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A block print from the Wu Pei Chih ("Bubishi" in Japanese), an 18th- or 19th-century text which describes techniques found in Chinese martial arts (mostly addressing the Fujian White Crane style).
.Martial arts or fighting arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for combat.^ Note: This title can be pronounced in Chinese, but would only be used or well-known by Chinese people who practice this Japanese martial art (rare).
  • Chinese & Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Selections Related to Martial Arts 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.orientaloutpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think most children under about age 11-12 really aren't ready, mentally and physically, to begin practicing a combative martial art.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ This judo program is for all sizes and shapes of students wishing to begin instruction in this traditional Japanese martial art and self-defense method.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Martial arts all have a very similar objective: defend oneself or others from physical threat.^ Least of all the martial art itself.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ He is very physically able and not frail at all.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ I am not familiar with the different martial arts at all, and would greatly appreciate help finding a good teacher/student fit for my son.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.In addition, some martial arts are linked to beliefs such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism or Shinto while others follow a particular code of honor.^ As a tenet of Korean taekwondo, and other martial arts , this is often used with the title "self-control".
  • Chinese & Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Selections Related to Martial Arts 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.orientaloutpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often a combination of Chinese martial arts such as Shaolin Kung Fu with Japanese martial arts such as Karate, Jujutsu (Jujitsu), Aikido, and others.
  • Chinese & Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Selections Related to Martial Arts 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.orientaloutpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kuk Sool sounds like a similar or transferable form of Korean Martial Arts, with many of the additional lifestyle elements described in the Tang Soo Do website.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Martial arts are considered as both an art and a science.^ For an excellent martial arts experience, definitely consider The Golden Lion Martial Arts School at 1031 San Pablo Avenue in Albany.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ In both Japanese and Chinese, rather than meaning martial arts , this speaks more to the skills that you posses in regards to martial arts .
  • Chinese & Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Selections Related to Martial Arts 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.orientaloutpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aikido is a martial art that focuses on protecting both the attacker and the defender (more disabling moves and not so much kicking and striking to injure/kill).
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Many arts are also practiced competitively, most commonly as combat sports, but may also take the form of dance.^ We train a very respectful, fun, practical art from Indonesia, and teach at many of the local elementary schools including Chabot, Montclair, and Joaquin Miller.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ I think most children under about age 11-12 really aren't ready, mentally and physically, to begin practicing a combative martial art.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Kuk Sool sounds like a similar or transferable form of Korean Martial Arts, with many of the additional lifestyle elements described in the Tang Soo Do website.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.The term martial arts refers to the art of warfare (derived from Mars, the Roman god of war) and comes from a 15th-century European term for fighting arts now known as historical European martial arts.^ If you are wondering, the spelling and pronunciation of this martial arts style in English comes from the Cantonese pronunciation of these characters.
  • Chinese & Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Selections Related to Martial Arts 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.orientaloutpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Editor Note: Kuk Sool Won of Berkeley was briefly also known as Martial Arts of America.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Note: This title can be pronounced in Chinese, but would only be used or well-known by Chinese people who practice this Japanese martial art (rare).
  • Chinese & Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Selections Related to Martial Arts 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.orientaloutpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A practitioner of martial arts is referred to as a martial artist.^ Nov 2007 Hi, I am looking for references for a good martial arts studio in Richmond, San Pablo, El Sobrante area.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Aikido is often referred to as the defensive martial art.
  • Chinese & Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Selections Related to Martial Arts 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.orientaloutpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This refers to the virtue, morality, and ethics that any practitioner of martial arts should posses.
  • Chinese & Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Selections Related to Martial Arts 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.orientaloutpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When originally coined in the 1920s, the term martial arts referred specifically to Asian fighting styles, especially the combat systems that originated in East Asia.^ Different schools and styles of Japanese martial arts use different terms.
  • Chinese & Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Selections Related to Martial Arts 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.orientaloutpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you are wondering, the spelling and pronunciation of this martial arts style in English comes from the Cantonese pronunciation of these characters.
  • Chinese & Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Selections Related to Martial Arts 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.orientaloutpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Purists in Okinawa will claim that "Okinawa Kenpo" or "Ryukyu Hon Kenpo" is the original and true version of this martial art from the old kingdom.
  • Chinese & Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Selections Related to Martial Arts 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.orientaloutpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the term both in its literal meaning and in its subsequent usage may be taken to refer to any codified combat system, regardless of origin.^ The original term was "mushin no shin", meaning, "mind of no mind."
  • Chinese & Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Selections Related to Martial Arts 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.orientaloutpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may see the term "Kempo Karate" which basically means Karate with other disciplines added.
  • Chinese & Japanese Kanji Calligraphy Selections Related to Martial Arts 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.orientaloutpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Europe is home to many extensive systems of martial arts, both living traditions (e.g.^ Kuk Sool sounds like a similar or transferable form of Korean Martial Arts, with many of the additional lifestyle elements described in the Tang Soo Do website.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Aikido is a martial art that focuses on protecting both the attacker and the defender (more disabling moves and not so much kicking and striking to injure/kill).
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The whole graduation system in martial arts seems to support unsocial behaviour with some kids (which can also be observed with immature adults, by the way).
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Jogo do Pau and other stick and sword fencing and Savate, a French kicking style developed by sailors and street fighters) and older systems of historical European martial arts that have existed through the present, many of which are now being reconstructed.^ June 2007 I'm not too familiar with the martial arts thing, so I'm not sure if what I'm asking for even exists or is feasible.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ We're already a very physically active family so the risk of being sedentary if we don't do martial arts is not very high for us.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Kuk Sool sounds like a similar or transferable form of Korean Martial Arts, with many of the additional lifestyle elements described in the Tang Soo Do website.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.In the Americas, Native Americans have traditions of open-handed martial arts including wrestling, and Hawaiians have historically practiced arts featuring small- and large-joint manipulation.^ Hi - I sent my kids to Martial Arts of America when they were quite small (I think the twins were in kindergarten and my son was in third grade).
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ [Editor Note: Kuk Sool Won of Berkeley was briefly also known as Martial Arts of America.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ We train a very respectful, fun, practical art from Indonesia, and teach at many of the local elementary schools including Chabot, Montclair, and Joaquin Miller.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.A mix of origins is found in the athletic movements of Capoeira, which African slaves developed in Brazil based on skills they had brought from Africa.^ In our experience, the key is that the school have a routine that is engaging, because it takes years for kids to really develop their skills, and they have to really want to stick with it.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

