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Half-length portrait of a woman wearing a black dress sitting on a red sofa. Her dress is off the shoulder, exposing her shoulders. The brush strokes are broad.
Richard Rothwell's portrait of Mary Shelley was shown at the Royal Academy in 1840, accompanied by lines from Percy Shelley's poem The Revolt of Islam calling her a "child of love and light".[1]
.Mary Shelley (née Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin; 30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was a British novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus (1818).^ Glimmer Train has just chosen the winning stories for their November Short Story Award for New Writers competition.
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^ The next Short Story Award for New Writers competition will be held in February.
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^ February Short Story Contests, Residencies, and Awards originally appeared on About.com Fiction Writing on Wednesday, January 20th, 2010 at… .
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She also edited and promoted the works of her husband, the Romantic poet and philosopher Percy Bysshe Shelley. Her father was the political philosopher William Godwin, and her mother was the philosopher and feminist Mary Wollstonecraft.
Mary Godwin's mother died when she was eleven days old; afterwards, she and her older half-sister, Fanny Imlay, were raised by her father. When Mary was four, Godwin married his neighbour, Mary Jane Clairmont. Godwin provided his daughter with a rich, if informal, education, encouraging her to adhere to his liberal political theories. In 1814, Mary Godwin began a romantic relationship with one of her father’s political followers, the married Percy Bysshe Shelley. Together with Mary's stepsister, Claire Clairmont, they left for France and travelled through Europe; upon their return to England, Mary was pregnant with Percy's child. Over the next two years, she and Percy faced ostracism, constant debt, and the death of their prematurely born daughter. They married in late 1816 after the suicide of Percy Shelley's first wife, Harriet.
In 1816, the couple famously spent a summer with Lord Byron, John William Polidori, and Claire Clairmont near Geneva, Switzerland, where Mary conceived the idea for her novel Frankenstein. The Shelleys left Britain in 1818 for Italy, where their second and third children died before Mary Shelley gave birth to her last and only surviving child, Percy Florence. In 1822, her husband drowned when his sailing boat sank during a storm in the Bay of La Spezia. A year later, Mary Shelley returned to England and from then on devoted herself to the upbringing of her son and a career as a professional author. The last decade of her life was dogged by illness, probably caused by the brain tumour that was to kill her at the age of 53.
Until the 1970s, Mary Shelley was known mainly for her efforts to publish Percy Shelley's works and for her novel Frankenstein, which remains widely read and has inspired many theatrical and film adaptations. Recent scholarship has yielded a more comprehensive view of Mary Shelley’s achievements. Scholars have shown increasing interest in her literary output, particularly in her novels, which include the historical novels Valperga (1823) and Perkin Warbeck (1830), the apocalyptic novel The Last Man (1826), and her final two novels, Lodore (1835) and Falkner (1837). .Studies of her lesser-known works such as the travel book Rambles in Germany and Italy (1844) and the biographical articles for Dionysius Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia (1829–46) support the growing view that Mary Shelley remained a political radical throughout her life.^ It was for this reason that I was led to hope that within a short time we should have such a large quantity of books that there wouldn’t be a single work which could not be… The Write News .
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^ A while ago I realized that my life’s work is in books, and more recently I found that that’s in writing them and designing them.
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^ Claims to be “… the internet’s most comprehensive travel website to Italy.” Considers: Short articles (Ca.
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Mary Shelley's works often argue that cooperation and sympathy, particularly as practised by women in the family, were the ways to reform civil society. This view was a direct challenge to the individualistic Romantic ethos promoted by Percy Shelley and the Enlightenment political theories articulated by her father, William Godwin.

Biography

Early life

Neat and organized handwritten page from William Godwin's journal.
Page from William Godwin's journal recording "Birth of Mary, 20 minutes after 11 at night" (left column, four rows down)
Mary Shelley was born Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin in Somers Town, London, in 1797. She was the second child of the feminist philosopher, educator, and writer Mary Wollstonecraft, and the first child of the philosopher, novelist, and journalist William Godwin. Wollstonecraft died of puerperal fever ten days after Mary was born. Godwin was left to bring up Mary, along with her older half-sister, Fanny Imlay, Wollstonecraft's child by the American speculator Gilbert Imlay.[2] .A year after Wollstonecraft's death, Godwin published his Memoirs of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1798), which he intended as a sincere and compassionate tribute.^ There has been a lot of news lately about authors breaking from their traditional publishers when it comes to electronic rights.
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However, because the Memoirs revealed Wollstonecraft's affairs and her illegitimate child, they were seen as shocking. .Mary Godwin read these memoirs and her mother's books, and was brought up to cherish her mother's memory.^ Tidbits of Time In a memoir book?memory is the connector.
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^ In their own ways, all of these things are threatening the sale and reading (and writing) of books as we know it.
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[3]
Mary's earliest years were happy ones, judging from the letters of William Godwin's housekeeper and nurse, Louisa Jones.[4] .But Godwin was often deeply in debt; feeling that he could not raise the children by himself, he cast about for a second wife.^ I was deeply offended by their presumption that I could never be less judgmental, even though my sister and I have raised judging others to an art form.So I've been seriously thinking about being judgmental.
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[5] In December 1801, he married Mary Jane Clairmont, a well-educated woman with two young children of her own—Charles and Claire.[note 1] Most of Godwin’s friends disliked his new wife, describing her as quick-tempered and quarrelsome;[6][note 2] but Godwin was devoted to her, and the marriage was a success.[7] Mary Godwin, on the other hand, came to detest her stepmother.[8] William Godwin's 19th-century biographer C. Kegan Paul later suggested that Mrs Godwin had favoured her own children over Mary Wollstonecraft’s.[9]
.Together, the Godwins started a publishing firm called M. J. Godwin, which sold children's books as well as stationery, maps, and games.^ We have many visitors to this site who are interested in writing children’s books as well as numerous seasoned authors… The Adventurous Writer .
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^ Interested in learning how to write a book and send it to children’s book publishers?
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^ However, that doesn't stop publishing from postponing a children's book about smuggling dolls onto planes (but not bombs, and not in crotches!
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.However, the business did not turn a profit, and Godwin was forced to borrow substantial sums to keep it going.^ His gut screamed at him to keep going, but his brain, in calm control, forced the fear down.
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[10] .He continued to borrow to pay off earlier loans, compounding his problems.^ This article continues from where we left off in our earlier post ‘Stepping into the world of freelance writing’.
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By 1809, Godwin's business was close to failure and he was "near to despair".[11] Godwin was saved from debtor's prison by philosophical devotees such as Francis Place, who lent him further money.[12]
Black-and-white engraving showing London buildings in the background and carriages and people in the foreground.
The Polygon (at left) in Somers Town, London, between Camden Town and St Pancras, where Mary Godwin was born and spent her earliest years
Though Mary Godwin received little formal education, her father tutored her in a broad range of subjects. .He often took the children on educational outings, and they had access to his library and to the many intellectuals who visited him, including the Romantic poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge and the former vice-president of the United States Aaron Burr.^ On January 4th, 1943, Slovenian-American author Louis Adamic wrote the following heartfelt letter to ex-President of the United States, Herbert Hoover.
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^ We have many visitors to this site who are interested in writing children’s books as well as numerous seasoned authors… The Adventurous Writer .
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[13] .Godwin admitted he was not educating the children according to Mary Wollstonecraft's philosophy as outlined in works such as A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), but Mary Godwin nonetheless received an unusual and advanced education for a girl of the time.^ It was for this reason that I was led to hope that within a short time we should have such a large quantity of books that there wouldn’t be a single work which could not be… The Write News .
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.She had a governess, a daily tutor, and read many of her father's children's books on Roman and Greek history in manuscript.^ We have many visitors to this site who are interested in writing children’s books as well as numerous seasoned authors… The Adventurous Writer .
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[14] For six months in 1811, she also attended a boarding school in Ramsgate.[15] Her father described her at fifteen as "singularly bold, somewhat imperious, and active of mind. Her desire of knowledge is great, and her perseverance in everything she undertakes almost invincible."[16]
In June 1812, her father sent Mary to stay with the Dissenting family of the radical William Baxter, near Dundee, Scotland.[17] To Baxter, he wrote, "I am anxious that she should be brought up ... like a philosopher, even like a cynic."[18] Scholars have speculated that she may have been sent away for her health, to remove her from the seamy side of business, or to introduce her to radical politics.[19] Mary Godwin revelled in the spacious surroundings of Baxter's house and in the companionship of his four daughters, and she returned north in the summer of 1813 for a further stay of ten months.[20] In the 1831 introduction to Frankenstein, she recalled: "I wrote then—but in a most common-place style. It was beneath the trees of the grounds belonging to our house, or on the bleak sides of the woodless mountains near, that my true compositions, the airy flights of my imagination, were born and fostered."[21]

Percy Bysshe Shelley

Black-and-white engraving of a church in the background, with a river flowing in the front. Two people are sitting on the bank and one is swimming. Trees frame the picture.
.
On 26 June 1814, Mary declared her love for Percy at Mary Wollstonecraft's graveside in the cemetery of St Pancras Old Church (shown here in 1815).
^ The Romanian Food Festival held in Colleyville at St. Mary's Romanian Orthodox Church is small, but well organized with plenty of food.
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[22]
Mary Godwin may have first met the radical poet-philosopher Percy Bysshe Shelley in the interval between her two stays in Scotland.[23] By the time she returned home for a second time on 30 March 1814, Percy Shelley had become estranged from his wife and was regularly visiting Godwin, whom he had agreed to bail out of debt.[24] .Percy Shelley's radicalism, particularly his economic views, which he had imbibed from Godwin's Political Justice (1793), had alienated him from his wealthy aristocratic family: they wanted him to follow traditional models of the landed aristocracy, and he wanted to donate large amounts of the family's money to schemes intended to help the disadvantaged.^ Sure, it would be nice, but, in the grand scheme of things that I want to accomplish, they really are minimal.
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Percy Shelley therefore had difficulty gaining access to money until he inherited his estate because his family did not want him wasting it on projects of "political justice". After several months of promises, Shelley announced that he either could not or would not pay off all of Godwin's debts. Godwin was angry and felt betrayed.[25]
Mary and Percy began meeting each other secretly at Mary Wollstonecraft's grave in St Pancras Churchyard, and they fell in love—she was nearly seventeen, he nearly twenty-two.[26] To Mary's dismay, her father disapproved and tried to thwart the relationship and salvage the "spotless fame" of his daughter. At about the same time, Godwin learned of Shelley's inability to pay off his loans for him.[27] Mary, who later wrote of "my excessive and romantic attachment to my father",[28] was confused. She saw Percy Shelley as an embodiment of her parents' liberal and reformist ideas of the 1790s, particularly Godwin's view that marriage was a repressive monopoly, which he had argued in his 1793 edition of Political Justice but since retracted.[29] On 28 July 1814, the couple secretly left for France, taking Mary's stepsister, Claire Clairmont, with them[30], but leaving Percy's pregnant wife behind.
After convincing Mary Jane Godwin, who had pursued them to Calais, that they did not wish to return, the trio travelled to Paris, and then, by donkey, mule, and carriage, through a France recently ravaged by war, to Switzerland. ."It was acting in a novel, being an incarnate romance," Mary Shelley recalled in 1826.[31] As they travelled, Mary and Percy read works by Mary Wollstonecraft and others, kept a joint journal, and continued their own writing.^ It seems like something for “other people.” It seems like they’d need a personality transplant to make it work for them.
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^ In their own ways, all of these things are threatening the sale and reading (and writing) of books as we know it.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ By reading other professional writers' work, you will learn how literature is crafted.
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[32] At Lucerne, lack of money forced the three to turn back. They travelled down the Rhine and by land to the Dutch port of Marsluys, arriving at Gravesend, Kent, on 13 September 1814.[33]
Half-length oval portrait of a man wearing a black jacket and a white shirt, which is askew and open to his chest.
Percy Bysshe Shelley was inspired by the radicalism of Godwin's Political Justice (1793). When the poet Robert Southey met Shelley, he felt as if he were seeing himself from the 1790s.[34] (Portrait by Amelia Curran, 1819.)
The situation awaiting Mary Godwin in England was fraught with complications, some of which she had not foreseen. Either before or during the journey, she had become pregnant. She and Percy now found themselves penniless, and, to Mary's genuine surprise, her father refused to have anything to do with her.[35] The couple moved with Claire into lodgings at Somers Town, and later, Nelson Square. They maintained their intense programme of reading and writing and entertained Percy Shelley's friends, such as Thomas Jefferson Hogg and the writer Thomas Love Peacock.[36] Percy Shelley sometimes left home for short periods to dodge creditors.[37] The couple's distraught letters reveal their pain at these separations.[38]
Pregnant and often ill, Mary Godwin had to cope with Percy's joy at the birth of his son by Harriet Shelley in late 1814 and his constant outings with Claire Clairmont.[note 3] She was partly consoled by the visits of Hogg, whom she disliked at first but soon considered a close friend.[39] .Percy Shelley seems to have wanted Mary Godwin and Hogg to become lovers;[40] Mary did not dismiss the idea, since in principle she believed in free love.^ I’ve been wanting to compile a list of many of these types pages for some time, and since we’re talking about markets this week, it seemed to be as good a time as any.
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[41] .In practice, however, she loved only Percy Shelley and seems to have ventured no further than flirting with Hogg.^ When I read that, I realized one thing: that I need go no further than my own interior, my own experience, for whatever I wanted to write.
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[42][note 4] On 22 February 1815, she gave birth to a two-months premature baby girl, who was not expected to survive.[43] On 6 March, she wrote to Hogg:
.My dearest Hogg my baby is dead—will you come to see me as soon as you can.^ Let’s see what you can come up with.
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^ Can you share some quick insights on how you developed plots and characters?My methods of work are very simple & soon told.
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^ My question is: Have you come across this company and do you have… Writing Forward .
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I wish to see you—It was perfectly well when I went to bed—I awoke in the night to give it suck it appeared to be sleeping so quietly that I would not awake it. .It was dead then, but we did not find that out till morning—from its appearance it evidently died of convulsions—Will you come—you are so calm a creature & Shelley is afraid of a fever from the milk—for I am no longer a mother now.^ What did you find today?
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^ Now, of course, if you’re sitting on a feed count of 400 subscribers today, there’s no… .
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^ So I sent the book out to a super copy editor (if you need a copy editor, let me know and I'll put you in touch) and cleaned up everything we could find.I'm in… .
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[44]
The loss of her child induced acute depression in Mary Godwin, who was haunted by visions of the baby; but she conceived again and had recovered by the summer.[45] With a revival in Percy Shelley's finances after the death of his grandfather, Sir Bysshe Shelley, the couple holidayed in Torquay and then rented a two-storey cottage at Bishopsgate, on the edge of Windsor Great Park.[46] .Little is known about this period in Mary Godwin's life, since her journal from May 1815 to July 1816 is lost.^ In my ministry as a Life on Life Coach, I often ask those I coach to begin journaling about the things they are processing.
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At Bishopsgate, Percy wrote his poem Alastor; and on 24 January 1816, Mary gave birth to a second child, William, named after her father and soon nicknamed "Willmouse". In her novel The Last Man, she later imagined Windsor as a Garden of Eden.[47]

