Marshal: Wikis

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English and considered by some to be erroneous[1][2], but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. The word derives from Old High German marah "horse" and schalh "servant",[3] and originally meant "stable keeper"[4]. As marshals became trusted members of the courts of Medieval Europe, the title grew in reputation. During the last few centuries, it has been used for the most elevated offices. The American English spelling of the name ("Marshall") is often confused with the spelling of the title ("Marshal"). It is approximate to the position of Constable, of similar etymology, Latin comes stabuli (count of the stables).

Contents

Military

Common military ranks
Officers
Navies Armies Air forces
Admiral of
the Fleet
Marshal / Field Marshal Marshal of
the Air Force
Admiral General Air Marshal
Commodore Brigadier Air Commodore
Captain Colonel Group Captain
Commander Lt. Colonel Wing Commander
Lt. Commander Major / Commandant Squadron Leader
Lieutenant Captain Flight Lieutenant
Sub-Lieutenant Lieutenant Flying Officer
Ensign 2nd Lieutenant Pilot Officer
Midshipman Officer Cadet Officer Cadet
Seamen, soldiers and airmen
Warrant Officer Sergeant Major Warrant Officer
Petty Officer Sergeant Sergeant
Leading Seaman Corporal Corporal
Seaman Private Aircraftman

In many countries, the rank of Marshal, i.e. Field Marshal, is the highest Army rank, outranking other General Officers. Typically the equivalent navy rank is Admiral of the Fleet.

Marshals are typically appointed only in wartime (although this need not be the case). In many countries, especially in Europe, the special symbol of a Marshal is a baton, and so their insignia often incorporate batons.

In some countries, the word Marshal is also used instead of General in the higher air force ranks. The four highest Royal Air Force ranks are Marshal of the Royal Air Force, Air Chief Marshal, Air Marshal and Air Vice Marshal (although the first, which has generally been suspended as a peacetime rank, is the only one which can properly be considered a marshal). The 5 star rank of Marshal of the Air Force is used by some Commonwealth and middle eastern air forces.

In the French army and some armies based on the French army, Maréchal des logis (Marshal-of-Lodgings ) is a cavalry term equivalent to sergeant.

Some historical rulers have used special Marshal titles to reward certain subjects. Though not strictly military ranks, these honorary titles have been exclusively bestowed upon successful military leaders, such as the famous Grand Marshal of Ayacucho Antonio Jose de Sucre. Most famous are the Marshals of France (Maréchaux de France), not least under Napoleon I. Another such title was that of Reich Marshal (Reichsmarschall), that was bestowed upon Hermann Göring by Adolf Hitler, although it was never a regular title. In England during the First Barons' War the title Marshal of the Army of God was bestowed upon Robert Fitzwalter by election.

Soviet Union and Russia have both General of the Army and Marshal in their rank system, which leaves the latter as a largely honorary rank.

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Marshal ranks by country

The following articles deal with the rank of Marshal as used by specific countries:

See also:

Marshal Equivalents

These ranks are considered the equivalent to a Marshal:

Military Police

The name is also applied to the leader of the Military Police.

Ceremonial

  • In feudal times, at many courts one or more of the major dignitaries were styled marshal or a compound such as court marshal (not related to court martial) or grand marshal; their functions varied, also in time, but frequently included formally announcing guests at audiences, balls, dinners, etc. Such prestigious office was often made hereditary in the high nobility, e.g. the English Earl Marshal, or the Scots Earl Marischal.
  • The term is still used in modern pageantry; for example, the grand marshal of a parade is often an honored guest or dignitary
  • In the United States, many colleges and universities have marshals. In some cases there is a single "faculty marshal," appointed to the post on a more or less stable basis. In others, there are one or several faculty marshals, and often one or several student marshals appointed for a single occasion. In all cases the post is one of honor given to a senior faculty member or outstanding students, and the functions are generally exclusively involved with the leading of processions or parts of processions during commencement exercises, academic convocations and similar events. Often, they carry maces, staffs or wands of office.

Law enforcement

The word Maréchaussée seems to derive from the old French name Marecheaux given to an ancient court of justice in Paris called the "Tribunal of Constables and Marshals of France". These constables and marshals were to become members of the Gendarmerie which served as a model for the police forces of both Belgium and the Netherlands. The term Maréchaussée was also used for the Continental Army's military police during the American Revolution. In the Netherlands today, the Koninklijke Marechaussee is a national military police service similar to the French Gendarmerie.