While each style has unique facets that make it different from other martial arts, a common characteristic is the systematization of fighting techniques. Methods of training vary and may include sparring (simulated combat) or formal sets or routines of techniques known as forms or kata. .Forms are especially common in the Asian and Asian-derived martial arts.^ One of the most disturbing things I found when looking for a martial arts class for my two kids, then 9 and 11, was the mixture of styles and form many "martial arts" studios have.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ It's a nonagressive form of martial arts led by the most caring, funny, gentle teacher, Tom Gambell, and others.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Both of my sons are interested in learning karate or other form of martial arts.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[1]

Contents

Variation and scope

Some arts have a very specific focus while others, such as Mixed martial arts, are more syncretic.
.Martial arts vary widely, and may focus on a specific area or combination of areas, but they can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, grappling, or weapons training.^ Check out North American Martial Arts Academy in Alameda - they are on Webster I think.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Feb 2007 I'm looking for a good martial arts class for my 5 year old boy in the Oakland/Berkeley area.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ They are a balance of serious martial arts, philosophy, self-discipline and repsect for others.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Below is a list of examples that make extensive use of one these areas; it is not an exhaustive list of all arts covering the area, nor are these necessarily the only areas covered by the art but are the focus or best known part as examples of the area:
Weaponry
.Many martial arts, especially those from Asia, also teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices.^ One of the most disturbing things I found when looking for a martial arts class for my two kids, then 9 and 11, was the mixture of styles and form many "martial arts" studios have.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ I agree with many of the sentiments posted recently by Joerg--that is, that martial arts aren't usually suitable for younger kids.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ I think most children under about age 11-12 really aren't ready, mentally and physically, to begin practicing a combative martial art.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.This is particularly prevalent in traditional Chinese martial arts which may teach bone-setting, qigong, acupuncture, acupressure (tui na), and other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine.^ This judo program is for all sizes and shapes of students wishing to begin instruction in this traditional Japanese martial art and self-defense method.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ One of my daughters started martial arts when she was 5; the other when she was 8.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ They are a balance of serious martial arts, philosophy, self-discipline and repsect for others.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[2]

History

Pictorial records of both wrestling and armed combat date to the Bronze Age ancient Near East, such as the 20th century BC mural in the tomb of Amenemhet at Beni Hassan, or the 26th century BC "Standard of Ur".
Ancient depiction of Shaolin monks practicing the art of self defense.

