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.This article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.^ Cape Tcrwn [1829-30] [Fo.r Articles contained, see Appendix 2 : British South Africa.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One question that may have been answered for me though, I thought maybe the others (Cesar, Llana) on 316 knew each other and were working for Widmore.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ I see what you mean about the hair, but I think if you look at other representations (besides Taweret) they have a similar "style".
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

Mars  Astronomical symbol of Mars
The planet Mars
Mars in 2001 as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope
Designations
Pronunciation /ˈmɑrz/
Adjective Martian
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 249,209,300 km
1.665 861 AU
Perihelion 206,669,000 km
1.381 497 AU
Semi-major axis 227,939,100 km
1.523 679 AU
Eccentricity 0.093 315
Orbital period 686.971 day
1.8808 Julian years
668.5991 sols
Synodic period 779.96 day
2.135 Julian years
Average orbital speed 24.077 km/s
Inclination 1.850° to ecliptic
5.65° to Sun's equator
1.67° to invariable plane[2]
Longitude of ascending node 49.562°
Argument of perihelion 286.537°
Satellites 2
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius 3,396.2 ± 0.1 km[a][3]
0.533 Earths
Polar radius 3,376.2 ± 0.1 km[a][3]
0.531 Earths
Flattening 0.005 89 ± 0.000 15
Surface area 144,798,500 km2
0.284 Earths
Volume 1.6318 × 1011 km3[4]
0.151 Earths
Mass 6.4185 × 1023 kg[4]
0.107 Earths
Mean density 3.9335 ± 0.0004[4] g/cm³
Equatorial surface gravity 3.711 m/s²[4]
0.376 g
Escape velocity 5.027 km/s
Sidereal rotation
period
1.025 957 day
24.622 9 h[4]
Equatorial rotation velocity 868.22 km/h (241.17 m/s)
Axial tilt 25.19°
North pole right ascension 21 h 10 min 44 s
317.681 43°
North pole declination 52.886 50°
Albedo 0.15 (geometric) or 0.25 (bond)[5]
Surface temp.
   Kelvin
   Celsius
min mean max
186 K 227 K 268 K[6]
−87 °C −46 °C −5 °C
Apparent magnitude +1.8 to −2.91[5]
Angular diameter 3.5–25.1"[5]
Atmosphere
Surface pressure 0.6–1.0 kPa
Composition 95.72% carbon dioxide
2.7% nitrogen
1.6% argon
0.2% oxygen
0.07% carbon monoxide
0.03% water vapor
0.01% nitric oxide
2.5 ppm Neon
300 ppb Krypton
130 ppb formaldehyde
80 ppb xenon
30 ppb ozone
10 ppb methane
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after the Roman god of war, Mars. It is also referred to as the "Red Planet" because of its reddish appearance, which is caused by iron oxide[7] that is prevalent on its surface. .Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.^ Brighton, 1888 Cooper, A. J. The Unequal Distribution of Heat over the Earth's Surface ; or, New Theory of Tropical Heat, Polar Cold, Mountain Snows, and the Earth's Di- urnal Revolution.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Temperature of the Atmosphere and Earth's Surface.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

Unlike Earth, Mars is now a geologically inactive planet with no known tectonic activity. It is the site of Olympus Mons, the highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, the largest canyon. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere may be a giant impact feature, covering 40% of the planet.[8][9] Mars’ rotational period and seasonal cycles are likewise similar to those of Earth.
.Until the first flyby of Mars occurred in 1965, by Mariner 4, many speculated about the presence of liquid water on the planet's surface.^ I know everyone is wondering about the baby - at first I thought it was going to be Charlotte being born, until we found out it was a boy.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

This was based on observed periodic variations in light and dark patches, particularly in the polar latitudes, which appeared to be seas and continents; long, dark striations were interpreted by some as irrigation channels for liquid water. .These straight line features were later explained as optical illusions, yet of all the planets in the Solar System other than Earth, Mars is the most likely to harbor liquid water, and thus to harbor life.^ But, other than that, it's the most down-to-earth, straight-forward Pixar movie yet.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ ASHES TO ASHES : the new Life On Mars spin-off pulls in about 7 million viewers every Thursday, making it the 9th most popular show on BBC1 .
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Plus I don't think he quite knows what to do - and likely doesn't want to say anything to anyone other than his 'posse' - the more who know, the more can spill...
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

[10] .Geological evidence gathered by unmanned missions suggest that Mars once had large-scale water coverage on its surface, while small geyser-like water flows may have occurred during the past decade.^ Someone else suggested "artistic liberty", which may very well be the case, but it may also be a hint that perhaps the face will NOT be that of a jackel, like Anubis, but a human.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

[11] In 2005, radar data revealed the presence of large quantities of water ice at the poles,[12] and at mid-latitudes.[13] The Phoenix Mars Lander directly sampled water ice in shallow martian soil on July 31, 2008.[14]
Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Martian Trojan asteroid. Mars is currently host to three functional orbiting spacecraft: Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. On the surface are the two Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit and Opportunity) and several inert landers and rovers, both successful and unsuccessful. The Phoenix lander completed its mission on the surface in 2008. Observations by NASA's now-defunct Mars Global Surveyor show evidence that parts of the southern polar ice cap have been receding.[15]
Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye. .Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.91,[5] a brightness surpassed only by Venus, the Moon, and the Sun, although most of the time Jupiter will appear brighter to the naked eye than Mars.^ Small 8 1884 -Transit Tables for 1886; giving the Greenwich Mean Time of Transit of the Sun and of certain Stars for every day in the year ; with an Ephemeris of the Sun, Moon, and Planets.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I wonder if Sun and Lapidus will still be in the same time period as the 316 when they reach the Island.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ New Methods of rinding the Apparent Time and the Sun's Altitude for any given place and time ; and finding the Latitude by Double Altitudes, and also by a single Altitude of the Sun.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

Mars has an average opposition distance of 78 million km but can come as close as 55.7 million km during a close approach, such as occurred in 2003.[5]

Contents

Physical characteristics

Size comparison of Earth and Mars.
Mars has approximately half the radius of Earth. It is less dense than Earth, having about 15% of Earth's volume and 11% of the mass. Its surface area is only slightly less than the total area of Earth's dry land.[5] While Mars is larger and more massive than Mercury, Mercury has a higher density. This results in a slightly stronger gravitational force at Mercury's surface. .Mars is also roughly intermediate in size, mass, and surface gravity between Earth and Earth's Moon (the Moon is about half the diameter of Mars, whereas Earth is twice; the Earth is about ten times more massive than Mars, and the Moon ten times less massive).^ Was it any more complete than it was the first time?
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Maybe it gets better the more times you watch it, but it's more a half-decent calling card than a truly brilliant debut.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ I want to know more about this "truce" between DI and the hostiles.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

The red-orange appearance of the Martian surface is caused by iron(III) oxide, more commonly known as hematite, or rust.[16]

Geology

Based on orbital observations and the examination of the Martian meteorite collection, the surface of Mars appears to be composed primarily of basalt. .Some evidence suggests that a portion of the Martian surface is more silica-rich than typical basalt, and may be similar to andesitic rocks on Earth; however, these observations may also be explained by silica glass.^ Observations on the different Strata of Earths and Minerals, more particularly of such as are found in the Coal Mines of Great Britain.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Someone commented on other thread that Paul may be more significant than thought.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ An Essay on the Causes of Distant Alternate Periodic Inundations over the Low Lands of each Hemisphere, suggesting the means where- by the Earth's surface is renovated .
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

Much of the surface is deeply covered by finely grained iron(III) oxide dust.[17][18]
Although Mars has no evidence of a current structured global magnetic field,[19] observations show that parts of the planet's crust have been magnetized, and that alternating polarity reversals of its dipole field have occurred in the past. .This paleomagnetism of magnetically susceptible minerals has properties that are very similar to the alternating bands found on the ocean floors of Earth.^ Observations on the different Strata of Earths and Minerals, more particularly of such as are found in the Coal Mines of Great Britain.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

.One theory, published in 1999 and re-examined in October 2005 (with the help of the Mars Global Surveyor), is that these bands demonstrate plate tectonics on Mars four billion years ago, before the planetary dynamo ceased to function and caused the planet's magnetic field to fade away.^ One theory (mine) is that bodies are hosts for the souls of the ancient departed (we're all thinking Egyptian) - or something to do with Richard and the hostiles/ancient ones.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ End Of Days ( 1999, dir Peter Hyams ) I got this years ago in my DVD infancy, so it was probably the only worthwhile release in a long time.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ The Descent ( 2005, dir Neil Marshall ) This is one of the best horrors of the past few years, and one that actually works better before the monsters turn up!
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[20]
Current models of the planet's interior imply a core region about 1,480 kilometers (920 mi) in radius, consisting primarily of iron with about 14–17% sulfur. This iron sulfide core is partially fluid, and has twice the concentration of the lighter elements than exist at Earth's core. The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet, but now appears to be inactive. The average thickness of the planet's crust is about 50 kilometers (31 mi), with a maximum thickness of 125 kilometers (78 mi).[21] Earth's crust, averaging 40 kilometers (25 mi), is only one third as thick as Mars’ crust, relative to the sizes of the two planets.
The geological history of Mars can be split into many epochs, but the following are the three primary epochs:[22]
.
  • Noachian epoch (named after Noachis Terra): Formation of the oldest extant surfaces of Mars, 3.8 billion years ago to 3.5 billion years ago.^ When Sawyer talked to Richard he asked Richard about Jughead and then said that 20 years ago Richard met a man named John Locke.
    • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

    Noachian age surfaces are scarred by many large impact craters. .The Tharsis bulge, a volcanic upland, is thought to have formed during this period, with extensive flooding by liquid water late in the epoch.
  • Hesperian epoch (named after Hesperia Planum): 3.5 billion years ago to 1.8 billion years ago.^ Paris, 1798-1800 A Voyage round the World, per- formed during the years 1790-92.
    • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Fosteriana : consisting of Thoughts, Reflections, and Criticisms of John Foster, selected from Periodical Papers not hitherto published in a col- lective form, and edited by Henry G. Bohn.
    • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ When Sawyer talked to Richard he asked Richard about Jughead and then said that 20 years ago Richard met a man named John Locke.
    • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

    The Hesperian epoch is marked by the formation of extensive lava plains.
  • Amazonian epoch (named after Amazonis Planitia): 1.8 billion years ago to present. Amazonian regions have few meteorite impact craters, but are otherwise quite varied. Olympus Mons formed during this period, along with lava flows elsewhere on Mars.
Volcanic plateaus (red) and impact basins (blue) dominate this topographic map of Mars.
Rock strewn surface imaged by Mars Pathfinder
.A geological event occurred on Mars on February 19, 2008, and was caught on camera by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.^ Tuesday, February 19, 2008 .
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

Images capturing an avalanche of materials thought to be fine grained ice, dust, and large blocks are shown to have detached from a 700-meter (2,300 ft) high cliff. Evidence of the avalanche is present in the dust clouds left above the cliff afterwords.[23]
Three articles published in the June 2008 issue of Nature presented evidence of an enormous impact basin in Mars's northern hemisphere, spanning 10,600 kilometers (6,600 mi) by 8,500 kilometers (5,300 mi), or roughly four times larger than the Moon's South Pole-Aitken basin, the largest impact basin yet discovered.[8][9] .First proposed in the 1980s, this theory suggests that Mars was struck by a Pluto-sized body about four billion years ago.^ Yeah, I never did that game thing a couple years ago when we found out about him.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ When Sawyer talked to Richard he asked Richard about Jughead and then said that 20 years ago Richard met a man named John Locke.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition to Sawyer talking to Richard about Locke going into Richard's camp "20 years ago", to let us know it was 1974.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

The event, thought to be the cause of the Martian hemispheric dichotomy, created the smooth Borealis basin that covers 40% of the planet.[24][25]

Soil

.In June 2008, the Phoenix Lander returned data showing Martian soil to be slightly alkaline and containing vital nutrients such as magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride, all of which are necessary for living organisms to grow.^ Paris, 1863 A Complete Epitome of Practical Navigation, containing all necessary In- struction for keeping a Ship's Reckoning at Sea.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