Lake Geneva and Frankenstein

Handwritten manuscript of Frankenstein.
Draft of Frankenstein ("It was on a dreary night of November that I beheld my man completed ...")
In May 1816, Mary Godwin, Percy Shelley, and their son travelled to Geneva with Claire Clairmont. They planned to spend the summer with the poet Lord Byron, whose recent affair with Claire had left her pregnant.[48] The party arrived at Geneva on 14 May 1816, where Mary called herself "Mrs Shelley". Byron joined them on 25 May, with his young physician, John William Polidori,[49] and rented the Villa Diodati, close to Lake Geneva at the village of Cologny; Percy Shelley rented a smaller building called Maison Chapuis on the waterfront nearby.[50] .They spent their time writing, boating on the lake, and talking late into the night.^ Regular readers are familiar with you and your content, so they’re already keyed into how you write and what you’re about.
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[51]
."It proved a wet, ungenial summer", Mary Shelley remembered in 1831, "and incessant rain often confined us for days to the house".[52][note 5] Amongst other subjects, the conversation turned to the experiments of the 18th-century natural philosopher and poet Erasmus Darwin, who was said to have animated dead matter, and to galvanism and the feasibility of returning a corpse or assembled body parts to life.^ In this video, we’ll give you some tips for avoiding what *not* to write about, and how to mine your own life experiences for great subjects.
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[53] .Sitting around a log fire at Byron's villa, the company also amused themselves by reading German ghost stories, prompting Byron to suggest they each write their own supernatural tale.^ When I read that, I realized one thing: that I need go no further than my own interior, my own experience, for whatever I wanted to write.
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^ Readers will suspend disbelief about your book, but they never truly forget that they’re reading a story you wrote.
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^ I’ve had a request to write about the ‘creative process’ sitting in my suggestion box for several months now.
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Shortly afterwards, in a waking dream, Mary Godwin conceived the idea for Frankenstein:
I saw the pale student of unhallowed arts kneeling beside the thing he had put together. .I saw the hideous phantasm of a man stretched out, and then, on the working of some powerful engine, show signs of life, and stir with an uneasy, half vital motion.^ In Signs of Self-Sabotage in the Writing Life, I described what being afraid of succeeding looks like for some aspiring and established writers.
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^ I don’t want to suck the life out of my work after all.
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^ Ten Search Engines Powered by Twitter from Search Engine Guide, shows that even your Tweets matter to SEO. 80 Ways to Use twitter as a Small Business Owner by Lisa Barone has some good tips for getting the most out of your TwitterTime.
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Frightful must it be; for supremely frightful would be the effect of any human endeavour to mock the stupendous mechanism of the Creator of the world.[54][note 6]
She began writing what she assumed would be a short story. With Percy Shelley's encouragement, she expanded this tale into her first novel, Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus, published in 1818.[55] She later described that summer in Switzerland as the moment "when I first stepped out from childhood into life".[49]

Bath and Marlow

On their return to England in September, Mary and Percy moved—with Claire Clairmont, who took lodgings nearby—to Bath, where they hoped to keep Claire’s pregnancy secret.[56] .At Cologny, Mary Godwin had received two letters from her half-sister, Fanny Imlay, who alluded to her "unhappy life"; on 9 October, Fanny wrote an "alarming letter" from Bristol that sent Percy Shelley racing off to search for her, without success.^ At that point, Nell had been raising four children—two daughters and two sons—for half her life.
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On the morning of 10 October, Fanny Imlay was found dead in a room at a Swansea inn, along with a suicide note and a laudanum bottle. On 10 December, Percy Shelley's wife, Harriet, was discovered drowned in the Serpentine, a lake in Hyde Park, London.[57] Both suicides were hushed up. Harriet’s family obstructed Percy Shelley's efforts—fully supported by Mary Godwin—to assume custody of his two children by Harriet. .His lawyers advised him to improve his case by marrying; so he and Mary, who was pregnant again, married on 30 December 1816 at St Mildred's Church, Bread Street, London.^ The Romanian Food Festival held in Colleyville at St. Mary's Romanian Orthodox Church is small, but well organized with plenty of food.
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[58] Mr and Mrs Godwin were present and the marriage ended the family rift.[59]
Claire Clairmont gave birth to a baby girl on 13 January, at first called Alba, later Allegra.[60][note 7] In March of that year, the Chancery Court ruled Percy Shelley morally unfit to assume custody of his children and later placed them with a clergyman's family.[61] Also in March, the Shelleys moved with Claire and Alba to Albion House at Marlow, Buckinghamshire, a large, damp building on the river Thames. There Mary Shelley gave birth to her third child, Clara, on 2 September. .At Marlow, they entertained their new friends Marianne and Leigh Hunt, worked hard at their writing, and often discussed politics.^ It was for this reason that I was led to hope that within a short time we should have such a large quantity of books that there wouldn’t be a single work which could not be… The Write News .
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^ In 2009 seven Fellows spent four weeks in Provincetown, Massachusetts where they wrote, discussed their work, and were visited by writers such as Don DeLillo; editors and writers from leading publications such as the New York Review of… .
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[62]
.Early in the summer of 1817, Mary Shelley finished Frankenstein, which was published anonymously in January 1818. Reviewers and readers assumed that Percy Shelley was the author, since the book was published with his preface and dedicated to his political hero William Godwin.^ This is a book with a history that deserves some brief explanation, as it’s a great example of an author using social media technologies in an innovative way to both write and publish a book.
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^ But, on the other side of the coin, publishers are entrusted with authors’ content and don’t want it to lose potential profits either while sending out ARCs for review.
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^ Ruth Ann Nordin has offered advice on how authors can increase their book sales, based on her own experience in selling her self-published book.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[63] .At Marlow, Mary edited the joint journal of the group's 1814 Continental journey, adding material written in Switzerland in 1816, along with Percy's poem "Mont Blanc". The result was the History of a Six Weeks' Tour, published in November 1817. That autumn, Percy Shelley often lived away from home in London to evade creditors.^ For the rest of that week, I wrote whenever time allowed me to pull out my little book—on the streets, on the trains, in the backs of churches while the rest of my group finished touring,… .
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The threat of a debtor's prison, combined with their ill health and fears of losing custody of their children, contributed to the couple's decision to leave England for Italy on 12 March 1818, taking Claire Clairmont and Alba with them.[64] They had no intention of returning.[65]

Italy

Black-and-white half-length portrait of a toddler, wearing a small shirt that is falling off of his body, revealing half of his chest. He has short blonde hair and is holding a rose.
William "Willmouse" Shelley, painted just before his death from malaria in 1819 (portrait by Amelia Curran, 1819)
One of the party's first tasks on arriving in Italy was to hand Alba over to Byron, who was living in Venice. He had agreed to raise her so long as Claire had nothing more to do with her.[66] .The Shelleys then embarked on a roving existence, never settling in any one place for long.^ I know, it being a long debate, a never ending one and this blog/post will do nothing to take it towards a constructive solution..
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[67][note .8] Along the way, they accumulated a circle of friends and acquaintances who often moved with them.^ I accumulate a number of literary journals through subscriptions and purchases and freebies, and after I’m done with them I try to find ways to pass them along, usually involved with a class I’m teaching.
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.The couple devoted their time to writing, reading, learning, sightseeing, and socialising.^ A couple of entries ago, I suggested making things easy on yourself by writing shorter blog posts from time to time (or all the time if it fits your blog).
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^ And sadly I don’t have enough time to do the reading & write it up properly for you.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