Africa

African knives may be classified by shape—typically into the "f" group and the "circular" group—and have often been incorrectly described as throwing knives.[3] There are also wrestling and grappling techniques found in West Africa. "Stick fighting" formed an important part of Zulu culture in South Africa, and is a significant part of Obnu Bilate, a fighting form practiced in southern Botswana and Northern South Africa. Stick fighting was also described in Ancient Egyptians tombs, it is still practiced in upper Egypt (Tahtib)[4][5] and a modern association was formed in the 1970s. .Rough and Tumble (RAT) is a modern African martial art, also incorporating elements of Zulu and Sotho stickfighting.^ I cannot educate you about different types of martial arts, but I can highly recommend MODERN COMBATIVES on University Avenue.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Kuk Sool sounds like a similar or transferable form of Korean Martial Arts, with many of the additional lifestyle elements described in the Tang Soo Do website.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Americas

Native peoples of North America and South America had their own martial training which began in childhood. Some First Nations men, and more rarely some women, were called warriors only after they had proven themselves in battle. Most groups selected individuals for training in the use of bows, knives, blowguns, spears, and war clubs in early adolescence. War clubs were the preferred martial weapon because Native American warriors could raise their social status by killing enemies in single combat face to face.[citation needed] Warriors honed their weapons skills and stalking techniques through lifelong training.
.Capoeira, with great roots in Africa, is an Afro-Brazilian or Afro American martial art originating in Brazil that involves a high degree of flexibility and endurance.^ We're already a very physically active family so the risk of being sedentary if we don't do martial arts is not very high for us.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Check out North American Martial Arts Academy in Alameda - they are on Webster I think.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Brincadeira Viva Academy has a martial arts daycamp running into late August featuring capoeira as well as Far East martial arts.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

It consists of kicks, elbow strikes, hand strikes, head butts, cartwheels and sweeps. .Jeet Kune Do is a martial arts system developed by martial artist and actor Bruce Lee.^ The whole graduation system in martial arts seems to support unsocial behaviour with some kids (which can also be observed with immature adults, by the way).
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ I've taken many martial arts in the past, Tae Kwon Do, Jeet Kune Do, Japanese Ju-Jitsu, Aikido, Arnis/Escrima (Filipino Stick fighting), and Kickboxing.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Having studied martial arts for many years, and having met many martial artists over the years, I chose carefully before enrolling my children in a martial arts program.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Its roots lie in Wing Chun, western boxing and fencing with a philosophy of a casting off what is useless and using no way as way. .Brazilian Jiu Jitsu is an adaptation of pre-World War II Judo developed by the brothers Carlos and Hélio Gracie, it was restructured into a sport with a large focus on groundwork.^ Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu teaches how to fall, how to perform throws and takedowns, self defense techniques, and groundwork.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ I prefer Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu because it is more about controlling your opponent than bludgeoning them with your fists.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ I can tell you personally that as I was ''shopping'' around for a style that fit me, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu stood out over all the other styles.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.This system has become a popular martial art and proved to be effective in mixed martial arts competitions such as the UFC and PRIDE.^ The whole graduation system in martial arts seems to support unsocial behaviour with some kids (which can also be observed with immature adults, by the way).
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Annual tournaments include black belt demonstrations, competitions between local Kuk Sool Won schools, and an opportunity to see the most highly skilled practioners of this extraordinarily comprehensive martial arts system.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[6]

Asia

Early history

.The foundation of the Asian martial arts is likely a blend of early Chinese and Indian martial arts.^ Kuk Sool sounds like a similar or transferable form of Korean Martial Arts, with many of the additional lifestyle elements described in the Tang Soo Do website.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ I like that Sir not only teaches the physical movements but also teaches the values that the martial arts stand for: responsibilty, balance, leadership, integrity, etc.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ July 2005 I would like to find some martial arts classes for my 3YO daughter that focus on strength, discipline and physical awareness and not fighting.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Extensive trade occurred between these nations beginning around 600 BC, with diplomats, merchants, and monks traveling the Silk Road. .During the Warring States period of Chinese history (480-221 BC) extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War (c.^ Kuk Sool sounds like a similar or transferable form of Korean Martial Arts, with many of the additional lifestyle elements described in the Tang Soo Do website.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ They are a balance of serious martial arts, philosophy, self-discipline and repsect for others.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ This is serious martial arts (they progress through the colored belts) balanced with philosophy, discipline and good behavior skills.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