United States

Particularly in the United States, marshal is used for various kinds of law enforcement officers.

Federal Marshals

The federal court system in the United States is organized into 94 federal judicial districts, each with a court (and one or several judges), a United States Attorney with assistants as prosecutors and government lawyers, and one marshal, appointed by the president, in charge of federal law enforcement. The courts are part of the independent judicial branch of the government, while the marshals and US attorneys are part of the executive branch Department of Justice.

In actual practice, the US marshal for the district mainly oversees court security, and has a unit of appointed deputies (other law enforcement operations and the federal prison system are handled by a variety of federal police agencies) and Special Deputies.

The United States Marshals Service is a professional, civil service unit of federal police, part of the system of marshals explained above but made up of career law enforcement personnel rather than the appointed district marshals. The US Marshals Service assists with court security and prisoner transport, serves arrest warrants and seeks fugitives.

Federal Air Marshal Service is a separate, armed federal law enforcement service employed to protect commercial airliners from the threat of aircraft hijacking. These officers, like the above marshals, work for the executive branch of the US government.

The US Supreme Court maintains its own, separate Marshal of the Supreme Court who also controls the US Supreme Court Police, a security police service answerable to the court itself rather than to the president or attorney general. It handles security for the Supreme Court building, for the justices personally, and undertakes whatever other missions the court may require.