The Italian adventure was, however, blighted for Mary Shelley by the deaths of both her children—Clara, in September 1818 in Venice, and William, in June 1819 in Rome.[68][note 9] These losses left her in a deep depression that isolated her from Percy Shelley,[69] who wrote in his notebook:
My dearest Mary, wherefore hast thou gone,
And left me in this dreary world alone?
Thy form is here indeed—a lovely one—
But thou art fled, gone down a dreary road
That leads to Sorrow’s most obscure abode.
For thine own sake I cannot follow thee
Do thou return for mine.[70]
.For a time, Mary Shelley found comfort only in her writing.^ The only reason I write is because it interests me more than any other activity I've ever found.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ I’ve been spending serious journal time doodling content and concept ideas, but had not found an entry point to begin writing.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[71] .The birth of her fourth child, Percy Florence, on 12 November 1819, finally lifted her spirits,[72] though she nursed the memory of her lost children till the end of her life.^ Be it about the day’s happenings, what they’re thinking that day, memories sparked by their life or even something their children do.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[73]
Italy provided the Shelleys, Byron, and other exiles with a political freedom unattainable at home. Despite its associations with personal loss, Italy became for Mary Shelley "a country which memory painted as paradise".[74] Their Italian years were a time of intense intellectual and creative activity for both Shelleys. While Percy composed a series of major poems, Mary wrote the autobiographical novel Matilda, the historical novel Valperga, and the plays Proserpine and Midas. Mary wrote Valperga to help alleviate her father's financial difficulties, as Percy refused to assist him further.[75] She was often physically ill, however, and prone to depressions. She also had to cope with Percy’s interest in other women, such as Sophia Stacey, Emilia Viviani, and Jane Williams.[76] Since Mary Shelley shared his belief in the non-exclusivity of marriage, she formed emotional ties of her own among the men and women of their circle. She became particularly fond of the Greek revolutionary Prince Alexander Mavrocordato and of Jane and Edward Williams.[77][note 10]
In December 1818, the Shelleys travelled south with Claire Clairmont and their servants to Naples, where they stayed for three months, receiving only one visitor, a physician.[78] In 1820, they found themselves plagued by accusations and threats from Paolo and Elise Foggi, former servants whom Percy Shelley had dismissed in Naples shortly after the Foggis had married.[79] The pair revealed that on 27 February 1819 in Naples, Percy Shelley had registered as his child by Mary Shelley a two-month-old baby girl named Elena Adelaide Shelley.[80] The Foggis also claimed that Claire Clairmont was the baby's mother.[81] Biographers have offered various interpretations of these events: that Percy Shelley decided to adopt a local child; that the baby was his by Elise, Claire, or an unknown woman; or that she was Elise’s by Byron.[82][note .11] Mary Shelley insisted she would have known if Claire had been pregnant, but it is unclear how much she really knew.^ Finding out how much this site is appreciated has really inspired and re-committed me.
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^ The box was silent, and even the onlookers from the centre windows were hushed, for they knew how much this meant to Nero, and to the future of Bloodbox.
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[83] The events in Naples, a city Mary Shelley later called a paradise inhabited by devils,[84] remain shrouded in mystery.[note 12] The only certainty is that she herself was not the child’s mother.[84] Elena Adelaide Shelley died in Naples on 9 June 1820.[85]
Portrait of a woman showing her neck and head. She has brown hair in ringlet curls and we can see the ruffle from the top of her dress. The painting is done in a palette of oranges and browns.
Claire Clairmont, Mary's stepsister and mistress of Lord Byron (portrait by Amelia Curran, 1819)
In the summer of 1822, a pregnant Mary moved with Percy, Claire, and Edward and Jane Williams to the isolated Villa Magni, at the sea's edge near the hamlet of San Terenzo in the Bay of Lerici. Once they were settled in, Percy broke the "evil news" to Claire that her daughter Allegra had died of typhus in a convent at Bagnacavallo.[86] Mary Shelley was distracted and unhappy in the cramped and remote Villa Magni, which she came to regard as a dungeon.[87] On 16 June, she miscarried, losing so much blood that she nearly died. Rather than wait for a doctor, Percy sat her in a bath of ice to staunch the bleeding, an act the doctor later told him saved her life.[88] .All was not well between the couple that summer, however, and Percy spent more time with Jane Williams than with his depressed and debilitated wife.^ A couple of entries ago, I suggested making things easy on yourself by writing shorter blog posts from time to time (or all the time if it fits your blog).
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^ This time around — and in the spirit of the season, of course — we have a real prize, kindly donated by none other than one of our more prolific members, smac972.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Thanks for all the feedback to my post, Making More Time To Write: Cleaning Up Your Inbox and Improving Your E-mail System.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[89] Most of the short poems Shelley wrote at San Terenzo were addressed to Jane rather than to Mary.
The coast offered Percy Shelley and Edward Williams the chance to enjoy their "perfect plaything for the summer", a new sailing boat.[90] The boat had been designed by Daniel Roberts and Edward Trelawny, an admirer of Byron's who had joined the party in January 1822.[91] On 1 July 1822, Percy Shelley, Edward Ellerker Williams, and Captain Daniel Roberts sailed south down the coast to Livorno. There Percy Shelley discussed with Byron and Leigh Hunt the launch of a radical magazine called The Liberal.[92] On 8 July, he and Edward Williams set out on the return journey to Lerici with their eighteen-year-old boatboy, Charles Vivian.[93] They never reached their destination. A letter arrived at Villa Magni from Hunt to Percy Shelley, dated 8 July, saying, "pray write to tell us how you got home, for they say you had bad weather after you sailed monday & we are anxious".[94] "The paper fell from me," Mary told a friend later. "I trembled all over."[94] She and Jane Williams rushed desperately to Livorno and then to Pisa in the fading hope that their husbands were still alive. Ten days after the storm, three bodies washed up on the coast near Viareggio, midway between Livorno and Lerici. Trelawny, Byron, and Hunt cremated Percy Shelley’s corpse on the beach at Viareggio.[95]

Return to England and writing career

"[Frankenstein] is the most wonderful work to have been written at twenty years of age that I ever heard of. You are now five and twenty. And, most fortunately, you have pursued a course of reading, and cultivated your mind in a manner the most admirably adapted to make you a great and successful author. If you cannot be independent, who should be?"
— William Godwin to Mary Shelley[96]
After her husband's death, Mary Shelley lived for a year with Leigh Hunt and his family in Genoa, where she often saw Byron and transcribed his poems. She resolved to live by her pen and for her son, but her financial situation was precarious. On 23 July 1823, she left Genoa for England and stayed with her father and stepmother in the Strand until a small advance from her father-in-law enabled her to lodge nearby.[97] Sir Timothy Shelley had at first agreed to support his grandson, Percy Florence, only if he were handed over to an appointed guardian. Mary Shelley rejected this idea instantly.[98] .She managed instead to wring out of Sir Timothy a limited annual allowance (which she had to repay when Percy Florence inherited the estate), but to the end of his days he refused to meet her in person and dealt with her only through lawyers.^ Picture it: I just came home from a long day, am tired, just want to flip through my mail and start thinking about what to do for supper, and instead I’m trying to figure out why these people… .
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Mary Shelley busied herself with editing her husband's poems, among other literary endeavors, but concern for her son restricted her options. Sir Timothy threatened to stop the allowance if any biography of the poet were published.[99] In 1826, Percy Florence became the legal heir of the Shelley estate after the death of Charles Shelley, his father's son by Harriet Shelley. Sir Timothy raised Mary's allowance from £100 a year to £250 but remained as difficult as ever.[100] Mary Shelley enjoyed the stimulating society of William Godwin's circle, but poverty prevented her from socialising as she wished. .She also felt ostracised by those who, like Sir Timothy, still disapproved of her relationship with Percy Bysshe Shelley.^ For those of you who like to kick it old-school, you can still get a brand new vintage-looking pencil sharpener.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Instead of making money, they complain about those who do while obsessing over words like ”genuine”, “authentic” and “transparent.”… .
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^ And for those who can’t attend but still want the content, I will make audio recordings available for each session for registered attendees even if you can’t actually be there.
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[101]
In the summer of 1824, Mary Shelley moved to Kentish Town in north London to be near Jane Williams. She may have been, in the words of her biographer Muriel Spark, "a little in love" with Jane. Jane later disillusioned her by gossiping that Percy had preferred her to Mary, owing to Mary's inadequacy as a wife.[102] .At around this time, Mary Shelley was working on her novel, The Last Man (1826); and she assisted a series of friends who were writing memoirs of Byron and Percy Shelley—the beginnings of her attempts to immortalise her husband.^ Thanks to all of you who took the time to write me about errors and formatting issues!
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^ Can I produce good writing with serious time constraints?
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ It was for this reason that I was led to hope that within a short time we should have such a large quantity of books that there wouldn’t be a single work which could not be… The Write News .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[103] She also met the American actor John Howard Payne and the American writer Washington Irving, who intrigued her. Payne fell in love with her and in 1826 asked her to marry him. She refused, saying that after being married to one genius, she could only marry another.[104] Payne accepted the rejection and tried without success to talk his friend Irving into proposing himself. Mary Shelley was aware of Payne's plan, but how seriously she took it is unclear.[105]
Oval portrait of a woman wearing a shawl and a thin circlet around her head. It is painted on a flax colored background.
Reginald Easton's miniature of Mary Shelley is allegedly drawn from her death mask (c. 1857).[106]
In 1827, Mary Shelley was party to a scheme that enabled her friend Isabel Robinson and Isabel's lover, Mary Diana Dods, who wrote under the name David Lyndsay, to embark on a life together in France as man and wife.[107][note 13] With the help of Payne, whom she kept in the dark about the details, Mary Shelley obtained false passports for the couple.[108] In 1828, she fell ill with smallpox while visiting them in Paris. Weeks later she recovered, unscarred but without her youthful beauty.[109]
During the period 1827–40, Mary Shelley was busy as an editor and writer. She wrote the novels Perkin Warbeck (1830), Lodore (1835), and Falkner (1837). She contributed five volumes of Lives of Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and French authors to Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia. She also wrote stories for ladies' magazines. .She was still helping to support her father, and they looked out for publishers for each other.^ I’m looking for someone to help with the quarterly taxes and a few other small business matters relating to this blog network only.
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^ Linktopia with the help of Judge Page and we spend our time at neurosciencemarketing.com because they offer three compelling stories that can relate to the publishing business.
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^ So let’s help each other out by sharing our favorites.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[110] In 1830, she sold the copyright for a new edition of Frankenstein for £60 to Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley for their new Standard Novels series.[111] After her father's death in 1836 at the age of eighty, she began assembling his letters and a memoir for publication, as he had requested in his will; but after two years of work, she abandoned the project.[112] Throughout this period, she also championed Percy Shelley's poetry, promoting its publication and quoting it in her writing. By 1837, Percy's works were well-known and increasingly admired.[113] In the summer of 1838 Edward Moxon, the publisher of Tennyson and the son-in-law of Charles Lamb, proposed publishing a collected works of Percy Shelley. Mary was paid £500 to edit the Poetical Works (1838), which Sir Timothy insisted should not include a biography. Mary found a way to tell the story of Percy's life, nonetheless: she included extensive biographical notes about the poems.[114]
Mary Shelley continued to treat potential romantic partners with caution. .In 1828, she met and flirted with the French writer Prosper Mérimée, but her one surviving letter to him appears to be a deflection of his declaration of love.^ He is by far one of the most talented writers I have ever met.
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[115] She was delighted when her old friend from Italy, Edward Trelawny, returned to England, and they joked about marriage in their letters.[116] Their friendship had altered, however, following her refusal to cooperate with his proposed biography of Percy Shelley; and he later reacted angrily to her omission of the atheistic section of Queen Mab from Percy Shelley's poems.[117] Oblique references in her journals, from the early 1830s until the early 1840s, suggest that Mary Shelley had feelings for the radical politician Aubrey Beauclerk, who may have disappointed her by twice marrying others.[118][note 14]
Mary Shelley's first concern during these years was the welfare of Percy Florence. She honoured her late husband's wish that his son attend public school, and, with Sir Timothy's grudging help, had him educated at Harrow. To avoid boarding fees, she moved to Harrow on the Hill herself so that Percy could attend as a day scholar.[119] Though Percy went on to Trinity College, Cambridge, and dabbled in politics and the law, he showed no sign of his parents' gifts.[120] He was devoted to his mother, and after he left university in 1841, he came to live with her.