350 BC).[7]
An early legend in martial arts tells the tale of a South Indian Pallava prince turned monk named Bodhidharma (also called Daruma), believed to have lived around 550 A.D. The martial virtues of discipline, humility, restraint and respect are attributed to this philosophy.[8] Daruma is also regarded as the founder of Zen Buddhism in China. .Thus the values of ethical conduct and self discipline have been intertwined with martial practice since the earliest times.^ I have seen kids practice at other dojos and learn to be violent, but here the focus is on self defense and self discipline.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ It has all the martial art discipline and structure, but the emphasis is on self-defense, not kicking and/or punching.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ They are a balance of serious martial arts, philosophy, self-discipline and repsect for others.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[9] Also in China Buddhabhadra (called Batuo in Mandarin), an Indian dhyana master becomes the first abbot of the Shaolin temple.[10] The Shaolin Monastery was built by the Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty in A.D. 477.
.The teaching of martial arts in Asia has historically followed the cultural traditions of teacher-disciple apprenticeship.^ Every morning starts out with some fun games to warm up and followed by martial arts class.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ I am not familiar with the different martial arts at all, and would greatly appreciate help finding a good teacher/student fit for my son.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ I am a martial arts teacher (doing Tae Kwon Do for 15 years) and very into kids.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Students are trained in a strictly hierarchical system by a master instructor: Sifu in Cantonese or Shifu in Mandarin; Sensei in Japanese; Sabeom-nim in Korean; Guru in Sanskrit, Hindi, Telugu and Malay; Kruu in Khmer; Guro in Tagalog; Kalari Gurukkal or Kalari Asaan in Malayalam; Asaan in Tamil; Achan or Khru in Thai; and Saya in Myanmar. All these terms can be translated as master, teacher or mentor.[11]

Recent history

Kalaripayat, martial art of Kerala, India that witnessed a revival in the 20th century
.Europe's colonization of Asian countries also brought about a decline in local martial arts, especially with the introduction of firearms.^ So, recently (about 3 months ago) we tried martial arts at Bay Mountain Martial Arts on Grand Ave (near Safeway) and we LOVE it.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ I cannot educate you about different types of martial arts, but I can highly recommend MODERN COMBATIVES on University Avenue.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ My recommendation is to forget about martial arts for a year or two.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Martial Arts Classes for Kids 6 January 2010 10:27 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

This can clearly be seen in India after the full establishment of British Raj in the 19th century.[12] More European modes of organizing police, armies and governmental institutions, and the increasing use of firearms, eroded the need for traditional combat training associated with caste-specific duties.[12] and in 1804 the British Colonial government banned kalaripayat in response to a series of revolts.[13] Kalaripayat and other traditional arts experienced a resurgence in the 1920s in Tellicherry and spread throughout South India.[12] Similar phenomena occurred in Southeast Asian colonies such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines. Other Indian martial arts, like Thang-Ta also witnessed a resurgence in the 1950s.[14]
The Western interest in Asian martial arts dates back to the late 19th century, due to the increase in trade between the United States with China and Japan. Relatively few Westerners actually practiced the arts, considering it to be mere performance. Edward William Barton-Wright, a railway engineer who had studied Jujutsu while working in Japan between 1894–97, was the first man known to have taught Asian martial arts in Europe. He also founded an eclectic martial arts style named Bartitsu which combined jujutsu, judo, boxing, savate and stick fighting.
As Western influence grew in Asia a greater number of military personnel spent time in China, Japan, and South Korea. Exposure to martial arts during the Korean war was also significant. The later 1970s and 1980s witnessed an increased media interest in the martial arts, influenced by martial artist and Hollywood actor Bruce Lee's work in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Thanks in part to Asian and Hollywood martial arts movies, Jackie Chan and Jet Li are prominent movie figures who have been responsible for promoting Chinese martial arts in recent years.