State and Local Marshals

  • In many American States marshals could be found acting at the state, local or municipal court level, marshals could be court bailiffs and/or serving process or even full police officers. Although some may be sworn peace officers their job is, in certain cases entirely civil rather than criminal law enforcement. Some communities maintain a Town Marshal who is responsible for general law enforcement as well as court duties, while others are strictly court officers. This is especially true in communities with both police and marshals.
    • In the American Old West (example, Arizona Territory of the 1880s), marshals, usually called the "Town Marshal", or "City Marshal" (since the larger cities were often punctilious about their titles) were appointed or elected police officers of small communities, with similar powers and duties to that of a police chief, generally with powers ending at the border of the community. By contrast, federal marshals (U.S. marshals) would work in a larger, possibly overlapping area, especially in pioneering country, in an area overlapping with the state or territorial office of county sheriff (who then, as now, policed communities as well as areas between communities). The word is still used in this sense, especially in the Southwest United States. (See List of Western lawmen). Town or City Marshal is still the name for the head officer of some community police forces.
    • In Arizona cities, towns and villages decide whether to appoint or elect a Marshal, or have the board/council/city manager hire a Chief of Police as the top criminal law enforcement for their jurisdiction (like in the Town of Tombstone). Marshals are elected by the trustees to serve a fixed term, and chiefs of police can be fired at will by whoever hired them just like any other employee.
    • In California, several urban counties (including Los Angeles, San Bernardino, and San Diego) once maintained separate county Marshal's Offices which served as court officers similar to US Marshals, but mainly for the Municipal Court system (this system was abolished by state law in 2000, when the sheriffs of those counties announced that those counties' marshals would be absorbed into their departments), thusly, many have been merged into or taken over by the local County Sheriff's Office, with the exceptions of San Benito County, well south of the San Francisco Bay Area and Shasta County, located in Northern California. California also has Fire Marshals and Deputy Fire Marshals. These individuals may work for the State of California Fire Marshal's Office, or various county, city or special districts throughout the state. Fire Marshals and Deputy Fire Marshals are full-time sworn peace officers throughout the state, with powers of arrest state wide under section 830.37 of the California Penal Code. Responsibilities include fire and arson investigation, bomb and explosives investigation, general law enforcement as well as enforcement of the Fire Code.
    • In Colorado Cities, towns and villages decide whether to appoint or elect a Marshal, or have the board/council/city manager hire a Chief of Police as the top criminal law enforcement for their jurisdiction. Marshals are elected by the trustees to serve a fixed term, and chiefs of police can be fired at will by whoever hired them just like any other employee.
    • In Connecticut, marshals serve as court officers and replaced county sheriff's in Connecticut in the year 2000. They are separated into two classes: State Marshals are charged with service of process, and Judicial Marshals perform court security and transport detainees to and from court.
    • In Georgia, the Marshal is a civil law enforcement officer in some counties and may have some patrol duties.
    • In Indiana, In towns which still have them, Marshals are responsible for law enforcement in a town. His usual duties are the enforcement of local and state ordinances and code enforcement. He may also be the town's humane officer. Town Marshals have general law enforcement authority throughout the state.
    • In Maine the State Marshal Service provides physical security and law enforcement duties to the judicial system as well as protection of all state judges. Deputy Marshals are fully sworn state law enforcement officers with statewide authority.
    • In Missouri there are two types of Marshal:
      • State Marshals provides physical security and law enforcement duties to the judicial system as well as protection of all state judges. Deputy Marshals are fully sworn state law enforcement officers with statewide authority.
      • City Marshals, at the local level in the State of Missouri, are elected Chief Law Enforcement Officers of the city. They have the same police powers as a regular Police Officer within the City limits of their city. The amount of training to be a city Marshal is far less than a regular municipal police officer, as such a Marshal's jurisdiction is strictly limited to the city limits of the city they are elected from. Even if they witness a violation of the Law in their city, they can not pursue a person if they flee beyond the city limits. The position of City Marshal is rare in the State of Missouri and is only found in very small rural cities that do not have the budget to maintain a Police Department. [2] [3] [4]
    • In New York, there are two levels of marshals:
      • City Marshals, are elected Chief Law Enforcement Officers of a city or town. They have the same police powers as a regular Police Officer within the City limits of their city. The amount of training to be a city Marshal is far less than a regular municipal police officer, as such a Marshal's jurisdiction is strictly limited to the city limits of the city they are elected from. Even if they witness a violation of the Law in their city, they can not pursue a person if they flee beyond the city limits. The position of City Marshal is rare in the State of New York and is nowonly found in very small rural cities that do not have the budget to maintain a Police Department.
      • New York City Marshals [5] are appointed by the Mayor of New York City to 5-year terms, but receive no salary from the city. Instead, the By law, no more than 83 City Marshals shall be appointed by a mayor. Marshals primarily enforce orders from Civil Court cases, including collecting on judgments, towing, seizing utility meters and carrying out evictions. Marshals collectively perform approximately 25,000 evictions per year. Marshals are regulated by the NYC Department of Investigation but, unlike the City Sheriff, they are not City employees. Marshals collect fees, which are set by statute, from the private litigants whose judgments they enforce, and they also retain five percent of any money they collect on judgments. City marshals may, depending on the court order brought to them by the winning litigant, seize money, moveable property (for instance, inventory from a business), vehicles (as is the case with unpaid parking tickets) and return possession of rental premises to the landlord, (also known as eviction), and so on. On an annual basis City Marshals must pay the City of New York $1,500 plus 4.5 percent of the fees he receives for collecting judgments.
    • In Ohio the term village marshal has been used for the same, often without any colleague, directly under the Mayor.
    • In Texas, city marshals and deputy city marshals have, by law, the same authority as a municipal (village, town, or city) police officer. However, municipalities (like Fort Worth) that have both a police force as well as a city marshal's office often utilize the police as the general law enforcement agency of the municipality, while court security and process service is provided by the city marshal's office. In municipalities that do not have a police department, the city marshal's office sometimes serves as the agency that provides general law enforcement services to residents.
    • In Washington, the City of Seattle employs Marshals in their Municipal Court, with the senior officer holding the title of Chief Marshal and the subordinate officers being Deputy Marshals. The King County Sheriff's Office (County Seat: Seattle) also employs Court Marshals, which is a unit under the Sheriff's Office.
  • Answers.com Marshal
  • City of Las Vegas, Nevada Deputy City Marshal I/II Job Descriptions

United Kingdom

In 1595, Queen Elizabeth I issued letters patent giving powers to a Marshal to maintain order within the City of London. Later on, an Under-Marshal and six City Marshalmen were also appointed to assist the Marshal in his duties. As a result of the Police Acts of 1829 and 1839, the Marshals' role changed significantly; however, there is still one City Marshal (As of 2009, Colonel Billy King-Harman CBE), who acts as the peacekeeper to the Lord Mayor of London by leading processions and representing the Lord Mayor at all Entries of Troops (challenging and then escorting those few regiments entitled to march though the City of London).

France

In France the Maréchaussée was the forerunner of the French Gendarmerie. A military corps having such duties was first created in 1337 and was placed under the command of the Constable of France, and therefore named the connétablie. In 1626 after the aboliton of the title of connétable, it was put under the command of the Maréchal of France, and renamed Maréchaussée. Its main mission was protecting the roads from highwaymen.

The gens d'armes were originally heavy cavalry in the king's household, the equivalent of the "Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms". In 1720 the maréchaussée was subordinated to the gendarmerie; after the French Revolution the maréchaussée was abolished and the gendarmerie took over its duties in 1791.