Final years and death

In 1840 and 1842, mother and son travelled together on the continent, journeys that Mary Shelley recorded in Rambles in Germany and Italy in 1840, 1842 and 1843 (1844).[121] In 1844, Sir Timothy Shelley finally died at the age of ninety, "falling from the stalk like an overblown flower", as Mary put it.[122] For the first time, she and her son were financially independent, though the estate proved less valuable than they had hoped.[123]
Photograph of a coffin-shaped granite tomb.
In order to fulfil Mary Shelley's wishes, Percy Florence and his wife Jane had the coffins of Mary Shelley's parents exhumed and buried with her in Bournemouth.[124]
In the mid-1840s, Mary Shelley found herself the target of three separate blackmailers. .In 1845, an Italian political exile called Gatteschi, whom she had met in Paris, threatened to publish letters she had sent him.^ It sounds pretty old fashioned: To whom have you sent those letters?
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A friend of her son's bribed a police chief into seizing Gatteschi's papers, including the letters, which were then destroyed.[125] Shortly afterwards, Mary Shelley bought some letters written by herself and Percy Bysshe Shelley from a man calling himself G. Byron and posing as the illegitimate son of the late Lord Byron.[126] Also in 1845, Percy Bysshe Shelley's cousin Thomas Medwin approached her claiming to have written a damaging biography of Percy Shelley. He said he would suppress it in return for £250, but Mary Shelley refused.[127][note 15]
In 1848, Percy Florence married Jane Gibson St John. .The marriage proved a happy one, and Mary Shelley and Jane were fond of each other.^ It resides in a happy middle ground between florid prose on the one hand, and anorexic prose on the other.
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[128] Mary lived with her son and daughter-in-law at Field Place, Sussex, the Shelleys' ancestral home, and at Chester Square, London, and accompanied them on travels abroad.
Mary Shelley's last years were blighted by illness. From 1839, she suffered from headaches and bouts of paralysis in parts of her body, which sometimes prevented her from reading and writing.[129] On 1 February 1851, at Chester Square, she died at the age of fifty-three from what her physician suspected was a brain tumour. .According to Jane Shelley, Mary Shelley had asked to be buried with her mother and father; but Percy and Jane, judging the graveyard at St Pancras to be "dreadful", chose to bury her instead at St Peter's Church, Bournemouth, near their new home at Boscombe.^ The Romanian Food Festival held in Colleyville at St. Mary's Romanian Orthodox Church is small, but well organized with plenty of food.
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[130] On the first anniversary of Mary Shelley's death, the Shelleys opened her box-desk. Inside they found locks of her dead children's hair, a notebook she had shared with Percy Bysshe Shelley, and a copy of his poem Adonaïs with one page folded round a silk parcel containing some of his ashes and the remains of his heart.[73]

Literary themes and styles

Mary Shelley lived a literary life. Her father encouraged her to learn to write by composing letters,[131] and her favourite occupation as a child was writing stories.[132] Unfortunately, all of Mary's juvenilia were lost when she ran off with Percy in 1814, and none of her surviving manuscripts can be definitively dated before that year.[133] .Her first published work is often thought to have been Mounseer Nongtongpaw,[134] comic verses written for Godwin's Juvenile Library when she was ten and a half; however, the poem is attributed to another writer in the most recent authoritative collection of her works.^ If one of your New Year's resolutions is to submit work to literary journals for the first time, the collection of articles in the link above will help your do so in an organized, professional way.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ If all goes well with the first, I'd like to do a few per year, each on a different topic.For the first, I'd like to talk to writers who have at least one book published and who are trying to increase the awareness of their work.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In the L.A. Times, there’s a nice piece by Steve Almond (on Amazon) who put out his most recent collection via the Espresso Book Machine.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[135] .Percy Shelley enthusiastically encouraged Mary Shelley's writing: "My husband was, from the first, very anxious that I should prove myself worthy of my parentage, and enrol myself on the page of fame.^ Should I write for an audience or to please myself?
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ When I first began freelancing, I found clients by searching for “Write for Us” pages of different websites.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ So, I walked into the dentist room with my neutral expectations, and from the very first moment, the dentist was really nice.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

He was forever inciting me to obtain literary reputation."[136]

Novels

Autobiographical elements

Certain sections of Mary Shelley's novels are often interpreted as masked rewritings of her life. Critics have pointed to the recurrence of the father–daughter motif in particular as evidence of this autobiographical style.[137] For example, commentators frequently read Mathilda (1820) autobiographically, identifying the three central characters as versions of Mary Shelley, William Godwin, and Percy Shelley.[138] Mary Shelley herself confided that she modelled the central characters of The Last Man on her Italian circle. Lord Raymond, who leaves England to fight for the Greeks and dies in Constantinople, is based on Lord Byron; and the utopian Adrian, Earl of Windsor, who leads his followers in search of a natural paradise and dies when his boat sinks in a storm, is a fictional portrait of Percy Bysshe Shelley.[139] .However, as she wrote in her review of Godwin's novel Cloudesley (1830), she did not believe that authors "were merely copying from our own hearts".[140] William Godwin regarded his daughter's characters as types rather than portraits from real life.^ This time around — and in the spirit of the season, of course — we have a real prize, kindly donated by none other than one of our more prolific members, smac972.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ When I read that, I realized one thing: that I need go no further than my own interior, my own experience, for whatever I wanted to write.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[141] Some modern critics, such as Patricia Clemit and Jane Blumberg, have taken the same view, resisting autobiographical readings of Mary Shelley's works.[142]

Novelistic genres

"[Euthanasia] was never heard of more; even her name perished....The private chronicles, from which the foregoing relation has been collected, end with the death of Euthanasia. It is therefore in public histories alone that we find an account of the last years of the life of Castruccio."
— From Mary Shelley, Valperga[143]
Mary Shelley employed the techniques of many different novelistic genres, most vividly the Godwinian novel, Walter Scott's new historical novel, and the Gothic novel. .The Godwinian novel, made popular during the 1790s with works such as Godwin's Caleb Williams (1794), "employed a Rousseauvian confessional form to explore the contradictory relations between the self and society",[144] and Frankenstein exhibits many of the same themes and literary devices as Godwin's novel.^ Fiction Channel is a website where visitors can enjoy the literary works of many great writers who write in English, from Shakespeare to James Herriot.
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^ Brian Shone writes: I work for the NHS and I attend many meetings during the week, a common term used throughout each meeting is “and also” this I believe is incorrect.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s fun to find, among the many strange ancient forms, a word that is still in use, with the same meaning, a thousand years later.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[145] However, Shelley critiques those Enlightenment ideals that Godwin promotes in his works.[146] In The Last Man, she uses the philosophical form of the Godwinian novel to demonstrate the ultimate meaninglessness of the world.[147] While earlier Godwinian novels had shown how rational individuals could slowly improve society, The Last Man and Frankenstein demonstrate the individual's lack of control over history.[148]
Shelley uses the historical novel to comment on gender relations; for example, Valperga is a feminist version of Scott's masculinist genre.[149] Introducing women into the story who are not part of the historical record, Shelley uses their narratives to question established theological and political institutions.[150] Shelley sets the male protagonist's compulsive greed for conquest in opposition to a female alternative: reason and sensibility.[151] In Perkin Warbeck, Shelley's other historical novel, Lady Gordon stands for the values of friendship, domesticity, and equality. Through her, Shelley offers a feminine alternative to the masculine power politics that destroy the male characters. The novel provides a more inclusive historical narrative to challenge the one which usually relates only masculine events.[152]

Gender

With the rise of feminist literary criticism in the 1970s, Mary Shelley's works, particularly Frankenstein, began to attract much more attention from scholars. Feminist and psychoanalytic critics were largely responsible for the recovery from neglect of Shelley as a writer.[153] Ellen Moers was one of the first to claim that Shelley's loss of a baby was a crucial influence on the writing of Frankenstein.[154] She argues that the novel is a "birth myth" in which Shelley comes to terms with her guilt for causing her mother's death as well as for failing as a parent.[155] .In Moers' view, it is a story "about what happens when a man tries to have a baby without a woman ... [Frankenstein] is profoundly concerned with natural as opposed to unnatural modes of production and reproduction".[156] Victor Frankenstein's failure as a "parent" in the novel has been read as an expression of the anxieties which accompany pregnancy, giving birth, and particularly maternity.^ You can view the these responses or take the challenge yourself (after reading About.com's User Agreement).
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ So I began to think about all of the books I've read over the years, and I tried to pull out the ones that .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ I’ve read about ten of those novels.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[157]
Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar argue in their seminal book The Madwoman in the Attic (1979) that in Frankenstein in particular, Shelley responded to the masculine literary tradition represented by John Milton's Paradise Lost. In their interpretation, Shelley reaffirms this masculine tradition, including the misogyny inherent in it, but at the same time "conceal[s] fantasies of equality that occasionally erupt in monstrous images of rage".[158] Mary Poovey reads the first edition of Frankenstein as part of a larger pattern in Shelley's writing, which begins with literary self-assertion and ends with conventional femininity.[159] Poovey suggests that Frankenstein's multiple narratives enable Shelley to split her artistic persona: she can "express and efface herself at the same time".[160] Shelley's fear of self-assertion is reflected in the fate of Frankenstein, who is punished for his egotism by losing all his domestic ties.[161]
Feminist critics often focus on how authorship itself, particularly female authorship, is represented in and through Shelley's novels.[162] As Shelley scholar Anne K. Mellor explains, Shelley uses the Gothic style not only to explore repressed female sexual desire[163] but also as way to "censor her own speech in Frankenstein".[164] According to Poovey and Mellor, Shelley did not want to promote her own authorial persona and felt deeply inadequate as a writer, and "this shame contributed to the generation of her fictional images of abnormality, perversion, and destruction".[165]
Shelley's writings focus on the role of the family in society and women's role within that family. She celebrates the "feminine affections and compassion" associated with the family and suggests that civil society will fail without them.[166] Shelley was "profoundly committed to an ethic of cooperation, mutual dependence, and self-sacrifice".[167] In Lodore, for example, the central story follows the fortunes of the wife and daughter of the title character, Lord Lodore, who is killed in a duel at the end of the first volume, leaving a trail of legal, financial, and familial obstacles for the two "heroines" to negotiate. The novel is engaged with political and ideological issues, particularly the education and social role of women.[168] It dissects a patriarchal culture that separated the sexes and pressured women into dependence on men. .In the view of Shelley scholar Betty T. Bennett, "the novel proposes egalitarian educational paradigms for women and men, which would bring social justice as well as the spiritual and intellectual means by which to meet the challenges life invariably brings".[169] However, Falkner is the only one of Mary Shelley's novels in which the heroine's agenda triumphs.^ Take advantage of social media for networking: Look, if you are going to stay cramped up in your house, working all hours of the day, you might as well have a social life, even if it is only (somewhat… .
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[170] The novel’s resolution proposes that when female values triumph over violent and destructive masculinity, men will be freed to express the "compassion, sympathy, and generosity" of their better natures.[171]

Enlightenment and Romanticism

Frankenstein, like much Gothic fiction of the period, mixes a visceral and alienating subject matter with speculative and thought-provoking themes.[172] Rather than focusing on the twists and turns of the plot, however, the novel foregrounds the mental and moral struggles of the protagonist, Victor Frankenstein, and Shelley imbues the text with her own brand of politicised Romanticism, one that criticised the individualism and egotism of traditional Romanticism.[173] Victor Frankenstein is like Satan in Paradise Lost, and Prometheus: he rebels against tradition; he creates life; and he shapes his own destiny. These traits are not portrayed positively; as Blumberg writes, "his relentless ambition is a self-delusion, clothed as quest for truth".[174] He must abandon his family to fulfill his ambition.[175]
Engraving showing a naked man awaking on the floor and another man fleeing in horror. A skull and a book are next to the naked man and a window, with the moon shining through it, is in the background.
The frontispiece to the 1831 Frankenstein by Theodor von Holst, one of the first two illustrations for the novel[176]
Mary Shelley believed in the Enlightenment idea that people could improve society through the responsible exercise of political power, but she feared that the irresponsible exercise of power would lead to chaos.[177] .In practice, her works largely criticise the way 18th-century thinkers such as her parents believed such change could be brought about.^ It was for this reason that I was led to hope that within a short time we should have such a large quantity of books that there wouldn’t be a single work which could not be… The Write News .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