Europe

Boxing was practiced in the ancient Mediterranean
Martial arts existed in classical European civilization, most notably in Greece where sports were integral to the way of life. Boxing (pygme, pyx), Wrestling (pale) and Pankration (from pan, meaning "all", and kratos, meaning "power" or "strength") were represented in the Ancient Olympic Games. The Romans produced Gladiatorial combat as a public spectacle.
A number of historical fencing forms and manuals have survived, and many groups are working to reconstruct older European martial arts. The process of reconstruction combines intensive study of detailed combat treatises produced from 1400–1900 A.D. and practical training or "pressure testing" of various techniques and tactics. This includes such styles as sword and shield, two-handed swordfighting, halberd fighting, jousting and other types of melee weapons combat. .This reconstruction effort and modern outgrowth of the historical methods is generally referred to as Western martial arts.^ Northeast Ohio Historical European Martial Arts Society Our focus are the martial traditions of Europe and of the Colonized New World.
  • Karate Directory of Ohio 14 January 2010 11:54 UTC ohio.uscity.net [Source type: News]

Many Medieval martial arts manuals have survived, the most famous being Johannes Lichtenauer's Fechtbuch (Fencing book) of the 14th century. Today Lichtenauer's tome forms the basis of the German school of swordsmanship.
In Europe, the martial arts declined with the rise of firearms. As a consequence, martial arts with historical roots in Europe do not exist today to the same extent as in Asia, since the traditional martial arts either died out or developed into sports. Swordsmanship developed into fencing. Boxing as well as forms of wrestling have endured. European martial arts have mostly adapted to changing technology so that while some traditional arts still exist, military personnel are trained in skills like bayonet combat and marksmanship. Some European weapon systems have also survived as folk sports and as self-defense methods. These include stick-fighting systems such as Quarterstaff of England, bataireacht of Ireland, Jogo do Pau of Portugal and the Juego del Palo (Palo Canario) style(s) of the Canary Islands.
Other martial arts evolved into sports that no longer recognized as combative. One example is the pommel horse event in men's gymnastics, an exercise which itself is derived from the sport of Equestrian vaulting. Cavalryriders needed to be able to change positions on their horses quickly, rescue fallen allies, fight effectively on horseback and dismount at a gallop. Training these skills on a stationery barrel evolved into sport of gymnastics' pommel horse exercise. More ancient origins exist for the shot put and the javelin throw, both weapons utilized extensively by the Romans.

Modern history

Wrestling, Javelin, Fencing (1896 Summer Olympics), Archery (1900), Boxing (1904), and more recently Judo (1964) and Tae Kwon Do (2000) are included as events in the modern Summer Olympic Games.
Martial arts also developed among military and police forces to be used as arrest and self-defense methods including: Unifight, Kapap and Krav Maga developed in Israeli Defense Forces; San Shou in Chinese; Systema: developed for the Russian armed forces and Rough and Tumble (RAT): originally developed for the South African special forces (Reconnaissance Commandos) (now taught in a civilian capacity). Tactical arts for use in close quarter combat warfare, i.e. Military Martial arts e.g. UAC (British), LINE (USA). Other combative systems having their origins in the modern military include Soviet Bojewoje (Combat) Sambo. Pars Tactical Defence (Turkei security personally self-defense system)
Inter-art competitions came to the fore again in 1993 with the first Ultimate Fighting Championship this has since evolved into the modern sport of mixed martial arts.

On the modern battlefield

U.S. Army Combatives instructor Matt Larsen demonstrates a chokehold
Some traditional martial concepts have seen new use within modern military training. Perhaps the most recent example of this is point shooting which relies on muscle memory to more effectively utilize a firearm in a variety of awkward situations, much the way an iaidoka would master movements with their sword.
During the World War II era William E. Fairbairn, a Shanghai policeman and a leading Western expert on Asian fighting techniques, was recruited by the Special Operations Executive (SOE) to teach Jujutsu to U.K., U.S. and Canadian Special Forces. The book Kill or Get Killed, written by Colonel Rex Applegate, became a classic military treatise on hand-to-hand combat. This fighting method was called Defendu.
Traditional hand-to-hand, knife, and spear techniques continue to see use in the composite systems developed for today's wars. Examples of this include European Unifight, the US Army's Combatives system developed by Matt Larsen, the Israeli army trains its soldiers in kapap and Krav Maga, and the US Marine Corps's Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP).
Unarmed dagger defenses identical to that found in the manual of Fiore dei Liberi and the Codex Wallerstein were integrated into the U.S. Army's training manuals in 1942[15] and continue to influence today's systems along with other traditional systems such as Eskrima.
The rifle-mounted bayonet, which has its origin in the spear, has seen use by the United States Army, the United States Marine Corps, and the British Army as recently as the Iraq War.[16]

