagree, or of the survivor if one be dead. If both are dead grandfather and grandmother take their place. Between the ages of twenty-one and thirty the parties must still obtain the consent of their parents, but if this be refused it can be regulated by means of a " respectful and formal act " before a notary. If the consent is not given within thirty days the marriage may take place without it. If neither parents nor grandparents be alive, parties under twenty-one require the consent of the family council. These rules apply to natural children when affiliated; those not affiliated require the consent of a specially appointed guardian. Marriage is prohibited between all ascendants and descendants in the direct line, and between persons related by marriage in the same line, between brother and sister, between uncle and niece, and brother-in-law and sister-in-law.
Before the solemnization of marriage banns are required to be published for a period of ten days, which must include two Sundays, containing the names, occupations, and domiciles of the parties and their parents. There must be an interval of three days before the marriage can take place, and if a year is allowed to elapse fresh banns must be put up. On the day appointed by the parties, and in the parish to which one of them belongs, the marriage is celebrated by the civil officer or registrar reading over to them the various necessary documents, with the chapter of the code relating to husband and wife, receiving from each a declaration that they take each other for husband and wife, and drawing up the act of marriage. All this has to be done in the presence of four witnesses.
Marriages contracted abroad between French subjects or between French subjects and foreigners are valid in France if celebrated according to the forms of the foreign law, provided the French conditions as to consent of parents have been observed. (See also Marriage with Foreigners Act, supra.) Germany. - The code of 1goo lays down rules applicable to the celebration of all marriages within the German Empire. Civil marriage alone is recognized by the code. It is effected by the declaration of the parties before a registrar in the presence of each other of their intention to be married. Two witnesses of full age must be present. The registrar asks each of the parties whether he or she will marry the other, and on their answer in the affirmative declares them duly married and enters the marriage in the register. The marriage must be preceded by a public notice. Marriages are void between descendants and ascendants; relatives by marriage in the ascending or descending line; brother and sister of the whole or half blood.

Other Countries

In the great majority of the other European countries civil marriage is obligatory. In Roman Catholic countries the parties usually supplement the obligatory civil marriage by a religious ceremony, more especially since the papal decree Ne temere of the 2nd of August 1907 (which came into force at Easter 1908), which requires marriages between Roman Catholics, or between Roman Catholics and those not professing that faith, to be celebrated before a bishop or priest duly authorized far the celebration thereof.

Authorities

- Eversley, The Law of Domestic Relations (3rd ed., London, 1906); Lush, The Law of Husband and Wife (London, 1909); Crawley, The Law of Husband and Wife (London, 1892); Geary, Marriage and Family Relations (London, 1892); Griffiths, Married Women's Property Acts (London, 1891); Vaizley, Law of Settlements of Property made on Marriage (London, 1887); Bishop, (America) Marriage, Divorce and Separation (Chicago, 1892); David Murray, (Scotland) The Law relating to the Property of Married Persons (Glasgow, 1892); E. A. Westermarck, History of Human Marriage (3rd ed., 1901), with other works cited in the article Family. M. Neustadt, Kritische Studien zum Familienrecht des burgerlichen Gesetzbuchs (Berlin, 1907); O. D. Watkins, Holy Matrimony (London, 1895), a comprehensive study of the history and theory of Christian marriage, from the High Anglican point of view, with special reference to missions dealing with heathen converts; J. Wickham Legg, " Notes on the Marriage Service in the Book of Common Prayer of 1549," in Ecclesiological Essays (London, 1905), a valuable comparative study of Christian marriage rites, with numerous references; the articles " Ehe, Christliche," by Gottschick, and " Eherecht " (many references), by Sehling, in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopddie (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1898, vol. v.); Abbe Andre, Cours de droit canon (3rd ed., Wagner, Paris, 1901), art. " Mariage," " Affinite," &c.
See also AGE; Divorce; Family; Husband And Wife; Legitimacy And Legitimation; Morganatic Marriage.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to marriage article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Most common English words: study « father's « killed « #872: marriage » religious » allow » spent
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Etymology

From Old French mariage, from marier (to marry), from Latin maritare (to marry", literally “give in marriage), from maritus (lover", "nuptial), from mas (male", "masculine", "of the male sex) [1]

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
marriage
Plural
marriages
marriage (plural marriages)
.
  1. The state of being married.
  2. The union of two people, to the exclusion of all others, voluntarily entered into for life.
  3. A wedding.^ Same-sex wedding A same-sex or same-gender wedding is a ceremony in which two people of the same sex are married.
    • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Life partner is must in the life of all people.
    • Marriage Articles - Love and Marriage, Marriage Advice and Help 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Despite being born into a poor family and having received only two years of formal education, Franklin was a leading author and printer, political theorist, politician, scientist, and inventor, among other things.
    • Simple Marriage — A better marriage by keeping it simple. 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.simplemarriage.net [Source type: General]

    You are cordially invited to the marriage of James Smith and Jane Doe.
  4. A close union.
  5. A joining of two parts.
  6. (poker slang) A king and a queen as a starting hand in Texas hold 'em

Usage notes

  • For a detailed discussion of marriage as an institution, with its traditions, its norms, and the accompanying legal rights and obligations, please consult the Wikipedia article on marriage.

Synonyms

Antonyms

Related terms

Derived terms

Look at pages starting with marriage.

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

See also

References

  • Notes:
  1. ^ http://www.myetymology.com/english/marriage.html

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Was instituted in Paradise when man was in innocence (Gen 2:18ff). Here we have its original charter, which was confirmed by Jesus, as the basis on which all regulations are to be framed (Mt 19:4f). Monogamy was the original law of marriage (Mt 19:5; 1Cor 6:16). This law was violated in after times, when corrupt usages began to be introduced (Gen 4:19; Gen 6:2). We meet with the prevalence of polygamy and concubinage in the patriarchal age (Gen 16:1ff; Gen 22:21ff; Gen 28:8f; Gen 29:23ff, etc.). Polygamy was acknowledged in the Mosaic law and made the basis of legislation, and continued to be practised all down through the period of Jewish histroy to the Captivity, after which there is no instance of it on record.
It seems to have been the practice from the beginning for fathers to select wives for their sons (Gen 24:3; Gen 38:6). Sometimes also proposals were initiated by the father of the maiden (Ex 2:21). The brothers of the maiden were also sometimes consulted (Gen 24:51; Gen 34:11), but her own consent was not required. The young man was bound to give a price to the father of the maiden (Gen 31:15; Gen 34:12; Ex 22:16f; 1Sam 18:23ff; Ruth 4:10; Hos 3:2) On these patriarchal customs the Mosaic law made no change.
In the pre-Mosaic times, when the proposals were accepted and the marriage price given, the bridegroom could come at once and take away his bride to his own house (Gen 24:63ff). But in general the marriage was celebrated by a feast in the house of the bride's parents, to which all friends were invited (Gen 29:22ff); and on the day of the marriage the bride, concealed under a thick veil, was conducted to her future husband's home.
Jesus corrected many false notions then existing on the subject of marriage (Mt 22:23ff), and placed it as a divine institution on the highest grounds. The apostles state clearly and enforce the nuptial duties of husband and wife (Eph 5:22ff; Col 3:18f; 1 Pet 3:1ff). Marriage is said to be "honourable" (Heb 13:4), and the prohibition of it is noted as one of the marks of degenerate times (1 Tim 4:3).
The marriage relation is used to represent the union between God and his people (Isa 54:5; Jer 3:1ff; Hos 2:9ff). In the New Testament the same figure is employed in representing the love of Christ to his saints (Eph 5:25ff). The Church of the redeemed is the "Bride, the Lamb's wife" (Rev 19:7ff).