The creature in Frankenstein, for example, reads books associated with radical ideals but the education he gains from them is ultimately useless.[178] Shelley's works reveal her as less optimistic than Godwin and Wollstonecraft; she lacks faith in Godwin's theory that humanity could eventually be perfected.[179]
.As literary scholar Kari Lokke writes, The Last Man, more so than Frankenstein, "in its refusal to place humanity at the center of the universe, its questioning of our privileged position in relation to nature ... constitutes a profound and prophetic challenge to Western humanism."^ Our list of freelance writing markets paying over $100 per article was such a success, I thought I’d research a few more for you.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Most people in business are more comfortable speaking than writing, so why not… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Dear Literary Ladies,A book that I've toiled on and believe in with all my heart has been rejected by more than a dozen publishers.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[180] .Specifically, Mary Shelley's allusions to what radicals believed was a failed revolution in France and the Godwinian, Wollstonecraftian, and Burkean responses to it, challenge "Enlightenment faith in the inevitability of progress through collective efforts".[181] As in Frankenstein, Shelley "offers a profoundly disenchanted commentary on the age of revolution, which ends in a total rejection of the progressive ideals of her own generation".[182] Not only does she reject these Enlightenment political ideals, but she also rejects the Romantic notion that the poetic or literary imagination can offer an alternative.^ You can view the these responses or take the challenge yourself (after reading About.com's User Agreement).
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[183]

Politics

Critics have until recently cited Lodore and Falkner as evidence of increasing conservatism in Mary Shelley's later works. In 1984, Mary Poovey influentially identified the retreat of Mary Shelley’s reformist politics into the "separate sphere" of the domestic.[184] Poovey suggested that Mary Shelley wrote Falkner to resolve her conflicted response to her father's combination of libertarian radicalism and stern insistence on social decorum.[185] Mellor largely agreed, arguing that "Mary Shelley grounded her alternative political ideology on the metaphor of the peaceful, loving, bourgeois family. She thereby implicitly endorsed a conservative vision of gradual evolutionary reform."[186] This vision allowed women to participate in the public sphere but it inherited the inequalities inherent in the bourgeois family.[187]
However, in the last decade or so this view has been challenged. For example, Bennett claims that Mary Shelley's works reveal a consistent commitment to Romantic idealism and political reform[188] and Jane Blumberg's study of Shelley's early novels argues that her career cannot be easily divided into radical and conservative halves. She contends that "Shelley was never a passionate radical like her husband and her later lifestyle was not abruptly assumed nor was it a betrayal. .She was in fact challenging the political and literary influences of her circle in her first work."^ If one of your New Year's resolutions is to submit work to literary journals for the first time, the collection of articles in the link above will help your do so in an organized, professional way.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[189] In this reading, Shelley's early works are interpreted as a challenge to Godwin and Percy Bysshe Shelley's radicalism. Victor Frankenstein's "thoughtless rejection of family", for example, is seen as evidence of Shelley's constant concern for the domestic.[190]

Short stories

A black-and-white engraving showing a young woman kneeling down and looking up with her hands clasped. She is wearing a white dress and has dark ringlet curls. She appears to be on a balcony, with clouds in the background.
.
Shelley frequently wrote stories to accompany prepared illustrations for gift books, such as this one, which accompanied "Transformation" in the 1830 Keepsake.
^ Readers will suspend disbelief about your book, but they never truly forget that they’re reading a story you wrote.
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[191]
.In the 1820s and 1830s, Mary Shelley frequently wrote short stories for gift books or annuals, including sixteen for The Keepsake, which was aimed at middle-class women and bound in silk, with gilt-edged pages.^ Readers will suspend disbelief about your book, but they never truly forget that they’re reading a story you wrote.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ I got quite a surprise when I opened the file because while I was expecting a short ebook, this is a full-fledged book with 294 pages of useful information about writing for the web.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[192] .Mary Shelley's work in this genre has been described as that of a "hack writer" and "wordy and pedestrian".[193] However, critic Charlotte Sussman points out that other leading writers of the day, such as the Romantic poets William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, also took advantage of this profitable market.^ In 2009 seven Fellows spent four weeks in Provincetown, Massachusetts where they wrote, discussed their work, and were visited by writers such as Don DeLillo; editors and writers from leading publications such as the New York Review of… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Today, in the midst of Boxing week, the fallout from Christmas and other holidays, and in the days leading up to 2010, is Protagonize’s 2nd birthday.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ But, on the other side of the coin, publishers are entrusted with authors’ content and don’t want it to lose potential profits either while sending out ARCs for review.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

She explains that "the annuals were a major mode of literary production in the 1820s and 1830s", with The Keepsake the most successful.[194]
.Many of Shelley's stories are set in places or times far removed from early 19th-century Britain, such as Greece and the reign of Henry IV of France.^ Who among you has such a story for me today?A Wrinkle in Time was almost never published.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Shelley was particularly interested in "the fragility of individual identity" and often depicted "the way a person's role in the world can be cataclysmically altered either by an internal emotional upheaval, or by some supernatural occurrence that mirrors an internal schism".[195] In her stories, female identity is tied to a woman's short-lived value in the marriage market while male identity can be sustained and transformed through the use of money.^ Rahel Bailie has posted a nice summary of the Content Strategy progression that lists the sessions and presenters .As a metadata geek, I'm particularly interested in Rachel Lovinger's session on The Role of Metadata in Content Strategy.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ But you can also take the chance to earn some money through online writing jobs.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[196] .Although Mary Shelley wrote twenty-one short stories for the annuals between 1823 and 1839, she always saw herself, above all, as a novelist.^ In between listening to stories, I'll be telling myself new ones.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ This fall I read one of my short stories at a DimeStories event, and it tickled the funny bone of a reporter for The San Diego Reader.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

She wrote to Leigh Hunt, "I write bad articles which help to make me miserable—but I am going to plunge into a novel and hope that its clear water will wash off the mud of the magazines."[197]

Travelogues

.When they ran off to France in the summer of 1814, Mary Godwin and Percy Shelley began a joint journal,[198] which they published in 1817 under the title History of a Six Weeks' Tour, adding four letters, two by each of them, based on their visit to Geneva in 1816, along with Percy Shelley's poem "Mont Blanc". The work celebrates youthful love and political idealism and consciously follows the example of Mary Wollstonecraft and others who had combined travelling with writing.^ I hear from people who don't feel entitled to call themselves writers because they have not yet published a book (or completed one); from "mid-list"… Suite 101: Writing & Publishing .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Fiction Channel is a website where visitors can enjoy the literary works of many great writers who write in English, from Shakespeare to James Herriot.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ I began by making a list in my journal of specific features of life in Los Alamos that distinguished it from other places I might have grown up.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[199] The perspective of the History is philosophical and reformist rather than that of a conventional travelogue; in particular, it addresses the effects of politics and war on France.[200] .The letters the couple wrote on the second journey confront the "great and extraordinary events" of the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo after his "Hundred Days" return in 1815. They also explore the sublimity of Lake Geneva and Mont Blanc as well as the revolutionary legacy of the philosopher and novelist Jean-Jacques Rousseau.^ Actually Van Rompuy, who's Belgian by the way, was news for a couple of days because the papers jumped on the fact that he wrote haiku… .
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^ The old French town had seen better days, and as Jean picked his way carefully over the rubble he wondered if he would ever see those days return.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[201]
.Mary Shelley's last full-length book, written in the form of letters and published in 1844, was Rambles in Germany and Italy in 1840, 1842 and 1843, which recorded her travels with her son Percy Florence and his university friends.^ Gretchen Rubin has published four books and written three unpublished novels— now safely locked in a drawer, she says.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

In Rambles, Shelley follows the tradition of Mary Wollstonecraft's Letters Written in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark and her own A History of a Six Weeks' Tour in mapping her personal and political landscape through the discourse of sensibility and sympathy.[202] .For Shelley, building sympathetic connections between people is the way to build civil society and to increase knowledge: "knowledge, to enlighten and free the mind from clinging deadening prejudices—a wider circle of sympathy with our fellow-creatures;—these are the uses of travel".[203] Between observations on scenery, culture, and "the people, especially in a political point of view",[204] she uses the travelogue form to explore her roles as a widow and mother and to reflect on revolutionary nationalism in Italy.^ ImageEditor I recently read Brian Swimme’s article, “The Hidden Heart of the Cosmos.” In it, he describes how past societies made a point to celebrate the mysteries and wonder of the universe, as a way of exploring the meaning of our existence.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ For the past couple of years, people are used to finding jobs in the conventional ways of looking for positions among companies.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ This is either representative of a shift in the way people use the internet, or just conclusive proof that I don’t have many friends.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[205][note 16] She also records her "pilgrimage" to scenes associated with Percy Shelley.[206] According to critic Clarissa Orr, Mary Shelley's adoption of a persona of philosophical motherhood gives Rambles the unity of a prose poem, with "death and memory as central themes".[207] At the same time, Shelley makes an egalitarian case against monarchy, class distinctions, slavery, and war.[208]

Biographies

Between 1832 and 1839, Mary Shelley wrote many biographies of notable Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and French men and a few women for Dionysius Lardner's Lives of the Most Eminent Literary and Scientific Men. .These formed part of Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia, one of the best of many such series produced in the 1820s and 1830s in response to growing middle-class demand for self-education.^ Ontop of that I had the opportunity to start two startups (Which is one too many at the best of times!
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ If you are one of the many people who are enthusiastic about writing, then this job is the best one for you.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ There are so many online jobs out there that you cannot simply find the best one for you.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[209] Until the republication of these essays in 2002, their significance within her body of work was not appreciated.[210][note .17] In the view of literary scholar Greg Kucich, they reveal Mary Shelley's "prodigious research across several centuries and in multiple languages", her gift for biographical narrative, and her interest in the "emerging forms of feminist historiography".[211] Shelley wrote in a biographical style popularized by the 18th-century critic Samuel Johnson in his Lives of the Poets (1779–81), combining secondary sources, memoir and anecdote, and authorial evaluation.^ Twitter means that no one is interested in long-form narratives anymore; if it can't fit… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[212] .She records details of each writer's life and character, quotes their writing in the original as well as in translation, and ends with a critical assessment of their achievement.^ In Signs of Self-Sabotage in the Writing Life, I described what being afraid of succeeding looks like for some aspiring and established writers.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ We have many visitors to this site who are interested in writing children’s books as well as numerous seasoned authors… The Adventurous Writer .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ This quote from Beckett has been appearing everywhere, and last night I opened an old favourite 'How Writers Write' to find this engraving in there.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[213]
For Shelley, biographical writing was supposed to, in her words, "form as it were a school in which to study the philosophy of history",[214] and to teach "lessons". Most frequently and importantly, these lessons consisted of criticisms of male-dominated institutions such as primogeniture.[215] Shelley emphasises domesticity, romance, family, sympathy, and compassion in the lives of her subjects. Her conviction that such forces could improve society connects her biographical approach with that of other early feminist historians such as Mary Hays and Anna Jameson.[216] Unlike her novels, most of which had an original print run of several hundred copies, the Lives had a print run of about 4,000 for each volume: thus, according to Kucich, Mary Shelley's "use of biography to forward the social agenda of women's historiography became one of her most influential political interventions".[217]