Testing and competition

Testing or evaluation is important to martial art practitioners of many disciplines who wish to determine their progression or own level of skill in specific contexts. Students within individual martial art systems often undergo periodic testing and grading by their own teacher in order to advance to a higher level of recognized achievement, such as a different belt color or title. The type of testing used varies from system to system but may include forms or sparring.
Steven Ho executing a Jump Spin Hook Kick
Various forms and sparring are commonly used in martial art exhibitions and tournaments. Some competitions pit practitioners of different disciplines against each other using a common set of rules, these are referred to as mixed martial arts competitions. Rules for sparring vary between art and organization but can generally be divided into light-contact, medium-contact, and full-contact variants, reflecting the amount of force that should be used on an opponent.

Light- and medium-contact

These types of sparring restrict the amount of force that may be used to hit an opponent, in the case of light sparring this is usual to 'touch' contact, e.g. a punch should be 'pulled' as soon as or before contact is made. In medium-contact (sometimes referred to as semi-contact) the punch would not be 'pulled' but not hit with full force. As the amount of force used is restricted, the aim of these types of sparring is not to knock out an opponent; a point system is used in competitions.
A referee acts to monitor for fouls and to control the match, while judges mark down scores, as in boxing. Particular targets may be prohibited (such as the face or groin), certain techniques may be forbidden, and fighters may be required to wear protective equipment on their head, hands, chest, groin, shins or feet. In grappling arts aikido uses a similar method of compliant training that is equivalent to light or medium contact.
In some styles (such as fencing and some styles of Taekwondo sparring), competitors score points based on the landing of a single technique or strike as judged by the referee, whereupon the referee will briefly stop the match, award a point, then restart the match. Alternatively, sparring may continue with the point noted by the judges. Some critics of point sparring feel that this method of training teaches habits that result in lower combat effectiveness. Lighter-contact sparring may be used exclusively, for children or in other situations when heavy contact would be inappropriate (such as beginners), medium-contact sparring is often used as training for full-contact.

Full-contact

Full-contact sparring or fighting is considered by some to be requisite in learning realistic unarmed combat.[17] Full-contact sparring is different from light and medium-contact sparring in several ways, including the use of strikes that are not pulled but are thrown with full force, as the name implies. In full-contact sparring, the aim of a competitive match is either to knock the opponent out or to force the opponent to submit. Full-contact sparring may include a wider variety of permitted attacks and contact zones on the body.
Where scoring takes place it may be a subsidiary measure, only used if no clear winner has been established by other means; in some competitions, such as the UFC 1, there was no scoring, though most now use some form of judging as a backup.[18] Due to these factors, full-contact matches tend to be more aggressive in character, but rule sets may still mandate the use of protective gloves and forbid certain techniques or actions during a match, such striking the back of the head.
Nearly all mixed martial arts leagues such as UFC, Pancrase, Shooto use a form of full-contact rules, as do professional boxing organizations and K-1. Kyokushin karate requires advanced practitioners to engage in bare-knuckled, full-contact sparring while wearing only a karate gi and groin protector but does not allow punches to the face, only kicks and knees. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Judo matches do not allow striking, but are full-contact in the sense that full force is applied during grappling and submission techniques.

Sparring debates

Some practitioners believe that sports matches with rules are not a good measure of hand-to-hand combat ability and training for these restrictions may inhibit effectiveness in real life self defense situations. These practitioners may prefer not to participate in most types of rule-based martial art competition (even one such as vale tudo where there are minimal rules), electing instead to study fighting techniques with little or no regard to competitive rules or, even perhaps, ethical concerns and the law (the techniques practiced may aim to kill or cripple the opponent). Others maintain that, given proper precautions such as a referee and a ring doctor, sparring, in particular full-contact matches with basic rules, serves as a useful gauge of an individual's overall fighting ability, and that failing to test techniques against a resisting opponent is more likely to impede ability in self defense situations.

