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Martín Alonso Pinzón

Statue of Pinzón in Palos de la Frontera
Born c. 1441[1]
Palos de la Frontera, Huelva, Andalusia, Spain
Died c. 1493[2]
Palos de la Frontera
Nationality Spanish
Occupation Mariner, explorer, discoverer
Years active ?–1493
Home town Palos de la Frontera
Religious beliefs Roman Catholic
Spouse(s) María Álvarez[3][4]
Children Sons: Arias Pérez, Juan
Daughters: Mayor, Catalina, Leonor[5]
Parents Martín Pinzón, Mayor Vicente[6]
Relatives Pinzón brothers

Martín Alonso Pinzón, (Palos de la Frontera, Huelva; c. 1441 – c. 1493)[2] was a Spanish mariner, shipbuilder, navigator and explorer, oldest of the Pinzón brothers. He sailed with Christopher Columbus on his first voyage to the New World in 1492, as captain of the Pinta.[7] His youngest brother Vicente Yáñez Pinzón was captain of the Niña, and the middle brother Francisco Martín Pinzón its master.

Contents

The Pinzón family of Palos

The Pinzón family was among the leading families of Palos de la Frontera in the late 15th century. There are several conflicting theories about the origin of the family and of their name (see Pinzón brothers#The Pinzón family of Palos). His grandfather was as sailor and diver known as Martín; it is not clear whether that was a first or last name, and whether in his generation Pinzón was a surname or an epithet.[8][9] His father was a sailor named Martín Pinzón; his mother was named Mayor Vicente.[6]

Life

Pinzón family house in Palos, now Casa Museo de Martín Alonso Pinzón.

Born in Palos around 1441, it appears that at quite a young age Pinzón shipped out on a locally based caravel as a grumete (cabin boy). His home, now the Casa Museo de Martín Alonso Pinzón, was on the old royal road to the Monastery of La Rábida.[3][10] Martín's family contracted a marriage with a resident of the locality named María Álvarez.[3][4] They had five children: two sons—Arias Pérez and Juan, who participated in several expeditions to the Americas—and three daughters—Mayor, Catalina, and Leonor. Leonor, the youngest, suffered frequent attacks of what was then called "gota coral" and would now be called epilepsy.[5]

His nautical experience and his leadership remained patent in the 1508–1536 lawsuits known as the pleitos colombinos ("Columbian lawsuits"), where the witnesses indicated him as the leader of the comarca (a region comparable to a shire). He was also famous for his battles against the Portuguese in the War of the Castilian Succession.[11] It is probable that even while in Portugal before coming to Spain, Columbus was aware of Martín Alonso, because he was known for his participation in the war, as well as for his incursions into the Afro-Atlantic waters in the wake of the Portuguese, traveling to the Canary Islands and Guinea, with their rich fisheries and the commercial possibility of trade in gold, spices, and slaves.[12]

Preparations for the voyage of discovery

On 23 May 1492 a royal provision was read out to the residents of Palos,[13] by which the Catholic Monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand ordered that certain residents deliver two caravels to Columbus and travel with him on his voyage that he was making "by command of Their Highnesses" ("por mandado de Sus Altezas") and that the town should respect the royal decision.[13] The locals did not comply. The sailors of Palos had no confidence in embarking on this adventure with Columbus, who was largely unknown to them. Independent of their greater or lesser credence in his ideas, the men of Palos found it difficult to support the Genovese sailor if he was not accompanied by a mariner known and respected in the town. The venture—risky and, above all, of uncertain profit—did not present great attractions. Opposition or indifference to Columbus's project was general.[14]

At about this time, Pinzón returned from a routine commercial voyage to Rome.[15] The Franciscans of the Monastery of La Rábida put Columbus in touch with Pinzón. Pinzón's friend Pero Vázquez de la Frontera, a very respected old mariner in the town, also had an important influence on Pinzón deciding to support the undertaking,[16] not only morally but also economically.[17] [18]

