Mary II of England: Wikis

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Mary II
Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland (more...)
Reign 13 February 1689 – 28 December 1694
Coronation 11 April 1689
Predecessor James II & VII
Successor William III & II
Co-monarch William III & II
Spouse William III & II
House House of Stuart
Father James II of England
Mother Lady Anne Hyde
Born 30 April 1662(1662-04-30)
St. James's Palace, London
Died 28 December 1694 (aged 32)
Kensington Palace, London
Burial Westminster Abbey, London

Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1689 until her death. Mary, a Protestant, came to the thrones following the Glorious Revolution, which resulted in the deposition of her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII. Mary reigned jointly with her husband and first cousin, William III and II, who became the sole ruler of both countries upon her death in 1694. Popular histories usually refer to the joint reigns as those of "William and Mary". Mary, the blood sovereign, wielded less power than William during the parts of her reign when William remained in England, ceding most of her authority to her husband, though he heavily relied on her. She did, however, govern the realms alone when William was engaged in military campaigns abroad, proving herself to be a powerful, firm, and effective ruler.[1] She was very active in the Church of England, which she ruled as its Supreme Governor. Though she shared the post with her husband, she largely exercised its power alone.

Contents

Early life

Mary, born at St. James Palace in London on 30 April 1662, was the eldest daughter of James, Duke of York (the future James II of England) and of his first wife, Lady Anne Hyde.[2] Mary's uncle was Charles II; her maternal grandfather, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, served for a lengthy period as Charles's chief advisor. Although her mother bore eight children, only Mary and her younger sister Anne survived into adulthood.[3]

The Duke of York converted to Roman Catholicism in 1668 or 1669, but Mary and Anne had a Protestant upbringing, pursuant to the command of Charles II.[4] Mary's mother died in 1671; her father remarried in 1673, taking as his second wife the Catholic Mary of Modena, also known as Mary Beatrice d'Este.[5] Before her marriage, Mary wrote a great many passionate letters to Frances Apsley, the daughter of James II's hawks keeper, though her interest was not returned.[6]

At the age of fifteen, Lady Mary became betrothed to the Protestant Stadtholder, William, Prince of Orange.[1] William was the son of her aunt, Mary, Princess Royal, and Prince William II of Nassau. At first, Charles II opposed the alliance with a Dutch ruler — he preferred that Mary marry the heir to the French Throne, the Dauphin Louis, thus allying England with Catholic France and strengthening the odds of a Catholic successor to the English throne; but later, under pressure from Parliament and with a coalition with the Catholic French no longer politically favourable, he approved the union.[7] Pressured by Parliament, the Duke of York agreed to the marriage, incorrectly assuming that it would improve his popularity amongst Protestants.[8] The first cousins Mary and William married in London on 4 November 1677; Mary reportedly wept throughout the ceremony.[2]

Mary went to the Netherlands, where she lived as William's consort. Although she was devoted to her husband, the marriage was often unhappy; her three pregnancies ended in miscarriage or stillbirth, and her childlessness would be the greatest source of unhappiness in Mary's life. Her animated and personable nature made her popular with the Dutch people, but her husband was often cold and neglectful,[1] and long maintained an affair with Elizabeth Villiers, one of Mary's ladies-in-waiting,[8] though over time he became more relaxed in Mary's company.[2]

The Glorious Revolution

Scottish and English Royalty
House of Stuart
UK Arms 1689-1694.svg
Mary II & William III
Mary II

Upon the death of Charles II without legitimate issue in 1685, the Duke of York became King as James II in England and Ireland (and as James VII in Scotland). He had a controversial religious policy; his attempt to grant freedom of religion to non-Anglicans was not well-received, as the technique he chose was to annul acts of Parliament by Royal Decree.[4] Several Protestant politicians and noblemen entered into negotiations with Mary's husband as early as 1687. After James took the step of forcing Anglican clergymen to read the Declaration of Indulgence—the proclamation granting religious liberty to dissenters—from their churches in May 1688, his popularity plunged.[4] Alarm amongst Protestants increased when his wife, Mary of Modena, gave birth to a son—James Francis Edward—in June 1688, for the son would, unlike Mary and Anne, be raised a Roman Catholic. Some charged that the boy was "supposititious", having been secretly smuggled in to the Queen's room in a bed-warming pan as a substitute for her stillborn baby.[9] Although there was no evidence to support the allegation, Mary publicly challenged the boy's legitimacy, sending a pointed list of questions to her sister, Anne, regarding the circumstances of the birth.[10]