Martial sport

Several martial arts, such as Judo, are Olympic sports
Martial arts have crossover into sports when forms of sparring become competitive, becoming a sport in its own right that is dissociated from the original combative origin, such as with western fencing. The Summer Olympic Games includes judo, taekwondo, western archery, boxing, javelin, wrestling and fencing as events, while Chinese wushu recently failed in its bid to be included, but is still actively performed in tournaments across the world. Practitioners in some arts such as kickboxing and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu often train for sport matches, whereas those in other arts such as Aikido and Wing Chun generally spurn such competitions. Some schools believe that competition breeds better and more efficient practitioners, and gives a sense of good sportsmanship. Others believe that the rules under which competition takes place have diminished the combat effectiveness of martial arts or encourage a kind of practice which focuses on winning trophies rather than a focus such as cultivating a particular moral character.
The question of "which is the best martial art" has led to new forms of competition; the original Ultimate Fighting Championship in the U.S. was fought under very few rules allowing all martial arts styles to enter and not be limited by the rule set. This has now become a separate combat sport known as mixed martial arts (MMA). Similar competitions such as Pancrase, DREAM, and Shooto have also taken place in Japan.
Some martial artists compete in non-sparring competitions such as breaking or choreographed routines of techniques such as poomse, kata or aka, or modern variations of the martial arts which include dance-influenced competitions such as tricking. Martial traditions have been influenced by governments to become more sport-like for political purposes; the central impetus for the attempt by the People's Republic of China in transforming Chinese martial arts into the committee-regulated sport of Wushu was suppressing what they saw as the potentially subversive aspects of martial training, especially under the traditional system of family lineages.[19]

Dance

As mentioned above, some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner. Many such martial arts incorporate music, especially strong percussive rhythms.
Examples of such war dances include:
Capoeira is a martial art traditionally performed with a dance-like flavor and to live musical accompaniment, as seen depicted here.

Uses and benefits

Initially, the object of martial arts was self-defence and the preservation of life. Today, these needs continue to exist but do not constitute any longer the primary reason why an individual would busy themselves with them. Training in martial arts imparts many benefits to the trainee, both corporal and spiritual. Through systematic practice in the martial arts a person's physical fitness is boosted (strength, stamina, flexibility, movement coordination, etc.,) as the whole body is exercised and the whole muscular system is activated. In connection with the learning of correct breathing and an improved and wholesome diet, martial arts are an effective way of fighting many problems and diseases of contemporary society and sedentary life, and, generally, of a weakened immunity system.
Self-control, determination and concentration characterize the trainee, who always reacts productively and without stress when the circumstances demand it. Self-defence, then, and strong self-control. Through training, each individual gets to know themselves and their capabilitites better as well as their sense of respect and right.
According to Bruce Lee, martial arts also have the nature of an art, since there is emotional communication and complete emotional expression. Martial arts may also be described as a way for the individual to discover himself and his environment.

See also

For a time line of martial arts historical milestones, see Martial arts timeline
For a detailed list of martial arts weapons, see List of martial arts weapons

Styles

Over time, the number of martial arts has grown and multiplied, with hundreds of schools and organizations around the world currently working towards myriad goals and practising a huge variety of styles.

External links

References

  1. ^ Samples of forms from different arts
  2. ^ Internal Kung Fu
  3. ^ Spring, Christopher (1989). Swords and Hilt Weapons. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. pp. 204–217. ISBN ????. 
  4. ^ Brewer, Douglas J. (2007). Egypt and the Egyptians (2nd ed. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521851505.  p. 120
  5. ^ Shaw, Ian (1999). Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. Oxford: Shire Publications. ISBN 0747801428. , ch, 5
  6. ^ fighting art used in the UFC
  7. ^ http://www.sonshi.com/why.html
  8. ^ Reid, Howard and Croucher, Michael. The Way of the Warrior-The Paradox of the Martial Arts" New York. Overlook Press: 1983.
  9. ^ http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~alb/zen/bodhidharma.html
  10. ^ Order of the Shaolin Ch'an (2004, 2006). The Shaolin Grandmaster's Text: History, Philosophy, and Gung Fu of Shaolin Ch'an. Oregon.
  11. ^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Asia
  12. ^ a b c Zarrilli, Phillip B. (1998). When the Body Becomes All Eyes: Paradigms, Discourses and Practices of Power in Kalarippayattu, a South Indian Martial Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press, India. ISBN 0195639405
  13. ^ Luijendijk, D.H. (2005). Kalarippayat: India's Ancient Martial Art. Boulder: Paladin Press. ISBN 1581604807. http://www.martialartssupermarket.com/index.cfm?action=showProd&subid=1083. 
  14. ^ http://sports.indiapress.org/thang_ta.php
  15. ^ Vail, Jason (2006). Medieval and Renaissance Dagger Combat. Paladin Press. pp. 91–95. 
  16. ^ Sean Rayment (12/06/2004). "British battalion 'attacked every day for six weeks'". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Archived from the original on Jan 03, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080103232432/http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/06/13/wirq113.xml. Retrieved 11 December 2008. 
  17. ^ "Aliveness 101". Straight Blast gym. http://www.straightblastgym.com/aliveness101.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03.  - An essay on contact levels in training
  18. ^ Dave Meltzer, (November 12, 2007). "First UFC forever altered combat sports". Yahoo! Sports. http://sports.yahoo.com/mma/news;_ylt=AuvUi2TrSN_ILBVsuNLmsjk9Eo14?slug=dm-earlyufc111207&prov=yhoo&type=lgns. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  19. ^ Fu, Zhongwen (1996, 2006). Mastering Yang Style Taijiquan. Berkeley, California: Blue Snake Books. ISBN (trade paper). 

