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Mary I
Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots by François Clouet's School (1560)
Queen of Scots
Reign 14 December 1542 – 24 July 1567
Coronation 9 September 1543
Predecessor James V
Successor James VI
Regent James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran (1542–1554)
Mary of Guise (1554–1560)
Queen consort of France
Tenure 10 July 1559 – 5 December 1560
Spouse .Francis II of France
m.
^ Francis II King of France, Henry Lord Darnley and James Bothwell .
  • Mary, Queen of Scots - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 9 February 2010 15:44 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1558 she married the dauphin, the heir to the French throne, who became Francis II of France.

^ On 24 April, 1558, she married the dauphin Francis and, on the death of Henri II, 10 July, 1559, became Queen Consort of France.
  • Mary Queen of Scots - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 9 February 2010 15:44 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

1558; dec. 1560
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
m. 1565; dec. 1567
James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell
m. 1567; dec. 1578
Issue
James VI of Scotland & I of England
House House of Stuart
Father James V of Scotland
Mother Mary of Guise
Born 8 December 1542
Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgow
Died 8 February 1587 (aged 44)
Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire
Burial Peterborough Cathedral; Westminster Abbey
Signature
.Mary, Queen of Scots (born as Mary Stewart and, in French, as Marie Stuart; 8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), was Scottish Queen regnant from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567. In the lists of Scottish sovereigns, she is recognized as Mary I (Mary II being her great-great-granddaughter).^ Mary I of Scotland ( Mary Stuart or Stewart ) (December, 1542 - February 8, 1587), also known as Mary, Queen of Scots was the ruler of Scotland from December 14, 1542 - July 24, 1567.

^ Mary Queen of Scots was born (d.

^ Mary, Queen of Scots is often confused with her second cousin once removed Mary I of England who lived at approximately the same time (1516 - 1558).

.She was the only surviving legitimate child of King James V.^ King Leopold's first wife, Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales, was the only legitimate child of the Prince Regent (future King George IV).

^ Born in the royal Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, London, Elizabeth was the daughter and only surviving child of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn.

^ Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood (25 April 1897 - 28 March 1965) was the third child and only daughter of King George V and Queen Mary.

.She was six days old when her father died and was crowned nine months later.^ Right to Die case permitted Nancy Cruzan to have her feeding tube removed she died 12 days later.

^ Who: Winston Churchill , before slipping into a coma and dying nine days later.
  • Last words - Wikiquote 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The student's father (35) and sister (15) were arrested 2 days later as accessories.

.In 1558, she married Francis, Dauphin of France, who ascended the French throne as Francis II in 1559. Mary was not Queen of France for long; she was widowed on 5 December 1560. After her husband's death, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.^ The young widow returned to Scotland soon after arriving in Leith on August 19, 1561.

^ Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley was born (d.

^ In 1558 she married the dauphin, the heir to the French throne, who became Francis II of France.

.Their union was unhappy and in February 1567, there was a huge explosion at their house, and Darnley was found dead, apparently strangled, in the garden.^ In February 1567, an explosion occurred in the house, and Darnley was found dead in the garden; he appeared to have been strangled.

.She soon married James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, who was generally believed to be Darnley's murderer.^ Bothwell was generally believed to be guilty of the assassination, and was brought before a mock trial but acquitted.

^ Following the birth of the heir - the future James I of England and James VI of Scotland - in June 1566, Mary began a liaison with James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, an adventurer who would become her third husband.

^ Miss Chaworth married John Musters, generally called Jack Musters; but the marriage was not a happy one, and the parties soon separated.

.Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle on 15 June and forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son, James VI.^ On July 24, she was also forced to abdicate the Scottish throne in favour of her one-year-old son James.

^ Arrested by a confederacy of Scottish nobles, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle in June 1567.

^ One of Mishima's followers, a 25-year-old named Masakatsu Morita, tried three times to ritually behead Mishima but failed; his head was finally severed by Hiroyasu Koga.
  • Last words - Wikiquote 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, Mary fled to England seeking protection from her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I, whose kingdom she hoped to inherit.^ Elizabeth I (September 7, 1533 - March 24, 1603) was Queen of England (reigned November 17, 1558 - March 24, 1603) and the last Tudor ruler.

^ The most notable features of the Canadian constitutional monarchy are: Although Queen Elizabeth II is also monarch of the United Kingdom, this does not mean that the United Kingdom has any sovereignty over Canada (nor that Canada has any sovereignty over the United Kingdom).

^ At the time of her birth, she was recognised as the heir to the throne, in preference to her older half-sister, Mary Tudor, who was made to serve in Elizabeth's household.

.Elizabeth ordered her arrest because of the threat presented by Mary, who had previously claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own and was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in the Rising of the North.^ However, Mary, in her own letter to the Duke of Guise, reports other things that Maitland told her, including Elizabeth's supposed statement that, "I for my part know none better, nor that my self would prefer to her."

^ Mary, Queen of Scots is often confused with her second cousin once removed Mary I of England who lived at approximately the same time (1516 - 1558).

^ While many of the queen's English maids were ordered to leave France, Mary Boleyn was permitted to remain, possibly because of her youth.

.After 19 years in custody in a number of castles and manor houses in England, she was tried and executed for treason for her involvement in three plots to assassinate Elizabeth.^ When Elizabeth was less than three years old, her mother was executed for treason.

^ Suspended and arrested during the Insurrection of le 10 août , he was tried by the National Convention, found guilty of treason, and executed on le 21 janvier 1793 .

^ Elizabeth forgave him a succession of misdemeanours, but his attempt at armed rebellion in 1601 gave her no alternative but to have him executed for treason.

Contents

Heritage

.During the 15th-century reign of Robert III of Scotland, it had been confirmed that the Scottish Crown would only be inherited by males in the line of Robert's children—all sons—who were listed in that parliamentary Act.^ The Princess Royal suffered a fatal heart attack during a walk with her elder son, Lord Harewood, and his children on the grounds of the Harewood House estate.

^ Salic law disinherited the king's sisters and all others who could claim descent by the distaff line.

^ Eventually, by the 20th century, a convention had grown up that the monarch must always act as advised by a Prime Minister who would take political responsibility for what the government did.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Females and female lines could inherit only after extinction of male lines. .Mary ascended to the throne because, with the demise of her father, James V, Robert III had no remaining direct male descendants of unquestionably legitimate origins.^ Since Henry of Navarre was a descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice but to recognize him as the legitimate successor.

^ At the death of King Henry III of France, who had no son, the crown passed to Henry IV, in application of the Salic Law, as Henry was the descendant of the eldest surviving male line of the Capetian Dynasty .

.John Stewart, Duke of Albany, grandson of James II of Scotland and at one time regent for the young James V, was the last direct male heir of Robert III (other than the king himself) when he died in 1536. Mary was the first member of the royal House of Stuart to use the Gallicised spelling Stuart, rather than the earlier Stewart.^ King Alphonso II of Naples dies (b.

^ John II, Duke of Lorraine was born (b.

^ King Leopold II of Belgium , dies (b.

.Mary adopted the French spelling Stuart during her time in France, and her descendants continued to use it.^ It would prove itself useful during the French Revolution.

^ On the continent William used England's forces to continue his long series of wars against Louis XIV of France.

^ Louis XVI of France gives his public assent to Civil Constitution of the Clergy during the French Revolution.
  • On This Day in History 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC otday.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]

Childhood and early reign

Mary at the age of thirteen.
.Mary was born on December 8, 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgow, Scotland to King James V of Scotland and his French wife, Mary of Guise.^ King James I of Scotland was born (d.

^ Consort of Mary I of Scotland 1561 - Kikkawa Hiroie was born (d.

^ This was a burning issue a few years after the Catholic King James II (of England) and VII (of Scotland) had been deposed.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

She was the only child of James to survive, and she was said to have been born prematurely.[2] A popular legend, written by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, "It came with a lass, it will pass with a lass!"[3]
The House of Stewart, which originated in Brittany, had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland. James thus felt that since the crown came with a woman, a woman would be responsible for the loss of the crown from their family. .This legendary statement came true much later, but not through Mary, whose son in fact became King of England.^ Mary II of England died of smallpox in London at age 32, after five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III. 1703 - Mustafa II dies (b.

^ His Catholic elder daughter Mary I of England (not to be confused with her equally Catholic cousin Mary I of Scotland) married Phillip II and he had been given a courtesy title of King of England.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary I of Scotland was married to the Dauphin Francois (later Francois II of France), son of Henri II of France, on le 24 avril 1558 .

.Eventually Sophia of Hanover, daughter of Elizabeth Stuart, became the heir to Anne of Great Britain and with her son George Louis of Hanover becoming King of Great Britain, replacing the House of Stuart in England.^ In fact, strictly speaking, only England, Scotland and Wales form "Great Britain".
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament/Congress Like the USA and Great Britain, we´ve got two houses too.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Americans may be aware King George and Lord North pursued a colonial policy that turned out to be not altogether to Britain's advantage.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Mary was baptised at the Church of St. Michael, situated close to the palace, shortly after she was born. .Rumours were spread suggesting Mary was weak and frail; on 14 December, six days after her birth, her father died following a nervous collapse from suffering a defeat at the Battle of Solway Moss, meaning she was now queen.^ Boers defeat Zulu troops at Battle of Blood River , led by Dambuza and Nhlela , celebrated in South Africa as the day of the vow.