As a strong sign of his commitment to Columbus's plan, Pinzón put up half a million ("medio cuento") maravedís in coin toward the cost of the voyage.[17][18] Thanks to his prestige as a shipowner and expert sailor and his fame throughout the Tinto-Odiel region, he was able to enlist an appropriate crew.[19] Signing on, he dismissed the vessels that Columbus had already seized based on the royal order[20] and also dismissed the men he had enrolled, supplying the enterprise with two caravels of his own,[21] the Pinta and the Niña, which he knew from his own experience would be better and more suitable boats.[22] Furthermore, he traveled through Palos, Moguer and Huelva, convincing his relatives and friends to enlist, composing of them the best crew possible.[20][23] According to testimony in the pleitos colombinos, he "brought such diligence to secure and animate the people as if what were discovered were for him and his sons".[24] Among those he recruited were Cristóbal Quintero from Palos and the Niño brothers from Moguer.[19]

At this time, Pinzón and Columbus seemed quite close. In the pleitos colombinos, witness Alonso Gallego from Huelva remembered hearing Columbus say, "Mister Martín Alonso Pinzón, we are going on this voyage which, if we go on with it and God reveals new lands to us, I promise by the Royal Crown to treat you as a brother."[25][26]

Voyage with Columbus

Departing from the port of Palos in 1492. Oil painting by Evaristo Domínguez, in the town hall of Palos de la Frontera.
Columbus and the Pinzón brothers arrive in America.
Replica of the caravel Pinta at the Wharf of the Caravels in Palos.
Statue of the Pinzón brothers in Palos.

The voyage out

On 3 August 1492, the Santa María, Pinta, and Niña left Palos on their voyage of discovery. Admiral Columbus captained the flagship Santa María, Pinzón was captain of the Pinta; his middle brother Francisco was master. It was from the Pinta that Rodrigo de Triana would be the first to sight land in the Americas.[27]

During the voyage, Pinzón demonstrated on several occasions his gifts as an expert mariner and as a leader. When the tiller of the Pinta broke en route to the Canary Islands, Columbus, who could not get close enough to help from the Santa María:

…was a bit less worried knowing that Martín Alonso Pinzón was a vigorous and ingenious person. …he resolved the problem of the broken tiller of the Pinta and was able to continue sailing.[28]

When, between 6 and 7 October 1492 Columbus was unable to reestablish discipline among the tired and discouraged crew of the Santa María, Martín Alonso with his gift of command managed to resolve the situation. As the Hernán Pérez Mateos would testify over forty years later:

... as they did not discover land, those who went with the said Columbus wanted to mutiny and rise against him, saying they were lost, and then the said Columbus had said to Martín Alonso what was going on among these people, and what it seemed to him they ought to do; and that the said Martín Alonso Pinzón had responded to him; «Sir; hang half a dozen of them and throw them into the sea, and if you dare not, I and my brothers will get up close to them and do it, that an armada that left with the mandate of such high princes not have to return without good news.» And that he knew that with that they would regain their spirits; and the said Columbus had said; «Martin Alonso; lets make things good with these gentlemen and travel another eight days, and if in that time we don't find land, we will give another order on what we ought to do.» ...[29]

At that time, Pinzón suggested to Columbus the change of course on 6 October 1492[30] This change brought the expedition to landfall on Guanahani on 12 October 1492.

These and other acts by Pinzón and by his brothers, especially Vicente, have led historians to see the brothers as "co-discoverers of America",[31] in that without their help, support, and courage, Columbus probably could not have achieved his enterprise of discovery, at least not in that time and place.[32][33][34] At one point during the pleitos colombinos, a royal prosecutor argued that Pinzón had played a more important role in the discovery of the Indies the Columbus himself.[35]

Separation in the Caribbean

All evidence—the remarks in Columbus's diary, the testimony in the pleitos colombinos—is that on the outward voyage, relations between Columbus and Pinzón remained positive. Once among the Caribbean islands, that began to change.

On 21 November 1492, off the coast of Cuba, Pinzón failed to follow a direct order of Columbus to change course.[36] He probably sailed off on his own trying to make individual discoveries and to find treasure,[1] although Cesáreo Fernández Duro argues that the initial separation may have been accidental, a matter of missed signals. (Asensio takes Fernández Duro strongly to task for not adequately explaining the length of the separation;[37] Fernández Duro responds that Pinzón simply continued the prior course, and if Columbus wanted, he should have had a pretty fair idea where to find him over the next several days.[38]) Some scholars believe that during the separation Pinzón was the first person to discover the island of Puerto Rico, based on his easterly course after separating from the other ships while in the Bahamas. Others credit him with as the discoverer of Hispaniola.[1]