On 30 June, the Immortal Seven secretly requested William—then in the Netherlands with Mary—to come to England with an army.[11] At first, William was reluctant; he was jealous of his wife's position as the heiress to the English Crown and feared that she would become more powerful than he was. Mary, however, convinced her husband that she did not care for political power, telling him "she would be no more but his wife, and that she would do all that lay in her power to make him King for life".[12] William agreed to invade and issued a declaration which referred to James' newborn son as the "pretended Prince of Wales". He also gave a list of grievances of the English people and stated that his proposed expedition was for the sole purpose of having "a free and lawful Parliament assembled".[2] The Dutch army finally landed on 5 November, having been turned back by a storm in October.[11] The disaffected English Army and Navy went over to William, and English people's confidence in James stood so low that they did not attempt to save their King.[13] On 11 December, the defeated King attempted to flee, but was intercepted. A second attempt at flight, on 23 December, was successful: James escaped to France where he lived in exile until his death.[4]

Mary was upset by the circumstances surrounding the deposition of her father, but William ordered her to appear cheerful on their triumphant arrival in London. As a result, she was criticised for appearing cold to her father's plight. James, too, wrote a diatribe against her criticising her disloyalty, an action which deeply affected the pious Mary.[2]

In 1689, a Convention Parliament summoned by the Prince of Orange assembled, and much discussion relating to the appropriate course of action ensued.[14] William of Orange felt insecure about his position; he wished to reign as a King, rather than function as a mere consort of a Queen. The only precedent for a joint monarchy dated from the sixteenth century: when Queen Mary I married the Spanish Prince Philip, it was agreed that the latter would take the title of King. But Philip II remained King only during his wife's lifetime, and restrictions were placed on his power. William, however, demanded that he remain King even after his wife's death. Although some prominent statesmen proposed to make her the sole ruler, Mary, remaining loyal to her husband, refused.[14]

On 13 February 1689, Parliament passed the Declaration of Right, in which it deemed that James, by attempting to flee on 11 December 1688, had abdicated the government of the realm, and that the Throne had thereby become vacant.[14][15] Parliament offered the Crown not to James's eldest son, James Francis Edward (who would have been the heir-apparent under normal circumstances), but to William and Mary as joint Sovereigns. It was, however, provided that "the sole and full exercise of the regal power be only in and executed by the said Prince of Orange in the names of the said Prince and Princess during their joint lives."[14] The declaration was later extended to exclude not only James and his heirs (other than Anne) from the throne, but all Catholics, since "it hath been found by experience that it is inconsistent with the safety and welfare of this Protestant kingdom to be governed by a papist prince".[15]

The Bishop of London, Henry Compton, crowned William and Mary together at Westminster Abbey on 11 April 1689. Normally, the Archbishop of Canterbury performs coronations, but the Archbishop at the time, William Sancroft, although an Anglican, refused to recognise the validity of James II's removal.[16][17] On the day of the Coronation, the Convention of the Estates of Scotland — which was much more divided than the English Parliament — finally declared that James was no longer King of Scotland. William and Mary were offered the separate Scottish Crown (the two kingdoms were not united until the Acts of Union in 1707); they accepted on 11 May.[1]

Even after the declaration, there was still substantial support for James in Scotland . The Viscount of Dundee raised an army, and won a convincing victory at Killiecrankie on 27 July. The huge losses suffered by Dundee's troops, coupled with his fatal wounding at the start of the battle, served to remove the only effective resistance to William and the uprising was quickly crushed, suffering a resounding defeat the next month at the Battle of Dunkeld.[18][19]

Reign

Royal styles of
Mary II of England

England COA.svg

Reference style Her Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Ma'am
Royal styles of
Mary II of Scotland

Royal coat of arms of Scotland.svg

Reference style Her Grace
Spoken style Your Grace
Alternative style Ma'am

In December 1689 Parliament passed one of the most important constitutional documents in English history, the Bill of Rights. This measure — which restated and confirmed many provisions of the earlier Declaration of Right — established restrictions on the royal prerogative; it declared, amongst other things, that the Sovereign could not suspend laws passed by Parliament, levy taxes without parliamentary consent, infringe the right to petition, raise a standing army during peacetime without parliamentary consent, deny the right to bear arms to Protestant subjects, unduly interfere with Parliamentary elections, punish members of either House of Parliament for anything said during debates, require excessive bail or inflict cruel or unusual punishments. The Bill of Rights also addressed the question of succession to the Throne.[20]