^ [Note of the webmaster: I watched this film on my wedding's day] 1899 - Battle at Colenso, South Africa, the Boers defeat the British.

^ Six days later would become queen of Scotland.

[2] .As Mary was still an infant when she became queen, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult.^ Henry's widow, Marie de Médicis, served as Regent to their 9-year-old son, Louis XIII, until 1617.

^ Princess Mary Stuart becomes Queen Mary I of Scotland .

From the outset, there were two different claims to the throne: her heir James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran claimed based on his hereditary right, but another claim from the Archbishop of St Andrews, Cardinal Beaton also came about. .However, the latter was based on an allegedly forged version of the late king's will,[4] so Arran became the regent,[5] and continued to be until 1554 when Mary's mother succeeded him.^ His best friends were taken from him by death or by misunderstanding; in 1872 he lost his mother, and his circumstances became greatly reduced.

^ Henry's widow, Marie de Médicis, served as Regent to their 9-year-old son, Louis XIII, until 1617.

^ On le 18 août 1572 Henry married Marguerite de Valois, sister of the then King Charles IX. In the same year he became King Henry III of Navarre, succeeding his mother Jeanne d'Albret, who had brought him up as a Huguenot.

[6]

The Treaty of Greenwich

.Henry VIII took the opportunity of this regency to propose England and Scotland be united through the marriage of Mary and his own son, Prince Edward.^ Mary I of Scotland was married to the Dauphin Francois (later Francois II of France), son of Henri II of France, on le 24 avril 1558 .

^ Henry's widow, Marie de Médicis, served as Regent to their 9-year-old son, Louis XIII, until 1617.

^ Henri's marriage was annulled in 1599, and he then married Marie de Médicis in 1600.

.On 1 July 1543, when Mary was six months old, the Treaty of Greenwich was signed, which among other points, promised Mary to be married to Edward.^ Abdication Crisis : Edward VIII signs his Instrument of Abdication.He abdicated the British throne to pursue a relationship with a married American woman, the only British monarch to voluntarily surrender the crown.

^ In 1875, Saint-Saëns married Marie-Laure Truffot and they had two children, André and Jean-François, who died within six weeks of each other in 1878.

It was Henry's wish that Mary should also move to England where he could oversee her upbringing.[7] .However, feelings among the Scottish people towards the English changed somewhat when Cardinal Beaton rose to power again, and began to push a pro-Catholic and French agenda, which angered Henry who wanted to break the alliance with France and the papacy.^ However, some scientists who wanted to continue research on the virus stopped the destruction plan.

^ That's why many people in the US don't give a rat's rectum about who's President...they want to know the latest entertainment news instead!
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As people, we tend to identify ourselves as "English" or "Scottish" rather than "British.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

When French ships were spotted on the Scottish coast in July, it was felt they were a threat to Mary, and she moved with her mother to Stirling Castle which was considered safer.[8] .On 9 September 1543 Mary was crowned Queen of Scots in the chapel at this castle.^ Mary Queen of Scots was born (d.

[9]
.Shortly before Mary's coronation, the occupants of some Scottish ships headed for France were arrested by Henry, who claimed they were not allowed to trade with France even though that was never part of the agreement.^ Who: William Henry "Zip the Pinhead" Johnson , spoken to his sister, Sarah van Duyne Also known as "What-Is-It?", he was a circus sideshow performer, known for his oddly tapered head.
  • Last words - Wikiquote 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Who: Carl Panzram , serial killer, shortly before he was executed by hanging.
  • Last words - Wikiquote 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They do so even though such a policy entails the risk of war and doom.
  • Last words - Wikiquote 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

These arrests caused anger among people in Scotland. Arran decided to join Beaton following this,[8] and he became a Catholic. The Treaty was eventually rejected by Parliament in December.[9]
.This new alliance and the rejection of the treaty caused Henry to begin his rough wooing, designed to impose the marriage to his son on Mary.^ Mary I of Scotland was married to the Dauphin Francois (later Francois II of France), son of Henri II of France, on le 24 avril 1558 .

^ Henry's widow, Marie de Médicis, served as Regent to their 9-year-old son, Louis XIII, until 1617.

^ Henri's marriage was annulled in 1599, and he then married Marie de Médicis in 1600.

This consisted of a series of raids on Scottish and French territory and other military actions. It lasted until June 1551, costing over half a million pounds and many lives. In May 1544, the English Earl of Hertford (later created Duke of Somerset by Edward VI) arrived in the Firth of Forth hoping to capture the city of Edinburgh and kidnap Mary, but Mary of Guise hid her in the secret chambers of Stirling Castle.
On 10 September 1547, known as "Black Saturday", the Scots suffered a bitter defeat at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. Mary of Guise, fearful for her daughter, sent her temporarily to Inchmahome Priory, and turned to the French ambassador Monsieur D'Oysel for help.
The French, remaining true to the Auld Alliance, came to the aid of the Scots. .The new French King, Henry II, was now proposing to unite France and Scotland by marrying the little Queen to his three-year old son, the Dauphin François.^ He predicted correctly French king Henri II's manner of death.

^ Mary I of Scotland was married to the Dauphin Francois (later Francois II of France), son of Henri II of France, on le 24 avril 1558 .

^ Paré was a French surgeon, the official royal surgeon for kings Henri II , Francis II, Charles IX and Henri III, and a leader in surgical techniques, especially the treatment of wounds.

This seemed to Mary of Guise to be the only sensible solution to her troubles. In February 1548, hearing that the English were on their way back, Mary of Guise moved Mary to Dumbarton Castle. The English left a trail of devastation behind once more and seized the strategically located town of Haddington. By June, the much awaited French help had arrived. On 7 July with it the French Marriage Treaty was signed at a nunnery near Haddington.

Life in France

Mary (age 17) and Francis (age 15) shortly after Francis became king in 1559.
.With her marriage agreement in place, five-year-old Mary was sent to France in 1548 to spend the next thirteen years at the French court, mainly at Amboise, near Tours.^ When the new choir was consecrated in 1144, five French archbishops and thirteen bishops took part in the ceremony, an impressive tribute to Suger and his king.

^ Mary II of England died of smallpox in London at age 32, after five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III. 1703 - Mustafa II dies (b.

^ His successful conduct of French interests at the court of Trier in 1750 and the following years led to his being sent to Constantinople in 1755, where he was promoted to ambassadeur .

Henry II had offered to guard and raise her. .On 7 August 1548, the French fleet sent by Henry II sailed back to France from Dumbarton carrying the five-year-old Queen of Scots on board.^ Paré was a French surgeon, the official royal surgeon for kings Henri II , Francis II, Charles IX and Henri III, and a leader in surgical techniques, especially the treatment of wounds.

^ Queen of Henry II of Navarre 1579 - Vicente Masip dies.

^ Mary II of England died of smallpox in London at age 32, after five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III. 1703 - Mustafa II dies (b.

.She was accompanied by her own little court consisting of two lords, two half-brothers, and the "four Marys", four girls her own age, all named Mary, and the daughters of some of the noblest families in Scotland: Beaton, Seton, Fleming, and Livingston.^ The younger sons and daughters of the higher peers are styled Lord (first name) (surname).
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For all other bills if the House of Commons and House of Lords disagree and the Commons pass the same bill in two seperate sessions then it can become law without the Lord's passing it.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Very recently (under Blair's tenure) most (but not all, embarrassingly) the hereditary peers (another name for Lords/Baronesses) were booted out.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Vivacious, beautiful, and clever (according to contemporaneous accounts), Mary had a promising childhood. While in the French court, she was a favourite. .She received the best available education, and at the end of her studies, she had mastered French, Latin, Greek, Spanish, and Italian in addition to her native Scots.^ Greek, though his native tongue was Latin [De Vita Caesarum Liber I Divus Iulius, LXXXII]).
  • Last words - Wikiquote 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was educated in his native city and did not leave it until 1840, when he went to Paris to study law.

^ He is reputed to have said this after wrapping himself in his domino , a Spanish hooded cloak, a word which, in Latin, means lord or master.
  • Last words - Wikiquote 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.She also learned how to play two instruments and learned prose, poetry, horsemanship, falconry, and needlework.^ The kicker is, the villagers have no idea how to play cricket, and only about a weekend to learn.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.She formed a close friendship with her future sister-in-law, Elisabeth of Valois, of whom Mary retained the most nostalgic memories in later life.^ He stayed close to Franz Liszt until Liszt's death and maintained a fast friendship with his pupil Gabriel Fauré until the end of his life.