19th century historian José María Asensio, at least, blamed Pinzón's absence for the fact that on 25 December, the Santa María was wrecked on a shoal;[39] Pinzón's brother Vicente in command of the Niña played a key part in rescuing the sailors and Columbus himself.[40] Columbus, giving up on Pinzón, began sailing homeward 4 January, leaving behind 39 men,[41][42] all of whom died before Columbus's return nine months later.[42] The Niña and Pinta sighted and rejoined one another 6 January 1493,[43] and, after a furious argument in which according to at least one witness, Pinzón objected to the 39 men being "left so far from Spain, being so few, because they could not be provided for and would be lost", and Columbus threatened to hang Pinzón,[42] the two ships headed together back toward Spain on January 8[44]

Columbus's published diary of the voyage was heavily edited by Bartolomé de las Casas, so it is impossible to know what was actually written at the time and what added later,[45][46] but the diary launches a series of accusations against Pinzón beginning with his separation on November 21:

Wednesday, 21 November [1492]
...This day Martín Alonso Pinzón departed with the caravel Pinta, without the obedience and will of the Admiral, out of greed, he says that an Indian that the Admiral had ordered to be put in that caravel had told him where to get much gold [the Spanish here, le había de dar mucho oro, is a bit obscure, but this seems to be the sense], and so he went away without waiting, without cause of bad weather, just because he wanted to. And here the Admiral says: «He did and said many other [things] to me».[47]
Tuesday, 8 January [1493]
With such strong winds from the east and southeast he did not leave that day, because of which he ordered that that caravel be supplied with water and firewood and all that was necessary for the entire voyage, because although he intended to travel by ship along that whole Hispaniola coast as far as he could, but, because those he put in the caravels for commanders were brothers, to wit Martín Alonso Pinzón and Vicente Yáñez, and others who followed him with arrogance and greed estimating that everything was already theirs, not looking at the honor the Admiral had given them, they had not obeyed and did not obey his commands, before they had said and done many unmerited things against him, and this Martín Alonso left him from 21 November until 6 January without any cause or reason except disobedience, all of which the Admiral had suffered and been silent to bring a good end to his voyage, so that, to leave behind such bad company, with whom he says that it was necessary to dissimulate, although they were lawless people, and though he had to say while with them that they were good men*, because it was not the time to speak of punishment, he agreed to return and stop no more, as quickly as was possible ...[48]
 * An effort to make sense of a rather obscure phrase, "y aunque tenía dice que consigo muchos hombres de bien"; possibly alternatively "and though he had to say that they had many good men with them".

Nonetheless, much of the testimony in the pleitos colombinos, as well as part of the specialized historiography[49][50] and investigators,[51] does not agree that these things happened in this manner, nor is there any accusation against Pinzón in Columbus's Letter on the First Voyage, which Columbus wrote during his return.

Voyage home and death

During the voyage back to Spain, Pinzón's ship was separated from Columbus in stormy conditions, southwest of the Azores.[42] Pinzón arrived in Baiona in Galicia, near Vigo, 1 March 1493;[52] Columbus reached Lisbon on March 4.[53] Believing Columbus to be lost, he sent a letter to the King and Queen; some have argued that he claimed the glory of the great discoveries for himself, while others defend him from the charge.[54] Columbus—facing his own problems with the Court for having touched down in Portugal out of necessity in bad weather[54]—accused Pinzón of disloyalty and may have prevented him from the opportunity of presenting his case to the royal court.

Pinzón returned home to Palos, where arrived 15 March 1493, precisely the same day the Niña arrived from Lisbon. Fatigued and ill to the point of exhaustion, suffering from a recurrent fever,[5] he was taken from his ship in a stretcher. As Columbus arrived, his friends took him to a farm that was on the boundary between Palos and Moguer. It is possible that Martín's son, Arias Pérez Pinzón, did not bring him directly to his house in Palos in order to protect him, given that Columbus had threatened him earlier. Another possibility is that this was because Martín did not get along well with Catalina Alonso,[55] the woman who had been living with his father since he became a widower, and with whom the father would have two illegitimate children: Francisco and Inés Pinzón.[56] According to the testimony of Francisco Medel and Hernán Pérez Mateos, he was brought to the La Rábida Monastery, where he died; he was entombed there, as was his wish.[4][57]