Following the death of either William III or Mary II, the other was to continue to reign. Next in the line of succession would be any children of the couple, to be followed by Mary's sister Anne and her children. Last in the line of succession stood any children William III might have had from any subsequent marriage.[20]

From 1690 onwards, William often remained absent from England, at first fighting Jacobites in Ireland. Whilst her husband was away, Mary administered the government of the realm. She proved a firm ruler, ordering the arrest of her own uncle, Henry Hyde, 2nd Earl of Clarendon, for plotting to restore James II to the throne. In 1692, she dismissed and imprisoned the influential John Churchill, 1st Earl of Marlborough on similar charges; the dismissal somewhat diminished her popularity and harmed her relationship with her sister Anne (who was strongly influenced by Churchill's wife, Sarah).[1] Anne appeared at court with Sarah, obviously supporting the disgraced Churchill, which led to Mary angrily demanding that Anne dismiss Sarah and vacate her lodgings. Mary later failed to visit Anne during her pregnancy.[2] After the baby was born, Mary did visit, but spent their time together berating Anne for her friendship with Sarah. The sisters never saw each other again.[21]

William had crushed the Irish Jacobites by 1692, but he continued with campaigns abroad in order to wage war against France in the Netherlands. When her husband was away, Mary acted in her own name but on his advice; whilst he was in England, Mary completely refrained from interfering in political matters, as had been agreed in the Bill of Rights.[1][20] She did, however, participate in the affairs of the Church - all matters of ecclesiastical patronage passed through her hands.[22] She died of smallpox at Kensington Palace on 28 December 1694 and was buried at Westminster Abbey.[1][23] Upon her death, composer Henry Purcell was commissioned to write her funeral music, entitled Music for the Funeral of Queen Mary.[24] William, who had grown increasingly to rely on Mary, was devastated by her death, reportedly said that "from being the happiest" he was "now going to be the miserablest creature on earth".[2]

Legacy

After Mary II's death, William III continued to rule as King. Princess Anne's last surviving child, William, Duke of Gloucester, died in July 1700, and, as it was clear that William III would have no more children, Parliament passed the Act of Settlement 1701, which provided that after Anne the Crown would go to their nearest Protestant relative, Sophia, Electress of Hanover and her Protestant heirs. When William III died in 1702, he was succeeded by Anne, and she in turn was succeeded by the son of the deceased Electress Sophia, George I.[25]

Mary endowed the College of William and Mary (in the present day Williamsburg, Virginia) in 1693.[26] She also founded the Royal Hospital for Seamen, Greenwich[1] and which spawned The Royal Hospital School.

In popular culture

Mary's life from her childhood to her death forms part of the 1969 BBC drama series The First Churchills, in which she was portrayed by the actress Lisa Daniely. She has also been played by Sarah Crowden in the 1992 film Orlando, based on the novel by Virginia Woolf, and by Rebecca Front in the 1995 film England, My England, the story of the composer Henry Purcell.

Ancestors

Title, styles, honours and arms

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Titles and styles

  • 30 April 1662 – 13 February 1689: Her Highness The Lady Mary[27]
  • 4 November 1677 – 13 February 1689: Her Highness The Princess of Orange
  • 13 February 1689 – 28 December 1694: Her Majesty The Queen

The joint style of William III and Mary II was "William and Mary, by the Grace of God, King and Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, etc." when they ascended the Throne. (The claim to France was only nominal, and had been asserted by every English King since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled.) From 11 April 1689 — when the Estates of Scotland recognised them as Sovereigns — the royal couple used the style "William and Mary, by the Grace of God, King and Queen of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, etc.".[28]