^ After Mary Lincoln's death, an article "The Later Life and Religious Sentiments of Abraham Lincoln" was published, in Scribner's Monthly , Vol.
  • Last words - Wikiquote 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

[10] Her grandmother Antoinette de Bourbon exerted one of the strongest influences on her childhood,[11] and acted as one of her principal advisors.
Coin of Francis II and Mary Stuart, 1558.
Portraits of Mary show that she had a small, well-shaped head, a long, graceful neck, bright auburn hair, hazel-brown eyes, under heavy lowered eyelids and finely arched brows, smooth lustrous skin, a high forehead, and regular, firm features. .While not a beauty in the classical sense, she was an extremely pretty child who would become a strikingly attractive woman.^ I would become glued to the telly watching Question Time with John Major, who was a little dim.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

In fact, her effect on the men with whom she later came into contact was certainly that of a beautiful woman.[12]
.Despite the fact that Mary was tall for her age (she attained an adult height of 5 feet 11 inches, which would have made her almost a giant in the sixteenth century)[13] and fluent in speech, while Henry II's son and heir Francis was abnormally short and stuttered, Henry commented that "from the very first day they met, my son and she got on as well together as if they had known each other for a long time"[14] On 24 April 1558 Mary married the Dauphin Francis at Notre Dame de Paris, Francis assuming the title King consort of Scots.^ The first in the series was Chartres , followed by Nôtre-Dame-de-Paris .

^ Mary I of Scotland was married to the Dauphin Francois (later Francois II of France), son of Henri II of France, on le 24 avril 1558 .

^ On this day, le 13 décembre : King Henri IV was born.

.When Henry II died on 10 July 1559, Mary, Queen of Scots, became Queen consort of France; her husband becoming Francis II of France.^ Queen of Henry II of Navarre 1579 - Vicente Masip dies.

^ Julie Clary, queen consort of Naples (d.
  • On This Day in History 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC otday.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mary Queen of Scots was born (d.

Claim to the English throne

Mary in mourning for Francis
Mary's Arms as Queen of Scots and Queen consort of France
.After the death of Mary I of England, Henry II of France caused his eldest son and his daughter-in-law to be proclaimed king and queen of England.^ He predicted correctly French king Henri II's manner of death.

^ Henry VI of England was crowned King of France in 1431.

^ On the death of the king in 1589, Henry of Navarre became nominally the king of France.

[15] .From this time on, Mary always insisted on bearing the royal arms of England, and her claim to the English throne was a perennial sticking point between Elizabeth I and her, as would become obvious in Mary's continuous refusal to ratify the Treaty of Edinburgh.^ If all the swords in England were pointed against my head, your threats would not move me.
  • Last words - Wikiquote 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agree to the Treaty of Paris , in which Henry renounces his claims to French -controlled territory on continental Europe (including Normandy ) in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.

.Under the ordinary laws of succession, Mary was next in line to the English throne after her father's cousin, Elizabeth I, who was childless.^ Elizabeth, as Mary's Protestant half-sister, had been in very severe personal danger before Mary's death brought Elizabeth to the throne.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of her birth, she was recognised as the heir to the throne, in preference to her older half-sister, Mary Tudor, who was made to serve in Elizabeth's household.

^ Law Lords, appointed for life under a Victorian statute designed to provide the highest Court in the land with some Judges who knew something about law.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Yet, in the eyes of many Catholics, Elizabeth was illegitimate, thus making Mary the true heir as Mary II of England.^ Mary II of England died of smallpox in London at age 32, after five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III. 1703 - Mustafa II dies (b.

^ This was a burning issue a few years after the Catholic King James II (of England) and VII (of Scotland) had been deposed.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His Catholic elder daughter Mary I of England (not to be confused with her equally Catholic cousin Mary I of Scotland) married Phillip II and he had been given a courtesy title of King of England.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.However the Third Succession Act of 1543 provided that Elizabeth would succeed Mary I of England on the throne.^ Elizabeth, as Mary's Protestant half-sister, had been in very severe personal danger before Mary's death brought Elizabeth to the throne.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.The anti-Catholic Act of Settlement was not passed until 1701, but the last will and testament of Henry VIII, (given legal force by the Third Succession Act), had excluded the Stuarts from succeeding to the English throne.^ I imagine when we next get around to tidying up the law on Royal succession the anti Catholic provisions will be repealed.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The two had separated, even before Henry had succeeded to the throne in août 1589 and Marguerite de Valois lived for many years in the château of Usson in Auvergne.

^ When the Act of Settlement was passed it was to ensure a Protestant monarch and firmly prohibit a Catholic one.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mary's troubles were still further increased by the Huguenot rising in France, called le tumulte d'Amboise (6 March-17 March 1560), making it impossible for the French to help Mary's supporters in Scotland.^ Mary I of Scotland was married to the Dauphin Francois (later Francois II of France), son of Henri II of France, on le 24 avril 1558 .

^ Mistress of French King Louis XV. 1721 - Occupation de l' Île Maurice par les Français , qu'ils baptisent Ile de France .

^ On this day, le 17 décembre 1777 France recognizes the United States .

The question of the succession was therefore a real one.
Francis died on 5 December 1560, of an ear infection which led to an abscess in his brain. .Mary's mother-in-law, Catherine de' Medici, became regent for the late king's brother Charles IX, who inherited the French throne.^ Catherine de Medici .
  • ROTTEN DEAD POOL 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC deadpool.rotten.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marie de Medici .
  • ROTTEN DEAD POOL 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC deadpool.rotten.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who: Charles de Gaulle , French leader.
  • Last words - Wikiquote 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under the terms of the Treaty of Edinburgh, signed by Mary's representatives on 6 July 1560 following the death of her mother, France undertook to withdraw troops from Scotland and recognise Elizabeth's right to rule England.^ Austria and France sign the Treaty of Pressburg.
  • On This Day in History 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC otday.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Anglo-Irish Treaty is signed in London by British and Irish representatives 1922 - One year to the day after the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty the Irish Free State comes into existence.

^ Following Henry's death in 1547, Elizabeth was cared for by Henry's last queen, Catherine Parr, and her new husband, Thomas Seymour (brother of Jane Seymour and uncle to the new king, Edward VI of England).

.The 17-year-old Mary, still in France, refused to ratify the treaty.^ Henry's widow, Marie de Médicis, served as Regent to their 9-year-old son, Louis XIII, until 1617.

^ In 1802 Marie Tussaud went to London together with her first son, Joseph, then 4 years old, her second son staying behind.

Religious divide

Return to Scotland

Mary landing in Leith, 19 August 1561
.Mary returned to Scotland soon after her husband's death, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Despite her talents, Mary's upbringing had not given her the judgment to cope with the dangerous and complex political situation in Scotland at the time.^ Despite not having been his first choice, and having been treated with a general lack of sympathy by his mother, Charlotte's relationship with her husband soon blossomed, and he is not known ever to have been unfaithful to her.

^ Consort of Mary I of Scotland 1561 - Kikkawa Hiroie was born (d.

As a devout Catholic, she was regarded with suspicion by many of her subjects, as well as by Elizabeth, her father's cousin. .Scotland was torn between Catholic and Protestant factions, and Mary's illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, was a leader of the Protestant faction.^ Elizabeth, as Mary's Protestant half-sister, had been in very severe personal danger before Mary's death brought Elizabeth to the throne.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was a burning issue a few years after the Catholic King James II (of England) and VII (of Scotland) had been deposed.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His brother James II nearly wrecked that, but by then, parliament had regained confidence, and organised the bloodless Glorious Revolution, by inviting William and Mary over from Holland to depose James.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Protestant reformer John Knox also preached against Mary, condemning her for hearing Mass, dancing, dressing too elaborately, and many other real and imagined offences.^ Scottish reformer 1586 - Elisabeth I England confirms the death sentence against Marie Stuart 1595 - Jean Chapelain was born (d.

^ (The Huguenots were French Protestants connected with the Swiss church reformer John Calvin, a contemporary of Martin Luther.

.To the disappointment of the Catholic party, however, Mary tolerated the newly established Protestant ascendancy, and kept her brother James Stewart as her chief advisor.^ The new king, however, had to fight for some years to be recognized as the legitimate king of France by the Catholics, most of whom were opposed to his Protestant upbringing.

In this, she was acknowledging her lack of effective military power in the face of the Protestant Lords. .She joined with James in the destruction of Scotland's leading Catholic magnate, Lord Huntly, in 1562 after he led a rebellion in the Highlands against her.^ This was a burning issue a few years after the Catholic King James II (of England) and VII (of Scotland) had been deposed.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]
Mary was also having second thoughts about the wisdom of having crossed Elizabeth, and attempted to make up the breach by inviting Elizabeth to visit Scotland (however, still she would not ratify the Treaty of Edinburgh). Elizabeth refused, and the bad blood remained between them. .Mary then sent William Maitland of Lethington as an ambassador to the English court to put the case for Mary as a potential heir to the throne.^ At the time of her birth, she was recognised as the heir to the throne, in preference to her older half-sister, Mary Tudor, who was made to serve in Elizabeth's household.

^ These seven princes as well as Margriet, are all (potentially) legal heirs to the throne, although the first right goes to the Crown Prince, and after him to his brothers.

^ In 1570, Elizabeth was persuaded by the French to help put Mary back on the Scottish throne.

.Elizabeth's response is said to have included the words "As for the title of my crown, for my time I think she will not attain it."^ Let me read it through a couple of times and think about it, before I shoot off my next round of questions.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

However, Mary, in her own letter to her maternal uncle Francis, Duke of Guise, reports other things that Maitland told her, including Elizabeth's supposed statement that, "I for my part know none better, nor that my self would prefer to her." Elizabeth was mindful of the role Parliament would have to play in the matter.
.In December 1561 arrangements were made for the two queens to meet, this time in England.^ Mary I of England is sometimes confused with her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, who lived at the same time.

