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Martemyan Ryutin (1890 – January 13, 1937, Мартемьян Никитич Рютин) was an Old Bolshevik and a secretary of the Moscow City Communist Party Committee in the 1920s. In December 1927 – September 1930 he was a candidate (non-voting) member of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party and a supporter of the moderate ("Rightist") wing within the Party led by the Communist theoretician Nikolai Bukharin and prime minister Alexei Rykov. In 1932, after Stalinist Collectivization had provoked famine and crisis in the Soviet countryside, Ryutin was the principal communist involved in the production of a 200-page document titled 'Stalin and the Crisis of the Proletarian Dictatorship', which outlined the failures of the revolution in the countryside, and called for the liquidation of Stalin's dictatorship. He was expelled from the party in October 1932, along with his supporters. See Ryutin Affair for details.

Ryutin was executed during the Great Purge. He, nearly alone of the Old Bolsheviks tortured and killed by Stalin's henchmen, did not recant and refused to admit guilt regarding the falsehoods with which he was charged. He was shot on January 13, 1937. (Radzinsky, Stalin, p. 346)


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