Arms

The arms used by the King and Queen were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); overall an escutcheon Azure billetty and a lion rampant Or (for the House of Orange-Nassau).[29]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Mary II". Mary II (11th Ed. ed.). London: Cambridge University Press. 1911.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "The House Of Stuart: William III and Mary II". English Monarchs. 2004. http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/stuart_6.htm. Retrieved 18 September 2006.  
  3. ^ "Anne Hyde". David Nash Ford's Royal Berkshire History. 2005. http://www.berkshirehistory.com/bios/ahyde.html. Retrieved 18 September 2006.  
  4. ^ a b c d "The House Of Stuart: James II". English Monarchs. 2004. http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/stuart_4.htm. Retrieved 18 September 2006.  
  5. ^ "James II and VII". The Jacobite Heritage. 1997. http://jacobite.ca/kings/james2.htm. Retrieved 18 September 2006.  
  6. ^ Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p.20. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0739420259.
  7. ^ John Pollock. The Policy of Charles II and James II. (1667–87.). http://www.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/camenaref/cmh/cmh509.html.  
  8. ^ a b Nicholas Seager, University of Nottingham (2006-02-09). "Reign of King William III". The Literary Encyclopedia. The Literary Dictionary Company. http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=655. Retrieved 2006-09-19.  
  9. ^ Nenner, Howard (1998). The Right to be King: the Succession to the Crown of England, 1603–1714. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 243. ISBN 0-333-57724-8.  
  10. ^ "Enquiry of the Princess of Orange into the Birth of the Prince of Wales". The Jacobite Heritage. 1688. http://www.jacobite.ca/documents/1688enquiry.htm. Retrieved 19 September 2006.  
  11. ^ a b Donald E. Wilkes Jr. and Matthew Kramer (1997). "The Glorious Revolution of 1688:Chronology". http://www.thegloriousrevolution.org/document.asp?doc=chron. Retrieved 18 September 2006.  
  12. ^ "Mary II (Quote from History of my own Time. G Burnet (1883) Oxford.)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th Ed. ed.). London: Cambridge University Press. 1911.  
  13. ^ "James II". The Royal Household. http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page97.asp. Retrieved 19 September 2006.  
  14. ^ a b c d "King James' Parliament: The succession of William and Mary". The History and Proceedings of the House of Commons : volume 2. British History Online. 1742. pp. 255–77. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=37644. Retrieved 19 September 2006.  
  15. ^ a b "William III and Mary II". The Royal Household. http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page100.asp. Retrieved 18 September 2006.  
  16. ^ "William Sancroft". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2006. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9065428/William-Sancroft. Retrieved 21 September 2006.  
  17. ^ "Historic England - Archbishops of Canterbury". The History of England. http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/England-History/ArchbishopsofCanterbury.htm. Retrieved 18 September 2006.  
  18. ^ "John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st viscount of Dundee". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2006. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9031466/John-Graham-of-Claverhouse-1st-viscount-of-Dundee. Retrieved 21 September 2006.  
  19. ^ "The Contemplator's Short History of "Bonnie Dundee" John Graham, Earl of Claverhouse, Viscount of Dundee". http://www.contemplator.com/history/claverhouse.html. Retrieved 20 September 2006.  
  20. ^ a b c "Bill of Rights". 1689. http://www.constitution.org/eng/eng_bor.htm. Retrieved 19 September 2006.  
  21. ^ Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p.150. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0739420259.
  22. ^ "Gilbert Burnet". NNDB. http://www.nndb.com/people/219/000102910/. Retrieved 19 September 2006.  
  23. ^ "Historic Figures: Mary II of Orange (1662–94)". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mary_ii_of_orange_queen.shtml. Retrieved 19 September 2006.  
  24. ^ "Music for Queen Mary". The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County. http://www.cincinnatilibrary.org/spotlight/feature.asp?id=7882. Retrieved 18 September 2006.  
  25. ^ "The House Of Stuart: Queen Anne". English Monarchs. 2004. http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/stuart_8.htm. Retrieved 18 September 2006.  
  26. ^ "Historical Facts". William and Mary College. 2006. http://www.wm.edu/vitalfacts/seventeenth.php. Retrieved 18 September 2006.  
  27. ^ London Gazette: no. 1249, p. 1, 5 November 1677.
  28. ^ Brewer, E. Cobham (1898). Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Henry Altemus Company. pp. 891.  
  29. ^ "Royal Coats of Arms: England & France". Fleur-de-lis Designs. http://www.fleurdelis.com/royal.htm. Retrieved 18 September 2006.  
  • Waller, Maureen, "Sovereign Ladies: Sex, Sacrifice, and Power. The Six Reigning Queens of England." St. Martin's Press, New York, 2006. ISBN 0-312-33801-5
Mary II of England
Born: 30 April 1662 Died: 28 December 1694
Regnal titles
Preceded by
James II/VII
Queen of England
Queen of Ireland