.The meeting had been fixed for York "or another town" in August or September 1562, but Elizabeth sent Sir Henry Sidney to cancel in July because of the Civil War in France.^ The opportunity presented itself in mai 1958 when the insurrection that had broken out in Algiers threatened to bring civil war to France.

^ In 1598 Henri promulgated the Edict of Nantes which guaranteed religious liberties to the Protestants and thereby effectively ended the civil war.

^ The civil war was eventually ended by an agreement that Stephen could remain King in his lifetime, but that Matilda's son Henry would be the next King.
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.In 1563, Elizabeth made another attempt to neutralize Mary by suggesting her marrying Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester (Sidney's brother-in-law and the English queen's own favorite), whom Elizabeth trusted and thought she could control.^ Queen Elizabeth I was Phillip II's sister-in-law.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1139 her half brother, Earl Robert of Gloucester, and Miles Gloucester rebelled from King Stephen in her favour.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ French writer 1661 - Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer was born (d.

.Dudley, being as well an Englishman as a Protestant, would have solved a double problem for Elizabeth.^ Mary, too, had turned down Dudley as a potential husband before marrying Lord Darnley, but by now Mary had a son who was being brought up as a Protestant.

.She sent an ambassador to tell Mary that, if she would marry "some person - yea perchance such as she would hardly think we could agree unto"[17] of Elizabeth's choosing, Elizabeth would "proceed to the inquisition of her right and title to be our next cousin and heir". This proposal came to nothing, not least because the intended bridegroom was unwilling.^ That probably would give any average person some valuable experience.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth, as Mary's Protestant half-sister, had been in very severe personal danger before Mary's death brought Elizabeth to the throne.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of her birth, she was recognised as the heir to the throne, in preference to her older half-sister, Mary Tudor, who was made to serve in Elizabeth's household.

[18]

Marriage to Darnley

Mary with her second husband, Darnley
.At Holyrood Palace on 29 July 1565, Mary married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, her half first cousin.^ Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley was born (d.

^ Mary I of Scotland was married to the Dauphin Francois (later Francois II of France), son of Henri II of France, on le 24 avril 1558 .

^ He first married Élisabeth Depardieu, with whom he has two children: Guillaume and Julie.

.Henry was a member of the House of Stewart (or Stuart) like Mary was, but he was not an agnatic descendant of Stewart Kings, but rather of their immediate ancestors, the High Stewarts of Scotland.^ Since Henry of Navarre was a descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice but to recognize him as the legitimate successor.

^ There have been boundary changes in Scotland so the next House will have 646 members (England 529, Scotland 59, Wales 40 and Northern Ireland 18).
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Princess Mary Stuart becomes Queen Mary I of Scotland .

.Mary had fallen head over heels in love with the "long lad" (Queen Elizabeth's words) after he had come to Scotland from England earlier in the year (with the permission of the English Privy Council).^ Elizabeth I (September 7, 1533 - March 24, 1603) was Queen of England (reigned November 17, 1558 - March 24, 1603) and the last Tudor ruler.

^ We'll pack the royals off to a different Commonwealth country every ten years, so that everyone--Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and England/Scotland/Wales--can know the joy of harbouring Elizabeth Windsor's dysfunctional brood.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Mary was driven out of Scotland, she was received by Elizabeth but was kept a prisoner at Fotheringhay.

.On the other hand, Elizabeth felt threatened by the prospect of such a marriage, because both Mary and Darnley were claimants to the English throne, being direct descendants of Margaret Tudor, the elder sister of Henry VIII. Their children would inherit both parents' claims, and thus, be next in line for the English throne.^ Claimant to the English throne 1525 - Jacob Fugger dies at 66.

^ Anne de Mortimer, claimant to the English throne (d.
  • On This Day in History 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC otday.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Salic law disinherited the king's sisters and all others who could claim descent by the distaff line.

.Yet, the English ambassador Nicholas Throckmorton could only state: "the saying is that surely she [Queen Mary] is bewitched",[19] and that the marriage could only be averted "by violence".[20] The union infuriated Elizabeth, who felt she should have been asked permission, as Darnley was an English subject.^ Queen Mary I of England (February 18, 1516- November 17, 1558 - reigned July 19, 1553 - November 17, 1558) was born in the royal Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, London, the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, the only one from that union to survive infancy.

^ At the time of her birth, she was recognised as the heir to the throne, in preference to her older half-sister, Mary Tudor, who was made to serve in Elizabeth's household.

^ Elizabeth's life was spared, but Mary's marriage to Philip II of Spain made it seem possible that an heir would be born and that England would return to the Catholic faith.

.This marriage, to a leading Catholic, precipitated Mary's half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, to join with other Protestant Lords in open rebellion.^ Elizabeth, as Mary's Protestant half-sister, had been in very severe personal danger before Mary's death brought Elizabeth to the throne.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth's life was spared, but Mary's marriage to Philip II of Spain made it seem possible that an heir would be born and that England would return to the Catholic faith.

^ His brother James II nearly wrecked that, but by then, parliament had regained confidence, and organised the bloodless Glorious Revolution, by inviting William and Mary over from Holland to depose James.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mary set out for Stirling on 26 August 1565 to confront them, and returned to Edinburgh the following month to raise more troops.^ Now the House of Lords do not have the power to delay money bills for more than one month, but the Parliamentary ritual of budget day is still followed.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Moray and the rebellious lords were routed and fled into exile, the decisive military action becoming known as the Chaseabout Raid.
.Before long, Darnley became arrogant and demanded power commensurate with his courtesy title of "King". Darnley was jealous of Mary's friendship with her private secretary, David Rizzio, and, in March 1566 Darnley entered into a secret conspiracy with the nobles who had rebelled against Mary in the Chaseabout Raid.^ He used his influence over the king in the court intrigues against the queen-mother Marie de Médici and her favourite, Concini.

^ As the power of the House of Commons grew, the position of the Prime Minister who had the support of the Commons became more indispensible to the King.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His Catholic elder daughter Mary I of England (not to be confused with her equally Catholic cousin Mary I of Scotland) married Phillip II and he had been given a courtesy title of King of England.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

On 9 March a group of the lords, accompanied by Darnley, murdered Rizzio in front of the pregnant Mary while the two were in conference at Holyrood Palace. Darnley changed sides again and betrayed the lords, but the murder had made the breakdown of their marriage inevitable.
.Their son, James, was born on 19 June 1566. It became increasingly clear, that some solution had to be found to "the problem of Darnley".[21] At Craigmillar there was held a meeting (November 1566) among leading Scottish nobles and Queen Mary.^ Mary Queen of Scots was born (d.

^ Queen Mary I of England (February 18, 1516- November 17, 1558 - reigned July 19, 1553 - November 17, 1558) was born in the royal Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, London, the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, the only one from that union to survive infancy.

^ By July 19 Jane Grey had been deposed and Mary was the undisputed Queen.

.Divorce was discussed, but then a bond was sworn to get rid of Darnley by other means:[22] "It was thought expedient and most profitable for the common wealth,..., that such a young fool and proud tyrant should not reign or bear rule over them;...that he should be put off by one way or another; and whosoever should take the deed in hand or do it, they should defend" (Book of Articles).^ I don't believe that people should take their own lives without deep and thoughtful reflection over a considerable period of time.
  • Last words - Wikiquote 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Maybe they only had one rocket Who: Lawrence Beeter, WWII British soldier who was taking cover in a bunker after they were hit by a rocket.
  • Last words - Wikiquote 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Monty Python completely took my head off and reattached it another way back when they first reached American TV in the late 70s.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[23] Darnley was fearing for his safety and went to Glasgow to see his father. There he became ill (possibly of smallpox or syphilis).[24]
.In the new year, Mary prompted her husband to come back to Edinburgh.^ Mary II of England died of smallpox in London at age 32, after five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III. 1703 - Mustafa II dies (b.

He was recuperating in a house at the former abbey of Kirk o' Field within the city wall of Edinburgh, where Mary visited him frequently, so that it appeared a reconciliation was in prospect. .One night in February 1567, after Mary had left to go to the wedding of one of her maids of honour, an explosion occurred in the house, and Darnley was found dead in the garden, apparently of strangulation; historian Alison Weir, however, concludes he died of post-explosion suffocation.^ When Mary died childless in 1558, however, Elizabeth was the natural successor.

^ When Curtius died 1794 he left his collection of waxworks to Marie.

It turned out that James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell had supplied the gunpowder for the explosion, and he was generally believed to be guilty of Darnley's assassination. Mary arranged for a mock trial before parliament, and Bothwell was duly acquitted on 12 April.[25] Furthermore, some land titles were restored officially to Bothwell as a result of Darnley's death.[26] .He also managed to get some of the Lords to sign the Ainslie Tavern Bond, in which they agreed to support his claims to marry the queen.^ He lost some support because she argued effectively that his stewardship of the National Health Service was no as good as he was claiming.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only their home state knows (or cares) what laws they signed in, they have some executive experience, and they have the ambition and ego.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.All these proceedings did little to dissipate suspicions against Mary among the populace.^ These figures representing people and things from all walks of life are called les santons , "little saints."