Simple English

File:Kendo EM 2005 -
A Kendo fight (European Championship 2005).

A martial art is any form of fighting that has a set way of practise. There are many martial arts that come from certain countries. They are practiced for many reasons: fighting, self-defense, sport, fitness, relaxing, meditation. A martial art is a style of combat, in many instances directed towards the self-defence. In the common usage, the word applies to the systems of combat developed in all the world.

A person who does martial arts is called a martial artist.

One common method is particularly in the Asian martial arts, it is the form or kata. Martial arts may be used for self defense ,combat and fitness.

The idea of "martial art" appeared first time in English language in the edition of 1920 of the Takenobu's Japanese-English Dictionary as a translation of the word bu-gei or bu-jutsu what means "art or solution of the military matters".

Introduction

In simple words, the martial arts are fighting systems. There are many schools and styles of martial arts, but all share the same goal: the self-defence. Some of them, like taiji quan also can be used in order to improve health and the form as flowing of the qi.

Some martial arts were not born in Asia. For example, savate had appeared in France and the movements of sport of the capoeira came from the Brazil.

Many martial arts include punches (boxing, karate), kicks (taekwondo, kickboxing, karate), holds and throws (judo, jujutsu, wrestling), weapons (iaijutsu, kendo, kenjutsu, naginatado, fencing, Filipino eskrima) or certain combination of earlier mentioned elements (several styles of jujutsu).

The martial arts are divided in two great sets: the so-called "hard martial arts" like karate and kickboxing which give special consideration to the attack for beat the opponent and the "soft martial arts" like the judo and the aikido which fight the opponent in the less aggressive method, using the force of the other for surrender him.

It is difficult to compare the effectiveness of the different existing arts. Recently, people developed competitions like the Ultimate Fighting Champions in the United States of America or Pancrase in Japan. That competitions also are known as "mixed martial arts" or MMA. Although that is yet to be seen the financial success or defeat of these ways.

The martial arts are defined in this method: through the history, to the soldier in the battlefield, the only thing that was important for them was beat the enemy that one have before himself. Whether a style is soft or hard or how many points are gained with a blow are details and subjects of discussion which appear in periods of peace, when there were hand to hand combats.

The martial arts are the arts of the war. If the main goal in a competition depends on noting points to somebody's advantage, then we are not before a martial art but before a sport.

The history of the martial arts is wide. The act of developing of the fighting systems dates from when the man had been able to cause to pass the knowledge, along with the strategies of war. Part of the most ancient written material on the subject dates from the 15th century in Europe and the authorship fall to famous masters, like Hans Talhoffer and George Silver. Also transcriptions of still more ancient texts had been brought to our days, one of them is a document written by hand. That document is called I.33 and dates from end of the 13th century.

The persons who train martial arts disagree with relation to the matter of the competitions. Some arts, like the boxing or the Thai boxing, give attending to the sparring -fights during training - and to taking part in competitions, yet the most common of aikido and krav maga reject the competitions. The reasons that cause these opinions are different. Many of the arts desiring to compete argue that the competitions give place to better and more efficient techniques. However, certain styles not desiring to compete claim that the rules with which people developed these competitions ruin the art and does not represent what can happen in a real situation.

In recent years, there have been tries to return to life some martial arts considered historical. Examples of this historical reconstruction of the martial arts are the pankration and the school of Shaolin that have not a continua tradition.

Asian martial arts

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Karate, which are similar to those in the above article.








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