1689 – 1694
with William III
Succeeded by
William III/II
Queen of Scotland
1689 – 1694
with William II
Dutch nobility
Preceded by
Mary, Princess Royal
Princess consort of Orange
1677 – 1694
Succeeded by
Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel
English royalty
Preceded by
James, Duke of York
Heir to the English and Irish Thrones
as heiress presumptive
Succeeded by
James, Prince of Wales
Heir to the Scottish throne
6 February 1685 – 10 June 1688
Preceded by
James, Prince of Wales
Heir to the English and Irish Thrones
as heir apparent to William III
Succeeded by
Princess Anne of Denmark
Heir to the Scottish throne
13 February 1689 – 28 December 1694
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
James II of England
— TITULAR —
Queen of France
1689 – 1694
with William III of England
Reason for succession failure:
Capetian Succession Failure
Succeeded by
William III of England

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010
(Redirected to Mary Stuart (1662-1694) article)

From Familypedia

Mary Stuart Stuart
Birth April 30, 1662 in London
Death: December 28, 1694 in London
Father: James II of England (1633-1701)
Mother: Anne Hyde (1638-1671)
Husband: Willem III van Oranje (1650-1702)
Wedding: November 1, 1677 in "London"
Sex:
AFN # 96X1-JH
Edit facts
  • Mary II, Queen of England and Ireland
  • Mary II, Queen of Scotland
  • Mary, Princess of Orange, Countess of Nassau, Baroness of Breda

Citations and remarks

Contributors

 


This article uses material from the "Mary Stuart (1662-1694)" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Mary II
Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland

File:Queen Mary
Reign 13 February 1689 – 28 December 1694
Coronation 11 April 1689
Predecessor James II and VII
Co-monarch and spouse

William III and II
House House of Stuart
Father James II of England
Mother Lady Anne Hyde
Born 30 April 1662(1662-04-30)
St. James's Palace, London
Died 28 December 1694 (aged 32)
Kensington Palace, London
Burial Westminster Abbey, London

Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen regnant of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1689 until her death. Mary was a Protestant. She became queen after the Glorious Revolution, which resulted in the deposition of her Roman Catholic father, James II and VII. Mary ruled together with her husband, William III and II. He became the ruler of both countries when she died in 1694. Popular histories usually call their joint reigns as those of "William and Mary". Mary had less power than William when William remained in England. When William went to military campaigns, however, she governed alone. She was a powerful, firm, and effective ruler.[1] She gave most of her authority to her husband, but he greatly depended on her. She was very active in the Church of England, ruling it as its Supreme Governor. Though she shared this position with her husband, she used most of its power herself.

Contents

Early life

Mary was born at St. James Palace in London on 30 April 1662. Her father was James, Duke of York, and her mother was his first wife, Lady Anne Hyde. She was their oldest daughter.[2] Mary's uncle was Charles II. Her grandfather by her mother's side was Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. He served for a long time as Charles's chief advisor. Her mother gave birth to eight children, but only Mary and her younger sister Anne lived to adulthood.[3]

The Duke of York became a Roman Catholic in 1668 or 1669,[4] but Mary and Anne had a Protestant education,[4] as Charles II had commanded.[5][6] Mary's mother died in 1671, and her father married again in 1673. He took Mary of Modena, a Catholic, as his second wife.[7] She was also known as Mary Beatrice d'Este.[7] Before her marriage, Mary wrote many letters to Frances Apsley, the daughter of James II's hawks keeper. However, she did not return Mary's interest.[8]

When she was 15, Lady Mary became betrothed to her first cousin, the Protestant William, Prince of Orange.[1] William was the son of Mary, Princess Royal and Prince William II of Nassau. At first, Charles II did not want Mary to marry William. He wanted Mary to marry the heir to the French Throne, the Dauphin Louis, instead. This was because he hoped that England would become friends with France. He also wanted to have a Catholic successor to the throne. But because of Parliament's pressure, he later approved their marriage.[9] He thought that it would make the Protestants like him more, but he was wrong.[10] Mary and William married in London on 4 November 1677.[6] It was reported that Mary wept through the whole ceremony.[2]