It has been claimed that Pinzón's recurring fever was syphilis.[58] The theory that syphilis is of New World origin and that it was first brought back to Europe by Columbus's crew has been longstanding, and long controversial.[59][60] Some recent genetic evidence restores credence to the theory.[61] Even so, even if Pinzón contracted it on the voyage, it is extremely unlikely that it was the cause of his death. Tertiary syphilis does not normally show up for three to 15 years, according to the CDC. There is also a possibility that some historians have confused Martín Alonso Pinzón with his brother Francisco, who is more plausibly (but still controversially) believed to have had this particular disease.[59][60] Conversely, there is the possibility that the first outbreak of syphilis among Europeans with no immunity was much more virulent than subsequently.[62]

According to the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913), after he and Columbus met up again in early January 1493, he was forced to return four men and two girls to Hispaniola by Columbus. He deserted Columbus against orders more than once, including the enslavement expedition. He was refused an audience by the King. "Anger and jealousy, added to the privations of the voyage, undermined his health, and led to his death a few months later," according to the same source.[1]

In popular culture

Martín Alonso Pínzon was portrayed by Tchéky Karyo in the 1992 film 1492: Conquest of Paradise.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Kennedy, Thomas (1913).Martín Alonso Pinzón]. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2009-05-15 from New Advent.
  2. ^ a b Thomas Kennedy in his 1913 article Martín Alonso Pinzón] in The Catholic Encyclopedia says he died "a few months" after his 15 March 1493 return to Palos.
  3. ^ a b c Fernández Duro 1892, p. 28
  4. ^ a b c Álvarez de Toledo 2000, Chapter: «El primer viaje»
  5. ^ a b c Izquierdo Labrado, Julio (1985). "Martín Alonso Pinzón". Archived from the original on 2004-08-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20040803070935/http://es.geocities.com/julioil/pepi.html. Retrieved 2008-10-18.  
  6. ^ a b Archivo General de Simancas, Registro General del Sello, March 1505.
    Cited in :
  7. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Martín Alonso Pinzón". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Mart%C3%ADn_Alonso_Pinz%C3%B3n.  
  8. ^ Ortega & 1980 Tomo III, p. 31
  9. ^ Izquierdo Labrado, Julio (2003). "Breve historia de Palos de la Frontera". http://es.geocities.com/julioil/breve.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-03.  
  10. ^ Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Histórico, Junta de Andalucía. "Casa de Martín Alonso Pinzón". http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/cultura/iaph/bdi/resumen.do?id=i247536. Retrieved 2008-10-26.  
  11. ^ Relevant passages from the pleitos colombinos are cited in Ortega 1980, Tomo III, p. 47 and quoted in the notes for the article Pinzón brothers. One witness said of him "neither on sea nor land the King had no other man so valiant nor brave as him".
  12. ^ Pulido Robio, José (1952). Algunas consideraciones sobre unos documentos referentes a Palos, inmediatos al descubrimiento. Vol. IX. pp. Art. 2, p. 45.  
  13. ^ a b Provisión de los Reyes Católicos que mandaron a Diego Rodríguez Prieto y a otros compañeros, vecinos de la villa de Palos, para que tuvieran preparadas dos carabelas al servicio de Cristóbal Colón. Texto completo, Granada, 30 April 1492. Archivo General de Indias. Sección: Patronato. Signatura: PATRONATO, 295, N.3. (Castellano antiguo)
  14. ^ Don Fernando el Católico y el descubrimiento de América. Imprenta de Fortaner, Madrid. 1892. pp. 180-184. http://www.archive.org/stream/dfernandoel00lbarrich#page/n7/mode/2up.   The link is to archive.org.
  15. ^ Vila Vilar, E. (1991). "Pinzón, Hermanos". Ediciones Rialp S.A. Gran Enciclopedia Rialp. http://www.canalsocial.net/GER/ficha_GER.asp?id=2767&cat=biografiasuelta. Retrieved 2010-01-15.  
  16. ^ Fernández Duro, Cesáreo (1892-01-22). Pinzón, en el descubrimiento de las Índias. Madrid. pp. 46-47. http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/12611653146704839210435/206421_0006.pdf.   Online on Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes.