Scientists compared the soil near Mars's north pole to that of backyard gardens on Earth, and concluded that it could be suitable for growth of plants such as asparagus.[26] .However, in August 2008, the Phoenix Lander conducted simple chemistry experiments, mixing water from Earth with Martian soil in an attempt to test its pH, and discovered traces of the salt perchlorate, while also confirming many scientists' theories that the Martian surface is considerably basic, measuring at 8.3. The presence of the perchlorate, if confirmed, would make Martian soil more exotic than previously believed.^ Do people not think the toddler with red hair who makes Daniel even more nuts than he was - is Charlotte?
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ That would make Jack 3 years younger than me now, which would be 34-35.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Thank you CAM, that makes a little bit more sense than what was going on in my head .
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

[27] .Further testing is necessary to eliminate the possibility of the perchlorate readings being caused by terrestrial sources, which may have migrated from the spacecraft either into samples or the instrumentation.^ Principles of Physical Geography : being an Inquiry into Natural Phenomena and their Causes.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

[28]
Tharsis Tholus streak, as seen by Hirise. It is located in the middle left of this picture. Tharsis Tholus is just off to the right.
The inset photo of Tharsis Tholus shows an example of a dark streak. Such streaks are common across Mars and new ones appear frequently on steep slopes of craters, troughs, and valleys. The streaks are dark at first and get lighter with age. Sometimes the streaks start in a tiny area which then spreads out for hundreds of metres. .They have also been seen to travel around boulders and other obstacles in their path.^ The shark was first seen in the episode of Michael Jin and Sawyer taking the boat (they built) out and the boat getting blown up after the others take Walt.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Had Ben actually gone to the other island instead of getting bitch slapped with an oar by Sun, he would have seen the same thing they did.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

The commonly accepted theories include that they are dark underlying layers of soil revealed after avalanches of bright dust or dust devils.[29] However, several ideas have been put forward to explain them, some of which involve water or even the growth of organisms.[30]

Hydrology

Photo of microscopic rock forms indicating past signs of water, taken by Opportunity
.Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to its low atmospheric pressure, except at the lowest elevations for short periods.^ An Essay on the Causes of Distant Alternate Periodic Inundations over the Low Lands of each Hemisphere, suggesting the means where- by the Earth's surface is renovated .
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

[31][32] Water ice is in no short supply however, with two polar ice caps that appear to be made largely of water.[33][34] .In March 2007, NASA announced that the volume of water ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted, would be sufficient to cover the entire planetary surface to a depth of 11 meters (36 ft).^ March 5, 2009 11:36 AM .
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ March 9, 2009 11:36 AM .
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

[35] Additionally, a permafrost mantle stretches from the pole to latitudes of about 60°.[33]
Large quantities of water ice are thought to be trapped underneath Mars's thick cryosphere. Radar data from Mars Express and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed the presence of large quantities of water ice both at the poles (July 2005)[12] and at mid-latitudes (November 2008).[13] The Phoenix Mars Lander directly sampled water ice in shallow martian soil on July 31, 2008.[14]
A large release of liquid water is thought to have occurred when the Valles Marineris formed early in Mars's history, forming massive outflow channels. .A smaller but more recent outflow may have occurred when the Cerberus Fossae chasm opened about 5 million years ago, leaving a supposed sea of frozen ice still visible today on the Elysium Planitia, centered at Cerberus Palus.^ The Ice Age in Britain considered in relation to the Depth of the North Atlantic Ocean as determined by recent and earlier Deep-Sea Soundings.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Report of sixt Voyage into the parts of Persia and Media, more especially over the Caspian Sea, and their shipwracke and miseries there endured by the Ice, 1579-81.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hrrmm, you may be right LostK. I think we have more to learn about that exit in Tunisia and maybe about where the other wormholes exit to.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

[36] .However, the morphology of this region may correspond to the pooling of lava flows, causing a superficial morphology similar to ice flows,[37] which probably draped the terrain established by earlier massive floods of Athabasca Valles.^ N.D. On the Superficial Detritus of Sweden, and on the Probable Causes which have affected the Surface of the Rocks in the Central and Southern Portions of that Kingdom.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Ice Age in North America and its bearings upon the Antiquity of Man ; with an Appendix on the Probable Cause of Glaciation, by Warren Upham.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

[38] The rough surface texture at decimeter (dm) scales, a thermal inertia comparable to that of the Gusev plains, and the presence of hydrovolcanic cones, are consistent with the lava flow hypothesis.[38] Furthermore, the stoichiometric mass fraction of water in this area, to tens of centimeter depths, is only about 4%,[39] which is easily attributable to hydrated minerals,[40] and inconsistent with the presence of near-surface ice.
The high resolution Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor has taken pictures which give much more detail about the history of liquid water on the surface of Mars. .Despite the many giant flood channels and associated tree-like network of tributaries found on Mars, there are no smaller scale structures that would indicate the origin of the flood waters.^ Jack would be up there trying to stop it, "no, please, don't."
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ When Sun and Frank were at Dharmaville with Christian, it looked so dilapidated- like no one had been there in a long long time.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Fanolost I don't think ben recognized them there is no indication of it.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

Weathering processes may have denuded these, indicating that the river valleys are old features. These high resolution observations, from spacecraft such as Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, have also revealed thousands of features along crater and canyon walls that appear similar to terrestrial gullies. The gullies tend to be in the highlands of the southern hemisphere and to face the Equator; all are poleward of 30° latitude.[41] The researchers found no partially degraded gullies formed by weathering and no superimposed impact craters, indicating that these are very young features.
.Two photographs, taken six years apart, show a gully on Mars with what appears to be new deposits of sediment.^ ASHES TO ASHES : the new Life On Mars spin-off pulls in about 7 million viewers every Thursday, making it the 9th most popular show on BBC1 .
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ New York, 1890-91 Six Years of Adventure in Congo- Land ; with an Introduction by H. M. Stanley.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

Michael Meyer, the lead scientist for NASA's Mars Exploration Program, argues that only the flow of material with a high liquid water content could produce such a debris pattern and colouring. .Whether the water results from precipitation, underground or another source remains an open question.^ [Sydney, 1888] The Source of the Underground Water in the Western Districts.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

[42] .However, alternative scenarios have been suggested, including the possibility of the deposits being caused by carbon dioxide frost or by the movement of dust on the Martian surface.^ Principles of Geology: being an Attempt to explain the former Changes on the Earth's Surface by refer- ence to causes now in operation.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

[43][44]
Further evidence that liquid water once existed on the surface of Mars comes from the detection of specific minerals such as hematite and goethite, both of which sometimes form in the presence of water.[45] .Some of the evidence believed to indicate ancient water basins and flows has been negated by higher resolution studies taken at resolution about 30 cm by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.^ Barlow, Peter W. On Some Peculiar Features of the Water-bearing Strata of the London Basin.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

[46] However, in 2004, Opportunity detected the presence of the mineral jarosite on "El Capitan", a rock on the outcrop of Opportunity Ledge. .Jarosite forms only in the presence of acidic water, and the presence of jarosite is seen as proof that water once existed on Mars.^ I've only seen it once.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[47]

Polar caps

Mars's northern ice cap
Mars has two permanent polar ice caps. During a pole's winter, it lies in continuous darkness, chilling the surface and causing 25–30% of the atmosphere to condense out into thick slabs of CO2 ice (dry ice).[48] When the poles are again exposed to sunlight, the frozen CO2 sublimes, creating enormous winds that sweep off the poles as fast as 400 km/h. These seasonal actions transport large amounts of dust and water vapor, giving rise to Earth-like frost and large cirrus clouds. Clouds of water-ice were photographed by the Opportunity rover in 2004.[49]
The polar caps at both poles consist primarily of water ice. Frozen carbon dioxide accumulates as a thin layer about one metre thick on the north cap in the northern winter only, while the south cap has a permanent dry ice cover about eight metres thick.[50] .The northern polar cap has a diameter of about 1,000 kilometres during the northern Mars summer,[51] and contains about 1.6 million cubic kilometres of ice, which if spread evenly on the cap would be 2 kilometres thick.^ ASHES TO ASHES : the new Life On Mars spin-off pulls in about 7 million viewers every Thursday, making it the 9th most popular show on BBC1 .
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Fitzjames of the Lost Polar Expedition Brighton, N.D. Osborn, S. Remarks upon the Amount of Light experienced in High Northern Latitudes during the Absence of the Sun.
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[52] (This compares to a volume of 2.85 million cubic kilometres for the Greenland ice sheet.) The southern polar cap has a diameter of 350 km and a thickness of 3 km.[53] The total volume of ice in the south polar cap plus the adjacent layered deposits has also been estimated at 1.6 million cubic kilometres.[54] .Both polar caps show spiral troughs, which are believed to form as a result of differential solar heating, coupled with the sublimation of ice and condensation of water vapor.^ Resultate der meteorologischen Beo- bachtungen der franzosischen Polar- Expedition, 1882-83, am Cap Horn.
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^ Small 8 1871 The Forms of Water in Clouds and Rivers, Ice and Glaciers.
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[55][56]
.The seasonal frosting and defrosting of the southern ice cap results in the formation of spider-like radial channels carved on 1 meter thick ice by sunlight.^ The show earned itself a second season in the States, and Channel 4 haven't hidden this away on E4 (like they have Reaper ), so obviously a lot of people have faith in it.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

Then, sublimed CO2 -and probably water- increase pressure in their interior producing geyser-like eruptions of cold fluids often mixed with dark basaltic sand or mud.[57][58][59][60] This process is rapid, observed happening in the space of a few days, weeks or months, a growth rate rather unusual in geology – especially for Mars.

Geography

.Although better remembered for mapping the Moon, Johann Heinrich Mädler and Wilhelm Beer were the first "areographers". They began by establishing that most of Mars’ surface features were permanent, and more precisely determining the planet's rotation period.^ Ben couldn't have remembered the Losties at first b/c they really hadn't met in the past yet (that was a weird sentence to type!
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

In 1840, Mädler combined ten years of observations and drew the first map of Mars. Rather than giving names to the various markings, Beer and Mädler simply designated them with letters; Meridian Bay (Sinus Meridiani) was thus feature "a."[61]
Today, features on Mars are named from a number of sources. Large albedo features retain many of the older names, but are often updated to reflect new knowledge of the nature of the features. For example, Nix Olympica (the snows of Olympus) has become Olympus Mons (Mount Olympus).[62] .The surface of Mars as seen from Earth is divided into two kinds of areas, with differing albedo.^ Rational Theory as to the Cause of the Varieties of Temperature in the different Latitudes of the Earth's Surface, and according to the Scriptural Account of the Creation.
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^ Amsterdam, 1854-92 [Afterwards divided into two sections, viz.
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^ Divided into two Bookes ; the latter containing Twelve Songs, never before Imprinted, Digested into a Poem by Michael Drayton, Esquire.
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The paler plains covered with dust and sand rich in reddish iron oxides were once thought of as Martian 'continents' and given names like Arabia Terra (land of Arabia) or Amazonis Planitia (Amazonian plain). The dark features were thought to be seas, hence their names Mare Erythraeum, Mare Sirenum and Aurorae Sinus. The largest dark feature seen from Earth is Syrtis Major.[63] The permanent northern polar ice cap is named Planum Boreum, while the southern cap is called Planum Australe.
.Mars’ equator is defined by its rotation, but the location of its Prime Meridian was specified, as was Earth's (at Greenwich), by choice of an arbitrary point; Mädler and Beer selected a line in 1830 for their first maps of Mars.^ Maps and plates, Folio 1834 First Report from the Select Com- mittee on Steam Communication with India, China, Australia, and New Zea- land.
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^ Ottawa, 1880 Papers on Time-Reckoning and the Selection of a Prime Meridian to be Common to all Nations.
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After the spacecraft Mariner 9 provided extensive imagery of Mars in 1972, a small crater (later called Airy-0), located in the Sinus Meridiani ("Middle Bay" or "Meridian Bay"), was chosen for the definition of 0.0° longitude to coincide with the original selection.[64]
.Since Mars has no oceans and hence no 'sea level', a zero-elevation surface or mean gravity surface also had to be selected.^ [Sydney, 1880] Note upon a Sliding-Scale for cor- recting Barometer Readings to 32 F. and Mean Sea-Level.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Reduction of Air- Pressure to Sea-level, at Elevated Stations West of the Mississippi River.
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Zero altitude is defined by the height at which there is 610.5 Pa (6.105 mbar) of atmospheric pressure.[65] .This pressure corresponds to the triple point of water, and is about 0.6% of the sea level surface pressure on Earth (.006 atm).^ Voyage of Thomas Candish into the South Sea, and from thence round about the Circumference of the whole Earth, 1586-88.
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^ Report of the Variations of the Mag- netic Intensity observed at different points of the Earth's Surface.
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^ On the Excess of Water in the Region of the Earth about New Zealand, its Causes and its Effects.
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[66]
This approximate true-color image, taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, shows the view of Victoria Crater from Cape Verde. It was captured over a three-week period, from October 16 – November 6, 2006.