Mary went to the Netherlands and lived there as William's wife.[4] The Dutch people liked her because of her lively, friendly nature, and Mary loved William deeply. However, the marriage was often unhappy. Her three pregnancies ended in miscarriage or stillbirth, and Mary was very sad that she did not have a child. Her husband was often cold to her,[1] and he had an affair with Elizabeth Villiers, one of Mary's ladies-in-waiting, for a long time.[10] After some time, though, he grew warmer towards Mary.[2]

The Glorious Revolution

When Charles II died without any legitimate children in 1685, the Duke of York became King as James II in England and Ireland. He also became James VII in Scotland. He tried to give freedom of religion to non-Anglicans. He did this by making the acts of Parliament invalid by Royal Decree.[5] The public did not like this.[5] Several Protestant politicians and noblemen entered into negotiations (trying to reach agreements through discussion) with Mary's husband as early as 1687. In May 1688, James forced Anglican clergymen to read the Declaration of Indulgence. The Declaration of Indulgence was a statement that gave religious freedom to those who did not agree with the Church of England. This made him much less popular.[5] Protestants became even more fearful when his wife, Mary of Modena, gave birth to a son—James Francis Edward—in June 1688. They were fearful because the son would, unlike Mary and Anne, be raised a Roman Catholic.[4] Some said that the boy had been secretly carried into the Queen's room in a bed-warming pan instead of her stillborn baby.[11] There was no strong proof to support this story, but Mary publicly doubted the boy's legitimacy. She sent a list of suspicious questions to her sister, Anne, about the boy's birth.[12]

On 30 June, the Immortal Seven secretly asked William, who was in the Netherlands with Mary, to come to England with an army.[13] William, who was jealous of Mary's position and power, did not want to go at first.[13] But Mary told William that she did not care about political power. She said "she would be no more but his wife, and that she would do all that lay in her power to make him King for life".[14]

William agreed to attack. He declared that James' newborn son was the "pretended Prince of Wales". He also gave a list of what the English people wanted, and said that he only wanted to have "a free and lawful Parliament assembled".[2] The Dutch army, which had been turned back by a storm in October, landed on 5 November.[13] The English Army and Navy went over to William. At this time, the English people's confidence in James was very low. They did not even try to save their King.[15] On 11 December, the King tried to run away, but failed. He tried to run away again on 23 December. This second attempt was successful, and James escaped to France. He lived there in exile until his death.[5]

Though Mary was sad because of the deposition of her father, William ordered her to look happy when they arrived in London. Because of this, people thought she was being cold to her father. James also thought his daughter was unfaithful to him.[2] This hurt Mary deeply.[2][4]

In 1689, a Convention Parliament called by the Prince of Orange came together to discuss what they should do.[16] William of Orange felt uncomfortable about his position. He wanted to rule as a King, not simply as a husband of a Queen. The only example of joint monarchy was from the sixteenth century. This was Queen Mary I and the Spanish Prince Philip. When they married, it was agreed that Prince Philip would take the title of King. But Philip II was King only during his wife's lifetime. He also did not have much power. William wanted to remain King even after his wife's death. Some important people suggested making Mary the only ruler.[16] But Mary, who was faithful to her husband, refused.[16][4]

On 13 February 1689, Parliament passed the Declaration of Right. In this declaration, it said that James, by trying to run away on 11 December 1688, had abandoned the government, so no one at the time was king.[16][17] Normally, James's oldest son, James Francis Edward would have been the heir. However, Parliament offered the crown to William and Mary as joint Sovereigns instead. But it was added that "the sole and full exercise of the regal (royal) power be only in and executed by the said Prince of Orange in the names of the said Prince and Princess during their joint lives."[16] The declaration was later extended to take out all Catholics. This was because "it hath been found (discovered) by experience that it is inconsistent (not in harmony) with the safety and welfare of this Protestant kingdom to be governed by a papist prince".[17]

William and Mary were crowned together at Westminster Abbey[4] on 11 April 1689. The Archbishop of Canterbury usually performed coronations. But William Sancroft, the Archbishop at that time, felt that James II's removal had been wrong.[18] Therefore, the Bishop of London, Henry Compton, crowned them instead.[18][19] On the day of the Coronation, the Convention of the Estates of Scotland declared at last that James was no longer King of Scotland. William and Mary were offered the separate Scottish Crown.[1] This was because the two kingdoms were not united until the Acts of Union in 1707.[1] They accepted on 11 May.[1]