Editorial work

"The qualities that struck any one newly introduced to Shelley, were, first, a gentle and cordial goodness that animated his intercourse with warm affection, and helpful sympathy. The other, the eagerness and ardour with which he was attached to the cause of human happiness and improvement."
— Mary Shelley, "Preface", Poetical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley[218]
Soon after Percy Shelley’s death, Mary Shelley determined to write his biography. In a letter of 17 November 1822, she announced: "I shall write his life—& thus occupy myself in the only manner from which I can derive consolation."[219] However, her father-in-law, Sir Timothy Shelley, effectively banned her from doing so.[220][note 18] Mary began her fostering of Percy's poetic reputation in 1824 with the publication of his Posthumous Poems. .In 1839, while she was working on the Lives, she prepared a new edition of his poetry, which became, in the words of literary scholar Susan J. Wolfson, "the canonizing event" in the history of her husband's reputation.^ If one of your New Year's resolutions is to submit work to literary journals for the first time, the collection of articles in the link above will help your do so in an organized, professional way.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Every day when her husband Dennis was off making a living, she was busily at work, making a home.Nell had graduated from high school but not from college.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[221] The following year, Mary Shelley edited a volume of her husband's essays, letters, translations, and fragments, and throughout the 1830s, she introduced his poetry to a wider audience by publishing assorted works in the annual The Keepsake.[222]
.Evading Sir Timothy's ban on a biography, Mary Shelley often included in these editions her own annotations and reflections on her husband's life and work.^ In these situations, it is often helpful to work with a subject matter expert, or SME (pronounced “smee”) (aka your research secret weapon).
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[223] "I am to justify his ways," she had declared in 1824; "I am to make him beloved to all posterity."[224] It was this goal, argues Blumberg, that led her to present Percy's work to the public in the "most popular form possible".[225] To tailor his works for a Victorian audience, she cast Percy Shelley as a lyrical rather than a political poet.[226] .As Mary Favret writes, "the disembodied Percy identifies the spirit of poetry itself".[227] Mary glossed Percy's political radicalism as a form of sentimentalism, arguing that his republicanism arose from sympathy for those who were suffering.^ I am one of those traditionalists who believe that, in order to write a good crime novel today, you must have read and studied the greats of the genre.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Dear Literary Ladies.It's always fascinating to discover how those of you who succeeded so brilliantly went about the basics of the practice of writing.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[228] She inserted romantic anecdotes of his benevolence, domesticity, and love of the natural world.[229] Portraying herself as Percy's "practical muse", she also noted how she had suggested revisions as he wrote.[230]
Despite the emotions stirred by this task, Mary Shelley arguably proved herself in many respects a professional and scholarly editor.[231] .Working from Percy's messy, sometimes indecipherable, notebooks, she attempted to form a chronology for his writings, and she included poems, such as Epipsychidion, addressed to Emilia Viviani, which she would rather have left out.^ Pick up a book or magazine or check out a writing website such as… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Yes, reading is important and I need to read the books I have rather than go out and purchase new books as soon… A Book Inside - How to Write and Publish a Book .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ It was for this reason that I was led to hope that within a short time we should have such a large quantity of books that there wouldn’t be a single work which could not be… The Write News .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[232] She was forced, however, into several compromises, and, as Blumberg notes, "modern critics have found fault with the edition and claim variously that she miscopied, misinterpreted, purposely obscured, and attempted to turn the poet into something he was not".[233] According to Wolfson, Donald Reiman, a modern editor of Percy Bysshe Shelley's works, still refers to Mary Shelley's editions, while acknowledging that her editing style belongs "to an age of editing when the aim was not to establish accurate texts and scholarly apparatus but to present a full record of a writer's career for the general reader".[234] In principle, Mary Shelley believed in publishing every last word of her husband's work;[235] but she found herself obliged to omit certain passages, either by pressure from her publisher, Edward Moxon, or in deference to public propriety.[236] For example, she removed the atheistic passages from Queen Mab for the first edition. After she restored them in the second edition, Moxon was prosecuted and convicted of blasphemous libel, though he escaped punishment.[237] Mary Shelley's omissions provoked criticism, often stinging, from members of Percy Shelley's former circle,[238] and reviewers accused her of, among other things, indiscriminate inclusions.[239] Her notes have nevertheless remained an essential source for the study of Percy Shelley's work. As Bennett explains, "biographers and critics agree that Mary Shelley's commitment to bring Shelley the notice she believed his works merited was the single, major force that established Shelley's reputation during a period when he almost certainly would have faded from public view".[240]

Reputation

Neoclassical pieta of a woman holding a man's body in her lap.
Engraving by George Stodart after a monument of Mary and Percy Shelley by Henry Weekes (1853)
.In her own lifetime, Mary Shelley was taken seriously as a writer, though reviewers often missed her writings' political edge.^ When I write the proposals I am so often called upon to create, I’m not exactly leaving my heart with them even though… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The thing you have to remember though is that you are not just a freelance writer; you are building a freelance writing business.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The good writing, though — the writing that grabs you and won’t let go — I think that can often come from a very raw, deep place inside the writer.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

After her death, however, she was chiefly remembered as the wife of Percy Bysshe Shelley and as the author of Frankenstein.[241] In fact, in the introduction to her letters published in 1945, editor Frederick Jones wrote, "a collection of the present size could not be justified by the general quality of the letters or by Mary Shelley's importance as a writer. It is as the wife of [Percy Bysshe Shelley] that she excites our interest."[242] This attitude had not disappeared by 1980 when Betty T. Bennett published the first volume of Mary Shelley's complete letters. As she explains, "the fact is that until recent years scholars have generally regarded Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley as a result: William Godwin's and Mary Wollstonecraft's daughter who became Shelley's Pygmalion."[243] It was not until Emily Sunstein's Mary Shelley: Romance and Reality in 1989 that a full-length scholarly biography was published.[244]
The attempts of Mary Shelley's son and daughter-in-law to "Victorianise" her memory by censoring biographical documents contributed to a perception of Mary Shelley as a more conventional, less reformist figure than her works suggest. Her own timid omissions from Percy Shelley's works and her quiet avoidance of public controversy in her later years added to this impression. Commentary by Hogg, Trelawny, and other admirers of Percy Shelley also tended to downplay Mary Shelley's radicalism. Trelawny's Records of Shelley, Byron, and the Author (1878) praised Percy Shelley at the expense of Mary, questioning her intelligence and even her authorship of Frankenstein.[245] Lady Shelley, Percy Florence's wife, responded in part by presenting a severely edited collection of letters she had inherited, published privately as Shelley and Mary in 1882.[246]
From Frankenstein's first theatrical adaptation in 1823 to the cinematic adaptations of the twentieth century, including the first cinematic version in 1910 and now-famous versions such as James Whale's 1931 Frankenstein, Mel Brooks' 1974 Young Frankenstein, and Kenneth Branagh's 1994 Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, many audiences first encounter the work of Mary Shelley through adaptation.[247] .Over the course of the nineteenth century, Mary Shelley came to be seen as a one-novel author at best, rather than as the professional writer she was; most of her works have remained out of print until the last thirty years, obstructing a larger view of her achievement.^ Yes, reading is important and I need to read the books I have rather than go out and purchase new books as soon… A Book Inside - How to Write and Publish a Book .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ I’ve written about it on several occasions and I truly believe that it is one of the best tools out there to get your writing work noticed.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ This competition is held quarterly and is open to any writers whose fiction hasn’t appeared in a print publication with a circulation greater than 5000.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[248] In recent decades, the republication of almost all her writing has stimulated a new recognition of its value. Her habit of intensive reading and study, revealed in her journals and letters and reflected in her works, is now better appreciated.[249] .Shelley's conception of herself as an author has also been recognized; after Percy's death, she wrote of her authorial ambitions: "I think that I can maintain myself, and there is something inspiriting in the idea."^ I thought I would just send him an unpublished article I wrote a couple years ago and mention that to him-that it is unpublished and that I wrote it a couple years ago (there are somethings that would need to be… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[250] Scholars now consider Mary Shelley to be a major Romantic figure, significant for her literary achievement and her political voice as a woman and a liberal.[246]

Selected list of works

.Collections of Mary Shelley's papers are housed in Lord Abinger's Shelley Collection on deposit at the Bodleian Library, the New York Public Library (particularly The Carl H. Pforzheimer Collection of Shelley and His Circle), the Huntington Library, the British Library, and in the John Murray Collection.^ A perfect example of this can be seen through a new program being implemented by the Hayward Public Library in California.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

See also

  • Godwin-Shelley family tree
  • Map of 1814 and 1816 European journeys
  • Map of 1840s European journeys

Notes

  1. ^ Claire's first name was "Jane", but from 1814 (see Gittings and Manton, 22) she preferred to be called "Claire" (her second name was "Clara"), which is how she is known to history. To avoid confusion, this article calls her "Claire" throughout.
  2. ^ William St Clair, in his biography of the Godwins and the Shelleys, notes that "it is easy to forget in reading of these crises [in the lives of the Godwins and the Shelleys] how unrepresentative the references in surviving documents may be. It is easy for the biographer to give undue weight to the opinions of the people who happen to have written things down." (246)
  3. ^ "Journal 6th December—Very Unwell. Shelley & Clary walk out, as usual, to heaps of places...A letter from Hookham to say that Harriet has been brought to bed of a son and heir. Shelley writes a number of circular letters on this event, which ought to be ushered in with ringing of bells, etc., for it is the son of his wife." (Quoted in Spark, 39.)
  4. ^ Sunstein speculates that Mary Shelley and Jefferson Hogg made love in April 1815. (Sunstein, 98–99)
  5. ^ The violent storms were, it is now known, a repercussion of the volcanic eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia the year before (Sunstein, 118). See also The Year Without a Summer.
  6. ^ Seymour argues that evidence from Polidori's diary conflicts with Mary Shelley's account of when the idea came to her (157).
  7. ^ Alba was renamed "Allegra" in 1818. (Seymour, 177)
  8. ^ At various times, the Shelleys lived at Livorno, Bagni di Lucca, Venice, Este, Naples, Rome, Florence, Pisa, Bagni di Pisa, and San Terenzo.
  9. ^ Clara died of dysentery at the age of one, and William of malaria at three and a half. (Seymour, 214, 231)
  10. ^ The Williamses were not technically married; Jane was still the wife of an army officer named Johnson.
  11. ^ Elise had been employed by Byron as Allegra's nurse. Mary Shelley stated in a letter that Elise had been pregnant by Paolo at the time, which was the reason they had married, but not that she had had a child in Naples. Elise seems to have first met Paolo only in September. See Mary Shelley's letter to Isabella Hoppner, 10 August 1821, Selected Letters, 75–79.
  12. ^ "Establishing Elena Adelaide's parentage is one of the greatest bafflements Shelley left for his biographers." (Bieri, 106)
  13. ^ Dods, who had an infant daughter, assumed the name Walter Sholto Douglas and was accepted in France as a man.
  14. ^ Beauclerk married Ida Goring in 1838 and, after Ida's death, Mary Shelley's friend Rosa Robinson in 1841. A clear picture of Mary Shelley's relationship with Beauclerk is difficult to reconstruct from the evidence. (Seymour, 425–26)
  15. ^ According to Bieri, Medwin claimed to possess evidence relating to Naples. Medwin is the source for the theory that the child registered by Percy Shelley in Naples was his daughter by a mystery woman. See also, Journals, 249–50 n3.
  16. ^ Mary Shelley donated the £60 fee for Rambles to the exiled Italian revolutionary Ferdinand Gatteschi, whose essay on the Carbonari rebels she included in the book. (Orr, "Mary Shelley's Rambles ")
  17. ^ However, "precise attribution of all the biographical essays" in these volumes "is very difficult", according to Kucich.
  18. ^ Sir Timothy Shelley made his allowance to Mary (on behalf of Percy Florence) dependent on her not putting the Shelley name in print.