Impact topography

The dichotomy of Martian topography is striking: northern plains flattened by lava flows contrast with the southern highlands, pitted and cratered by ancient impacts. Research in 2008 has presented evidence regarding a theory proposed in 1980 postulating that, four billion years ago, the northern hemisphere of Mars was struck by an object one-tenth to two-thirds the size of the Moon. If validated, this would make Mars's northern hemisphere the site of an impact crater 10,600 km long by 8,500 km wide, or roughly the area of Europe, Asia, and Australia combined, surpassing the South Pole-Aitken basin as the largest impact crater in the Solar System.[8][9]
Mars is scarred by a number of impact craters: a total of 43,000 craters with a diameter of 5 km or greater have been found.[67] The largest confirmed of these is the Hellas impact basin, a light albedo feature clearly visible from Earth.[68] Due to the smaller mass of Mars, the probability of an object colliding with the planet is about half that of the Earth. However, Mars is located closer to the asteroid belt, so it has an increased chance of being struck by materials from that source. Mars is also more likely to be struck by short-period comets, i.e., those that lie within the orbit of Jupiter.[69] In spite of this, there are far fewer craters on Mars compared with the Moon because Mars's atmosphere provides protection against small meteors. Some craters have a morphology that suggests the ground became wet after the meteor impacted.[70]

Tectonic sites

Olympus Mons, the highest mountain in the solar system.
THEMIS image of cave entrances on Mars. The pits have been informally named (A) Dena, (B) Chloe, (C) Wendy, (D) Annie, (E) Abby (left) and Nikki, and (F) Jeanne.
The shield volcano, Olympus Mons (Mount Olympus), at 27 km is the highest known mountain in the Solar System.[71] .It is an extinct volcano in the vast upland region Tharsis, which contains several other large volcanoes.^ Folio 1671 Asia : the first part, being an Accurate Description of Persia and the several Provinces thereof, the vast Empire of the Great Mogol, and other parts of India, &c.
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^ A General Description of China, containing the Topography of the Fifteen Provinces which compose this vast Empire, that of Tartary, the Isles, and other tributary Countries, &c.
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^ Folio 1670 America : being the latest and most Accurate Description of the New World, containing the Original of the Inhabitants, and the remarkable Voyages thither ; the Conquest of the vast Empires of Mexico and Peru, and other large Provinces and Territories, with the several European Plantations in those parts .
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Olympus Mons is over three times the height of Mount Everest, which in comparison stands at just over 8.8 km.[72]
The large canyon, Valles Marineris (Latin for Mariner Valleys, also known as Agathadaemon in the old canal maps), has a length of 4,000 km and a depth of up to 7 km. The length of Valles Marineris is equivalent to the length of Europe and extends across one-fifth the circumference of Mars. By comparison, the Grand Canyon on Earth is only 446 km long and nearly 2 km deep. Valles Marineris was formed due to the swelling of the Tharsis area which caused the crust in the area of Valles Marineris to collapse. Another large canyon is Ma'adim Vallis (Ma'adim is Hebrew for Mars). It is 700 km long and again much bigger than the Grand Canyon with a width of 20 km and a depth of 2 km in some places. It is possible that Ma'adim Vallis was flooded with liquid water in the past.[73]

Other features

Images from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter have revealed seven possible cave entrances on the flanks of the Arsia Mons volcano.[74] .The caves, named after loved ones of their discoverers, are collectively known as the "seven sisters."^ APPENDIX I. COLLECTIONS OF VOYAGES AND TRAVELS. The collections are arranged alphabetically under the names of their compilers when these are known, and the anonymous works are placed at the end in chronological order.
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[75] Cave entrances measure from 100 m to 252 m wide and they are believed to be at least 73 m to 96 m deep. .Because light does not reach the floor of most of the caves, it is likely that they extend much deeper than these lower estimates and widen below the surface.^ I feel like Rose and Bernard are simply likable characters, but won't hold much of a significance beyond what they've already done.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ I know she knows more than she is saying, but like I said before, if everyone shared what they knew...we'd have no LOST!!!
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ But them withholding the name was certainly agonizing because I am sure they knew that would drive the fans nuts (like the hooded Amy)!
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

"Dena" is the only exception; its floor is visible and was measured to be 130 m deep. The interiors of these caverns may be protected from micrometeoroids, UV radiation, solar flares and high energy particles that bombard the planet's surface.[76]

Atmosphere

Mars's thin atmosphere, visible on the horizon in this low-orbit photo.
Traces of methane plumes in Mars’ atmosphere during northern summer – NASA
.Mars lost its magnetosphere 4 billion years ago, so the solar wind interacts directly with the Martian ionosphere, keeping the atmosphere thinner than it would otherwise be by stripping away atoms from the outer layer.^ [Edinburgh, 1858] the Mean Pressure of the Atmosphere and the prevailing Winds over the Globe for the Months and for the Year.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That would make Jack 3 years younger than me now, which would be 34-35.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

.Both Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Express have detected these ionised atmospheric particles trailing off into space behind Mars.^ And there's still the fundamental flaw of this spin-off: the driving force behind Mars was the uncertainly behind Sam's predicament (was he dead, insane, or back in time?
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[77][78] Compared to Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is quite thin. .Atmospheric pressure on the surface ranges from a low of 30 Pa (0.03 kPa) on Olympus Mons to over 1,155 Pa (1.155 kPa) in the Hellas Planitia, with a mean pressure at the surface level of 600 Pa (0.6 kPa).^ [Edinburgh, 1858] the Mean Pressure of the Atmosphere and the prevailing Winds over the Globe for the Months and for the Year.
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^ An Essay on the Causes of Distant Alternate Periodic Inundations over the Low Lands of each Hemisphere, suggesting the means where- by the Earth's surface is renovated .
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Mean Pressure of the Atmosphere over the Globe for the Months and for the Year.
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[79] The surface pressure of Mars is equal to the pressure found 35 km[80] above the Earth's surface. This is less than 1% of the Earth's surface pressure (101.3 kPa). .The scale height of the atmosphere is about 10.8 km,[81] which is higher than Earth's (6 km) because Mars' surface gravity is only about 38% of Earth's, an effect offset by both the lower temperature and 50% higher average molecular weight of Mars's atmosphere.^ This is perhaps the first Pixar film that aims slightly higher than the typical under-10 crowd.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Those moments aren't the heady delights they were in Life On Mars , solely because the mystery about Alex's whereabouts isn't a mystery.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Being a UK-based blog, it's only natural the homegrown stuff is more popular than the big US shows everyone blogs about.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

The atmosphere on Mars consists of 95% carbon dioxide, 3% nitrogen, 1.6% argon, and contains traces of oxygen and water.[5] The atmosphere is quite dusty, containing particulates about 1.5 µm in diameter which give the Martian sky a tawny color when seen from the surface.[82]
Methane has been detected in the Martian atmosphere with a concentration of about 30 ppb by volume;[83][84] it occurs in extended plumes, and the profiles imply that the methane was released from discrete regions. .In northern midsummer, the principal plume contained 19,000 metric tons of methane, with an estimated source strength of 0.6 kilogram per second.^ Tables of Logarithms to six places : containing Logarithms of Numbers from I to 10,000 ; and of Sines, Tangents, and Secants for every half-minute ; with proportional parts for Seconds.
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^ Disturnell's Guide through the Middle, Northern, and Eastern States ; contain- ing a Description of the Principal Places, Canals, Railroad and Steamboat Routes, Tables of Distances, c.
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[85][86] .The profiles suggest that there may be two local source regions, the first centered near 30° N, 260° W and the second near 0°, 310° W.[85] It is estimated that Mars must produce 270 ton/year of methane.^ This box-set is actually Region 4 (purely because it was released there first and had a black case, unlike the blue-silver US/UK box-set – picky, moi ?
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ There are only 2 episodes left of this strike-shortened season (not including this one), and rumours suggest it's unlikely to return for a fourth year.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Two Years in Ava, from May 1824 to May 1862.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

[85][87][88]
.The implied methane destruction lifetime may be as long as about 4 Earth years and as short as about 0.6 Earth years.^ But I think he made up that speech about how three years is long enough to get over someone just to placate and soothe Horace.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

[85][89] This rapid turnover would indicate an active source of the gas on the planet. Volcanic activity, cometary impacts, and the presence of methanogenic microbial life forms are among possible sources. Methane could also be produced by a non-biological process called serpentinization[b] involving water, carbon dioxide, and the mineral olivine, which is known to be common on Mars.[90]

Climate

Mars from Hubble Space Telescope October 28, 2005 with dust storm visible.
.Of all the planets in the Solar System, Mars's seasons are the most Earth-like, due to the similar tilts of the two planets' rotational axes.^ On their way to the beach, gunshots ring out and Sawyer and Juliet take out the two "bad guys" and rescue the girl (most likely Amy).
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Thoughts on the Influence of Ether in the Solar System, its relations to the Zodiacal Light, Comets, the Seasons, and Periodical Shooting Stars.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, the lengths of the Martian seasons are about twice those of Earth's, as Mars’ greater distance from the Sun leads to the Martian year being about two Earth years long.^ But I think he made up that speech about how three years is long enough to get over someone just to placate and soothe Horace.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ There was a scene from last season I think where Jin and Sun were speaking in Korean and they noticed that Charlotte was smiling and paying attention to their Korean conversation...so they approached her about it.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Something must have happened in those two weeks that LaFleur bought them that made Juliet change her mind about leaving.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

Martian surface temperatures vary from lows of about -87 °C (-125 °F) during the polar winters to highs of up to 20 °C (68 °F) in summers.[31] The wide range in temperatures is due to the thin atmosphere which cannot store much solar heat, the low atmospheric pressure, and the low thermal inertia of Martian soil.[91] The planet is also 1.52 times as far from the sun as Earth, resulting in just 43 percent of the amount of sunlight.[92]
.If Mars had an Earth-like orbit, its seasons would be similar to Earth's because its axial tilt is similar to Earth's.^ But them withholding the name was certainly agonizing because I am sure they knew that would drive the fans nuts (like the hooded Amy)!
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

However, the comparatively large eccentricity of the Martian orbit has a significant effect. Mars is near perihelion when it is summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the north, and near aphelion when it is winter in the southern hemisphere and summer in the north. .As a result, the seasons in the southern hemisphere are more extreme and the seasons in the northern are milder than would otherwise be the case.^ Narrative of Voyages and Travels in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, comprising Three Voyages round the World, to- gether with a Voyage in the Pacific Ocean and Oriental Islands.
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^ While not the best premiere episode (obviously the Pilot was totally fresh, and season 2's premiere expanded the scope), it was more entertaining than season 3's opener – despite not really shaking any foundations.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

The summer temperatures in the south can reach up to 30 °C (54 °F) warmer than the equivalent summer temperatures in the north.[93]
Mars also has the largest dust storms in our Solar System. These can vary from a storm over a small area, to gigantic storms that cover the entire planet. They tend to occur when Mars is closest to the Sun, and have been shown to increase the global temperature.[94]

Orbit and rotation

Mars’ average distance from the Sun is roughly 230 million km (1.5 AU) and its orbital period is 687 (Earth) days. The solar day (or sol) on Mars is only slightly longer than an Earth day: 24 hours, 39 minutes, and 35.244 seconds. A Martian year is equal to 1.8809 Earth years, or 1 year, 320 days, and 18.2 hours.[5]
Mars's axial tilt is 25.19 degrees, which is similar to the axial tilt of the Earth.[5] .As a result, Mars has seasons like the Earth, though on Mars they are nearly twice as long given its longer year.^ Mars finished last year (on a surreal note), but you can't keep a good idea down for long...
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Than you flash forward and they're together - though likely not marrit.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ They are too long for a guy, and are a turnoff except for the "S" chick, good for backscratching though...
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

Currently the orientation of the north pole of Mars is close to the star Deneb.[95] Mars passed its perihelion in April 2009 and its aphelion in May 2008. It next reaches perihelion in May 2011 and aphelion in March 2010.[citation needed]
.Mars has a relatively pronounced orbital eccentricity of about 0.09; of the seven other planets in the Solar System, only Mercury shows greater eccentricity.^ It's another ironic purchase for LivingTV , as their schedule is full of reality shows about contacting the dead , and Moonlight only stretches that predilection to the "undead".
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Being a UK-based blog, it's only natural the homegrown stuff is more popular than the big US shows everyone blogs about.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