It was a mounted military police force organised and equipped along military lines. While its existence ensured the relative safety of French rural districts and roads, the marechaussee was regarded in contemporary England (which had no effective police force of any nature) as a symbol of foreign tyranny. In 1789, on the eve of the French Revolution, the marechaussee numbered 3,660 men divided into small detachments called brigades. By law dated 16 February 1791 this force was renamed the gendarmerie nationale. Its personnel and role remained unchanged.

Netherlands

In the Netherlands the Koninklijke Marechaussee are the gendarmerie force. Created by King William I to replace the French gendarmerie on October 26, 1814 . The word gendarmerie had gained a negative connotation, so William called the new force "marechaussée" (maréchaussée is an alternate French word for gendarmerie). At that time, the marechaussee was part of the army (landmacht). The marechaussee performed police duties for the army, as well as civilian police work as a part of the national police (rijkspolitie). The marechaussee would form the only police force in many small cities like Venlo, especially in the southern provinces of Limburg and North Brabant. As of 1998, the marechaussee is a separate branch of the Dutch military assigned with military and civilian police tasks.

Political

Poland

Apart from its military uses, the Polish word marszałek (marshal) also refers to certain political offices:

  • Marszałek Sejmu and Marszałek Senatu: the respective speakers of the lower house (Sejm) and upper house (Senate) of Poland's parliament, usually nominated by the governing party or coalition;
  • marszałek województwa (voivodeship marshal): since 1999, the leader of the executive of a voivodeship (one of Poland's 16 provinces), elected by the regional assembly (sejmik), and co-existing with the government-appointed voivode (governor).

For other historical uses of the word, see marszałek.

Fiction

Science-fiction

The rank of Marshal has made frequent appearances in science fiction works, both live action productions and literature.

Star Wars

In the universe of Star Wars, the rank of Marshal is conjectured to be connected to the TIE fighter forces, being ranks held by senior TIE fighter commanders, equivalent to Imperial Navy Admirals. Several sources of the Star Wars Expanded Universe have conjectured the following Marshal ranks of the starfighter service.

  • Grand Marshal
  • High Marshal
  • Force Marshal
  • Chief Marshal
  • Marshal
  • Vice Marshal

Others

  • The rank of Marshal can be found in the novel Starship Troopers where the rank of Sky Marshal is held by the Commander-in-Chief of the military.
  • In the game Unreal II the main character is named Marshal John Dalten.
  • Marshal is a military rank frequently found in the universe of Doctor Who where, more often than not, it is held by various villains who seek galactic domination through military force.
  • In the computer game StarCraft, the major character Jim Raynor holds the rank of Marshal at the story's outset.
  • In the Battletech universe, the British-themed Federated Suns uses the military rank of Marshal for a commander of a Regimental Combat Team or a Polymorphous Defense Zone, and the rank of Field Marshal for top echelon military commanders, typically encompassing the March Lords and the Prince's Champion.
  • In the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "Hide and Q" the entity Q took the appearance of a French marshal.
  • In Outland, Sean Connery plays Marshal William T. O'Niel who runs a police force for a mining colony on Io, one of Jupiter's moons.
  • In the Dresden Files, the only Marshal mentioned is Talos, the Lord Marshal of the Summer Court. He is shown to have much influence and bearing in the Court.
  • In Crossfire, Marshal(l) is the highest rank.

Fantasy

Other

In Mercedes Lackey's world of Valdemar, one of the country's most important ranks is that of Lord Marshal.

Academic

  • A university marshal often leads or guides graduates in a procession to the place where the graduation ceremony will take place.

Racing and other competitions

References

  1. ^ Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Gramercy Books. 1996. pp. 879. ISBN 0517151413.  
  2. ^ [1] Merriam Webster's ("considered a spelling error by several commentators")
  3. ^ E. M. Kirkpatrick, ed (1983). Chambers 20th Century Dictionary. Edinburgh: W & R Chambers Ltd. pp. 772. ISBN 0550102345.  
  4. ^ Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm, Deutsches Wörterbuch, Leipzig 1854-1960, Vol. 12 Col. 1673 Online-Version

See also


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also marshal, and Marshall

English

Etymology

as for marshal

Proper noun

Singular
Marshal

Plural
-

Marshal

  1. An English surname, a rare spelling of Marshall.
  2. A male given name derived from the surname, usually spelled Marshall.

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