References

All essays from The Cambridge Companion to Mary Shelley are marked with a "(CC)" and those from The Other Mary Shelley with an "(OMS)".
  1. ^ Seymour, 458.
  2. ^ Seymour, 28–29; St Clair, 176–78.
  3. ^ St Clair, 179–188; Seymour, 31–34; Clemit, "Legacies of Godwin and Wollstonecraft" (CC), 27–28.
  4. ^ Seymour, 38, 49; St. Clair, 255–300.
  5. ^ St Clair, 199–207.
  6. ^ Seymour, 47–49; St Clair, 238–54.
  7. ^ St Clair, 243–44, 334; Seymour, 48.
  8. ^ Letter to Percy Shelley, 28 October 1814. Selected Letters, 3; St Clair, 295; Seymour 61.
  9. ^ St Clair, 295.
  10. ^ St. Clair, 283–87.
  11. ^ St. Clair, 306.
  12. ^ St. Clair, 308–9.
  13. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 16–17.
  14. ^ Sunstein, 38–40; Seymour, 53; see also Clemit, "Legacies of Godwin and Wollstonecraft" (CC), 29.
  15. ^ Seymour, 61.
  16. ^ Sunstein, 58; Spark, 15.
  17. ^ Seymour, 74–75.
  18. ^ Quoted in Seymour, 72.
  19. ^ Seymour, 71–74.
  20. ^ Spark, 17–18; Seymour, 73–86.
  21. ^ Qtd. in Spark, 17.
  22. ^ St Clair, 358.
  23. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 17; St Clair, 357; Seymour, 89.
  24. ^ Sunstein, 70–75; Seymour, 88; St. Clair, 329–35.
  25. ^ St. Clair, 355.
  26. ^ Spark, 19–22; St Clair, 358.
  27. ^ Seymour, 94, 100; Spark, 22–23; St. Clair, 355.
  28. ^ Letter to Maria Gisborne, 30 October–17 November 1824. Seymour, 49.
  29. ^ St Clair, 373; Seymour, 89 n, 94–96; Spark, 23 n2.
  30. ^ Spark, 24; Seymour, 98–99.
  31. ^ Quoted in Sunstein, 84.
  32. ^ Spark, 26–30.
  33. ^ Spark, 30; Seymour, 109, 113.
  34. ^ St Clair, 318.
  35. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 20; St Clair, 373; Sunstein, 88–89; Seymour, 115–16.
  36. ^ Spark, 31–32.
  37. ^ Spark, 36–37; St Clair, 374.
  38. ^ Sunstein, 91–92; Seymour, 122–23.
  39. ^ Spark, 38–44.
  40. ^ St Clair, 375.
  41. ^ Sunstein, 94–97; Seymour, 127
  42. ^ Spark, 41–46; Seymour, 126–27; Sunstein, 98–99.
  43. ^ Seymour, 128.
  44. ^ Quoted in Spark, 45.
  45. ^ St Clair, 375; Spark, 45, 48.
  46. ^ Sunstein, 93–94, 101; Seymour, 127–28, 130.
  47. ^ Sunstein, 101–103.
  48. ^ Gittings and Manton, 28–31.
  49. ^ a b Sunstein, 117.
  50. ^ Gittings and Manton, 31; Seymour, 152. Sometimes spelled "Chappuis"; Wolfson, Introduction to Frankenstein, 273.
  51. ^ Sunstein, 118.
  52. ^ Preface to the 1831 edition of Frankenstein; Sunstein, 118.
  53. ^ Holmes, 328; see also Mary Shelley’s introduction to the 1831 edition of Frankenstein.
  54. ^ Quoted in Spark, 157, from Mary Shelley's introduction to the 1831 edition of Frankenstein.
  55. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 30–31; Sunstein, 124.
  56. ^ Sunstein, 124–25; Seymour, 165.
  57. ^ St Clair, 413; Seymour, 175.
  58. ^ Sunstein, 129; St Clair, 414–15; Seymour, 176.
  59. ^ Spark, 54–55; Seymour, 176–77.
  60. ^ Spark, 57; Seymour, 177.
  61. ^ Spark, 58; Bennett, An Introduction, 21–22.
  62. ^ Seymour, 185; Sunstein, 136–37.
  63. ^ Seymour, 195–96.
  64. ^ Spark, 60–62; St Clair, 443; Sunstein, 143–49; Seymour, 191–92.
  65. ^ St Clair, 445.
  66. ^ Gittings and Manton, 39–42; Spark, 62–63; Seymour, 205–6.
  67. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 43.
  68. ^ Seymour, 214–16; Bennett, An Introduction, 46.
  69. ^ Sunstein, 170–71, 179–82, 191.
  70. ^ Quoted in Seymour, 233.
  71. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 47, 53.
  72. ^ Spark, 72.
  73. ^ a b Sunstein, 384–85.
  74. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 115.
  75. ^ Seymour, 251.
  76. ^ Bieri, 170–76; Seymour, 267–70, 290; Sunstein, 193–95, 200–201.
  77. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 43–44; Spark, 77, 89–90; Gittings and Manton, 61–62.
  78. ^ Holmes, 464; Bieri, 103–4.
  79. ^ Gittings and Manton, 46.
  80. ^ Gittings and Manton, 46; Seymour, 221–22.
  81. ^ Spark, 73; Seymour, 224; Holmes, 469–70.
  82. ^ Journals, 249–50 n3; Seymour, 221; Holmes, 460–74; Bieri, 103–12.
  83. ^ Seymour, 221; Spark, 86; Letter to Isabella Hoppner, 10 August 1821, Selected Letters, 75–79.
  84. ^ a b Seymour, 221.
  85. ^ Holmes, 466; Bieri, 105.
  86. ^ Spark, 79; Seymour, 292.
  87. ^ Seymour, 301. Holmes, 717; Sunstein, 216.
  88. ^ Gittings and Manton, 71.
  89. ^ Holmes, 725; Sunstein, 217–218; Seymour, 270–73.
  90. ^ Gittings and Manton, 71; Holmes, 715.
  91. ^ Seymour, 283–84, 298.
  92. ^ Holmes, 728.
  93. ^ Seymour, 298.
  94. ^ a b Letter to Maria Gisborne, 15 August 1815, Selected Letters, 99.
  95. ^ Seymour, 302–7.
  96. ^ Qtd. in Seymour, 319.
  97. ^ Spark, 100–104.
  98. ^ Spark, 102–3; Seymour, 321–22.
  99. ^ Spark, 106–7; Seymour, 336–37; Bennett, An Introduction, 65.
  100. ^ Seymour, 362.
  101. ^ Spark, 108.
  102. ^ Spark, 116, 119.
  103. ^ Seymour, 341, 363–65.
  104. ^ Spark, 111.
  105. ^ Spark, 111–13; Seymour, 370–71.
  106. ^ Seymour, 543.
  107. ^ Spark, 117–19.
  108. ^ Seymour, 384–85.
  109. ^ Seymour, 389–90.
  110. ^ Seymour, 404, 433–35, 438.
  111. ^ Seymour, 406.
  112. ^ Seymour, 450, 455.
  113. ^ Seymour, 453.
  114. ^ Seymour, 465.
  115. ^ See Bennett, Introduction to Selected Letters, xx, and Mary Shelley's letter of 24 May 1828, with Bennett's note, 198–99.
  116. ^ Spark, 122.
  117. ^ Seymour, 401–2, 467–68.
  118. ^ Spark, 133–34; Seymour, 425–26; Bennett, Introduction to Selected Letters, xx.
  119. ^ Spark, 124; Seymour, 424.
  120. ^ Spark, 127; Seymour, 429, 500–501.
  121. ^ Seymour, 489.
  122. ^ Spark, 138.
  123. ^ Seymour, 495.
  124. ^ Sunstein, 383–84.
  125. ^ Spark, 140; Seymour, 506–7.
  126. ^ Spark, 141–42; Seymour, 508–10.
  127. ^ Seymour, 515–16; Bieri, 112.
  128. ^ Spark, 143; Seymour, 528.
  129. ^ Spark, 144; Bennett, Introduction to Selected Letters, xxvii.
  130. ^ Seymour, 540.
  131. ^ Bennett, "Mary Shelley's letters" (CC), 212–13.
  132. ^ Mary Shelley, Introduction to 1831 edition of Frankenstein.
  133. ^ Nora Crook, "General Editor's Introduction", Mary Shelley's Literary Lives, Vol. 1, xiv.
  134. ^ Sussman, 163; St Clair, 297; Sunstein, 42.
  135. ^ Seymour, 55; Carlson, 245; "Appendix 2: 'Mounseer Nongtongpaw': Verses formerly attributed to Mary Shelley", Travel Writing: The Novels and Selected Works of Mary Shelley, Vol. 8, Ed. Jeanne Moskal, London: William Pickering (1996).
  136. ^ Quoted in Wolfson, Introduction to Frankenstein, xvii.
  137. ^ Mellor, 184.
  138. ^ See Nitchie, Introduction to Mathilda, and Mellor, 143.
  139. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 74; Lokke, "The Last Man" (CC), 119.
  140. ^ Qtd. in Clemit, Godwinian Novel, 190.
  141. ^ Clemit, Godwinian Novel, 191.
  142. ^ See, for example, Clemit, Godwinian Novel, 190–92; Clemit, "From The Fields of Fancy to Matilda", 64–75; Blumberg, 84–85.
  143. ^ Shelley, Valperga, 376–78.
  144. ^ Clemit, Godwinian Novel, 140–41, 176; Clemit, "Legacies of Godwin and Wollstonecraft" (CC), 31.
  145. ^ Clemit, Godwinian Novel, 143–44; Blumberg, 38–40.
  146. ^ Clemit, Godwinian Novel, 144.
  147. ^ Clemit, Godwinian Novel, 187.
  148. ^ Clemit, Godwinian Novel, 187, 196.
  149. ^ Curran, "Valperga" (CC), 106–7; Clemit, Godwinian Novel, 179; Lew, "God's Sister" (OMS), 164–65.
  150. ^ Clemit, Godwinian Novel, 183; Bennett, "Political Philosophy", 357.
  151. ^ Lew, "God's Sister" (OMS), 173–78.
  152. ^ Bunnell, 132; Lynch, "Historical novelist" (CC), 143–44; see also Lew, "God's Sister" (OMS), 164–65.
  153. ^ Mellor, xi.
  154. ^ Hoeveler, "Frankenstein, feminism, and literary theory" (CC), 46.
  155. ^ Hoeveler, "Frankenstein, feminism, and literary theory" (CC), 46–47; Mellor, 40–51.
  156. ^ Mellor, 40.
  157. ^ Mellor, 41.
  158. ^ Gilbert and Gubar, 220; see also, Hoeveler, "Frankenstein, feminism, and literary theory" (CC), 47–48; see also, 52–53.
  159. ^ Poovey, 115–16, 126–27.
  160. ^ Poovey, 131; see also Hoeveler, "Frankenstein, feminism, and literary theory" (CC), 48–49.
  161. ^ Poovey, 124–25.
  162. ^ Hoeveler, "Frankenstein, feminism, and literary theory" (CC), 49; Myers, "The Female Author", 160–72.
  163. ^ Mellor, 55–56.
  164. ^ Mellor, 57.
  165. ^ Mellor, 56–57.
  166. ^ Mellor, 117.
  167. ^ Mellor, 125.
  168. ^ Vargo, Introduction to Lodore, 21, 32.
  169. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 92, 96.
  170. ^ Ellis, "Falkner and other fictions" (CC), 152–53; O'Sullivan, "A New Cassandra" (OMS), 154.
  171. ^ Ellis, "Falkner and other fictions" (CC), 159–61.
  172. ^ Spark, 154.
  173. ^ Mellor, "Making a 'monster'" (CC), 14; Blumberg, 54; Mellor, 70.
  174. ^ Blumberg, 47; see also Mellor, 77–79.
  175. ^ Blumberg, 47; see also 86–87 for a similar discussion of Castruccio in Valperga; Mellor, 152.
  176. ^ Browne, Max. "Theodor Richard Edward von Holst". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. (subscription required) Retrieved on 20 April 2008.
  177. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 36–42.
  178. ^ Blumberg, 21.
  179. ^ Blumberg, 37, 46, 48; Mellor, 70–71, 79.
  180. ^ Lokke, "The Last Man" (CC), 116; see also Mellor, 157.
  181. ^ Lokke, "The Last Man" (CC), 128; see also Clemit, Godwinian Novel, 197–98.
  182. ^ Clemit, Godwinian Novel, 198; see also 204–5.
  183. ^ Paley, "Apocalypse without Millennium" (OMS), 111–21; Mellor, 159.
  184. ^ Sites, "Utopian Domesticity", 82.
  185. ^ Poovey, 161.
  186. ^ Mellor, 86.
  187. ^ Mellor, 87.
  188. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 121.
  189. ^ Blumberg, 32.
  190. ^ Blumberg, 54.
  191. ^ Hofkosh, "Disfiguring Economies" (OMS), 207, 213.
  192. ^ Sussman, "Stories for The Keepsake" (CC), 163; Hofkosh, "Disfiguring Economies" (OMS), 205.
  193. ^ Qtd. in Sussman, "Stories for The Keepsake" (CC), 163.
  194. ^ Sussman, "Stories for The Keepsake" (CC), 163–65.
  195. ^ Sussman, "Stories for The Keepsake" (CC), 167.
  196. ^ Sussman, "Stories for The Keepsake" (CC), 167, 176; Hofkosh, "Disfiguring Economies", (OMS), 207.
  197. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 72.
  198. ^ Seymour, 187.
  199. ^ Moskal, "Travel writing" (CC), 242.
  200. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 24–29.
  201. ^ Moskal, "Travel writing" (CC), 244; Clemit, "Legacies of Godwin and Wollstonecraft" (CC), 30.
  202. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 114–15, 118; Orr, "Mary Shelley's Rambles "; Schor, "Mary Shelley in Transit" (OMS), 239.
  203. ^ Qtd. in Schor, "Mary Shelley in Transit" (OMS), 239.
  204. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 117.
  205. ^ Moskal, "Travel writing", 247–50; Orr, "Mary Shelley's Rambles ".
  206. ^ Moskal, "Travel writing" (CC), 247–50; Bennett, An Introduction, 115.
  207. ^ Orr, "Mary Shelley's Rambles ".
  208. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 117–18.
  209. ^ Nora Crook, "General Editor's Introduction", Mary Shelley's Literary Lives, Vol. 1, xix; see also Kucich, "Biographer" (CC), 227.
  210. ^ Kucich, "Biographer" (CC), 227–28.
  211. ^ Kucich, "Biographer" (CC), 228.
  212. ^ Nora Crook, "General Editor's Introduction", Mary Shelley's Literary Lives, Vol. 1, xxvii; Tilar J. Mazzeo, "Introduction by the editor of Italian Lives", Mary Shelley's Literary Lives, Vol. 1, xli.
  213. ^ Lisa Vargo, "Editor's Introduction Spanish and Portuguese Lives", Mary Shelley's Literary Lives and other Writings, Vol. 2, xxii.
  214. ^ Qtd. in Kucich, "Biographer" (CC), 228.
  215. ^ Kucich, "Biographer" (CC), 236.
  216. ^ Kucich, "Biographer" (CC), 230–31, 233, 237; Nora Crook, "General Editor's Introduction", Mary Shelley's Literary Lives, Vol. 1, xxviii; Clarissa Campbell Orr, "Editor's Introduction French Lives", Mary Shelley's Literary Lives, Vol. 2, lii.
  217. ^ Kucich, "Biographer" (CC), 235; see Nora Crook, "General Editor's Introduction", Mary Shelley's Literary Lives, Vol. 1, xxv for the exact number; Tilar J. Mazzeo, "Introduction by the editor of Italian Lives", Mary Shelley's Literary Lives, Vol. 1, xli.
  218. ^ Shelley, "Preface", Poetical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley, vii.
  219. ^ Quoted in Wolfson, "Mary Shelley, editor" (CC), 205.
  220. ^ Spark, 105–6.
  221. ^ Wolfson, "Mary Shelley, editor" (CC), 193, 209 n12; Bennett, An Introduction, 112; Fraistat, "Shelley Left and Right", Shelley's Prose and Poetry, 645.
  222. ^ Wolfson, "Mary Shelley, editor" (CC), 193.
  223. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 111–12.
  224. ^ Qtd. in Wolfson, "Mary Shelley, editor" (CC), 193.
  225. ^ Blumberg, 162.
  226. ^ Fraistat, "Shelley Left and Right", Shelley's Prose and Poetry, 645–46; see also Seymour, 466; Wolfson, "Mary Shelley, editor" (CC), 195, 203; Favret, "Sympathy and Irony" (OMS), 19, 22.
  227. ^ Favret, "Sympathy and Irony" (OMS), 28.
  228. ^ Wolfson, "Mary Shelley, editor" (CC), 194; Fraistat, "Shelley Left and Right", Shelley's Prose and Poetry, 647, Favret, "Sympathy and Irony" (OMS), 18, 29.
  229. ^ Wolfson, "Mary Shelley, editor" (CC), 203.
  230. ^ Wolfson, "Mary Shelley, editor" (CC), 198.
  231. ^ Bennett, Introduction to Selected Letters, xxiii – xxiv.
  232. ^ Seymour, 466; Blumberg, 160–61, 169 –70.
  233. ^ Blumberg, 156.
  234. ^ Wolfson, "Editorial Privilege" (OMS), 68, n. 34.
  235. ^ Wolfson, "Mary Shelley, editor" (CC), 199; Spark, 130.
  236. ^ Bennett, An Introduction, 112; Wolfson, "Mary Shelley, editor" (CC), 209 n16.
  237. ^ Seymour, 467–68; Blumberg, 165–66.
  238. ^ Spark, 130–31; Seymour, 467–68.
  239. ^ Wolfson, "Mary Shelley, editor" (CC), 210 n26.
  240. ^ Bennett, "Finding Mary Shelley", 300–301; see also Wolfson, "Mary Shelley, editor" (CC), 198; Bennett, An Introduction, 110.
  241. ^ Mellor, xi, 39.
  242. ^ Qtd. in Blumberg, 2.
  243. ^ Bennett, "Finding Mary Shelley", 291.
  244. ^ "Introduction" (OMS), 5.
  245. ^ Seymour, 550.
  246. ^ a b Bennett, An Introduction, ix – xi, 120–21; Schor, Introduction to Cambridge Companion, 1–5; Seymour, 548–61.
  247. ^ Schor, "Frankenstein and film" (CC).
  248. ^ Bennett, "Finding Mary Shelley", 292–93.
  249. ^ Bennett, "Finding Mary Shelley", 298–99.
  250. ^ Qtd. in Bennett, "Finding Mary Shelley", 298.