See also:

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Template:Close Relationships
Family law
Entering into marriage
Prenuptial agreement  · Marriage
Common-law marriage
Same-sex marriage
Legal states similar to marriage
Cohabitation  · Civil union
Domestic partnership
Registered partnership
Putative marriage
Dissolution of marriage
Annulment  · Divorce  · Alimony
Issues affecting children
Paternity  · Legitimacy  · Adoption
Legal guardian  · Ward
Emancipation of minors
Parental responsibility
Contact (including Visitation)
Residence in English law
Custody  · Child support
Areas of possible legal concern
Spousal abuse  · Child abuse
Child abduction
Adultery  · Bigamy  · Incest
Conflict of Laws Issues
Marriage  · Nullity  · Divorce
.Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process.^ This allows them to create a list of household items, usually including china, silverware and crystalware, and often including linen preferences, pots and pans, and similar items.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ A couple, for example, may begin the process to have their marriage annulled by the Catholic Church only after they are no longer married in the eyes of the civil authority.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty that entails both religious and social obligations.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

.Civil marriage is the legal concept of marriage.^ This event may be legally documented as a marriage or another legally recognized partnership such as a civil union.
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The most common form of marriage unites a man and a woman as husband and wife.[1][2] .Other forms of marriage also exist; for example, polygamy, in which a person takes more than one spouse (marriage partner), is common in many societies.^ Although Muslim and Hindu marriages have their distinctive religious rituals, there are many common cultural rituals in marriages across religion among Bengali people.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, the Roman Catholic Church believes that marriage is a sacrament and a valid marriage between two baptized persons cannot be broken up by any other means than death.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ If he feels he can feed more than one wife, he may have additional wives.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

[3] .In some jurisdictions marriage has been expanded to include same-sex marriage.^ Many religions and branches of religions, including Quakers, Unitarians, and Reform and Reconstructionist Jews, recognize same-sex marriages, even if the government of their geographic area may not.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ Most Christian churches give some form of blessing to a marriage; the wedding ceremony typically includes some sort of pledge by the community to support the couple's relationship.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ The people are most commonly one man and one woman[citation needed], though some religions have permitted polygamous marriages and some faiths and denominations recognize same-sex marriages.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

[4]
.The reasons people marry vary, but usually include one or more of the following: legal, social and economic stability; the formation of a family unit; procreation and the education and nurturing of children; legitimizing sexual relations; public declaration of love.^ He loved his son more than life itself, but he wasn't to going let Bobby run his life or he wouldn't have one.
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the Christians of India usually follow a more or less Western wedding ceremony, the Indian Hindus, Muslims, Jains and Sikhs follow traditions quite different from the West.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

[5][6]
.A marriage is often declared by a wedding ceremony,[7] which may be performed by a religious officiator, through a similar government-sanctioned secular officiator, or (in weddings that have no church or state affiliation) by a trusted friend of the wedding participants.^ Preparing for the photographs, at a wedding at Thornbury Castle, England Wedding ceremony at Kiuruvesi Church in Kiuruvesi, Finland "Wedding on a Tomorrow Street", painting by Yury Pimenov on a Soviet postage stamp.A wedding is the ceremony in which two people are united in marriage or a similar institution.
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^ The wedding is often followed by a reception in which the rituals may include toasting the bride and groom, the newlyweds' first dance as husband and wife, and the cake cutting.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ At the end of the wedding ceremony, as the newly wedded pair leave the church, the guests throw rice and flowers for fertility and felicity.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

.The act of marriage usually creates obligations between the individuals involved, and in many societies, their extended families.^ Wedding customs around the world [edit] African customs [edit] Pygmy wedding traditions Pygmy engagements were not long and usually formalized by an exchange of visits between the families concerned.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ Chinese wedding customs Main article: Chinese marriage Traditional Chinese marriage is a ceremonial ritual within Chinese societies that involve a marriage established by pre-arrangement between families.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Finding a partner

In order to get married, it is necessary to find a suitable partner. .A partner may be found by the person wishing to be married via a process of courtship.^ A couple, for example, may begin the process to have their marriage annulled by the Catholic Church only after they are no longer married in the eyes of the civil authority.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

.Alternately, two marriage-able people may be matched by a third party, typically with the match finalized only if both candidates approve the union.^ This event may be legally documented as a marriage or another legally recognized partnership such as a civil union.
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^ Before ever getting married there are two types of mate selection that may occur with the couple: (1) miai, or an arranged marriage and (2) ren ai, or a love match.
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^ A couple, for example, may begin the process to have their marriage annulled by the Catholic Church only after they are no longer married in the eyes of the civil authority.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

This is known as an arranged marriage.
.The choice between courtship and arranged marriage is made by the person seeking marriage or by his or her parents.^ I let my parents arrange my marriage for me."
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This applies to sacramental marriages; marriages between an unbaptized and a baptized person can be dissolved according to Canon law (see Pauline privilege).
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.In some cases, the parents will be ready to force an arranged marriage because of cultural tradition (e.g., in the Middle East) or for some other special reason (e.g., dowry).^ I let my parents arrange my marriage for me."
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marriage rituals, however, were important events to the Africans, who came in many cases come from richly ceremonial African cultures.
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^ The modern Wedding Breakfast includes the service of food to guests that can range from traditional roasts, buffets, or regional treats such as in the case of a London Wedding[5] in the 'East End'.
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.It is worth noting, however, that in many cases the person seeking marriage is comfortable with having his or her marriage arranged and, even disregarding parental preference, would freely choose an arranged marriage.^ I let my parents arrange my marriage for me."
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many religions and branches of religions, including Quakers, Unitarians, and Reform and Reconstructionist Jews, recognize same-sex marriages, even if the government of their geographic area may not.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ Marriage rituals, however, were important events to the Africans, who came in many cases come from richly ceremonial African cultures.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