Abdication and imprisonment in Scotland

Mary with her son, James VI
.On 24 April 1567, Mary visited her son at Stirling for the last time.^ Mary I of Scotland was married to the Dauphin Francois (later Francois II of France), son of Henri II of France, on le 24 avril 1558 .

On her way back to Edinburgh, Mary was abducted, willingly or not, by Bothwell and his men and taken to Dunbar Castle, where she was allegedly raped by Bothwell. .However, already in October 1566, she had been very interested in Bothwell when she made a four-hour journey on horseback to visit him at Hermitage Castle where he lay ill.^ By 1566 Nostradamus's gout, which had painfully plagued him for many years and made movement very difficult, finally turned into dropsy.

[27] .On 6 May Mary and Bothwell returned to Edinburgh and on 15 May, at the Palace of Holyroodhouse, they were married according to Protestant rites.^ (The royal palace in Edinburgh, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, once home to Scottish kings and queens like Mary, Queen of Scots, is now regularly used again, with at least one member of the Royal Family, often the Prince of Wales or Princess Royal frequently in residence).

^ On May 16, 1770, he married Marie Antoinette , daughter of Francis I of Austria and Empress Maria Theresa.

^ After their return from Ottawa, Canada in 1945 (where Margriet was born), they lived in the Soestdijk Palace (Paleis Soestdijk) in Soestdijk, about 20 km.

Bothwell had divorced his first wife, Jean Gordon twelve days previously.[28]
.The Scottish nobility turned against Mary and Bothwell and raised an army against them.^ Scottish reformer 1586 - Elisabeth I England confirms the death sentence against Marie Stuart 1595 - Jean Chapelain was born (d.

.Mary and Bothwell confronted the Lords at Carberry Hill on 15 June, but there was no battle as Mary agreed to follow the Lords on condition that they let Bothwell go.^ Anyway, once a law is agreed and voted upon by the Bundestag and Bundesrat, he has no choice but to follow that law.
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^ They are a less reliable form of checks and balances on the whole than the Queen and the Lords, IMHO, but they are there.
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^ There was no king between Charles I's execution in 1649 and the restoration in 1660, but there were two Lords Protector during the Protectorate.

[29] However, the Lords broke their promise, and took Mary to Edinburgh and imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle, situated on an island in the middle of Loch Leven. Between 18 July and 24 July 1567, Mary miscarried twins. .On 24 July 1567, she was also forced to abdicate the Scottish throne in favour of her one-year-old son James.^ Henry's widow, Marie de Médicis, served as Regent to their 9-year-old son, Louis XIII, until 1617.

^ In 1802 Marie Tussaud went to London together with her first son, Joseph, then 4 years old, her second son staying behind.

^ His brother and successor, James II, was much less careful, and got hisself overthrown and a Dutch army invading to put his Dutch son-in-law on the throne (this was in 1688).
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.On 2 May 1568, Mary escaped from Loch Leven and once again managed to raise a small army.^ When, in 1568, Lady Catherine Grey died, there was no other obvious successor of English birth, and Elizabeth was once again forced to consider Mary Stuart.

.After her army's defeat at the Battle of Langside on 13 May, she fled by boat across the Solway Firth to England.^ An outnumbered Korean and Ming navy ambush and defeat a Japanese army at the Battle of Noryang Point .

Escape and imprisonment in England

Mary landed at Workington in England on 19 May and stayed at Workington Hall. She was swiftly imprisoned by Elizabeth's officers at Carlisle Castle. During her imprisonment, she famously had the phrase En ma Fin gît mon Commencement ("In my end is my beginning") embroidered on her cloth of estate.
.Mary was moved to Bolton Castle on 16 July 1568 and remained there under the care of Henry the 9th Lord Scrope, until 26 January 1569, when she was moved to Tutbury Castle.^ He was returned to Paris, where he remained nominally as constitutional king, though under effective house-arrest until 1792.

.After her flight into England, Mary Stuart expected Elizabeth I to help her regain her throne.^ While Elizabeth believed she might be able to influence Mary Stuart into changing her faith and marrying someone suitable, she held out the prospect of the succession to her, and continued to prevaricate on the matter while Mary was a prisoner in England.

^ Elizabeth, as Mary's Protestant half-sister, had been in very severe personal danger before Mary's death brought Elizabeth to the throne.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of her birth, she was recognised as the heir to the throne, in preference to her older half-sister, Mary Tudor, who was made to serve in Elizabeth's household.

Elizabeth was cautious, and ordered an inquiry into the question of whether Mary should be tried for the murder of Darnley first. .A conference was held in York and later Westminster between October 1568 and January 1569. The accusers were the Scottish Lords who had deposed Mary.^ Mary, too, had turned down Dudley as a potential husband before marrying Lord Darnley, but by now Mary had a son who was being brought up as a Protestant.

.For overriding political reasons, Elizabeth neither wished to convict Mary of murder nor acquit her of the same; the conference was intended as a political exercise.^ Just over a year later, a male heir, Edward, was born to Henry VIII, and Elizabeth found herself in much the same position as Mary.

.Mary refused to acknowledge the power of any court to try her since she was an anointed Queen, and the man ultimately in charge of the prosecution, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, was ruling Scotland as regent for Mary's son King James.^ Mary II of England died of smallpox in London at age 32, after five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III. 1703 - Mustafa II dies (b.

^ His Catholic elder daughter Mary I of England (not to be confused with her equally Catholic cousin Mary I of Scotland) married Phillip II and he had been given a courtesy title of King of England.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ James king of Scotland (1513-42), dies at 30.

.His chief motive was to prevent a restoration of Mary to the Scottish throne.^ In 1570, Elizabeth was persuaded by the French to help put Mary back on the Scottish throne.

.Mary refused to offer a written defence unless Elizabeth would guarantee a verdict of not guilty, which Elizabeth would not do.^ Elizabeth's life was spared, but Mary's marriage to Philip II of Spain made it seem possible that an heir would be born and that England would return to the Catholic faith.

Mary in captivity, c. 1580
.As evidence, Mary's Scottish accusers presented the "Casket letters"— eight letters purportedly from Mary to Bothwell, reported by James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton to have been found in Edinburgh in a silver box engraved with an F (supposedly for Francis II), along with a number of other documents, including the Mary/Bothwell marriage certificate.^ Elizabeth's life was spared, but Mary's marriage to Philip II of Spain made it seem possible that an heir would be born and that England would return to the Catholic faith.

^ His brother James II nearly wrecked that, but by then, parliament had regained confidence, and organised the bloodless Glorious Revolution, by inviting William and Mary over from Holland to depose James.
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The outcome of the conference was that the Casket Letters were accepted by the conference as genuine after a study of the handwriting, and of the information contained therein. Yet, as Elizabeth had wished, the inquiry reached the conclusion that nothing was proven. In hindsight it seems that none of the major parties involved considered the truth to be a priority. James MacKay comments that one of the strangest 'trials' in legal history ended with no finding of guilt with the result that the accusers went home to Scotland and the accused remained detained in 'protective custody'."
.In 1570, Elizabeth was persuaded by representatives of Charles IX of France to promise to help Mary regain her throne.^ In 1570, Elizabeth was persuaded by the French to help put Mary back on the Scottish throne.

^ At the time of her birth, she was recognised as the heir to the throne, in preference to her older half-sister, Mary Tudor, who was made to serve in Elizabeth's household.

^ The first one proposed, the Duc d'Anjou, a younger brother of King Charles IX of France, was twenty years younger than Elizabeth.

.As a pre-condition, she demanded the ratification of the Treaty of Edinburgh, something Mary would even now not agree to.^ Mary's son, James, was a child and would have to prove himself before he could even be considered.

.Nevertheless, William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, continued negotiations with Mary on Elizabeth's behalf.^ Independence of Bhutan 1907 - William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin dies (b.

.In 1569, Cecil had unofficially appointed Sir Francis Walsingham to organize a secret service for the protection of the realm, particularly the Queen's person.^ Another man who played a major role in the success of her administration was Sir Francis Walsingham, who ran a network of intelligence officers throughout Europe, ensuring that no move against the queen went undetected.

^ The Commonwealth Realms are a part of, but should be distinguished from, the Commonwealth of Nations which is an organization of mostly former British colonies, the majority of whom do not recognize The Queen as head of state.

Henceforth, Cecil as well as Walsingham would have many opportunities (and reasons) to watch Mary carefully.
.The Ridolfi Plot, which was a plan to depose Elizabeth with the help of foreign troops, and to place Mary on the English throne, caused Elizabeth to reconsider.^ Elizabeth, as Mary's Protestant half-sister, had been in very severe personal danger before Mary's death brought Elizabeth to the throne.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of her birth, she was recognised as the heir to the throne, in preference to her older half-sister, Mary Tudor, who was made to serve in Elizabeth's household.

^ In 1570, Elizabeth was persuaded by the French to help put Mary back on the Scottish throne.