However, it is known that in the past Mars has had a much more circular orbit than it does currently. At one point 1.35 million Earth years ago, Mars had an eccentricity of roughly 0.002, much less than that of Earth today.[96] The Mars cycle of eccentricity is 96,000 Earth years compared to the Earth's cycle of 100,000 years.[97] However, Mars also has a much longer cycle of eccentricity with a period of 2.2 million Earth years, and this overshadows the 96,000-year cycle in the eccentricity graphs. .For the last 35,000 years Mars' orbit has been getting slightly more eccentric because of the gravitational effects of the other planets.^ Keeley Hawes herself is an interesting screen presence; imagine a slightly more talented Keira Knightley, 10 years from now, and that's the vibe she gives me.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Mars finished last year (on a surreal note), but you can't keep a good idea down for long...
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ It failed dismally last year because the plots were dull/repetitive and its mythology was riddled with holes -- but steps have been taken to correct many of the mistakes now.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

The closest distance between the Earth and Mars will continue to mildly decrease for the next 25,000 years.[98]
ThePlanets Orbits Ceres Mars PolarView.svg .The image to the left shows a comparison between Mars and Ceres, a dwarf planet in the Asteroid Belt, as seen from the north ecliptic pole, while the image to the right is as seen from the ascending node.^ Tunisia, the landing point for Locke when he returned and met Whidmore, is the very midpoint between the north pole and where we suspect the island to be on a world map.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Beside it being the possible midpoint between the island and the north pole, it's in the middle of the middle east.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

The segments of orbits south of the ecliptic are plotted in darker colors. The perihelia (q) and aphelia (Q) are labelled with the date of the nearest passage. The orbit of Mars is shown in red, Ceres is in yellow.
ThePlanets Orbits Ceres Mars.svg

Moons

Phobos (left) and Deimos (right)
Mars has two tiny natural moons, Phobos and Deimos, which orbit very close to the planet. Their known composition suggests the moons are captured asteroids but their origin remains uncertain.[99]
.Both satellites were discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall, and are named after the characters Phobos (panic/fear) and Deimos (terror/dread) who, in Greek mythology, accompanied their father Ares, god of war, into battle.^ The statue is definitely Anubis -- the Egyptian god of the underworld, or sometimes known as the god who carried souls to the god of the underworld (who was his father Osiris).
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ The final novel in the series is (The Last Battle) it is about one tricking another into impersonating the LEADER leading to a war and the destruction of Narnia (the island) .
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

Ares was known as Mars to the Romans.[100][101]
From the surface of Mars, the motions of Phobos and Deimos appear very different from that of our own moon. Phobos rises in the west, sets in the east, and rises again in just 11 hours. Deimos, being only just outside synchronous orbit—where the orbital period would match the planet's period of rotation—rises as expected in the east but very slowly. Despite the 30 hour orbit of Deimos, it takes 2.7 days to set in the west as it slowly falls behind the rotation of Mars, then just as long again to rise.[102]
Because Phobos' orbit is below synchronous altitude, the tidal forces from the planet Mars are gradually lowering its orbit. .In about 50 million years it will either crash into Mars’ surface or break up into a ring structure around the planet.^ ASHES TO ASHES : the new Life On Mars spin-off pulls in about 7 million viewers every Thursday, making it the 9th most popular show on BBC1 .
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ But I think he made up that speech about how three years is long enough to get over someone just to placate and soothe Horace.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Last year, Primeval was a show about a small group of people chasing creatures around.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[102]
The origin of the two moons is not well understood. Their low albedo and carbonaceous chondrite composition are similar to asteroids and capture remains the favored theory. Phobos' unstable orbit would seem to point towards a relatively recent capture. But both have circular orbits, very near the equator, which is very unusual for captured objects and the required capture dynamics are complex. .Accretion early in Mars' history is also plausible but does not account for the moons' composition resembling asteroids rather than Mars itself.^ So his arrival on the island was probably in the early 70s rather than the late 70s when he would be an older teenager.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Yaman, its Early Mediaeval History; also the Abridged History of its Dynasties by Ibn Khaldun, and an Account of the Karmathians of Yaman by Abu 'Abd Allah Baha Ad -din Al-Janadi.
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A third possibility is the involvement of a third body or some kind of impact disruption.[103]

Life

The current understanding of planetary habitability—the ability of a world to develop and sustain life—favors planets that have liquid water on their surface. .This most often requires that the orbit of a planet lie within the habitable zone, which for the Sun currently extends from just beyond Venus to about the semi-major axis of Mars.^ Diagram showing the Amount of Day- light experienced during the Absence of the Sun within the Arctic Zone in the Winters of 1852-53 and 1853-54.
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[104] During perihelion Mars dips inside this region, but the planet's thin (low-pressure) atmosphere prevents liquid water from existing over large regions for extended periods. The past flow of liquid water, however, demonstrates the planet's potential for habitability. Recent evidence has suggested that any water on the Martian surface would have been too salty and acidic to support terrestrial life.[105]
.The lack of a magnetosphere and extremely thin atmosphere of Mars are a greater challenge: the planet has little heat transfer across its surface, poor insulation against bombardment and the solar wind, and insufficient atmospheric pressure to retain water in a liquid form (water instead sublimates to a gaseous state).^ [Edinburgh, 1858] the Mean Pressure of the Atmosphere and the prevailing Winds over the Globe for the Months and for the Year.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Recurring Monthly Periods and Periodic System of the Atmospheric Actions, with Evidences of the Transfer of Heat and Electricity, and general Observations on Meteorology.
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^ On certain Phenomena of Voltaic Ignition and the Decomposition of Water into its Constitutent Gases by Heat.
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Mars is also nearly, or perhaps totally, geologically dead; the end of volcanic activity has stopped the recycling of chemicals and minerals between the surface and interior of the planet.[106]
.Evidence suggests that the planet was once significantly more habitable than it is today, but whether living organisms ever existed there is still unclear.^ I think more than once.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Gwen reports to Jack that there are 12 confirmed deaths so far, meaning Death only needs to kill once more and it will be free to spread across the world.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ TGT regarding "the numbers" and the fact that they seem to taunt Hurley....there's more of a connection than the lottery ticket.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

.The Viking probes of the mid-1970s carried experiments designed to detect microorganisms in Martian soil at their respective landing sites, and had some apparently positive results, including a temporary increase of CO2 production on exposure to water and nutrients.^ Some Remarks on an Error respecting the Site and Origin of Graham Island.
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.However this sign of life was later disputed by many scientists, resulting in a continuing debate, with NASA scientist Gilbert Levin asserting that Viking may have found life.^ It comes at the point where many viewers will be debating whether or not to continue watching, as the show is still on shaky ground.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.A re-analysis of the now 30-year-old Viking data, in light of modern knowledge of extremophile forms of life, has suggested that the Viking tests were also not sophisticated enough to detect these forms of life.^ Jacob is not 30 years old...
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Unfortunately, there's no way to tell if Owen has 30 days, weeks or years of "life" before the energy vanishes...
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ I recommend seeing it, although its various tricks have been repeated so often now, it will seem quite old-hat if you're new to it.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.The tests may even have killed a (hypothetical) life form.^ This episode even conspires to include an unnecessary ballet-dancing subplot, purely to utilize Glau's real-life proficiency in that art-form.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[107] Tests conducted by the Phoenix Mars Lander have shown that the soil has a very alkaline pH and it contains magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride.[108] The soil nutrients may be able to support life, but life would still have to be shielded from the intense ultraviolet light.[109]
At the Johnson space center lab, some curious shapes have been found in the Martian meteorite ALH84001. .Some scientists propose that these geometric shapes could be fossilized microbes extant on Mars before the meteorite was blasted into space by a meteor strike and sent on a 15 million-year voyage to Earth.^ Voyage of Thomas Candish into the South Sea, and from thence round about the Circumference of the whole Earth, 1586-88.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That would also only give Widmore ~ 15 years to amass his fortune, which I guess could occur.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ A Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea and Beering's Straits, for the purpose of exploring a North-East Passage, under- taken in the years 1815-18, &c.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

However, an exclusively inorganic origin for the shapes has also been proposed.[110]
.Small quantities of methane and formaldehyde recently detected by Mars orbiters are both claimed to be hints for life, as these chemical compounds would quickly break down in the Martian atmosphere.^ He just wanted the body so he would have something to show his people for the two lives they lost that day...something to calm them down so as not to break the truce.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

[111][112] It is possible that these compounds may instead be replenished by volcanic or geological means such as serpentinization.[90]

Exploration

Mars 3 Lander (stamp, 1972)
.Dozens of spacecraft, including orbiters, landers, and rovers, have been sent to Mars by the Soviet Union, the United States, Europe, and Japan to study the planet's surface, climate, and geology.^ Washington, 1849 Documents and Facts illustrating the Origin of the Mission to Japan autho- rised by the Government of the United States, May 1851.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Notes on Public Works in the United States and in Canada, including a De- scription of the St Lawrence and the Mississippi Rivers and their main Tribu- taries.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ New York, 1868 Union Pacific Railroad Company, char- tered by the United States : Progress of their Road west from Omaha, Nebraska, across the Continent.
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The current price of transporting material from the surface of Earth to the surface of Mars is approximately US$309,000 per kilogram.[113]
.Roughly two-thirds of all spacecraft destined for Mars have failed in one manner or another before completing or even beginning their missions.^ He will be back on the island one way or another before his nightmare is over.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Directions for the Use of the Patent Sphereometer, invented for the purpose of obviating all abstruse Calculations in Navigation, likewise for facilitating passages from one place to another.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Just wanted to say one of thing before I read all the posts.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

.While this high failure rate can be ascribed to technical problems, enough have either failed or lost communications for causes unknown for some to search for other explanations.^ Renewed Arctic Search for Journals, Records, or other traces of the Lost Franklin Expedition 1860 VOLUME 7.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rear-Admiral Sir John Franklin : a Narrative of the Circum- stances and Causes which led to the Failure of the Searching Expeditions sent by Government and others for the Rescue of Sir John Franklin.
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^ Sullivan, John T. Report of Historical and Technical Information relating to the Problem of Interoceanic Communication by Way of the American Isthmus.
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Examples include an Earth-Mars "Bermuda Triangle", a Mars Curse, or even the long-standing NASA in-joke, the "Great Galactic Ghoul" that feeds on Martian spacecraft.[114]

Past missions

.The first successful fly-by mission to Mars was NASA's Mariner 4, launched in 1964. On November 14, 1971 Mariner 9 became the first space probe to orbit another planet when it entered into orbit around Mars.^ Cutter and Stephen ( James Murray ) zoom to the rescue in another boat, Stephen firing the first of many rounds into the hapless creature.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[115] The first successful objects to land on the surface were two Soviet probes, Mars 2 and Mars 3 from the Mars probe program, launched in 1971, but both lost contact within seconds of landing. .Then came the 1975 NASA launches of the Viking program, which consisted of two orbiters, each having a lander; both landers successfully touched down in 1976. Viking 1 remained operational for six years, Viking 2 for three.^ He convinced Juliet to give him two weeks and I think that the two weeks led to three years.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Switzerland and France, Letters from, written during a Residence of between two and three years in different parts of those countries.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

The Viking landers relayed color panoramas of Mars[116] and the orbiters mapped the surface so well that the images remain in use.
The Soviet probes Phobos 1 and 2 were sent to Mars in 1988 to study Mars and its two moons. Phobos 1 lost contact on the way to Mars. Phobos 2, while successfully photographing Mars and Phobos, failed just before it was set to release two landers on Phobos's surface.[117]
.Following the 1992 failure of the Mars Observer orbiter, NASA launched the Mars Global Surveyor in 1996. This mission was a complete success, having finished its primary mapping mission in early 2001. Contact was lost with the probe in November 2006 during its third extended program, spending exactly 10 operational years in space.^ Cox, E. T. Third and Fourth Annual Re- ports of the Geological Survey of Indiana, made during the years 1871 and 1872.
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.Only a month after the launch of the Surveyor, NASA launched the Mars Pathfinder, carrying a robotic exploration vehicle Sojourner, which landed in the Ares Vallis on Mars in the summer of 1997. This mission was also successful, and received much publicity, partially due to the many images that were sent back to Earth.^ A. A. Report on the Experiment of Sinking Artesian Wells upon the Public Lands ; Explora- tion of the Rio Colorado of the West ; Exploration in Nebraska, &c.
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[118]
.The most recent mission to Mars was the NASA Phoenix Mars lander, which launched August 4, 2007 and arrived on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008.[119] The lander has a robotic arm with a 2.5 m reach and capable of digging a metre into the Martian soil.^ Chronological History of Voyages into the Arctic Regions, undertaken chiefly for the purpose of discovering a North-east, North-west, or Polar passage between the Atlantic and Pacific, from the Earliest Periods of Scandinavian Navigation to the Departure of the Recent Expeditions under Captains Ross and Buchan.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Osborn, S. On the Exploration of the North Polar Region 1868 Lambert, G. Expedition Fran$aise au Pole Nord.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Small 8 1861 On the Exploration of the North Polar Region.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