.Actual forced marriage is common in only a few communities and often attracts harsh criticism even from people who are generally in favor of arranged marriage.^ Although Muslim and Hindu marriages have their distinctive religious rituals, there are many common cultural rituals in marriages across religion among Bengali people.
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Given a choice, the preference for the method of courtship or arranged marriage is determined by whether a person believes that marriage should be based on emotion or logic. .At one end of the scale is a person who believes that there is only one unique "soul mate" suitable for them.^ And there was only this one thing here.
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

A partner is typically chosen based on the depth of emotional connection experienced with their partner during the courtship phase of the relationship. At the other end of the scale is a person who believes that there are many suitable partners, and typically views marriage chiefly as a means to start a family. .The deep emotional bond between partners characteristic of good marriages is more likely to be viewed as something which can be developed through nurture and cultivation with any suitable partner.^ No one ever suggests it, like it's bad form or something, but I'm a lot more comfortable without the tie."
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most people fall somewhere between these two extremes.^ However, these visits must be chaperoned to ensure purity of action between the two.
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^ In virtually all religions, marriage is a life-long union between two or more people and is established with ceremonies and rituals.
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Arranged marriage

An arranged marriage between Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain
A pragmatic (or 'arranged') marriage is facilitated by formal procedures of family or group politics. .A responsible authority sets up or encourages the marriage; they may, indeed, engage a professional matchmaker to find a suitable spouse for an unmarried person.^ A couple, for example, may begin the process to have their marriage annulled by the Catholic Church only after they are no longer married in the eyes of the civil authority.
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^ A bride may throw her bouquet to the assembled group of all unmarried women in attendance, with folklore suggesting the person who catches it will be the next to wed.
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The authority figure could be parents, family, a religious official, or a group consensus.
In some cases, the authority figure may choose a match for purposes other than marital harmony. .Some of the most popular uses of arranged marriage are for dowry or immigration.^ Most Christian churches give some form of blessing to a marriage; the wedding ceremony typically includes some sort of pledge by the community to support the couple's relationship.
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Though now a rarity in Western countries, arranged marriages in countries such as India are widely prevalent even today. .In illiterate villages, the marriage of a child often has much to do with family property.^ Slaves had no right to legal marriage; slaveholders considered slaves property and feared that legal marriage and family bonds had the potential to lead to organization and revolt.
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Parents adopt the practice of child marriage and arrange the wedding sometimes even before the child is born (though this practice was made illegal by Child Marriage Restraint Act of the Indian Government). In urban India, people use thriving institutions known as Marriage Bureaus or a Matrimonials Sites, where candidates register themselves for a small fees. A related form of pragmatic marriage, sometimes called a marriage of convenience, involves immigration laws. .According to one publisher of information about "green card" marriages, "Every year over 450,000 United States citizens marry foreign-born individuals and petition for them to obtain a permanent residency (Green Card) in the United States."^ The sealing can be performed at the same approximate time as the civil marriage or for a couple civilly married for at least one year.
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[8] While this is likely an over-estimate, in 2003 alone 184,741 immigrants were admitted to the U.S. as spouses of U.S. citizens.[9]

Marriage in Europe

A woodcut of a medieval wedding ceremony from Germany
Among Western cultures, the nuclear family emerged during the late medieval period.[10] Marriage is the sole mechanism for the creation of affinal ties (in-laws).
.Although the institution of marriage pre-dates reliable recorded history, many cultures have legends or religious beliefs concerning the origins of marriage.^ Marriage rituals, however, were important events to the Africans, who came in many cases come from richly ceremonial African cultures.
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^ Although Muslim and Hindu marriages have their distinctive religious rituals, there are many common cultural rituals in marriages across religion among Bengali people.
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^ Exchanging rings may be the oldest and most universal symbol of marriage in the western culture, but the origins are unclear.
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[11]

In Britain

.In Catholicism, the Council of Trent made the validity of marriage dependent upon its being performed before an ordained member of the clergy and two witnesses.^ The couple is assisted by two witnesses, a man (usually grooms' side) and a woman (usually brides' side) who are either family members or close friends.
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The Council also authorized a Catechism, issued in 1566, which defined marriage as, "The conjugal union of man and woman, contracted between two qualified persons, which obliges them to live together throughout life."[12]
.Marriage has changed throughout the history of Europe, in the 1200's in England it was unlawful for a woman younger than 24 years to marry but this changed, beginning in the 1500's, to 20 years of age.^ The sealing can be performed at the same approximate time as the civil marriage or for a couple civilly married for at least one year.
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^ He was younger than Jensen by a couple of years, and there was something about him that was familiar.
  • Matrimony With His Majesty 11 September 2009 8:19 UTC solo4.abac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A couple, for example, may begin the process to have their marriage annulled by the Catholic Church only after they are no longer married in the eyes of the civil authority.
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[13]
.In the Middle Ages the Church only allowed annulment for consanguinity and adultery but during the reformation, Luther and others made marriage a civil institution instead of a sacramental one.^ The Catholic Church will not, in fact, grant an annulment petition unless the marriage has also been dissolved or annulled under civil law.
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^ As such, there are two kinds of marriages recognized by the Church, civil marriage and celestial marriage.
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^ The sealing can be performed at the same approximate time as the civil marriage or for a couple civilly married for at least one year.
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This made way for the rights of women to divorce their husbands for faults such as impotency.[14]
.In the United Kingdom, the Deceased Wife's Sister's Marriage Act 1907 was a statute passed by Parliament that removed the prohibition forbidding a man to marry the sister of his deceased wife.^ The couple spend their first moments as man and wife in seclusion, cheder yichud - "the room of seclusion (or 'oneness')" which halachically 'seals' the marriage to a greater degree.
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European monogamy

European culture and the cultures of the Americas, so far as they descend from it, have for the most part defined themselves as monogamous cultures. This partially stemmed from Christianity, Germanic cultural traditions and the mandate of Roman Law. However, Roman Law permitted prostitution, concubinage, and sexual access to slaves. The Christian West formally banned these practices with laws against adultery, fornication, and other relationships outside a monogamous, lifelong covenant.