  17. ^ a b de las Casas, Bartolomé. "Tomo I. Capítulo XXXIV, pág. 256". Historia de las Indias. http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/12033856617830495876213/ima0271.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-18.   On the website of the Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes.
  18. ^ a b Asensio 1892, p. 66-68.
  19. ^ a b Diputación de Huelva. "Los marineros de Huelva". http://www.diphuelva.es/inicial.aspx#aHR0cDovL3d3dy5kaXBodWVsdmEuZXMvd2ViL2NvbnRlbmlkb19iYXNpY28uYXNweD9pZENvbnRlbmlkbz00NTImaWRBcmVhPTUy. Retrieved 2008-10-18.  
  20. ^ a b Ibarra y Rodríguez, Eduardo (1892). "Cap. VIII". Don Fernando el Católico y el descubrimiento de América. Madrid: Imprenta de Fortaner. http://ia311509.us.archive.org/flipbook/flipbook.php?identifier=dfernandoel00lbarrich&datapath=/2/items/dfernandoel00lbarrich&dataserver=ia311509.us.archive.org.  
  21. ^ Menéndez-Pidal, Gonzalo. "Tres puntos finales, Cristóbal Colón". Hacia una nueva imagen del mundo. Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales, 2003. ISBN 978-84-259-1245-0. http://books.google.es/books?id=bcVGP3Z0uG0C&printsec=frontcover#PPA166,M1.  
  22. ^ Gould 1984. The actual ownership of the Niña is in some question; quite possibly Pinzón had a lease on it, rather than outright ownership.
  23. ^ Arranz Márquez 2004, p. 207-208
  24. ^ Fernández Duro, Cesáreo (1892-01-22). Pinzón, en el descubrimiento de las Índias. Madrid. pp. 46-47. http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/12611653146704839210435/206421_0006.pdf. "... traía tanta diligencia en allegar la gente é animalia, como si para él y para sus hijos hobiera de ser lo que se descubriese.".   Online on Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes.
  25. ^ Señor Martín Alonso Pinçón, vamos a este viage que, si salimos con él y Dios nos descubre tierras, yo os prometo por la Corona Real de partir con vos como un hermano. Pleitos colombinos. Testimonio de Alonso Gallego en las probanzas de 1515, en Palos. Archivo General de Indias. Sección: Patronato. Signatura: PATRONATO,12,N.2,R.23. Ortega, Ángel (1980) [1925]. La Rábida. Historia documental crítica. 4 vol. (facsimile edition). Tomo III. Diputación Provincial de Huelva. Servicio de Publicaciones. p. 53. ISBN 978-84-500-3860-6.  
  26. ^ See also Fernández Duro 1892, p. 50-51 for another quotation of similar import, this from Columbus's son and heir [[Diego Colón].
  27. ^ Diario de a bordo del primer viaje de Cristóbal Colón: texto completo (complete text of the Ship's diary of Columbus's first voyage, as assembled by Fray Bartolomé de las Casas. Hereafter, "Ship's Diary") 11 October [1492] "And because the caravela Pinta had more sail and went ahead of the Admiral, it found land and made the sign which the Admiral had ordered. This land was seen first by a sailor named Rodrigo de Triana." "Y porque la carabela Pinta era más velera e iba delante del Almirante, halló tierra e hizo las señas que el Almirante había mandado. Esta tierra fue vista primero por un marinero que se decía Rodrigo de Triana"
  28. ^ Ship's Diary, 6 August [1492]
    Lunes, 6 de agosto
    …Viose allí el Almirante en gran turbación por no poder ayudar a la dicha carabela sin su peligro, y dice que alguna pena perdía con saber que Martín Alonso Pinzón era persona esforzada y de buen ingenio. En fin, anduvieron entre día y noche veintinueve leguas. Durante la travesía, demostró sus habilidades de marinero cuando resolvió el problema de la rotura del timón de La Pinta y pudo seguir navegando.
  29. ^ Testimony in the pleitos colombinos by Hernán Pérez Mateos, former pilot of Palos, age 80, given in Santo Domingo 26 January 1536. Archivo General de Indias. Sección: Patronato. Signatura: PATRONATO,12,N.2,R.14.
    ... como no descubrían tierra, los que venían con el dicho Colón se querían amotinar y alzar contra el, diciendo que iban perdidos, y entonces el dicho Colón había dicho a Martín Alonso lo que pasaba con aquella gente, y que qué le parescía que debían hacer; e que el dicho Martín Alonso Pinzón le había respondido; «Señor; ahorque vuesa merced a media docena dellos e échelos al mar, y si no se atreve, yo e mis hermanos barloaremos sobre ellos y lo haremos, que armada que salio con mandato de tan altos principes no ha de volver atras sin buenas nuevas.» Y que sabe que con esto se animaron; y el dicho Colón había dicho; «Martin Alonso; con estos hidalgos hayamonos bien y andemos otros ocho días, e si en estos no hayamos tierra, daremos otra orden en lo que debemos hacer.» ...