.The lander has a microscopic camera capable of resolving to one-thousandth the width of a human hair, and discovered a substance at its landing site on June 15, 2008, which was confirmed to be water ice on June 20.[120][121] The mission was declared concluded on November 10, 2008, after engineers were unable to contact the craft.^ February 2008 Sky One, 10.00 pm .
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[122]

Current missions

Spirit's lander on Mars
View from the Phoenix lander.
In 2001 NASA launched the successful Mars Odyssey orbiter, which is still in orbit as of December 2009, and the ending date has been extended to September 2010.[123] Odyssey's Gamma Ray Spectrometer detected significant amounts of hydrogen in the upper metre or so of Mars's regolith
. This hydrogen is thought to be contained in large deposits of water ice.[124]
In 2003, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched the Mars Express craft, consisting of the Mars Express Orbiter and the lander Beagle 2. Beagle 2 failed during descent and was declared lost in early February 2004.[125] In early 2004 the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer team announced it had detected methane in the Martian atmosphere. ESA announced in June 2006 the discovery of aurorae on Mars.[126]
Also in 2003, NASA launched the twin Mars Exploration Rovers named Spirit (MER-A) and Opportunity (MER-B). Both missions landed successfully in January 2004 and have met or exceeded all their targets. Among the most significant scientific returns has been conclusive evidence that liquid water existed at some time in the past at both landing sites. Martian dust devils and windstorms have occasionally cleaned both rovers' solar panels, and thus increased their lifespan.[127]
.On August 12, 2005 the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter probe was launched toward the planet, arriving in orbit on March 10, 2006 to conduct a two-year science survey.^ March 10, 2009 11:12 AM .
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ March 6, 2009 12:10 PM .
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ March 10, 2009 12:10 PM .
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

The orbiter will map the Martian terrain and weather to find suitable landing sites for upcoming lander missions. .It also contains an improved telecommunications link to Earth, with more bandwidth than all previous missions combined.^ Wonder if him being all over - both on- and off-island - makes him more dangerous than others.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Typical of all with Lost - more questions raised than answered.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter snapped the first image of a series of active avalanches near the planet's north pole, scientists said March 3, 2008.[128]
The Dawn spacecraft flew by Mars in February 2009 for a gravity assist on its way to investigate Vesta and then Ceres.[129]

Future missions

Phoenix will be followed by the Mars Science Laboratory in 2011, a bigger, faster (90 m/h), and smarter version of the Mars Exploration Rovers. Experiments include a laser chemical sampler that can deduce the make-up of rocks at a distance of 13 m.[130]
The joint Russian and Chinese Phobos-Grunt mission to return samples of Mars's moon Phobos (grunt is the Russian word for soil) was originally scheduled for October 2009, but the mission was postponed till the next launch window in 2011. On September 15, 2008, NASA announced MAVEN, a robotic mission in 2013 to provide information about Mars' atmosphere.[131] In 2018 the ESA plans to launch its first Rover to Mars; the ExoMars rover will be capable of drilling 2 m into the soil in search of organic molecules.[132]
.The Finnish-Russian MetNet mission will land tens of small vehicles on the Martian surface to establish a widespread surface observation network to investigate the planet's atmospheric structure, physics and meteorology.^ Small 4 Edinburgh, 1879-89 Reports on Foreign Missions to the General Assembly of the Free Church of Scot- land.
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^ Small 8 1887 The Bermuda Islands : a Contribution to the Physical History and Zoology of the Somers Archipelago ; with an Exam- ination of the Structure of Coral Reefs.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Recurring Monthly Periods and Periodic System of the Atmospheric Actions, with Evidences of the Transfer of Heat and Electricity, and general Observations on Meteorology.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

[133] A precursor mission using one or a few landers is scheduled for launch in 2009 or 2011.[134] One possibility is a piggyback launch on the Russian Phobos-Grunt mission.[134]
.Manned Mars exploration by the United States has been explicitly identified as a long-term goal in the Vision for Space Exploration announced in 2004 by the then US President George W. Bush.^ Message from the President of the United States, transmitting Documents, k &c.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Grover Cleveland, President of the United States, Arbitrator, under the Treaty of Guatemala of 24th December 1886.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Washington, 1880] United States, Arctic Colonisation, and Exploration in 1881.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

[135] NASA and Lockheed Martin have begun work on the Orion spacecraft, formerly the Crew Exploration Vehicle, which is currently scheduled to send a human expedition to Earth's moon by 2020 as a stepping stone to an expedition to Mars thereafter. On September 28, 2007, NASA administrator Michael D. Griffin stated that NASA aims to put a man on Mars by 2037.[136]
ESA hopes to land humans on Mars between 2030 and 2035.[137] This will be preceded by successively larger probes, starting with the launch of the ExoMars probe[138] and a joint NASA-ESA Mars sample return mission.[139]
Mars Direct, an extremely low-cost human mission proposed by Bob Zubrin, a founder of the Mars Society, uses heavy-lift Saturn V class rockets, such as the Space X Falcon 9, or, the Ares V, to skip orbital construction, LEO rendezvous, and lunar fuel depots. A modified proposal, called "Mars to Stay",[140] involves not returning the first immigrant/explorers immediately, if ever. .Dean Unick has suggested the cost of sending a four to six person team is one fifth to one tenth the cost of returning that same four to six person team; twenty settlers could be sent for the cost of returning four.^ There are only 2 episodes left of this strike-shortened season (not including this one), and rumours suggest it's unlikely to return for a fourth year.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Relations : the most part of which he received from Friar Simon de Sancto Quintino, one of the foure Friars sent by Pope Innocent IV. to the Tartars.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

[141]

Astronomy on Mars

Photograph of a Martian sunset taken by Spirit at Gusev crater, May 19, 2005.
With the existence of various orbiters, landers, and rovers, it is now possible to study astronomy from the Martian skies. .While Mars’ moon Phobos appears about one third the angular diameter of the full Moon as it appears from Earth, Deimos appears more or less star-like, and appears only slightly brighter than Venus does from Earth.^ And Caesar and Ilana appear to know more than they are letting on.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ La Fleur wil be on again tomorrow at 9pm, so its more than likely it will be an enhanced episode.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ As much as I like Martha Jones, she's not really deserving of swooning adoration from the show – having only starred in one season of Doctor Who , lest we forget.
  • Dan's Media Digest: February 2008 18 September 2009 7:47 UTC danowen.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[142]
.There are also various phenomena well-known on Earth that have now been observed on Mars, such as meteors and auroras.^ By various well-known Ex- perts.
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^ Account of Experiments to Determine the Figure of the Earth by means of the Pendulum vibrating Seconds in different Latitudes, as well as on various other subjects of Philosophical Inquiry.
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^ Report of the Variations of the Mag- netic Intensity observed at different points of the Earth's Surface.
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[126] A transit of the Earth as seen from Mars will occur on November 10, 2084.[143] There are also transits of Mercury and transits of Venus, and the moons Phobos and Deimos are of sufficiently small angular diameter that their partial "eclipses" of the Sun are best considered transits (see Transit of Deimos from Mars).[144][145]

Viewing

Apparent retrograde motion of Mars in 2003 as seen from Earth
Mars oppositions from 2003–2018, viewed from above the ecliptic with the Earth centered
.To the naked eye, Mars usually appears a distinct yellow, orange, or reddish color, and varies in brightness more than any other planet as seen from Earth over the course of its orbit.^ Account of Experiments to Determine the Figure of the Earth by means of the Pendulum vibrating Seconds in different Latitudes, as well as on various other subjects of Philosophical Inquiry.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And Caesar and Ilana appear to know more than they are letting on.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Plus I don't think he quite knows what to do - and likely doesn't want to say anything to anyone other than his 'posse' - the more who know, the more can spill...
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

However the actual color of Mars is closer to butterscotch, and the redness seen is actually just dust in the planet's atmosphere; considering this NASA's Spirit rover has taken pictures of a greenish-brown, mud-colored landscape with blue-grey rocks and patches of light red colored sand.[146] The apparent magnitude of Mars varies from +1.8 at conjunction to as high as −2.91 at perihelic opposition.[5] .When farthest away from the Earth, it is more than seven times as far from the latter as when it is closest.^ Was it any more complete than it was the first time?
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

When least favorably positioned, it can be lost in the Sun's glare for months at a time. .At its most favorable times—at 15- or 17-year intervals, and always between late July and late September—Mars shows a wealth of surface detail to a telescope.^ A View of the United States of America, in a Series of Papers written at various times between the years 1787 and 1794.
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^ Re- printed from The Times of July, August, September, and October 1892.
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Especially noticeable, even at low magnification, are the polar ice caps.[147]
The point of Mars’ closest approach to the Earth is known as opposition. The length of time between successive oppositions, or the synodic period, is 780 days. Because of the eccentricities of the orbits, the times of opposition and minimum distance can differ by up to 8.5 days. The minimum distance varies between about 55 and 100 million km due to the planets' elliptical orbits.[5] The last Mars opposition occurred on January 29, 2010. The next one will occur on March 3, 2012.[148]
As Mars approaches opposition it begins a period of retrograde motion, which means it will appear to move backwards in a looping motion with respect to the background stars. The duration of this retrograde motion lasts for about 72 days, and Mars reaches its peak luminosity in the middle of this motion.[149]

2003 closest approach

.On August 27, 2003, at 9:51:13 UT, Mars made its closest approach to Earth in nearly 60,000 years: 55,758,006 km (0.372719 AU).^ Appendix I. Shortland, P. F. Bay of Fundy : Re- marks for Sailing Directions, made be- tween the years 1850-55.
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.This occurred when Mars was one day from opposition and about three days from its perihelion, making Mars particularly easy to see from Earth.^ That was just to make sure no one whines about the spoiler.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

.The last time it came so close is estimated to have been on September 12, 57 617 BC, the next time being in 2287.[150] However, this record approach was only very slightly closer than other recent close approaches.^ I did, however, enjoy all the Sawyer face time (lots of close-ups).
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^ Wonder if him being all over - both on- and off-island - makes him more dangerous than others.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ I think, for once, their timing is really off - at the very least Ben is much older than Charlotte!
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

For instance, the minimum distance on August 22, 1924 was 0.3728AU, and the minimum distance on August 24, 2208 will be 0.3727AU.[97]

Historical observations

The rotation of Mars as seen in a small telescope in 2003.
.The history of observations of Mars is marked by the oppositions of Mars, when the planet is closest to Earth and hence is most easily visible, which occur every couple of years.^ The actor playing Horace was also in a couple episodes of the X-Files playing a liver-eating, body-stretching being who came back to eat more livers every 30 years.
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.Even more notable are the perihelic oppositions of Mars which occur every 15 or 17 years, and are distinguished because Mars is close to perihelion, making it even closer to Earth.^ Do people not think the toddler with red hair who makes Daniel even more nuts than he was - is Charlotte?
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ The name is great but the fact that it's Sawyer make the "come hither" even MORE appropos!
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Makes me think Richard is Egyptian even more than I already did!
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