Recognition

.The participants in a marriage usually seek social recognition for their relationship, and many societies require official approval of a religious or civil body.^ Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty that entails both religious and social obligations.
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In the early modern era, John Calvin (1509 – 1564) and his Protestant colleagues reformulated Christian marriage through enactment of The Marriage Ordinance of Geneva,which imposes "The dual requirements of state registration and church consecration to constitute marriage."[15]
.In England and Wales, it was Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act 1753 that first required formal ceremony of marriage, thereby curtailing the practice of Fleet Marriage.^ In either case, the couple must first be legally married by filing for marriage at their local government office, and the official documentation must be produced in order for the ceremony to be held.
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^ Some couples choose to recreate a more traditional wedding ceremony, or will simply perform certain traditional acts, such as the throwing of the bouquet, first dance, etc.
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.In many jurisdictions, the civil marriage ceremony may take place during the religious marriage ceremony, although they are theoretically distinct.^ Many religions and branches of religions, including Quakers, Unitarians, and Reform and Reconstructionist Jews, recognize same-sex marriages, even if the government of their geographic area may not.
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^ The ceremony and the ring exchange takes place on the first day of the wedding.
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^ Nowadays, the Shinto shrine may be conveniently located inside a hotel where all the activities will take place.
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.In most American states, the marriage may be officiated by a priest, minister, rabbi or other religious authority, and in such a case the religious authority acts simultaneously as an agent of the state.^ This event may be legally documented as a marriage or another legally recognized partnership such as a civil union.
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^ In either case, the couple must first be legally married by filing for marriage at their local government office, and the official documentation must be produced in order for the ceremony to be held.
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^ In places that do not recognize such partnerships, the wedding may be a religious or symbolic ceremony designed to provide an opportunity to make the same public declarations and celebration with friends and family that any other type of wedding may afford.
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.In some countries, such as France, Spain, Germany, Turkey, Argentina, Japan and Russia, it is necessary to be married by the state separate from (usually before) any religious ceremony, with the state ceremony being the legally binding one.^ Some couples choose to recreate a more traditional wedding ceremony, or will simply perform certain traditional acts, such as the throwing of the bouquet, first dance, etc.
  • 227's YouTube "Chili"-JK Wedding Entrance! Everything Wedding, Groom, Bride, Wedding Entrance, Reception and everything weddings at Jamaal Al-Din's Hoops 227! 15 September 2009 5:15 UTC www.hoops227.com [Source type: General]

^ In either case, the couple must first be legally married by filing for marriage at their local government office, and the official documentation must be produced in order for the ceremony to be held.
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^ Before the church ceremony, especially in smaller areas, usually friends and relatives of the bride and the groom, accompanies them separately to the church playing traditional instruments, according to the region.
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.Some states allow civil marriages in circumstances which are not allowed by many religions, such as same-sex marriages or civil unions.^ Many religions and branches of religions, including Quakers, Unitarians, and Reform and Reconstructionist Jews, recognize same-sex marriages, even if the government of their geographic area may not.
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^ This event may be legally documented as a marriage or another legally recognized partnership such as a civil union.
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^ Although Muslim and Hindu marriages have their distinctive religious rituals, there are many common cultural rituals in marriages across religion among Bengali people.
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Marriage may also be created by the operation of the law alone, as in common-law marriage, sometimes called "marriage by habit and repute." This is a judicial recognition that two people who have been living as domestic partners are entitled to the effects of marriage. .However, in the UK at least, common-law marriage has been abolished and there are no rights available unless a couple marries or enters into a civil partnership.^ Slaves had no right to legal marriage; slaveholders considered slaves property and feared that legal marriage and family bonds had the potential to lead to organization and revolt.
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^ The Catholic Church will not, in fact, grant an annulment petition unless the marriage has also been dissolved or annulled under civil law.
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^ This event may be legally documented as a marriage or another legally recognized partnership such as a civil union.
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.Conversely, there are examples of people who have a religious ceremony that is not recognized by the civil authorities.^ Civil wedding A civil wedding is a ceremony presided over by a local civil authority, such as an elected or appointed judge, Justice of the Peace or the mayor of a locality.
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^ As such, there are two kinds of marriages recognized by the Church, civil marriage and celestial marriage.
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^ Although Muslim and Hindu marriages have their distinctive religious rituals, there are many common cultural rituals in marriages across religion among Bengali people.
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.Examples include widows who stand to lose a pension if they remarry legally, same-sex couples (where same-sex marriage is not legally recognized), some sects which recognize polygamy, retired couples who would lose pension benefits if legally married, Muslim men who wish to engage in polygamy that is condoned in some situations under Islam, and immigrants who do not wish to alert the immigration authorities that they are married either to a spouse they are leaving behind or because the complexity of immigration laws may make it difficult for spouses to visit on a tourist visa.^ Many religions and branches of religions, including Quakers, Unitarians, and Reform and Reconstructionist Jews, recognize same-sex marriages, even if the government of their geographic area may not.
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^ A couple, for example, may begin the process to have their marriage annulled by the Catholic Church only after they are no longer married in the eyes of the civil authority.
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^ Extending the trip would only make it all the harder for him, and Bobby too, when they had to leave.
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.In Europe, it has traditionally been the churches' office to make marriages official by registering them.^ In either case, the couple must first be legally married by filing for marriage at their local government office, and the official documentation must be produced in order for the ceremony to be held.
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^ A wedding ceremony takes place at a church, register office or possibly another favorite location, such as a hilltop.
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^ Making Wedding Arrangements at Holy Spirit Church ^ The Hindu Marriage Act ^ "Guide to the Jewish Wedding" (html).
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.Hence, it was a significant step towards a clear separation of church and state and also an intended and sufficient weakening of the Christian churches' role in Germany, when Chancellor Otto von Bismarck introduced the Zivilehe (civil marriage) in 1875.^ The Catholic Church will not, in fact, grant an annulment petition unless the marriage has also been dissolved or annulled under civil law.
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^ As such, there are two kinds of marriages recognized by the Church, civil marriage and celestial marriage.
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^ In marriage, Christians see a picture of the relationship between Jesus and the Church.
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.This law made the declaration of the marriage before an official clerk of the civil administration (both spouses affirming their will to marry) the procedure to make a marriage legally valid and effective, and reduced the clerical marriage to an optional private ceremony.^ The Catholic Church will not, in fact, grant an annulment petition unless the marriage has also been dissolved or annulled under civil law.
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^ This event may be legally documented as a marriage or another legally recognized partnership such as a civil union.
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^ Civil marriages are those legally contracted under local law and are dissolved upon the death of the participants, while celestial marriages, also known as sealings, bind the participants as husband and wife for all eternity if both are righteous.
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Rights and obligations