    Cited in:

  30. ^ Ship's Diary:
    Saturday, 6 October [1492].
    He navigated his way to the west. Then went forty leagues between day and night; he told the people thirty-three leagues. That night Martín Alonso said it would be set course southwest by west; and to the Admiral it seemed that this Martín Alonso said this because of the island of Cipango (Japan), and the Admiral saw that if they missed it they could not soon find land quickly and that it would be better off to go first to the mainland and later to the islands.
    Sábado, 6 de octubre.
    Navegó su camino al Oeste o Güeste, que es lo mismo. Anduvieron cuarenta leguas entre día y noche; contó a la gente treinta y tres leguas. Esta noche dijo Martín Alonso que sería bien navegar a la cuarta del Oeste, a la parte del Sudoeste; y al Almirante pareció que no decía esto Martín Alonso por la isla de Cipango, y el Almirante veía que si la erraban que no pudieran tan presto tomar tierra y que era mejor una vez ir a la tierra firme y después a las islas.
    Diario de la primera navegación. Narrative assembled by Bartolomé de las Casas.
  31. ^ Manzano y Manzano 1988, Vol. III. p. 5, Arranz Márquez 2004, p. 208
  32. ^ Gould 1984, p. 93
  33. ^ Fernández Duro 1892, p. 45-47.
  34. ^ José María Asensio quoted in Fernández Duro 1892, p. 125
  35. ^ Villapolos Salas, Gustavo (1976-1977). "La naturaleza procesal de los Pleitos Colombinos". Anuario Jurídico (Biblioteca Jurídica Virtual) III-IV: 300 (p. 16 of PDF). http://www.bibliojuridica.org/libros/5/2119/13.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-14.  
  36. ^ José María Asensio quoted in Fernández Duro 1892, p. 67 et. seq.
  37. ^ José María Asensio quoted in Fernández Duro 1892, p. 73 et. seq. In this passage, Fernández Duro is quoting Asenio quoting Fernández Duro himself.
  38. ^ Fernández Duro 1892, especially p. 91
  39. ^ José María Asensio quoted in Fernández Duro 1892, p. 72
  40. ^ Ship's Diary, 25 December [1492].
  41. ^ Ship's Diary, 2 January [1493], 4 January [1493].
  42. ^ a b c d Edward T. Stone, Columbus' La Navidad: The Fate of the New World’s First Spanish Settlement, American Heritage, April/May 1978, Volume 29, Issue 3. Accessed online 2010-01-15.
  43. ^ Ship's Diary, 6 January [1493]
  44. ^ Ship's Diary, 9 January [1493].
  45. ^ Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), Textbook Site for The Heath Anthology of American Literature, Fifth Edition, Paul Lauter, General Editor, college.cengage.com, accessed online 2010-01-14.
  46. ^ The matter is taken up at length in Estelle Irizarry, "The two authors of Columbus' Diary, Computers and the Humanities, Springer Netherlands, ISSN 0010-4817 (Print), Volume 27, Number 2 / March, 1993 ISSN 1572-8412 (Online), DOI 10.1007/BF01830301. The free online SpringerLink page gives an abstract and a free excerpt, but there is no free online access to the paper itself.
  47. ^ Ship's Diary:
    Miércoles, 21 de noviembre
    ... Este día se apartó Martín Alonso Pinzón con la carabela Pinta, sin obediencia y voluntad del Almirante, por codicia, dice que pensando que un indio que el Almirante había mandado poner en aquella carabela le había de dar mucho oro, y así se fue sin esperar, sin causa de mal tiempo, sino porque quiso. Y dice aquí el Almirante: «otras muchas me tiene hecho y dicho».
  48. ^ Ship's Diary:
    Martes, 8 de enero