The existence of Mars as a wandering object in the night sky was recorded by the ancient Egyptian astronomers and by 1534 BCE they were familiar with the retrograde motion of the planet.[151] .By the period of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the Babylonian astronomers were making regular records of the positions of the planets and systematic observations of their behavior.^ Large 4 1848 INDIAN EMPIRE N. MADRAS. Astronomical Observations.
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.For Mars, they knew, for example, that the planet made 37 circuits of the Sun every 79 years.^ After Sun and Lapidus made it to other island, it was clear they were still in present time and not 1977.
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They also invented arithmetic methods for making minor corrections to the predicted positions of the planets. .This Babylonian planetary theory was primarily derived from timing measurements, rather than the less accurately known position of the planet on the night sky.^ Really, they could have covered all that stuff in less than half the time if they had wanted to.
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[152][153] Literature from ancient China confirms that Mars was known by Chinese astronomers by no later than the fourth century BCE.[154]
In the third century BCE, Aristotle described observations of Mars, noting that, as the planet passed behind the Moon during an occultation, it was therefore farther away.[155] In the fifth century CE, the Indian astronomical text Surya Siddhanta estimated the diameter of Mars as 3,772 miles, which has an error within 11% of the currently accepted diameter of 4,218 miles. However, this estimate was based upon an inaccurate guess of the planet's angular diameter as 2.0 arcminutes. The result may have been influenced by the measurements of the Roman-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy, who found a value of 1.59 arcminutes. This is close to the resolution of the human eye and is significantly larger than the value later obtained by telescope.[156]
In the eight century, the Islamic astronomer, Yaqūb ibn Tāriq, attempted to estimate the distance between the Earth and Mars in his Az-Zīj al-Mahlul min as-Sindhind li-Darajat Daraja. He estimated the closest distance as 2,123 times the Earth's radius and the greatest distance as 8,000 times the Earth's radius.[157]
.During the seventeenth century, Tycho Brahe measured the diurnal parallax of Mars that Kepler used to make a preliminary calculation of the relative distance to the planet.^ East Indies, with Abstracts of Journals of Voyages to the East Indies during the Seventeenth Century, pre- served in the India Office ; and the Voyage of Capt.
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^ Callander, J. Terra Australis Cognita ; or, Voyages to the Terra Australis or Southern Hemisphere, during the Six- teenth, Seventeenth, and Eighteenth Centuries.
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[158] When the telescope became available, the diurnal parallax of Mars was again measured in an effort to determine the Sun-Earth distance. This was first performed by Giovanni Domenico Cassini in 1672. However, the early parallax measurements were hampered by the quality of the instruments.[159] The only occultation of Mars by Venus observed was that of October 13, 1590, seen by Michael Maestlin at Heidelberg.[160] In 1610, Mars was viewed by Galileo, who was first to see it via telescope.[161]

Martian 'canals'

Map of Mars by Giovanni Schiaparelli
Mars sketched as observed by Lowell sometime before 1914. (South top)
Map of Mars from Hubble Space Telescope as seen near the 1999 opposition. (North top)
By the 19th century, the resolution of telescopes reached a level sufficient for surface features to be identified. In September 1877, a perihelic opposition of Mars occurred on September 5. In that year, Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli used a 22 cm telescope in Milan to help produce the first detailed map of Mars. These maps notably contained features he called canali, which were later shown to be an optical illusion. .These canali were supposedly long straight lines on the surface of Mars to which he gave names of famous rivers on Earth.^ Dublin, 1879 On the Correlation of Lines of Direc- tion on the Earth's Surface.
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.His term, which means 'channels' or 'grooves', was popularly mistranslated in English as canals.^ Ship Canal for the Junction of the English and Bristol Channels : Reports, with an Appendix.
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[162][163]
Influenced by the observations, the orientalist Percival Lowell founded an observatory which had a 300 and 450 mm telescope. The observatory was used for the exploration of Mars during the last good opportunity in 1894 and the following less favorable oppositions. He published several books on Mars and life on the planet, which had a great influence on the public.[164] .The canali were also found by other astronomers, like Henri Joseph Perrotin and Louis Thollon in Nice, using one of the largest telescopes of that time.^ When Sun and Frank were at Dharmaville with Christian, it looked so dilapidated- like no one had been there in a long long time.
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^ It also seems like he (and the other Oceanic survivors that stayed behind) are going to have a hard time deciding where their loyalties lie...I mean Dharma took them all in and were good to them.
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^ HAVE to use the other stuff - like how I didn't use everything in my Bible theory.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

[165][166]
The seasonal changes (consisting of the diminishing of the polar caps and the dark areas formed during Martian summer) in combination with the canals lead to speculation about life on Mars, and it was a long held belief that Mars contained vast seas and vegetation. The telescope never reached the resolution required to give proof to any speculations. However, as bigger telescopes were used, fewer long, straight canali were observed. During an observation in 1909 by Flammarion with a 840 mm telescope, irregular patterns were observed, but no canali were seen.[167]
Even in the 1960s articles were published on Martian biology, putting aside explanations other than life for the seasonal changes on Mars. Detailed scenarios for the metabolism and chemical cycles for a functional ecosystem have been published.[168]
It was not until spacecraft visited the planet during NASA's Mariner missions in the 1960s that these myths were dispelled. The results of the Viking life-detection experiments started an intermission in which the hypothesis of a hostile, dead planet was generally accepted.[169]
Some maps of Mars were made using the data from these missions, but it was not until the Mars Global Surveyor mission, launched in 1996 and operated until late 2006, that complete, extremely detailed maps of the martian topography, magnetic field and surface minerals were obtained.[170] These maps are now available online, for example, at Google Mars.

In culture

Mars is named after the Roman god of war.

Intelligent "Martians"

An 1893 soap ad playing on the popular idea that Mars was populated.
The popular idea that Mars was populated by intelligent Martians exploded in the late 19th century. .Schiaparelli's "canali" observations combined with Percival Lowell's books on the subject put forward the standard notion of a planet that was a drying, cooling, dying world with ancient civilizations constructing irrigation works.^ Briefe collections of Voyages, chiefly of Spaniards and Portugals, taken out of Antonie Galvano's Book of the Dis- coveries of the World.
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[171]
Many other observations and proclamations by notable personalities added to what has been termed "Mars Fever".[172] In 1899 while investigating atmospheric radio noise using his receivers in his Colorado Springs lab, inventor Nikola Tesla observed repetitive signals that he later surmised might have been radio communications coming from another planet, possibly Mars. In a 1901 interview Tesla said:
.It was some time afterward when the thought flashed upon my mind that the disturbances I had observed might be due to an intelligent control.^ My other thought was about how the time differences between off-island and on-island seemed to change in this epi.
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^ I just wanted to do some research taking my theory and analyzing how those people enacted with the Egyptians of their time.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Nicole - there was one more time flash after we saw the statue due to Locke turning the wheel.
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.Although I could not decipher their meaning, it was impossible for me to think of them as having been entirely accidental.^ I think the point of Amy having the baby was just that -- a baby could be conceived/born on the island at that time.
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The feeling is constantly growing on me that I had been the first to hear the greeting of one planet to another.[173]
.Tesla's theories gained support from Lord Kelvin who, while visiting the United States in 1902, was reported to have said that he thought Tesla had picked up Martian signals being sent to the United States.^ I also thought Sawyer was referring to Daniel's mental state when he said he wasn't there anymore.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Report upon the Primary Trian- gulation of the United States Lake Survey.
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^ Washington, 1874 Sailing Directions to accompany the New Chart of the Western Coast of the United States ^50 Report on Mt.
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[174] However, Kelvin "emphatically" denied this report shortly before departing America: "What I really said was that the inhabitants of Mars, if there are any, were doubtless able to see New York, particularly the glare of the electricity."[175]
.In a New York Times article in 1901, Edward Charles Pickering, director of the Harvard College Observatory, said that they had received a telegram from Lowell Observatory in Arizona that seemed to confirm that Mars was trying to communicate with the Earth.^ New York, 1843 Haslewood, Edward.
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^ Washington, 1839 Plan for Shortening the Time of Passage between New York and London.
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^ Communications from the Governor re- lative to the Geological Survey of the State of New York, 1838, 1839, and 1840.
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[176]
Early in December 1900, we received from Lowell Observatory in Arizona a telegram that a shaft of light had been seen to project from Mars (the Lowell observatory makes a specialty of Mars) lasting seventy minutes. I wired these facts to Europe and sent out neostyle copies through this country. .The observer there is a careful, reliable man and there is no reason to doubt that the light existed.^ Since there's no one here to take care of me.
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^ It's something to be looked into though - it seems odd to just throw it in there for no reason...
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Regardless of who the god depicted by the statue is, there is no doubt that it is Egyptian, and no doubt it will have some symbolic importance to the plot.
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It was given as from a well-known geographical point on Mars. That was all. Now the story has gone the world over. .In Europe it is stated that I have been in communication with Mars, and all sorts of exaggerations have spring up.^ The situation, extent, and boundaries of all the Empires, Kingdoms, States, Provinces, &c., in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America ; their Constitutions, Revenues, Forces, &c., &c.
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Whatever the light was, we have no means of knowing. Whether it had intelligence or not, no one can say. It is absolutely inexplicable.[176]
Pickering later proposed creating a set of mirrors in Texas with the intention of signaling Martians.[177]
In recent decades, the high resolution mapping of the surface of Mars, culminating in Mars Global Surveyor, revealed no artifacts of habitation by 'intelligent' life, but pseudoscientific speculation about intelligent life on Mars continues from commentators such as Richard C. Hoagland. Reminiscent of the canali controversy, some speculations are based on small scale features perceived in the spacecraft images, such as 'pyramids' and the 'Face on Mars'. Planetary astronomer Carl Sagan wrote:
Mars has become a kind of mythic arena onto which we have projected our Earthly hopes and fears.[178]
Alien tripod illustration from the 1906 French edition of H.G. Wells' The War of the Worlds.
The depiction of Mars in fiction has been stimulated by its dramatic red color and by nineteenth century scientific speculations that its surface conditions not only might support life, but intelligent life.[179] .Thus originated a large number of science fiction scenarios, among which is H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds, published in 1898, in which Martians seek to escape their dying planet by invading Earth.^ Discoveries of the World, from the First Original unto 1555 ; corrected, quoted, and published in England by R. Hakluyt (1601).
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A subsequent US radio adaptation of The War of the Worlds on October 30, 1938 by Orson Welles was presented as a live news broadcast, and became notorious for causing a public panic when many listeners mistook it for the truth.[180]
Influential works included Ray Bradbury's The Martian Chronicles, in which human explorers accidentally destroy a Martian civilization, Edgar Rice Burroughs' Barsoom series, the Mars trilogy of Kim Stanley Robinson and a number of Robert A. Heinlein stories before the mid-sixties.[181]
.Author Jonathan Swift made reference to the moons of Mars, about 150 years before their actual discovery by Asaph Hall, detailing reasonably accurate descriptions of their orbits, in the 19th chapter of his novel Gulliver's Travels.^ But I think he made up that speech about how three years is long enough to get over someone just to placate and soothe Horace.
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^ Small folio Amsterdam, 1718 Travels into Muscovy, Persia, and part of the East Indies, containing an accurate Description of what is most Remarkable in those Countries .
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^ The Land of Moab : Travels and Discoveries on the east side of the Dead Sea and the Jordan ; with a Chapter on the Persian Palace of Mashita, by Jas.
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[182] A reference is found in C. S. Lewis' Space Trilogy, and in particular in the first book entitled Out of the Silent Planet (1938).[183]
A comic figure of an intelligent Martian, Marvin the Martian, appeared on television in 1948 as a character in the Looney Tunes animated cartoons of Warner Brothers, and has continued as part of popular culture to the present.[184]
.After the Mariner and Viking spacecraft had returned pictures of Mars as it really is, an apparently lifeless and canal-less world, these ideas about Mars had to be abandoned and a vogue for accurate, realist depictions of human colonies on Mars developed, the best known of which may be Kim Stanley Robinson's Mars trilogy.^ Maybe when the sub left, Daniel went on it and returned to real world time?
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Relation of a Voyage about the World, in the South Sea, returning by the Straites of Magellan toward Brasill, 1577-86.
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However, pseudo-scientific speculations about the Face on Mars and other enigmatic landmarks spotted by space probes have meant that ancient civilizations continue to be a popular theme in science fiction, especially in film.[185]
.The theme of a Martian colony that fights for independence from Earth is a major plot element in the novels of Greg Bear and Kim Stanley Robinson, as well as the movie Total Recall (based on a short story by Philip K. Dick) and the television series Babylon 5.^ And, after having seen that movie (I still need to read the graphic novel) I can say it totally connects that a Lost writer is interested in that story.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