A Ketubah in Aramaic, a Jewish marriage-contract outlining the duties of each partner.
.Marriage sometimes establishes the legal father of a woman's child; establishes the legal mother of a man's child; gives the husband or his family control over the wife's sexual services, labor, and/or property; gives the wife or her family control over the husband's sexual services, labor, and/or property; establishes a joint fund of property for the benefit of children; or establishes a relationship between the families of the husband and wife.^ Slaves had no right to legal marriage; slaveholders considered slaves property and feared that legal marriage and family bonds had the potential to lead to organization and revolt.
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^ Civil marriages are those legally contracted under local law and are dissolved upon the death of the participants, while celestial marriages, also known as sealings, bind the participants as husband and wife for all eternity if both are righteous.
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^ Chinese wedding customs Main article: Chinese marriage Traditional Chinese marriage is a ceremonial ritual within Chinese societies that involve a marriage established by pre-arrangement between families.
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.No society ascribes all of these rights to marriage, and none are universal (see Edmund Leach's article in "Marriage, Family, and Residence," edited by Paul Bohannan and John Middleton).^ Slaves had no right to legal marriage; slaveholders considered slaves property and feared that legal marriage and family bonds had the potential to lead to organization and revolt.
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^ The Bahá'í Faith sees marriage as a foundation of the structure of society, and considers it both a physical and spiritual bond that endures into the afterlife.
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^ Detailed viewpoints on various wedding customs [edit] Customs associated with various religions [edit] Christian customs Main article: Christian views of marriage Many religions have extensive teachings regarding marriage.
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Marriage is not a prerequisite for having children. In the U.S., the National Center for Health Statistics reported that in 1992, 30.1 percent of births were to unmarried women.[16][17] .Some married couples remain childless by choice or due to infertility, age, or other factors preventing reproduction.^ At some weddings the couple may declare that each is sanctified to the other, and/or repeat other vows, and exchange rings.
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In some cultures, marriage imposes upon women the obligation to bear children. In northern Ghana, for example, payment of bridewealth signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face substantial threats of physical abuse and reprisals.[18]
.Most of the world's major religions tell couples they should marry before having sexual intercourse.^ When they leave the church the guests toss rice or coins at the married couple for good and prosperous future together.
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^ Before ever getting married there are two types of mate selection that may occur with the couple: (1) miai, or an arranged marriage and (2) ren ai, or a love match.
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^ As soon as the married couple leave the church they get showered with rice for luck or guests drop coins at their feet for them to pick up.
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[19] They teach that unmarried people should not have sex, which they refer to as fornication. Fornication is sometimes socially discouraged or even criminalized. .Sex with a married person other than one's spouse, called adultery, is universally condemned by all major world religions, and has often been criminalized.^ Often the best man and/or maid of honor toast the bride and groom with personal thoughts, stories, and well-wishes; sometimes other guests follow with their own toasts.
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^ One, the watabōshi, is a white hood; the other, called the tsunokakushi, serves to hide the bride's 'horns of jealousy.'
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It is also against the governing law of the U.S. military. Nevertheless, three recent studies in the U.S. using nationally representative samples have found that about 10-15% of women and 20-25% of men engage in extramarital sex.[20][21][22]
.Conversely, a marriage is commonly held to require a sexual relationship, and non-consummation (that is, failure to engage in sex) may be held grounds for an annulment (e.g., John Ruskin's abortive marriage).^ Many religions and branches of religions, including Quakers, Unitarians, and Reform and Reconstructionist Jews, recognize same-sex marriages, even if the government of their geographic area may not.
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See also: Rights and responsibilities of marriages in the United States

Polygamy

Main article: Polygamy
See also: Forms of nonmonogamy
.Polygamous marriage, in which a person takes more than one spouse, is accepted in a majority of global social traditions, though it is far less common than monogamy.^ He loved his son more than life itself, but he wasn't to going let Bobby run his life or he wouldn't have one.
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^ While the Christians of India usually follow a more or less Western wedding ceremony, the Indian Hindus, Muslims, Jains and Sikhs follow traditions quite different from the West.
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^ There was nothing he wanted more than to run his hands over the silk, and then take it off and run his hands over Jared's silken skin.
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[3] Africa has the highest rate of polygamy in the world.[23] In Senegal, for example, nearly 47 percent of marriages are multiple.[24] Polygyny is the typical form of polygamy, while polyandry is rare.[25] .Anthropologists distinguish between these forms of multiple marriage, where one person separately marries more than one spouse, and group marriage, in which multiple spouses all become married to one another.^ By contrast, Buddhism does not encourage or discourage marriage, although it does teach how one might live a happily married life and emphasizes that marital vows are not to be taken lightly (see separate article for details).
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^ He loved his son more than life itself, but he wasn't to going let Bobby run his life or he wouldn't have one.
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^ No one ever suggests it, like it's bad form or something, but I'm a lot more comfortable without the tie."
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The group marriage form of polygamy is rare.[3] In the U.S., the historic Oneida Colony provides a prominent 19th-century example of a polygamous group marriage.

Marriage restrictions

In 2004, the American Anthropological Association released this statement:[26]
.
The results of more than a century of anthropological research on households, kinship relationships, and families, across cultures and through time, provide no support whatsoever for the view that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon marriage as an exclusively heterosexual institution.^ It went through Jensen hard, and he wanted nothing more than for Jared to keep making those sounds.
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Rather, anthropological research supports the conclusion that a vast array of family types, including families built upon same-sex partnerships, can contribute to stable and humane societies.
Many societies, even some with a cultural tradition of polygamy, recognize monogamy as the only valid form of marriage. For example, China shifted from allowing polygamy to supporting only monogamy in the Marriage Act of 1953 after the Communist revolution. Polygamy is practiced illegally by some groups in the United States and Canada, primarily by Mormon fundamentalist sects that separated from the mainstream Latter Day Saints movement after the practice was renounced in 1890. Many African and Islamic societies still allow polygamy.
Since the later decades of the 20th century, many ideas about the nature and purpose of marriage and family have been challenged in some countries, in particular by LGBT social movements, which argue that marriage should not be exclusively heterosexual. Some people also argue that marriage may be an unnecessary legal fiction. This follows from an overall shift in ideas and practices of family; since World War II, the West has seen a dramatic increase in divorce (6% to over 40% of first marriages),Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag

Weddings

Main article: Wedding
Couple married in a Shinto ceremony in Takayama, Gifu prefecture.
.A marriage may be celebrated with a wedding ceremony,[27] which can be performed by a religious officiator or through a similar government-sanctioned secular process.^ Preparing for the photographs, at a wedding at Thornbury Castle, England Wedding ceremony at Kiuruvesi Church in Kiuruvesi, Finland "Wedding on a Tomorrow Street", painting by Yury Pimenov on a Soviet postage stamp.A wedding is the ceremony in which two people are united in marriage or a similar institution.
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^ Many religions and branches of religions, including Quakers, Unitarians, and Reform and Reconstructionist Jews, recognize same-sex marriages, even if the government of their geographic area may not.
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^ A traditional French wedding celebration at Château de HattonchâtelAt the reception, the couple customarily uses a toasting cup called a Coupe de Marriage.
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.Despite the ceremony being led by someone else, most religious traditions maintain that the marriage itself is mediated between the two individuals through vows, with the gathered audience witnessing, affirming, and legitimizing the marriage.^ Taking marriage vows in the presence of a witness and then leaping over the handle of a broom became the common practice to create a recognized union.
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^ Chinese wedding customs Main article: Chinese marriage Traditional Chinese marriage is a ceremonial ritual within Chinese societies that involve a marriage established by pre-arrangement between families.
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^ "That, despite all of this, we are a country that prides itself on our traditions.
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.The ceremony in which a marriage is enacted and announced to the community is called a wedding.^ A traditional French wedding celebration at Château de HattonchâtelAt the reception, the couple customarily uses a toasting cup called a Coupe de Marriage.
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^ Pakistani wedding customs Main articles: Pakistani wedding and Marriage in Pakistan A Pakistani wedding typically consist of four ceremonies on four separate days.
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^ In more observant communities, the couple will celebrate for seven more days, called the Sheva Brachot (seven blessings) during which the seven wedding blessings are recited at every large gathering during this time.
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A wedding in which the participants marry in the "eyes of the law" is called a civil marriage. Religions also facilitate weddings, in the "eyes of God". In many European and some Latin American countries, a religious ceremony must be held separate from the civil ceremony. Certain countries, like Belgium, Bulgaria, the Netherlands and Turkey,[28] demand that the civil marriage take place before any religious marriage. In some countries — notably the United States, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Norway and Spain — both ceremonies can be held together; the officiant at the religious and community ceremony also serves as an agent of the state to enact the civil marriage. That does not mean that the state is "recognizing" religious marriages — the "civil" ceremony just takes place at the same time as the religious ceremony. Often this involves simply signing a register during the religious ceremony. If the civil element of the religious ceremony is omitted, no marriage took place in the eyes of the law.
.While some countries, such as Australia, permit marriages to be held in private and at any location, others, including England, require that the civil ceremony be conducted in a place specially sanctioned by law (i.e., a church or registry office), and be open to the public.^ A wedding ceremony takes place at a church, courthouse, or other location, such as an outdoor venue.
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^ Preparing for the photographs, at a wedding at Thornbury Castle, England Wedding ceremony at Kiuruvesi Church in Kiuruvesi, Finland "Wedding on a Tomorrow Street", painting by Yury Pimenov on a Soviet postage stamp.A wedding is the ceremony in which two people are united in marriage or a similar institution.
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^ The Catholic Church will not, in fact, grant an annulment petition unless the marriage has also been dissolved or annulled under civil law.
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An exception can be made in the case of marriage by special emergency license, which is normally granted only when one of the parties is terminally ill. Rules about where and when persons can marry vary from place to place. Some regulations require that one of the parties reside in the locality of the registry office.]]).
The way in which a marriage is enacted has changed over time, as has the institution of marriage itself. .In Europe during the Middle Ages, marriage was enacted by the couple promising verbally to each other that they would be married to each other; the presence of a priest or other witnesses was not required.^ A Brahmin (Hindu priest) arranges a sacred yajna (fire-sacrifice), and the sacred fire (Agni) is considered the prime witness (sākshī) of the marriage.
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^ Scottish customs Main article: Marriage in Scotland Scotland is a popular place for young English couples to get married since, in Scotland, parents' permission is not required if both the bride and groom are old enough to legally be married (16).
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^ When they leave the church the guests toss rice or coins at the married couple for good and prosperous future together.
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This promise was known as the "verbum". If made in the present tense (e.g. ."I marry you"), it was unquestionably binding; if made in the future tense ("I will marry you"), it would constitute a betrothal, but if the couple proceeded to have sexual relations, the union was a marriage.^ When they leave the church the guests toss rice or coins at the married couple for good and prosperous future together.
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.As part of the Reformation, the role of recording marriages and setting the rules for marriage passed to the state; by the 1600s many of the Protestant European countries had heavy state involvement in marriage.^ Many religions and branches of religions, including Quakers, Unitarians, and Reform and Reconstructionist Jews, recognize same-sex marriages, even if the government of their geographic area may not.
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.As part of the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church added a requirement of witnesses to the promise, which under normal circumstances had to include the priest.^ The Catholic Church will not, in fact, grant an annulment petition unless the marriage has also been dissolved or annulled under civil law.
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^ In the Roman Catholic Church "Holy Matrimony" is considered to be one of the seven sacraments, in this case one that the spouses bestow upon each other in front of a priest and members of the community as witnesses.
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Marriage and religion