Even after this was declared, there was still strong support for James in Scotland. John Graham of Clevehouse, the Viscount of Dundee, raised an army and won a victory at Killiecrankie on 27 July. But Dundee's army suffered great losses, and he was seriously wounded at the start of the battle. This stopped the only effective resistance to William, and the revolt was quickly crushed. The next month, there was a great defeat at the Battle of Dunkeld.[20][21]

Rule

In December 1689 Parliament passed one of the most important documents in English history. This was the Bill of Rights.[22] This measure gave several rights to Parliament and the people.[22] Among other things, it declared that the Sovereign could not break laws passed by Parliament, demand taxes if the Parliament did not agree, raise an army during a time of peace if the Parliament did not agree, or punish members of the House of Parliament for anything they said during discussions. [23]

After either William III or Mary II died, the other was to continue to rule. The person who would become the monarch after them would be any of their children. After the children would be Mary's sister Anne and her children. Last of all would be any children William III might have had from any marriage after that.[23]

From 1690, William was often away from England, at first fighting Jacobites in Ireland. While her husband was away, Mary took care of the government. She was a firm ruler, and ordered her own uncle, Henry Hyde, 2nd Earl of Clarendon, to go to prison for trying to put James II back onto the throne. In 1692, she fired and put John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, in prison for similar reasons. This made her much less popular. It also damaged her relationship with her sister, Anne.[1] Anne had been strongly influenced by Churchill's wife, Sarah.[1] She appeared at court with Sarah and supported Churchill, which made Mary very angry. She demanded that Anne make Sarah go away. Mary did not visit Anne during her pregnancy after that.[2] After the baby was born, Mary did visit Anne, but she spent her time berating Anne for her friendship with Sarah.[24] The sisters never saw each other again.[24]

William had crushed the Irish Jacobites by 1692, but he continued with campaigns away from England to begin a war against France in the Netherlands. When William was away, Mary acted in her own name but on his advice. When he was in England, Mary never joined in political matters, as had been agreed in the Bill of Rights.[1][23] However, she did join in the affairs of the Church, and all church matters passed through her hands.[25]

Mary died of smallpox at Kensington Palace on 28 December 1694.[1] She was buried at Westminster Abbey.[1] When she died, Henry Purcell was called to write her funeral music, titled Music for the Funeral of Queen Mary.[26] William had grown to depend on Mary more and more, and was very sad when she died. It is reported that he said that "from being the happiest" he was "now going to be the miserablest creature on earth".[2]

Legacy

After Mary II's death, William III continued to rule as King. Princess Anne's last living child, William, Duke of Gloucester, died in July 1700. Parliament saw that William would have no more children. Because of this, it passed the Act of Settlement 1701. After Anne, the Crown would go to their nearest Protestant relative, Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and her Protestant heirs. When William III died in 1702, he was succeeded by Anne. She was succeeded by the son of Electress Sophia, George I.[27]

Mary gave money to the College of William and Mary (in the present day Williamsburg, Virginia) in 1693.[28] She also began the Royal Hospital for Seamen, Greenwich.[1]

Modern portrayals

  • In the 1969 mini-series, The First Churchills, Mary is acted by Lisa Daniely
  • In the 1992 movie, Orlando, Mary is acted by Sarah Crowden
  • In the 1995 movie, England, My England, Mary is acted by Rebecca Front
  • In the 2005 movie, The League of Gentlemen's Apocalypse, Mary is acted by Victoria Wood

Title, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 30 April 1662 – 13 February 1689: Her Highness The Lady Mary[29]
  • 4 November 1677 – 13 February 1689: Her Highness The Princess of Orange
  • 13 February 1689 – 28 December 1694: Her Majesty The Queen

William III and Mary II called themselves "William and Mary, by the Grace of God, King and Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, etc." when they began their rule. On 11 April 1689, the Estates of Scotland recognized them as Sovereigns. From then on, William and Mary called themselves "William and Mary, by the Grace of God, King and Queen of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, etc.".[30]

Arms

The arms used by the King and Queen were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); overall an escutcheon Azure billetty and a lion rampant Or (for the House of Orange-Nassau).[31]