.Some video games also use this element, including Red Faction and the Zone of the Enders series.^ Some Revelations in Irish History ; or, Old Elements of Creed and Class Conciliation in Ireland [including T. Sheridan's Discourse on the Rise and Power of Parliaments, 1677].
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Mars (and its moons) were also the setting for the popular Doom video game franchise and the later Martian Gothic.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Best fit ellipsoid
  2. ^ There are many serpentinization reactions. Olivine is a solid solution between forsterite and fayalite whose general formula is (Fe,Mg)2SiO4. The reaction producing methane from olivine can be written as: Forsterite + Fayalite + Water + Carbonic acid → Serpentine + Magnetite + Methane , or (in balanced form): 18Mg2SiO4 + 6Fe2SiO4 + 26H2O + CO212Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + 4Fe3O4 + CH4
References
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  155. ^ Poor, Charles Lane (1908). The solar system: a study of recent observations. 17. G.P. Putnam's sons. p. 193. 
  156. ^ Thompson, Richard (1997). "Planetary Diameters in the Surya-Siddhanta". Journal of Scientific Exploration 11 (2): 193–200 [193–6]. http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_11_2_thompson.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  157. ^ Sachau, Eduard (2001). Alberuni's India: an account of the religion, philosophy, literature, geography, chronology, astronomy, customs, laws and astrology of India about A.D. 1030. Routledge. p. 68. ISBN 0415244986. 
  158. ^ Taton, Reni (2003). Reni Taton, Curtis Wilson and Michael Hoskin. ed. Planetary Astronomy from the Renaissance to the Rise of Astrophysics, Part A, Tycho Brahe to Newton. Cambridge University Press. p. 109. ISBN 0521542057. 
  159. ^ Hirshfeld, Alan (2001). Parallax: the race to measure the cosmos. Macmillan. pp. 60–61. ISBN 0716737116. 
  160. ^ Breyer, Stephen (March 1979). "Mutual Occultation of Planets". Sky and Telescope 57 (3): 220. 
  161. ^ Peters, W. T. (October 1984). "The Appearance of Venus and Mars in 1610". Journal of the History of Astronomy 15 (3): 211–214. Bibcode1984JHA....15..211P. 
  162. ^ Snyder, Dave (May 2001). "An Observational History of Mars". http://www.umich.edu/~lowbrows/reflections/2001/dsnyder.7.html. Retrieved 2007-02-26. 
  163. ^ Sagan, Carl (1980). Cosmos. New York, USA: Random House. p. 107. ISBN 0394502949. 
  164. ^ Basalla, George (2006). Civilized Life in the Universe: Scientists on Intelligent Extraterrestrials. Oxford University Press US. pp. 67–88. ISBN 0195171810. 
  165. ^ Maria, K.; Lane, D. (2005). "Geographers of Mars". Isis 96 (4): 477–506. doi:10.1086/498590. PMID 16536152. 
  166. ^ Perrotin, M. (1886). "Observations des canaux de Mars" (in French). Bulletin Astronomique, Serie I 3: 324–329. Bibcode1886BuAsI...3..324P. 
  167. ^ Zahnle, K. (2001). "Decline and fall of the Martian empire". Nature 412: 209–213. doi:10.1038/35084148. 
  168. ^ Salisbury, F. B. (1962). "Martian Biology". Science 136 (3510): 17–26. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0036-8075%2819620406%293%3A136%3A3510%3C17%3AMB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R. Retrieved 2007-02-26. 
  169. ^ Ward, Peter Douglas; Brownlee, Donald (2000). Rare earth: why complex life is uncommon in the universe (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 253. ISBN 0387952896. 
  170. ^ Bond, Peter (2007). Distant worlds: milestones in planetary exploration. Springer. p. 119. ISBN 0387402128. 
  171. ^ "Percivel Lowell's Canals". http://prion.bchs.uh.edu/Mars/Percival_Lowell.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-01. 
  172. ^ Fergus, Charles (May 2004). "Mars Fever". Research/Penn State 24 (2). http://www.rps.psu.edu/0305/mars.html. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  173. ^ Tesla, Nikola (February 19, 1901). "Talking with the Planets". Collier's Weekly. http://earlyradiohistory.us/1901talk.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  174. ^ Cheney, Margaret (1981). Tesla, man out of time. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-13-906859-1. OCLC 7672251. 
  175. ^ "Departure of Lord Kelvin", The New York Times, May 11, 1902, p.29.
  176. ^ a b Pickering, Edward Charles (January 16, 1901). "The Light Flash From Mars" (PDF). The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2007-05-20. http://nbgoku23.googlepages.com/marslight.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-20. 
  177. ^ Fradin, Dennis Brindell (1999). Is There Life on Mars?. McElderry Books. p. 62. ISBN 0689820488. 
  178. ^ Sagan, Carl (1980). Cosmos. New York, USA: Random House. p. 106. ISBN 0394502949. 
  179. ^ Lightman, Bernard V. (1997). Victorian Science in Context. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226481115. 
  180. ^ Lubertozzi, Alex; Holmsten, Brian (2003). The war of the worlds: Mars' invasion of earth, inciting panic and inspiring terror from H.G. Wells to Orson Welles and beyond. Sourcebooks, Inc.. pp. 3–31. ISBN 1570719853. 
  181. ^ Buker, Derek M. (2002). The science fiction and fantasy readers' advisory: the librarian's guide to cyborgs, aliens, and sorcerers. ALA readers' advisory series. ALA Editions. p. 26. ISBN 0838908314. 
  182. ^ Darling, David. "Swift, Jonathan and the moons of Mars". http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/S/Swift.html. Retrieved 2007-03-01. 
  183. ^ Schwartz, Sanford (2009). C. S. Lewis on the Final Frontier: Science and the Supernatural in the Space Trilogy. Oxford University Press US. pp. 19–20. ISBN 019537472X. 
  184. ^ Rabkin, Eric S. (2005). Mars: a tour of the human imagination. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 141–142. ISBN 0275987191. 
  185. ^ Miles, Kathy; Peters II, Charles F.. "Unmasking the Face". StarrySkies.com. http://starryskies.com/Artshtml/dln/5-98/mars.html. Retrieved 2007-03-01. 

External links

Cartographic resources

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Know you why the robin's breast
Gleameth of a dusky red
Like the lustre mid the stars
Of the potent planet Mars?
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after Mars, the Roman god of war. It is also referred to as the "Red Planet" because of its reddish appearance as seen from Earth.

Sourced

  • Thou art the Mars of malcontents.
  • Know you why the robin's breast
    Gleameth of a dusky red
    Like the lustre mid the stars
    Of the potent planet Mars?
    • Paul Hamilton Hayne, "Why the Robin's Breast Is Red" in Poems of Paul Hamilton Hayne (1882), p. 370.
  • Mars is essentially in the same orbit... Mars is somewhat the same distance from the Sun, which is very important. We have seen pictures where there are canals, we believe, and water. If there is water, that means there is oxygen. If oxygen, that means we can breathe. .
    • Vice President Dan Quayle, Hawaii, 8/11/89 (interview broadcast on CNN, referenced in 9/1/89 Washington Post article: "A Quayle Vision of Mars")
  • The Mars we had found was just a big moon with a thin atmosphere and no life.^ I've been reading for a while and never post (can't keep up), but here is some awesome info I just found.
    • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Yeah-something is not correct, either w/the interview, or we just got a BIG spoiler?????
    • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

    There were no martians, no canals, no water, no plants, no surface characteristics that even faintly resembled Earth's.
    • Bruce Murray, contemplating the findings of Mariner 4 in Journey into Space: The First Thirty Years of Space Exploration (1989).
[In 2057] we should be celebrating 20 years of man on Mars.
  • Ladies and gentlemen, I have a grave announcement to make. Incredible as it may seem, strange beings who landed in New Jersey tonight are the vanguard of an invading army from Mars. .
    • Orson Welles, The War of the Worlds (broadcast October 30, 1938).
  • Fly me to the moon
    And let me play among the stars
    Let me know what Spring is like
    On Jupiter and Mars
    In other words, hold my hand
    In other words, darling kiss me.^ The actor who plays Richard naturally has a heavy eyelash line and always looks like he's wearing eyeliner...just watch him in other shows.
    • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Richard is my constant mystery - at times a leader but also willing to let other people (ben and locke) lead too.
    • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Plus I don't think he quite knows what to do - and likely doesn't want to say anything to anyone other than his 'posse' - the more who know, the more can spill...
    • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

  • [Y]ou drive all night and then you see a light
    And it comes right down and it lands on the ground
    And out comes the man from Mars
    And you try to run but he's got a gun
    And he shoots you dead and he eats your head
    And then you're in the man from Mars
    You go out at night eating cars...^ Paris, 1877 Carrick, R. New Zealand's Lone Lands : being brief Notes of a Visit to the out- lying Islands of the Colony.
    • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ See Brooks, H. MAN MAR. 303 Mamie, de.
    • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

Unsourced

.
  • I think humans will reach Mars, and I would like to see it happen in my lifetime.^ I would like to see what's happened to Rose and Bernard.
    • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

    ^ My thinking on Widmore is that he is controlling and doesn't really like Jacob or how things are run on the island.
    • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I was thinking that the main characters could stop the purge but if they are in 1977, the purge happens in 1992, they would need another time jump.
    • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • It's going to be a bummer if Mars turns out to be like us.^ Just going to throw this out there - could the baby be like the lady under the bag last week - we're going to make a mountain out of a molehill?
    • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "Just going to throw this out there - could the baby be like the lady under the bag last week - we're going to make a mountain out of a molehill?
    • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

There is more than one place called Mars:

Space

  • Wikitravel:Bad jokes and other deleted nonsense/Mars - A planet in the Sol System.

United States of America

See also: Mars Hill.
This article is a disambiguation page. If you arrived here by following a link from another page you can help by correcting it, so that it points to the appropriate disambiguated page.

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Mars' thin atmosphere, visible on the horizon in this low orbit image.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun, and is second-closest to Earth after Venus. A great deal of mythology, science, and technology is associated with it.

Contents

Mythology

In Roman mythology, Mars is the name of the god of war. In Hindu mythology, he is considered to bring good will.

Physical features

The soil of Mars is a rusty, tawny red. This is due to the large amounts of oxidized iron present. .The Martian volcano Olympus Mons, meaning "Mount Olympus", is the tallest known mountain in the Solar System (standing about three times taller than Earth's Mount Everest.^ I mean, that comment she had about Richard being "very old" stands out.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Researches on Solar Heat and its Absorption by the Earth's Atmos- phere : a Report of the Mount Whitney Expedition.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

) .Other large volcanoes are Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons and Arsia Mons -- all of which lie in a nearly straight line.^ It also seems like he (and the other Oceanic survivors that stayed behind) are going to have a hard time deciding where their loyalties lie...I mean Dharma took them all in and were good to them.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

.Mars has two small moons, named Phobos (meaning fear) and Deimos (meaning dread).^ Small 8 1884 -Transit Tables for 1886; giving the Greenwich Mean Time of Transit of the Sun and of certain Stars for every day in the year ; with an Ephemeris of the Sun, Moon, and Planets.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

Exploration

.Scientists are searching extensively to find out if there is life on Mars.^ A: There's a reason for that, and you'll find that out in this episode.
  • Channel Surfing | greenbaypressgazette.com | Green Bay Press-Gazette 16 September 2009 11:34 UTC www.greenbaypressgazette.com [Source type: General]

^ I know it's not for everyone, but I think it's about time we find out the life behind the life.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, we'll find out Ben's man on the boat, and unless there's a huge swerve coming, it's Michael.
  • Channel Surfing | greenbaypressgazette.com | Green Bay Press-Gazette 16 September 2009 11:34 UTC www.greenbaypressgazette.com [Source type: General]

The Viking probes, sent in the 1970s, found no conclusive evidence of life. There is a possibility, however, that in the past, Mars was warmer and had liquid water. Most of the current exploration on Mars is geared toward discovering the current presence of water ice and the former presence of water in liquid form. NASA spacecraft have had a notoriously low success rate in reaching Mars, although in recent times, more and more missions have been successful. Several spacecraft are orbiting the planet, including Odyssey, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the European Space Agency's Mars Express. Current spacecraft on Mars include the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, along with the Mars Phoenix Lander. The next mission to land will be the Mars Science Lab (MSL), slated to launch from Earth in late 2011 and land on the Red Planet in 2012. In addition, Russia is launching a mission to Phobos that will include a Chinese orbiter named Yinghuo-1. This is set to launch around the same time as MSL.

Statistics

Diameter: 6,786 km (4,217 mi.)
Length of day: 24 hours, 39 minutes
Length of year: 687 days
Distance from Sun: 228,000,000 km (142,000,000 mi.)
Moons: Two, Phobos and Deimos
Diameter of Phobos: 27 km (17 mi.)
Diameter of Deimos: 15 km (9 mi.)