.With the queen's encouragement, Parliament introduced a bill in 1571 barring Mary from the throne.^ Technically, everything Parliament does must be approved by the Queen (just as the President must sign bills into law in the U.S.) However, her role is simply to rubberstamp them.
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Elizabeth unexpectedly refused to give it the royal assent. The furthest she ever went was in 1584, when she introduced a document (the Bond of Association) aimed at preventing any would-be successor from profiting from her murder. .It was not legally binding, but was signed by thousands, including Mary herself.^ The cardinal told the people that the survival of the relic was a sign from Mary herself and that another, even more magnificent, cathédrale should be built in Chartres.

.Elizabeth considered Mary's designs on the English throne to be a serious threat, and so eighteen years of confinement followed, much of it in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor in the custody of George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury and his redoubtable wife Bess of Hardwick.^ Elizabeth, as Mary's Protestant half-sister, had been in very severe personal danger before Mary's death brought Elizabeth to the throne.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Bothwell was imprisoned in Denmark, became insane, and died in 1578, still in prison.

Death

Trial

.Mary eventually became a liability that Elizabeth could no longer tolerate.^ When, in 1568, Lady Catherine Grey died, there was no other obvious successor of English birth, and Elizabeth was once again forced to consider Mary Stuart.

^ She joined the Auxiliary Territorial Service (the ATS) where she was known as No 230873 Second Subaltern Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor.

.Mary was put on trial for treason by a court of about 40 noblemen, including Catholics, after being implicated in the Babington Plot by her own letters, which Sir Francis Walsingham had arranged to come straight to his hands.^ On this day, le 11 décembre 1792 : King Louis XVI is put on trial for treason.

^ He managed shifts from being in favor of the court of Louis XVI , to the favor of the Revolutionaries, including the most dangerous of them, Robespierre, to becoming Napoléon's favorite painter.

^ Louis was put on trial on le 11 décember 1792 and convicted of high treason before the Legislative Assembly.

From these letters it was clear that Mary had sanctioned the attempted assassination of Elizabeth. Mary denied this and was spirited in her defence. .One of her more memorable comments from her trial was "Remember Gentlemen the Theatre of history is wider than the Realm of England."^ The over-representation of Scotland and Wales (more Labour inclined countries than England) also contributed, although this bias will be considerably reduced by the post devolution boundary changes in Scotland.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meaning that the population (able to vote) in one constituency should differ no more than 15% from the "average" constituency.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now the House of Lords do not have the power to delay money bills for more than one month, but the Parliamentary ritual of budget day is still followed.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.She drew attention to the fact that she was denied the opportunity to review the evidence or her papers that had been removed from her, that she had been denied access to legal counsel, and that she had never been an English subject and thus could not be convicted of treason.^ They are kept hidden, denied legal counsel, and brutalized, sometimes for years.

The extent to which the plot was created by Sir Francis Walsingham and the English Secret Services will always remain open to conjecture.
.In a trial presided over by England's Lord Chancellor, Sir Thomas Bromley[30] and Attorney General Sir John Popham, (later Lord Chief Justice), Mary was ultimately convicted of treason, and was sentenced to beheading.^ Chief Justice of the United States 1751 - Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke dies (b.

^ Emílio Garrastazu Médici (General) was born in Bagé - RS. 40th President of Brazil (30 Oct 1969 - 15 Mar 1974).

^ Louis was put on trial on le 11 décember 1792 and convicted of high treason before the Legislative Assembly.

.Although Mary had been found guilty and sentenced to death, Elizabeth hesitated to actually order her execution.^ Scottish reformer 1586 - Elisabeth I England confirms the death sentence against Marie Stuart 1595 - Jean Chapelain was born (d.

^ Suspended and arrested during the Insurrection of le 10 août , he was tried by the National Convention, found guilty of treason, and executed on le 21 janvier 1793 .

^ Elizabeth, as Mary's Protestant half-sister, had been in very severe personal danger before Mary's death brought Elizabeth to the throne.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.She was fearful of the consequences, especially if, in revenge, Mary's son James of Scotland formed an alliance with the Catholic powers, France and Spain, and invaded England.^ Elizabeth's life was spared, but Mary's marriage to Philip II of Spain made it seem possible that an heir would be born and that England would return to the Catholic faith.

^ But the Catholic League, strengthened by support from outside, especially from Spain, was strong enough to force him to the south, and he had to set about winning his kingdom by military conquest.

^ Mary I of Scotland was married to the Dauphin Francois (later Francois II of France), son of Henri II of France, on le 24 avril 1558 .

.She was also concerned about how this would affect the Divine Right of Kings.^ But I would really like to understand how the separation of powers, voting rights, and Federal vs. State rights are handled in the different constitutions.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Elizabeth did ask Mary's final custodian, Amias Paulet, if he would contrive some accident to remove Mary.^ Elizabeth's life was spared, but Mary's marriage to Philip II of Spain made it seem possible that an heir would be born and that England would return to the Catholic faith.

[31] He refused on the grounds that he would not allow such "a stain on his posterity."
She did eventually sign the death warrant and entrusted it to William Davison, a privy councillor. .Later, the privy council, having been summoned by Lord Burghley without Elizabeth's knowledge, decided to carry out the sentence at once before she could change her mind.^ The Ministers decided policy and when necessary got Parliament or the Privy Council to implement it.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of Blair's, lets change the constitution without consultation or sufficient thought, initiatives is to replace the Law Lords with a Constitutional Court independent of Parliament.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[32]

Execution

The scene of the execution, created by an unknown Dutch artist in 1613
At Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire, on 7 February 1587, Mary was told that she was to be executed the next day. She spent the last hours of her life in prayer and also writing letters and her will. She asked that her servants be released and that she be buried in France. .The scaffold that was erected in the great hall was three feet tall and draped in black.^ The arms were from three to thirty feet long, black, and counterweighted, moved by only two handles.

^ The cathedral's three great rose windows, 32 feet (10 metres) in diameter, alone retain their 13th-century glass.

It was reached by five steps and the only things on it were a disrobing stool, the block, a cushion for her to kneel on, and a bloody butcher's axe that had been previously used on animals. At her execution, on the 8th of February 1587, the executioners (one of whom was named Bull) knelt before her and asked forgiveness. .According to a contemporaneous account by Robert Wynkfield, she replied "I forgive you with all my heart"[33] The executioners and her two servants helped remove a black outer gown, two petticoats, and her corset to reveal a deep red chemise—the liturgical colour of martyrdom in the Catholic Church.^ Red Dwarf, Are you being served, All creatures great and small, and of course Doctor Who?
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Brian Eno's name was mentioned in that regard, which reinforced my confusion regarding all things British (which your excellent diary helped to dispel somewhat - thanks).
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

As she disrobed she smiled faintly to the executioner and said, "Never have I had such assistants to disrobe me, and never have I put off my clothes before such a company."[33] She was then blindfolded and knelt down on the cushion in front of the block. She positioned her head on the block and stretched her arms out behind her.
.In Lady Antonia Fraser's biography, Mary Queen of Scots, the author writes that it took two strikes to decapitate Mary: The first blow missed her neck and struck the back of her head, at which point the Queen's lips moved.^ Mary Queen of Scots was born (d.

^ Edward four five, Dick the bad, Two more Henries, Ned the lad; Bloody Mary she came next, Then we have our Good Queen Bess.

^ English words defined with "queen" : Mary Queen of Scots , May queen , Mother queen ♦ Queen Anne's bounty , Queen gold , Queen mother , Queen of May , queen of the May , Queen regent , Queen regnant , Queen Victoria .

(Her servants reported they thought she had whispered the words "Sweet Jesus.") The second blow severed the neck, except for a small bit of sinew that the executioner severed by using the axe as a saw. .Robert Wynkfield recorded a detailed account of the moments leading up to Mary's execution, also describing that it took two strikes to behead the Queen.^ Edward four five, Dick the bad, Two more Henries, Ned the lad; Bloody Mary she came next, Then we have our Good Queen Bess.

^ Between 1793 and 1795, more than 1300 people were beheaded in public executions, including Louis XVI , Marie Antoinette and Robespierre.

.Afterward, the executioner held her head aloft and declared, "God save the Queen."^ God Save the Queen 2005 ( none / 1 ) .
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God save the Queen.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the holding of a Constitutional Convention in 1998, a referendum was held in 1999 on replacing the Queen as head of state with a President indirectly elected by Parliament.

At that moment, the auburn tresses in his hand came apart and the head fell to the ground, revealing that Mary had had very short, grey hair.[33] .The chemise that Mary wore at her execution is displayed at Coughton Court near Alcester in Warwickshire, which was a Catholic household at that time.^ At the time of her birth, she was recognised as the heir to the throne, in preference to her older half-sister, Mary Tudor, who was made to serve in Elizabeth's household.

Beheadingofmaryqueenofscots recreation.ogg
A 1895 reproduction of the execution, produced by Edison Manufacturing Co.
It has been suggested that it took three strikes to decapitate Mary instead of two. If so, then Mary would have been executed with the same number of axe strikes as Essex. It has been postulated that said number was part of a ritual devised to protract the suffering of the victim.[34]
.There are several (possibly apocryphal) stories told about the execution.^ A memorable and prophetic moment occurred when Freddie Mercury told the audience: "There's been a lot of rumors lately about a certain band called Queen...