Main article: Religious aspects of marriage
See also: Christian views of marriage
A couple being wed alongside the Tungabhadra River at Hampi, India.
.Many religions have extensive teachings regarding marriage.^ Many religions and branches of religions, including Quakers, Unitarians, and Reform and Reconstructionist Jews, recognize same-sex marriages, even if the government of their geographic area may not.
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^ Detailed viewpoints on various wedding customs [edit] Customs associated with various religions [edit] Christian customs Main article: Christian views of marriage Many religions have extensive teachings regarding marriage.
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^ Although Muslim and Hindu marriages have their distinctive religious rituals, there are many common cultural rituals in marriages across religion among Bengali people.
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.Most Christian churches give some form of blessing to a marriage; the wedding ceremony typically includes some sort of pledge by the community to support the couple's relationship.^ In marriage, Christians see a picture of the relationship between Jesus and the Church.
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^ Most Christian churches give some form of blessing to a marriage; the wedding ceremony typically includes some sort of pledge by the community to support the couple's relationship.
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^ A church wedding is a ceremony presided over by a Christian priest or pastor.
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.Religious communities widely hold marriage as a relationship uniquely allegorical to God's relationship with the people; the husband represents God and the bride represents the whole of God's chosen people.^ After the solemnization of marriage, the bride departs with her husband.
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^ Most Christian churches give some form of blessing to a marriage; the wedding ceremony typically includes some sort of pledge by the community to support the couple's relationship.
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.Liturgical Christian communions—notably Anglicanism, Catholicism, and Orthodoxy—consider marriage (sometimes termed holy matrimony) to be an expression of grace, termed a sacrament or mystery.^ In the Roman Catholic Church "Holy Matrimony" is considered to be one of the seven sacraments, in this case one that the spouses bestow upon each other in front of a priest and members of the community as witnesses.
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.In Western ritual, the sacrament is bestowed upon a husband and wife by the spouses themselves, with a bishop, priest, or deacon normally witnessing the union on behalf of the church.^ The wedding is often followed by a reception in which the rituals may include toasting the bride and groom, the newlyweds' first dance as husband and wife, and the cake cutting.
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^ In the Roman Catholic Church "Holy Matrimony" is considered to be one of the seven sacraments, in this case one that the spouses bestow upon each other in front of a priest and members of the community as witnesses.
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In Eastern ritual churches, the clergyman functions as the minister. Western Christians commonly term marriage a vocation, while Eastern Christians term it an ordination and a martyrdom, though the theological emphases indicated by the various appellations are not excluded by the catechetical teachings of either tradition. Marriage is commonly celebrated in the context of a Eucharistic service (a nuptial Mass or Divine Liturgy). The sacrament of marriage is iconic of the relationship between Christ and the Church. While most Reformed Christians would deny the elevation of marriage to the status of a sacrament, nonetheless it is considered a covenant between spouses before God.
In Judaism, marriage is viewed as a contractual bond commanded by God in which a man and a woman come together to create a relationship in which God is directly involved.[29] Though procreation is not the sole purpose, Jewish marriage is also expected to fulfill the commandment to have children.[30] The main focus centers around the relationship between the husband and wife. Kabbalistically, marriage is understood to mean that the husband and wife are merging together into a single soul. This is why a man is considered "incomplete" if he is not married, as his soul is only one part of a larger whole that remains to be unified.
Islam also recommends marriage highly; among other things, it helps in the pursuit of spiritual perfection. Age of marriage is whenever the individuals feel ready, financially and emotionally, for marriage. It should also be noted that in Islam, marriage is not a religious concept as it is in many religions, but a civil contract between a man and a woman.
The Bahá'í Faith sees marriage as a foundation of the structure of society, and considers it both a physical and spiritual bond that endures into the afterlife.
Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty that entails both religious and social obligations. .Old Hindu literature in Sanskrit gives many different types of marriages and their categorization ranging from "Gandharva Vivaha" (instant marriage by mutual consent of participants only, without any need for even a single third person as witness) to normal (present day) marriages, to "Rakshasa Vivaha" (marriage performed by abduction of one participant by the other participant, usually, but not always, with the help of other persons).^ The only other person to know about the pictures is Ventner, and he isn't likely to say."
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^ Even with just the four of them at a family-sized table, there were still uniformed staff waiting against the wall for one of them to need anything.
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^ And what was worse, not a single person so much as asked who the hell he was to be giving orders.
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There are elaborate laws in Manusmriti directing which castes and which varnas can marry which castes, and the penalties for breaking these nuptial laws.
For the most part, religious traditions in the world reserve marriage to heterosexual unions, but there are exceptions including Unitarian Universalist and Metropolitan Community Church.[31]

Marriage and cohabitation

Marriage is an institution which can join together people's lives in emotional and economic ways. Marriage can also lead to the formation of a new household, but among some people (e.g. the Minangkabau of West Sumatra), residency after marriage is matrilocal, with the husband moving into the pre-existing household of his wife's mother.[32] Residency after marriage can also be patrilocal or avunculocal.
In many Western cultures, married people usually live together in the same home, often sharing the same bed, but in some other regions this is not the tradition.[33] In southwestern China, for example, walking marriages, in which the husband and wife do not live together, have been a traditional part of the Mosuo culture.[34] Walking marriages have also been increasingly common in modern Beijing. Guo Jianmei, director of the center for women's studies at Beijing University, told a Newsday correspondent, "Walking marriages reflect sweeping changes in Chinese society."[35] A similar arrangement in Saudi Arabia, called misyar marriage, also involves the husband and wife living separately but meeting regularly.[36]
Conversely, marriage is not a prerequisite for cohabitation. In one study, Jay Teachman, a researcher at Western Washington University, studied premarital cohabitation of women who are in a monogamous relationship.[37] .Teachman’s study showed "women who are committed to one relationship, who have both premarital sex and cohabit only with the man they eventually marry, have no higher incidence of divorce than women who abstain from premarital sex and cohabitation.^ Even from far away there was no mistaking who they were or what they were doing.
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^ Seems no one thought they'd need to make a call outside of Texas.
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^ After they'd run the gantlet of Jared's mother and both boys, Jensen finally got Jared into one of the other guestrooms.
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For women in this category, premarital sex and cohabitation with their eventual husband are just two more steps in developing a committed, long-term relationship."[38]

Marriage and economics

Historical traditions

The economics of marriage have changed over time. Historically, in many cultures the family of the bride had to provide a dowry to pay a man for marrying their daughter. In Early Modern Britain, the social status of the couple was supposed to be equal. After the marriage, the entire property (called "fortune") and expected inheritances of the wife belonged only to her husband (a frequent subject in Early Modern British literature); she was often called "his property", which did then include the protection a single woman did not have. In other cultures, the family of the groom had to pay a bride price to the bride's family for the right to marry the daughter. In some cultures, dowries and bride prices are still demanded today. In both cases, the financial transaction takes place between the groom (or his family) and the bride's family; the bride has no part in the transaction and often no choice in whether to participate in the marriage.
In some cultures, dowries were not unconditional gifts. .If the groom had other children, they could not inherit the dowry, which had to go to the bride's children.^ The doctor said he could go home in the morning, and that they had only kept him as a precaution.
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In the event of her childlessness, the dowry had to return to her family, and sometimes not until the groom's death or remarriage. Often the bride was entitled to inherit at least as much as her dowry from her husband's estate.
Morning gifts, which might also be arranged by the bride's father rather than the bride, are given to the bride herself; the name derives from the Germanic tribal custom of giving them the morning after the wedding night. She might have control of this morning gift during the lifetime of her husband, but is entitled to it when widowed. If the amount of her inheritance is settled by law rather than agreement, it may be called dower. Depending on legal systems and the exact arrangement, she may not be entitled to dispose of it after her death, and may lose the property if she remarries. Morning gifts were preserved for many centuries in morganatic marriage, a union where the wife's inferior social status was held to prohibit her children from inheriting a noble's titles or estates. In this case, the morning gift would support the wife and children. Another legal provision for widowhood was jointure, in which property, often land, would be held in joint tenancy, so that it would automatically go to the widow on her husband's death.