References

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  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 "Mary II". (11th Ed.). (1911). London: Cambridge University Press. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 "The House Of Stuart: William III and Mary II". English Monarchs. 2004. http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/stuart_6.htm. Retrieved 18 September 2006. 
  3. "Anne Hyde". David Nash Ford's Royal Berkshire History. 2005. http://www.berkshirehistory.com/bios/ahyde.html. Retrieved 18 September 2006. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 "BBC - History - Historic Figures: Mary II (1662 - 1694)". bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/mary_ii_queen.shtml. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 "The House Of Stuart: James II". English Monarchs. 2004. http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/stuart_4.htm. Retrieved 18 September 2006. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Mary II (queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia". britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/367538/Mary-II. Retrieved 15 April 2010. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "James II and VII". The Jacobite Heritage. 1997. http://jacobite.ca/kings/james2.htm. Retrieved 18 September 2006. 
  8. Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p.20. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0739420259.
  9. John Pollock. The Policy of Charles II and James II. (1667–87.). http://www.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/camenaref/cmh/cmh509.html. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Nicholas Seager, University of Nottingham (2006-02-09). "Reign of King William III". The Literary Encyclopedia. The Literary Dictionary Company. Retrieved on 19 September 2006. 
  11. Nenner, Howard (1998). The Right to be King: the Succession to the Crown of England, 1603–1714. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 243. ISBN 0-333-57724-8. 
  12. "Enquiry of the Princess of Orange into the Birth of the Prince of Wales". The Jacobite Heritage. 1688. http://www.jacobite.ca/documents/1688enquiry.htm. Retrieved 19 September 2006. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Donald E. Wilkes Jr. and Matthew Kramer (1997). "The Glorious Revolution of 1688:Chronology". http://www.thegloriousrevolution.org/document.asp?doc=chron. Retrieved 18 September 2006. 
  14. "Mary II (Quote from History of my own Time. G Burnet (1883) Oxford.)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th Ed.). (1911). London: Cambridge University Press. 
  15. "James II". The Royal Household. http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page97.asp. Retrieved 19 September 2006. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 (1742) "King James' Parliament: The succession of William and Mary", The History and Proceedings of the House of Commons : volume 2. British History Online, 255–77. Retrieved on 19 September 2006.
  17. 17.0 17.1 "William III and Mary II". The Royal Household. http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page100.asp. Retrieved 18 September 2006. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 "William Sancroft". Encyclopædia Britannica. (2006). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 21 September 2006. 
  19. "Historic England - Archbishops of Canterbury". The History of England. http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/England-History/ArchbishopsofCanterbury.htm. Retrieved 18 September 2006. 
  20. "John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st viscount of Dundee". Encyclopædia Britannica. (2006). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 21 September 2006. 
  21. "The Contemplator's Short History of "Bonnie Dundee" John Graham, Earl of Claverhouse, Viscount of Dundee". http://www.contemplator.com/history/claverhouse.html. Retrieved 20 September 2006. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Koontz, Terri; Mark Sidwell, S.M.Bunker. World Studies. Greenville, South Carolina 29614: Bob Jones University Press. ISBN 1-59166-431-4. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 "Bill of Rights". 1689. http://www.constitution.org/eng/eng_bor.htm. Retrieved 19 September 2006. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p.150. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0739420259.
  25. "Gilbert Burnet". NNDB. http://www.nndb.com/people/219/000102910/. Retrieved 19 September 2006. 
  26. "Music for Queen Mary". The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County. http://www.cincinnatilibrary.org/spotlight/feature.asp?id=7882. Retrieved 18 September 2006. 
  27. "The House Of Stuart: Queen Anne". English Monarchs. 2004. http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/stuart_8.htm. Retrieved 18 September 2006. 
  28. "Historical Facts". William and Mary College. 2006. http://www.wm.edu/vitalfacts/seventeenth.php. Retrieved 18 September 2006. 
  29. London Gazette: no. 1249, p. 1, 5 November 1677.
  30. Brewer, E. Cobham (1898). Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Philadelphia: Henry Altemus Company. pp. 891. 
  31. "Royal Coats of Arms: England & France". Fleur-de-lis Designs. http://www.fleurdelis.com/royal.htm. Retrieved 18 September 2006. 



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