^ 'But in the unlikely story that is America, there has never been anything false about hope.'
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.One already mentioned and thought to be true is that, when the executioner picked up the severed head to show it to those present, it was discovered that Mary was wearing a wig.^ His private letters show that he was not one of those to whom easy and correct language is naturally given; he gained his extraordinary perfection with the unceasing sweat of his brow.

^ He revived the operation of podalic version and showed how, by means of it, surgeons could often rescue an infant even in cases of head presentation, instead of breaking it up and extracting it piecemeal.

^ The execution of Louis XVI. The executioner is holding Louis's head up for the crowd to see.

The headsman was left holding the wig, while the late queen's head rolled on the floor.[33] It was thought that she had tried to disguise the greying of her hair by wearing an auburn wig, the natural colour of her hair before her years of imprisonment began. .She was 24 when first imprisoned by Protestants in Scotland, and she was only 44 years of age at the time of her execution.^ Japan won golf's World Cup for the first time in 45 years.

^ TIME magazine 's Man of the Year was for the first time given to a non-human; a computer .

Another well-known execution story related in Robert Wynkfield's first-hand account concerns a small dog owned by the queen, which is said to have been hiding among her skirts, unseen by the spectators. Her dress and layers of clothing were so immensely regal, it would have been easy for the tiny pet to have hidden there as she slowly made her way to the scaffold. Following the beheading, the dog refused to be parted from its owner and was covered in blood. It was finally taken away by her ladies-in-waiting and washed.[33]

Aftermath

When the news of the execution reached Elizabeth she was extremely indignant, and her wrath was chiefly directed against Davison, who, she asserted, had disobeyed her instructions not to part with the warrant. The secretary was arrested and thrown into the Tower. He was later released, after paying a heavy fine, but his career was ruined.[35]

The Casket Letters

James Stewart, Earl of Moray by Hans Eworth, 1561. Mary's half brother and regent after her abdication in 1567, he presented the Casket Letters at the York Conference in 1568.
The so-called Casket Letters are widely believed to be crucial to the issue of whether Mary Queen of Scots shares the guilt for her husband Lord Darnley's murder. .The letters are, however, only one detail of the whole problem, and even if they are accepted as fake, this fact in it itself does not constitute an "acquittal" of Mary, as long as other aspects of the case are not taken into account.^ Today I started to look for some detailed information about the German political system to answer one of your other posts.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After all, they transitioned all too quickly into an Empire, and if there's one thing Canadians are even less interested in than copying Americans, it's running an Empire of our own!
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You put your finger on one big problem: the leader of a majority government does have too much power.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The authenticity of the Casket Letters has been the source of much controversy among historians. .It is impossible now to prove the case of the letters' authenticity either way.^ Either way, there's a chance to do better, without having to wait a full four years, as we are doing now.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The originals of the Casket Letters were probably destroyed in 1584 by King James.[36] The copies available in various collections do not form a complete set. .The originals were in French; only one French copy is extant, the others are contemporaneous translations into Scots and English.^ French sculptor Guillaume Coustou's monumental statues of the Horses of Marly — located at the beginning of the Champs-Élysées — are copies of the originals which are now exhibited at la Louvre .

^ The election was one of the events that transformed the general malaise into the French Revolution, which began in June 1789.

Mary argued that her handwriting was not difficult to imitate, and it has frequently been suggested either that the letters are complete forgeries, that incriminating passages were inserted before the inquiry of York in 1568, or that the letters were written to Bothwell by some other person. .Well-respected biographers of Mary such as Lady Antonia Fraser, James MacKay, and John Guy have all come to the conclusion that they were forged.^ When they are all out the side that's out comes in and the side that's been in goes out and tries to get those coming in out.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When they are all out the side that's out comes in and the side that's been in goes out and tries to get those coming in out .
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Guy has actually examined the Elizabethan transcripts of the letters rather than relying upon later printed copies.^ You seem to be running on theory, rather than on actual experience.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Responsible government, in both Canada and Australia, relies on convention rather than the written constitutional texts.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[37] He points out that the letters are disjointed. .He also draws attention to the fact that the French version of one of the letters is bad in its use of language and grammar.^ His private letters show that he was not one of those to whom easy and correct language is naturally given; he gained his extraordinary perfection with the unceasing sweat of his brow.

^ "Denis" is the French version of the Latin "Dionysius," the name Suger actually used.

Guy implies that a woman with Mary's education would not write in this way. However, it has also been maintained, that certain phrases of the letters (including verses in the style of Ronsard) and certain stylistical characteristics would be compatible with known writings of Mary.[38]
.Another point made by commentators is that the Casket Letters did not appear until the Conference of York in 1568. Mary had been forced to abdicate in 1567 and held captive for the best part of a year in Scotland.^ As part of this plan, he was forced to convert to Roman Catholicism on le 5 fevrier 1576 , and kept in confinement, but later that year he gained his freedom and resumed Protestantism.

There was every reason for these letters to be made public to support her imprisonment and forced abdication.
.At least some of the contemporaries who saw the letters at the York Conference had no doubt that the letters were genuine.^ America at least deserves credit for having a written constitution which mentions freedom of speech, in the First Amendment, which no doubt has inspired people all over the world.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No doubt this post has promoted confusion but I hope it is of some assistance.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the points at which the Monarch has some real power is who to invite to form a government when no party or coalition of parties with a recognised leader has a majority in the House of Commons.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Among them was Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk,[39] a later suitor and co-conspirator of Mary. When Queen Elizabeth alluded to his marriage plans with Mary, Norfolk remarked that "he meant never to marry with a person, where he could not be sure of his pillow".[40]

Legacy

Tomb of Mary at Westminster Abbey
Though Mary Stuart has not been canonised by the Catholic Church, many consider her a martyr, and there are relics of her. .Her prayer book was long shown in France.^ Her prayer book was long shown in France.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Her apologist published, in an English journal, a sonnet which Mary was said to have composed, written with her own hand in this book. A celebrated German actress, Frau Hendel-Schutz, who excited admiration by her attitudes, and performed Friedrich Schiller's "Maria Stuart" with great applause in several German cities, affirmed that a cross which she wore on her neck was the very same that once belonged to the unfortunate queen.
Relics of this description have never yet been subjected to the proof of their authenticity. .If there is anything which may be reasonably believed to have once been the property of the queen, it is the veil with which she covered her head on the scaffold, after the executioner had wounded the unfortunate victim in the shoulder by a false blow (whether from awkwardness or confusion is uncertain).^ 'But in the unlikely story that is America, there has never been anything false about hope.'
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once it has happened there is no more Parliament to express an opinion about anything...
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

This veil came into the possession of Sir John Coxe Hippisley, who claimed to be descended from the House of Stuart on his mother's side. In 1818, he had an engraving made from it by Matteo Diottavi in Rome and gave copies to his friends. However, the eagerness with which the executioners burned her clothing and the executioners' block may mean that it will never be possible to be certain.
The veil is embroidered with gold spangles by (as is said) the queen's own hand, in regular rows crossing each other, so as to form small squares, and edged with a gold border, to which another border has been subsequently joined, in which the following words are embroidered in letters of gold:
"Velum Serenissimæ Mariæ, Scotiæ et Galliæ Reginæ Martyris, quo induebatur dum ab Heretica ad mortem iniustissimam condemnata fuit. Anno Sal. MDLXXXVI. a nobilissima matrona Anglicana diu conservatum et tandem, donationis ergo Deo et Societati Jesu consecratum."[41]
Mary's personal breviary, which she took with her to the scaffold, is preserved in the National Library of Russia of St. Petersburg.
.On the plate there is an inscription, with a double certificate of its authenticity, which states, that this veil, a family treasure of the expelled house of Stuart, was finally in possession of the last branch of that family, Henry Benedict Stuart, the Cardinal of York, who preserved it for many years in his private chapel, among the most precious relics, and at his death bequeathed it to Sir John Coxe Hippisley, together with a valuable Plutarch, a Codex with painted (illuminated) letters, and a gold coin struck in Scotland during Mary's reign.^ The Catholic branch of the House of Stuart promoted two rebellions in 1715 and 1745-46.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reminds me of a friend of mine who used to say things like, "Do you realize that this time last year was just one year ago?"
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the most popular French kings, both during and after his reign, Henry showed great care for the welfare of his subjects and displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the time.

.The plate was specially consecrated by Pope Pius VII in his palace on the Quirinal, 29 April 1818. Hippisley, during a former residence at Rome, had been very intimate with the cardinal of York, and was instrumental in obtaining for him, when he with the other cardinals emigrated to Venice in 1798, a pension of £4,000 a year from King George IV of the United Kingdom, then Prince of Wales.^ Queen of Edward VII of the United Kingdom 1866 - George Everest dies.

^ In his greatest victory, Prussian King Frederick II (the Great) defeated the Austrians at Leuthen during the Seven Years' War .

^ At Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris , Napoleon Bonaparte is crowned as the first Emperor of France in a thousand years by Pope Pius VII .

.But for the pension, the fugitive cardinal, whose revenues were all seized by the forces of the French Revolution, would have been exposed to the greatest distress.^ It would prove itself useful during the French Revolution.

^ These tributes are richly deserved, for Chartres is truly one of the greatest of all French Gothic cathédrales .