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Mars
by Percival Lowell in the year 1895
Information about this edition
PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.
.The author died in 1916, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less.^ In those three years the ones left on the island assimilated into the DI and have settled into the life we have seen.
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

.This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.^ Selections from the Records of the Goverment of India, Home, Foreign, Public Works, and Military Departments.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vagrancy and Public Charities in Foreign Countries.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
See also mars

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
From Latin Mars (god of war), from older Latin (older than 75 BC) Māvors. Mamers was his Oscan name. He was also known as Marmor, Marmar and Maris, the latter from the Etruscan deity Maris.

Proper noun

Singular
Mars
Plural
-
Mars
  1. The Roman god of war.
  2. (astronomy) The fourth planet in the solar system. Symbol:
Synonyms
  • (god of war): Ares
Translations
Derived terms
See also

Etymology 2

After Frank C. Mars, who founded the company that produces these chocolate bars.

Proper noun

Mars
  1. (®) The Mars Bar, a brand of chocolate bar with caramel and nougat filling.
Quotations
  • 1985 — Michael Collier, Longest Day, p 206
    Easily eight foot tall, each was big, brown and glutinous - like giant Mars Bars squeezed and welded into nightmarish sculptures.
Translations
.The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers.^ Tables for the Translation of Shan Names into English.
  • Full text of "Catalogue of the library of the Royal geographical society. Containing the titles of all works up to December 1893" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Academic]

.Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions.^ Suze, I agree about Hugo's connection and definitely with those numbers (yes, I played them in the lottery and did not win).
  • The Lost Diary: LaFleur 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thelostdiary.com [Source type: General]

See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Anagrams


Bosnian

Proper noun

Mars m.
  1. Mars (planet)

Czech

Proper noun

Mars m.
  1. Mars

Derived terms


Dutch

Wikipedia-logo.png
Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Mars
Wikipedia nl

Proper noun

Mars
  1. Mars

Estonian

Proper noun

Mars
  1. Mars (god)

Ewe

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Mars
  1. March

Related terms


Finnish

Proper noun

Mars
  1. Mars (Roman god)
  2. Mars (planet)

French

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Mars
  1. Mars (Roman god)
  2. Mars (planet)

German

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Mars m.
  1. Mars (Roman god)
  2. Mars (planet)

Icelandic

Etymology

From Latin Mars.

Pronunciation

  • IPA: [mar̥ʂ]
    Rhymes: -ar̥ʂ
    Homophones: mars

Proper noun

Mars m.
  1. Mars (Roman god of war)
  2. Mars (planet)

Declension


Latin

Etymology

From older Latin (older than 75 BC) Māvors. Mamers was his Oscan name. He was also known as Marmor, Marmar and Maris, the latter from the Etruscan deity Maris.

Proper noun

Mars (genitive Martis); m, third declension
  1. Mars (Roman god of war)
  2. (by extension) war, battle
  3. Mars (planet)

Derived terms

  • martiālis
  • martiaticus
  • marticola
  • marticultor

Descendants


Polish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Mars
Wikipedia pl

Proper noun

Mars m.
  1. Mars, a planet in the Solar System
  2. Mars, a Roman god

Declension

Singular only
Nominative Mars
Genitive Marsa
Dative Marsowi
Accusative Marsa
Instrumental Marsem
Locative Marsie
Vocative Marsie

Derived terms

  • (#1) Marsjanin, Marsjanka, marsjański
  • (#2) marsowy

Serbian

Proper noun

Mars m.
  1. Mars (planet)

See also


Swedish

Proper noun

Mars
  1. Mars (Roman god)
  2. Mars (planet)
  3. March (the month)

Tatar

Noun

Mars
  1. Mars (planet)

Declension

References


Simple English

Mars File:Mars
File:MarsMars as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 249,209,300 km

1.665 861 AU

Perihelion 206,669,000 km

1.381 497 AU

Semi-major axis 227,939,100 km

1.523 679 AU

Eccentricity 0.093 315
Orbital period 686.971 day

1.8808 Julian years
668.5991 sols

Synodic period 779.96 day

2.135 Julian years

Average orbital speed 24.077 km/s
Inclination 1.850° to ecliptic
5.65° to Sun's equator
1.67° to invariable plane[2]
Longitude of ascending node 49.562°
Argument of perihelion 286.537°
Satellites 2
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius 3,396.2 ± 0.1 km[a][3]

0.533 Earths

Polar radius 3,376.2 ± 0.1 km[a][3]

0.531 Earths

Flattening 0.005 89 ± 0.000 15
Surface area 144,798,500 km²

0.284 Earths

Volume 1.6318×1011 km³

0.151 Earths

Mass 6.4185×1023 kg

0.107 Earths

Mean density 3.934 g/cm³
Equatorial surface gravity 3.69 m/s²

0.376 g

Escape velocity 5.027 km/s
Sidereal rotation period 1.025 957 day
24.622 96 h[4]
Rotation velocity at equator 868.22 km/h (241.17 m/s)
Axial tilt 25.19°
Right ascension of North pole 21 h 10 min 44 s

317.681 43°

Declination of North pole 52.886 50°
Albedo 0.15 (geometric) or 0.25 (bond)
Surface temperature:
   Kelvin
   Celsius
min mean max
186 K 227 K 268 K[4]
−87 °C −46 °C −5 °C
Apparent magnitude +1.8 to −2.91
Angular size 3.5—25.1"
Adjectives Martian
Atmosphere
Surface pressure 0.6–1.0 kPa
Composition 95.72% Carbon dioxide

2.7% Nitrogen
1.6% Argon
0.2% Oxygen
0.07% Carbon monoxide
0.03% Water vapor
0.01% Nitric oxide
2.5 ppm Neon
300 ppb Krypton
130 ppb Formaldehyde
80 ppb Xenon
30 ppb Ozone
10 ppb Methane

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in our Solar System. Mars is named after the mythological Roman god of war because it is a red planet, which signifies the colour of blood.

Contents

Appearance

File:Mars
Surface with rocks everywhere photographed by Mars Pathfinder

Mars has two very small moons, called Phobos and Deimos. The planet Mars is made of rock. The ground there is red because of iron oxide (rust) in the rocks and dust.[5] The planet has a small carbon dioxide atmosphere. The temperatures on Mars are colder than on Earth, because it is farther away from the Sun. There is some ice at the north and south poles of Mars, and also frozen carbon dioxide. Mars does not have any water on the surface now, except at the poles, but most scientists think it used to have water.

The average thickness of the planet's crust is about 50 km (31 mi), with a maximum thickness of 125 km (78 mi).[6] Earth's crust, on average 40 km (25 mi), is three times smaller than Mars’ crust based on the sizes of the two planets if they are made equal.

History of Mars

Mars has been known since old times. The Greeks named this planet Ares, after their god of war. The Romans named the planet Mars.

Some of the first attempts at mapping Mars were done by Giovanni Schiaparelli. What he saw through his telescope confused him. He saw what he called canali, which he thought were ditches dug for water to pass through. Because of this, people thought that there were other animals and life on Mars, possibly even aliens. Today, we know there cannot be any such aliens.This is because the crafts sent to Mars have found no trace of alien life, and what could have been bacteria were formed at temperatures too high for life to exist. What Giovanni actually saw were the scratches on his telescope lense. This may sound completely absurd but this is really what happened; he spent his whole life studying the marks on his telescope thinking they were alien made water streams.

Life, climate and atmosphere of Mars

Life on Mars? Because Mars is the one of the closest planets to Earth in the Solar System, some people have wondered if there is any kind of life on Mars. Recently, scientists found an old meteorite that had landed near the Earth's South Pole and decided it had come from Mars. In the meteorite they found some very tiny little shapes in the rock which they think might be fossils made by living things. However, they were not sure if it was life or just the natural patterns of the rock. If it were the fossils of a living thing, it was probably some simple plant, and one hundred of them could fit across the width of a single hair.

It is also possible that there are also pieces of the earth on Mars. If a giant meteorite hit the Earth, the force would be strong enough to send pieces of the earth up to space. Creation scientists think that if anyone ever finds signs of life on Mars, it will not be Martian life they find, but earth life that made it to Mars. If a piece of earth left the atmosphere, it would take along with it lots of cells and bacteria, which are living things.

Martian Rotation Mars rotates in 24 hours, and 37 minutes. It rotates on a tilt, just like the Earth does, so it has four different seasons. However, these seasons are quite different from the seasons on Earth. Winter, spring, fall, and summer would all be freezing cold because it is always freezing on Mars. Mars is too far away from the sun to get enough energy from the sun's light, and the atmosphere is much too thin to keep the warmth inside. The usual temperature on Mars is usually about 81 degrees below zero, and in the summer, the temperature goes up about 32 degrees. Because it is so cold on Mars, carbon dioxide freezes in the winter and makes a lot of dry ice.

On earth, there is a lot of liquid water, but people have not found any liquid water on Mars. Scientists think that all of the water on Mars is frozen. The summer in Mars is warm enough to get rid of the dry ice, but it is not warm enough to melt the ice that is made of water. Scientists think that the rest of the water on Mars is permanently frozen in the ground (permanently frozen ice is called permafrost, so there's a lot of permafrost in Mars!). However, Opportunity rover has found a rock formation on Mars which suggests that the rocks might have been in salt water once. The Spirit rover also found traces of a mineral called jarosite, which is made in liquid water. So there is some evidence that liquid water did, once, exist on Mars (this means that Mars must have been much warmer long ago).

Even though Mars is really cold, it's actually closer to the Earth's temperature than any other planet in the Solar System. This is the reason lots of people think of sending humans to Mars one day, and dream of building an artificial ecosystem that will protect people.

Martian Atmosphere Mars has a very thin atmosphere with barely any oxygen (it is mostly carbon dioxide). Of course, since there is an atmosphere, however thin it is, the sky does change colors when the sun rises and sets. The dust in the Martian atmosphere make the Martian sunsets have a rather blue color. Mars's atmosphere, of course, is too thin to protect Mars from meteors well, which is why the bottom half of Mars has so many craters. Some craters hit Mars with so much force a few pieces of Mars went flying into space - even into Earth! People have actually found rocks on Earth that have chemicals in them - chemicals that are like the ones in Martian rocks. These rocks also look like they fell really quickly through the atmosphere, so it is reasonable to think they came from Mars. [7]

Martian Geography Mars is home to the highest known mountain in the Solar System, Olympus Mons. Olympus Mons is about 17 miles (or 27 kilometers) high. This is more than three times the height of Earth's tallest mountain, Mount Everest.

Popular culture

Some famous stories were written about this idea. The writers used the name "Martians" for intelligent beings from Mars. In 1898 H. G. Wells wrote The War of the Worlds, a famous novel about Martians attacking the Earth. In 1938, Orson Welles broadcast a radio version of this story in the United States, and many people thought it was really happening and were very afraid. Beginning in 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs wrote several novels about adventures on Mars.

Today

As of March 2010, scientists have not found life on Mars, either living now or extinct. Several space probes without people have gone to Mars to study it. Some have orbited (gone around) the planet, and some have landed on it. There are pictures of the surface of Mars that were sent back to Earth by some of these probes. Some people are interested in sending astronauts to visit Mars. This would be difficult. The astronauts would be in space for many years, and it could be very dangerous because of radiation from the sun.

References

  1. Yeomans, Donald K. (2006-07-13). "HORIZONS System". NASA JPL. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?horizons. Retrieved 2007-08-08. —At the site, go to the "web interface" then select "Ephemeris Type: ELEMENTS", "Target Body: Mars" and "Center: Sun".
  2. "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". 2009-04-03. http://home.comcast.net/~kpheider/MeanPlane.gif. Retrieved 2009-04-10.  (produced with Solex 10 written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also invariable plane)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Archinal, B. A.; A'hearn, M. F.; et al. (2007). "Report of the IAU/IAG Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2006". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 98 (3): 155–180. doi:10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/doi/10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y. Retrieved 2007-08-28. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Mars: Facts & Figures". NASA. http://solarsystem.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Mars&Display=Facts&System=Metric. Retrieved 2007-03-06. 
  5. "NASA Mars Page". Volcanology of Mars (Retrieved via the Internet Archive). http://web.archive.org/web/20080106181124/http://erc.arc.nasa.gov/MarsVolc/basalt.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  6. Dave Jacqué (2003-09-26). "APS X-rays reveal secrets of Mars' core" (in English). Argonne National Laboratory. http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2003/030926mars.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-01. 
  7. Exploring Creation with Astronomy by Jeannie K. Fulbright, p.81

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 10, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mars, which are similar to those in the above article.








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