Modern conventions

In many modern legal systems, two people who marry have the choice between keeping their property separate or combining their property. In the latter case, called community property, when the marriage ends by divorce each owns half; if one partner dies the surviving partner owns half and inheritance rules apply to the other half. In many legal jurisdictions, laws related to property and inheritance provide by default for property to pass upon the death of one party in a marriage to the spouse first and secondarily to the children. Wills and trusts can make alternative provisions for property succession.
In some legal systems, the partners in a marriage are "jointly liable" for the debts of the marriage. This has a basis in a traditional legal notion called the "Doctrine of Necessities" whereby a husband was responsible to provide necessary things for his wife. Where this is the case, one partner may be sued to collect a debt for which they did not expressly contract. Critics of this practice note that debt collection agencies can abuse this by claiming an unreasonably wide range of debts to be expenses of the marriage. The cost of defence and the burden of proof is then placed on the non-contracting party to prove that the expense is not a debt of the family. The respective maintenance obligations, both during and eventually after a marriage, are regulated in most jurisdictions; alimony is one such method.
Some have attempted to analyse the institution of marriage using economic theory; for example, anarcho-capitalist economist David Friedman has written a lengthy and controversial study of marriage as a market transaction (the market for husbands and wives).[39]

Taxation

Most countries use progressive taxes, in which the tax rate is higher for a taxpayer with a higher income. In some of these countries, spouses are allowed to average their incomes; this is advantageous to a married couple with disparate incomes. To compensate for this somewhat, many countries provide a higher tax bracket for the averaged income of a married couple. .While income averaging might still benefit a married couple with a stay-at-home spouse, such averaging would cause a married couple with roughly equal personal incomes to pay more total tax than they would as two single persons.^ With Jared so much taller than he, it still felt weird when they kissed standing up, but after the first couple of seconds, Jensen stopped thinking about it and let the kiss -- and Jared -- have their way with him.
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^ I guess I would if you stayed, but I'd rather go home."
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^ "If you don't want to marry me, you can still stay and live independently.
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This is commonly called the marriage penalty.
Moreover, when the rates applied by the tax code are not based on averaging the incomes, but rather on the sum of individuals' incomes, higher rates will definitely apply for two-earner households in progressive tax systems. This is most often the case with high-income taxpayers and is another situation where some consider there to be a marriage penalty.

Hypergyny and isogamy

In some cultures, women are expected to marry a spouse who is more economically, socially, or politically powerful. Known as hypergyny, this practice is common in India. Though an expected social norm in America, hypergyny is slowly being replaced by isogamy, marriage between equals, and the marrying 'down' of woman. Many anthropologists ascribe this to increased gender equality between women and men.

Gay marriage

Main articles: Same-sex marriage and Same-sex union
Since 2001, five nations have made same-sex marriage legal, including the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Canada, and South Africa. Israel, Aruba, and the Netherlands Antilles recognize same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions. In the United States, Massachusetts and Iowa are the only states to recognize same-sex marriage under the name marriage. Civil unions are a separate form of legal union open to couples of the same sex, often carrying the same entailments as opposite-sex marriage under a different name. Denmark was the first country in the world (in 1989) to extend the rights and responsibilities of marriage to same-sex couples under the name of registered partnership. Civil unions (and registered partnerships) are currently recognized in 24 out of 193 countries worldwide and in some U.S. states. Many U.S. states have adopted referendums or laws that generally restrict marriage recognition to opposite-sex couples. Federally, the U.S. Senate has considered, and failed to pass, a Federal Marriage Amendment. In Australia, de facto relationships are legally recognized in many, but not all, ways,[40] [41] with some states having registers of de facto relationships, although the federal government has amended existing legislation to specify that only marriages between a man and a woman will be recognized as 'marriages'. [42]. As a result, the Australian Capital Territory's 2006 Bill to give civil unions identical status and processes as registered marriages, was repealed by the federal government before it came into effect.
Civil unions are recognized and accepted in approximately 30 countries. Same-sex marriages have also been recorded in the history of pre-modern Europe.[43] Same-sex marriage remains statistically insignificant worldwide, as it is not legally recognized in most countries. However, in countries where it has been adopted, applications for marriage licenses have far exceeded governmental estimates of demand.[44] As homosexuality has become more accepted in Western cultures, more governments are allowing and/or sanctioning marriage of same-sex couples.
These developments have created a political and religious reaction in some countries, most notably in the United Kingdom, where the Church of England, after long debate, officially banned blessings of gay couples by Church of England clergy,[45]

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Simple English

is commonly known as the Arnolfini marriage in English. It was done in 1434]]

Marriage is a union between two (or more, in the case of polyandry) people. It is like a contract. Sometimes people also call this matrimony. The fact of being married is called wedlock. Very often, people celebrate that they are getting married. The ceremony is usually called a wedding.

The most common form of marriage is that between a man and a woman. Some societies recognise polygamy and polyandry. In polygamy, a man may be married to many women; in polyandry a woman may be married to many men. In Senegal, for example, nearly 47 percent of marriages are multiple.[1]

Some countries and religious communities[2] also permit the union of two partners of the same sex. This is generally known as same-sex marriage. In the Netherlands, the marriage law was changed to allow such unions, called Marriage.[3] Other countries that allow them sometimes have a different name for them.

Usually there is also a spiritual part of marriage. In addition to the civil act (wanted by the state) there is sometimes a religious one. If both partners are Christians, they may marry in a church, for example. There are certain restrictions on who can marry or be married; those closely related, like brothers and sisters usually cannot marry. This is usually to prevent problems for the children. Those marrying also have to be of a certain age to be able to marry. If that age is not specified it is usually the age of consent.

There are many reasons why men and women marry, but they usually include one or more of the following:

  • They want to have a family that is legally recognised.
  • They want to have children and be able to pass on property or money to their children with less problems
  • They want to officially declare their love for the other.
  • They want to get a certain citizenship of a state or country.

In Western cultures, a wedding ceremony usually consists of the couple exchanging vows and rings, following which the couple kiss. There is often a party afterward called a reception. During the reception, the couple often cut a cake, and have their first dance together. The man getting married is called the bridegroom, and the woman getting married is called the bride. Within Western cultures, the bride usually wears a white dress, because white symbolizes purity, and sometimes wears a thin piece of white cloth called a veil. The groom lifts the veil before or after the vows are taken.

Often, after the wedding, the newlywed couple will take a vacation, which is called a honeymoon.

Marriage usually leads to rights and obligations to those married, these may include:

  • The right to visit the spouse in hospital, or in prison
  • The right to decide for the spouse, when the spouse is unable to do so.
  • The spouses are both responsible for all the debts and obligations of the couple.

Marriage is also about sexual intercourse; being unable to have sex, being unwilling to have sex, or having sex outside the marriage may be a reason to undo the marriage.

In Indian culture marriage is considered to be holy and divine and is a union of Goddess "Laxmi" and God "Narayan".

References

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Marriage, which are similar to those in the above article.








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