    Por el viento Este y Sudeste mucho que ventaba no partió este día, por lo cual mandó que se guarneciese la carabela de agua y leña y de todo lo necesario para todo el viaje, porque, aunque tenía voluntad de costear toda la costa de aquella Española que andando el camino pudiese, pero, porque los que puso en las carabelas por capitanes eran hermanos, conviene a saber Martín Alonso Pinzón y Vicente Yáñez, y otros que le seguían con soberbia y codicia estimando que todo era ya suyo, no mirando la honra que el Almirante les había hecho y dado, no habían obedecido ni obedecían sus mandamientos, antes hacían y decían muchas cosas no debidas contra él, y el Martín Alonso lo dejó desde el 21 de noviembre hasta el 6 de enero sin causa alguna ni razón sino por su desobediencia, todo lo cual el Almirante había sufrido y callado por dar buen fin a su viaje, así que, por salir de tan mala compañía, con los cuales dice que cumplía disimular, aunque eran gente desmandada, y aunque tenía dice que consigo muchos hombres de bien, pero no era tiempo de entender en castigo, acordó volverse y no parar más, con la mayor prisa que le fue posible ...

  49. ^ Fernández Duro 1892, p. 66-108.
  50. ^ Díaz-Trechulo, Spínola, Maria Lourdes (2006). Cristóbal Colón. Ediciones Palabra. p. 91. ISBN 9788498400205. http://books.google.es/books?id=drsM_sZPglQC.  
  51. ^ Manuel López Flores (1964). Colón no descubrió América. Madrid: Editorial Clásica. pp. 253-262. DL: M. 7.245-1964. http://books.google.es/books?ei=_wKUSoaiOpWqMo_WyKAH&id=A4ALAAAAYAAJ.  
  52. ^ Las naves, on the site of the Wharf of the Caravels, Diputación Provincial de Huelva. Accessed online 2010-01-15.
  53. ^ Fernández Duro 1892, p. 113.
  54. ^ a b Fernández Duro 1892, p. 119 et. seq.
  55. ^ Archivo General de Simancas, Registro General del Sello, 12 de octubre de 1493.
    Cited in:
  56. ^ Martín Alonso Pinzón, Festa de Arribada, Ayuntamiento de Baiona. Accessed online 2010-01-12.
  57. ^ Testimony in the pleitos colombinos by Francisco Medel and Hernán Pérez Mateos, cited in:
  58. ^ See for example Lisa M. Benton and John Rennie Short, Environmental discourse and practice, Wiley-Blackwell, 1999, ISBN 0631211144, p. 40. Accessed online at Google Books.
  59. ^ a b Andrew F. Downing, "Were the Sailors of Columbus the First European Syphilitics?", The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, October 12, 1916, 515:522. Available online through Google Books.
  60. ^ a b W.A. Pusey, "The Beginning of Syphilis", Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume LXIV, number 24, June 12, 1915, 1961:1964. Available online through Google Books.
  61. ^ Julie Steenhuysen, New study blames Columbus for syphilis spread, Reuters, 2008-01-15. Accessed online 2010-01-15.
  62. ^ Pusey, p. 1962.

References

This article incorporates information from the revision as of 2010-01-15 of the equivalent article on the Spanish Wikipedia.
This article incorporates information from the revision as of 2010-01-12 of the equivalent article on the Spanish Wikipedia.

Further reading

  • (French) Louis-Théodule Begaud: Le premier Capitaine au long cours, Martín Alonso Pinzón, associé de Christophe Colomb ; Organisateur et animateur de l'expédition de 1492, Paris 1944
  • (Spanish) Adám Szászdi: El descubrimiento de Puerto Rico en 1492 por Martín Alonso Pinzón, in: Revista de historia. San Juan , Año 1(1985), Nr. 2, S. 9-45.
  • (Spanish) Domingo Gómez: Vindicación del piloto de la carabela "Pinta", Martín Alonso Pinzón, in: Mundi hispánico. - Madrid , Año 21(1968), Nr. 241.
  • (Spanish) Francisco Morales Padrón: Las relaciones entre Colón y Martín Alonso Pinzón, in: Actas. - Lisboa , Vol. 3(1961), S. 433-442.
  • (German) Urs Bitterli: Die "Wilden" und die "Zivilisierten", 3. Aufl., München 2004 ISBN ?
  • (German) Ders.: Alte Welt - neue Welt, München 1992 ISBN ?
  • (German) Ders.: Die Entdeckung Amerikas, 4. Aufl., München 1992 ISBN ?
  • (German) Ders.: Die Kenntnis beider "Indien" im frühneuzeitlichen Europa, München 1991







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