^ In 1915 all attempts to force a breakthrough — by the Germans at Ypres, by the British at Neuve Chapelle and by the French at Champagne — had failed, with terrible casualties the only result.

The cardinal desired to requite this service by the bequest of what he considered so valuable. .According to a note on the plate, the veil is eighty-nine English inches long and forty-three broad, so that it seems to have been rather a kind of shawl or scarf than a veil.^ You seem to be running on theory, rather than on actual experience.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman Catholic Cardinals in Britain seem to speak out to the general public more than they used to and they have rather eclipsed the Bishops of the Church of England.
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Melville in his Memoirs, which Schiller had read, speaks of a handkerchief belonging to the queen, which she gave away before her death, and Schiller founds upon this anecdote the well-known words of the farewell scene, addressed to Hannah Kennedy.^ British geodesist who gave his name to the well known mount.

^ Applied to a woman, well, it's like calling her a word that rhymes with witch, and no, I'm not speaking of Hillary - this time...

^ Before we went off to fight in Gulf War I, a certain colonel addressed us and closed with these words: "For Queen and country!"
  • Daily Kos: A short guide to the British constitution and electoral system 8 January 2010 9:20 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

"Accept this handkerchief! with my own hand
For thee I've work'd it in my hours of sadness
And interwoven with my scalding tears:
With this thou'lt bind my eyes."

Privy Council of Mary, 1561

(appointed 6 September 1561 following Mary's return to Scotland from France)

Ancestry

Issue

  • Twins which were miscarried.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ History of the Monarchy > The Stewarts > Mary, Queen of Scots
  2. ^ a b Fraser 1978, p. 11.
  3. ^ Oram, Richard (2004), The Kings and Queens of Scotland, Stroud: Tempus, ISBN 075242971X 
  4. ^ Fraser 1978, p. 12.
  5. ^ Fraser 1978, p. 14.
  6. ^ Fraser 1978, p. 25.
  7. ^ Fraser 1978, p. 15.
  8. ^ a b Fraser 1978, p. 16.
  9. ^ a b Fraser 1978, p. 17.
  10. ^ Fraser 1978, pp. 49–50.
  11. ^ Fraser 1978, p. 42.
  12. ^ Fraser 1978, pp. 88–90.
  13. ^ Fraser 1978, ?
  14. ^ Guy, John (2004), My Heart Is My Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots, London: Fourth Estate, p. 47, ISBN 184115752X .
  15. ^ Fraser 1978, pp. 113–115.
  16. ^ Fraser 1978, pp. 220–231.
  17. ^ Chamberlin, Frederick (1939), Elizabeth and Leycester, New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., p. 137 .
  18. ^ Chamberlin, Frederick (1939), Elizabeth and Leycester, New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., pp. 136–164, 445–447 ; Plowden, Alison (1977), Marriage with my Kingdom: The Courtships of Queen Elizabeth I, London: Macmillan, p. 137, ISBN 0333157923 .
  19. ^ Bingham, Caroline (1995), Darnley: A Life of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, Consort of Mary Queen of Scots, London: Constable, p. 101, ISBN 0094725306 .
  20. ^ Bingham 1995, p. 100.
  21. ^ Bingham 1995, p. 160.
  22. ^ Bingham 1995, pp. 160–163.
  23. ^ Fraser 1978, pp. 335–336.
  24. ^ TMedievalSociety.org
  25. ^ Fraser 1978, pp. 373–375.
  26. ^ Fraser 1978, p. 375.
  27. ^ Bingham 1995, pp. 158–159.
  28. ^ Fraser, p. 370.
  29. ^ "About Scotland". Aboutscotland.com. http://www.aboutscotland.com/mqs/carberry.html. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  30. ^ "Thomas Bromley". Westminster Abbey. http://www.westminster-abbey.org/search/12144. 
  31. ^ Curtis, Thomas (1829). The London Encyclopaedia. XIX. p. 548. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=CXRMAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA548&lpg=PA548. 
  32. ^ Elizabeth's Spy Master: Francis Walsingham and the secret war that saved England by Robert Hutchinson
  33. ^ a b c d e "The Execution of Mary Queen of Scots". tudorhistory.org. http://tudorhistory.org/primary/exmary.html. 
  34. ^ For a modern discussion of this see the essay in, "Death, the Scaffold and the Stage…" in "Christopher Marlowe and English Renaissance Culture", by Darryll Grantley, Ashgate Publishing ( 25 May 1999).
  35. ^ "ScotlandonTV News report, February 2008: Purchase of Mary Queen of Scots' Death Warrant". Scotlandontv.tv. 2006-10-24. http://www.scotlandontv.tv/scotland_on_tv/video.html?vxSiteId=60fdd544-9c52-4e17-be7e-57a2a2d76992&vxChannel=History%20Key%20Events&vxClipId=1380_SMG1833&vxBitrate=300. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  36. ^ Bingham 1995, p. 193.
  37. ^ Guy, John. My Heart is My Own, 2005.
  38. ^ George Malcolm Thomson: The Crime of Mary Stuart Hutchinson 1967 pp.148-153;159-165
  39. ^ Neville Williams: Thomas Howard, Fourth Duke of Norfolk Barrie & Rockliff 1964 pp.137-139
  40. ^ Neville Williams: Thomas Howard, Fourth Duke of Norfolk Barrie & Rockliff 1964 p.141
  41. ^ "The veil of the Most Serene Mary, Queen of Scotland and France, Martyr, with which she was clothed when she was condemned by the Heretic (sc. Elizabeth I) to a most unjust death, in the Year of Salvation 1586, long preserved by a most noble English lady, and eventually dedicated as a gift to God and the Society of Jesus."

References

  • Fraser, Antonia (1978), Mary Queen of Scots, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 0297775227 

External links

.
Mary, Queen of Scots
Born: 8 December 1542 Died: 8 February 1587
Regnal titles
Preceded by
James V
Queen of Scots
14 December 1542 – 24 July 1567
Succeeded by
James VI
French royalty
Preceded by
Catherine de' Medici
Dauphine of France
24 April 1558 – 10 July 1559
Succeeded by
Maria Anna of Bavaria
Queen consort of France
10 July 1559 – 5 December 1560
Vacant
Title next held by
Elisabeth of Austria
Scottish royalty
Preceded by
James Hamilton,
2nd Earl of Arran
Heir to the Scottish throne
as heiress presumptive

8 December - 14 December, 1542
Succeeded by
James Hamilton,
2nd Earl of Arran
English royalty
Preceded by
Lady Elizabeth Tudor
(never designated an heir)
Potential Heir to the English and Irish Thrones
by cognatic primogeniture
17 November 1558 – 8 February 1587
Succeeded by
James VI of Scotland
Titles in pretence
Mary I of England
dies
— TITULAR —
 Queen of England
17 November 1558 – 24 July 1587
Reason for succession failure:
English throne passed to Elizabeth I. In the eyes of many Catholics, Elizabeth was illegitimate, thus making Mary the true heir.
Mary's heir becomes
James I of England

Simple English

File:Mary Queen of Scots
Portrait by an unknown artist

Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 15428 February 1587), was Queen of Scotland from 14 December 1542 until 24 July 1567, when she was forced to give up her kingdom.

Early life

Mary was the daughter of King James V of Scotland, who died just after she was born. She was crowned queen when she was only 6 days old. She married three times. Her first husband was King Francis II of France. They were both young when they were married, and they had no children. Francis died from an ear infection that had spread to his brain, leaving Mary a widow.

Reign in Scotland

When Mary returned to Scotland after spending her youth in France, she found that she was not popular in her kingdom. She had been brought up as a Catholic, but many people in Scotland had become Protestant. It was difficult for Mary to avoid siding with either the Catholics or the Protestants. As Mary was now free to marry again, there were lots of noblemen who wanted to become her husband. For her second husband, she chose an English lord named Henry Darnley, who was of royal blood. Darnley was good-looking and charming, but he was often very childish, and he was jealous of Mary's secretary, an Italian named David Rizzio.

Mary became pregnant. While she was expecting the baby, Darnley and his friends got drunk one night and decided to kill David Rizzio. They came into Mary's private rooms at Holyrood Palace while she was talking with Rizzio and they stabbed him to death. Darnley got away with the murder because he was the queen's husband, but Mary never forgave him for murdering her friend Rizzio. When her baby was born, it was a boy, who would later become King James VI of Scotland.

A powerful Scottish nobleman, the Earl of Bothwell, was loyal to Mary and hated Darnley. He arranged for Darnley to be killed. He tried to make it look as though Darnley had been killed in a fire at his house, but everyone knew that Bothwell was behind the murder, and some people believed that Mary had also been part of the plot to kill her husband. Mary then agreed to marry the Earl of Bothwell. This was not a wise move, because Bothwell had many enemies. Mary's enemies forced her off the throne and made her young son king in her place. Mary was put in prison, but she escaped and crossed the border into England, which was ruled by her cousin, Elizabeth Queen of England.

Imprisonment and execution

Mary hoped that Elizabeth would help her to get her throne back, but Elizabeth did not. She kept Mary a prisoner for many years. Mary was eventually accused of making plans to murder Elizabeth, and so she was executed.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mary, Queen of Scots, which are similar to those in the above article.








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