Bibliography

Primary sources

  • Shelley, Mary. Collected Tales and Stories. Ed. Charles E. Robinson. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976. ISBN 0801817064.
  • Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. Ed. Susan J. Wolfson. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007. ISBN 0321399536.
  • Shelley, Mary. The Journals of Mary Shelley, 1814–44. Ed. Paula R. Feldman and Diana Scott-Kilvert. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. ISBN 0801850886.
  • Shelley, Mary. The Last Man. Ed. Morton D. Paley. Oxford: Oxford Paperbacks, 1998. ISBN 0192838652.
  • Shelley, Mary. Lodore. Ed. Lisa Vargo. Ontario: Broadview Press, 1997. ISBN 1551110776.
  • Shelley, Mary. Mary Shelley's Literary Lives and Other Writings. 4 vols. Ed. Tilar J. Mazzeo. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2002. ISBN 1851967168.
  • Shelley, Mary. Mathilda. Ed. Elizabeth Nitchie. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1959. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 16 February 2008.
  • Shelley, Mary. Matilda; with Mary and Maria, by Mary Wollstonecraft. Ed. Janet Todd. London: Penguin, 1992. ISBN 0140433716.
  • Shelley, Mary, ed. The Poetical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. London: Edward Moxon, 1840. Google Books. Retrieved on 6 April 2008.
  • Shelley, Mary. Selected Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Ed. Betty T. Bennett. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. ISBN 0801848865.
  • Shelley, Mary. Valperga; or, The Life and Adventures of Castruccio, Prince of Lucca. Ed. Michael Rossington. Oxford: Oxford Paperbacks, 2000. ISBN 0192832891.
  • Shelley, Percy Bysshe. Shelley's Poetry and Prose. Eds. Donald H. Reiman and Neil Fraistat. 2nd ed. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 2002. ISBN 0393977528.

Secondary sources

  • Bennett, Betty T. "Finding Mary Shelley in her Letters". Romantic Revisions. Ed. Robert Brinkley and Keith Hanley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN 052138074X.
  • Bennett, Betty T., ed. Mary Shelley in her Times. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. ISBN 0801877334.
  • Bennett, Betty T. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley: An Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. ISBN 080185976X.
  • Bennett, Betty T. "The Political Philosophy of Mary Shelley's Historical Novels: Valperga and Perkin Warbeck". The Evidence of the Imagination. Ed. Donald H. Reiman, Michael C. Jaye, and Betty T. Bennett. New York: New York University Press, 1978. ISBN 0814773729.
  • Bieri, James. Percy Bysshe Shelley, a Biography: Exile of Unfulfilled Renown, 1816–1822. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2005. ISBN 0874138930.
  • Blumberg, Jane. Mary Shelley's Early Novels: "This Child of Imagination and Misery". Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1993. ISBN 0877453977.
  • Brewer, William D. "William Godwin, Chivalry, and Mary Shelley's The Fortunes of Perkin Warbeck". Papers on Language and Literature 35.2 (Spring 1999): 187–205. Rpt. on bnet.com. .Retrieved on 20 February 2008.
  • Bunnell, Charlene E. "All the World's a Stage": Dramatic Sensibility in Mary Shelley's Novels. New York: Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0415938635.
  • Carlson, J. A. England's First Family of Writers: Mary Wollstonecraft, William Godwin, Mary Shelley.^ Today is the final day for early registration for the Tools of Change for Publishing conference, to be held in New York, February 22 – 24, 2010.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007. ISBN 080188618X.
  • Clemit, Pamela. "From The Fields of Fancy to Matilda." Mary Shelley in her Times. Ed. Betty T. Bennett. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. ISBN 0801877334.
  • Clemit, Pamela. The Godwinian Novel: The Rational Fictions of Godwin, Brockden Brown, Mary Shelley. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. ISBN 0198112203.
  • Conger, Syndy M., Frederick S. Frank, and Gregory O'Dea, eds. Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley after "Frankenstein". Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth. Madison, NJ: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997. ISBN 0836836845.
  • Eberle-Sinatra, Michael, ed. Mary Shelley's Fictions: From Frankenstein to Falkner. New York: St. Martin's Press/Palgrave, 2000. ISBN 0333771060.
  • Fisch, Audrey A., Anne K. Mellor, and Esther H. Schorr, eds. The Other Mary Shelley: Beyond "Frankenstein". New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. ISBN 0195077407.
  • Frank, Frederick S. "Mary Shelley's Other Fictions: A Bibliographic Consensus". Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley after "Frankenstein". Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth. Ed. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, and Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997. ISBN 0836836845.
  • Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. 1979. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984. ISBN 0300025963.
  • Gittings, Robert and Jo Manton. Claire Clairmont and the Shelleys. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. ISBN 0198185944.
  • Holmes, Richard. Shelley: The Pursuit. 1974. London: Harper Perennial, 2003. ISBN 0007204582.
  • Jump, Harriet Devine, Pamela Clemit, and Betty T. Bennett, eds. Lives of the Great Romantics III: Godwin, Wollstonecraft & Mary Shelley by Their Contemporaries. London: Pickering & Chatto, 1999. ISBN 1851965122.
  • Levine, George and U. C. Knoepflmacher, eds. The Endurance of Frankenstein: Essays on Mary Shelley's novel. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. ISBN 0520036123.
  • Mellor, Anne K. Mary Shelley: Her Life, her Fiction, Her Monsters. London: Routledge, 1990. ISBN 0415901472.
  • Myers, Mitzi. "Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin Shelley: The Female Author between Public and Private Spheres." Mary Shelley in her Times. Ed. Betty T. Bennett. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. ISBN 0801877334.
  • Orr, Clarissa Campbell. "Mary Shelley's Rambles in Germany and Italy, the Celebrity Author, and the Undiscovered Country of the Human Heart". Romanticism On the Net 11 (August 1998). Retrieved on 22 February 2008.
  • Poovey, Mary. The Proper Lady and the Woman Writer: Ideology as Style in the Works of Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelley and Jane Austen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. ISBN 0226675289.
  • Schor, Esther, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Mary Shelley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0521007704.
  • Seymour, Miranda. Mary Shelley. London: John Murray, 2000. ISBN 0719557119.
  • Sites, Melissa. "Re/membering Home: Utopian Domesticity in Mary Shelley's Lodore". A Brighter Morn: The Shelley Circle's Utopian Project. Ed. Darby Lewes. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2003. ISBN 0739104721.
  • Smith, Johanna M. "A Critical History of Frankenstein". Frankenstein. Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000. ISBN 0312227620.
  • Spark, Muriel. Mary Shelley. London: Cardinal, 1987. ISBN 074740138X.
  • St Clair, William. The Godwins and the Shelleys: The Biography of a Family. London: Faber & Faber, 1989. ISBN 0571154220.
  • Sterrenburg, Lee. "The Last Man: Anatomy of Failed Revolutions". Nineteenth Century Fiction 33 (1978): 324–347.
  • Sunstein, Emily W. Mary Shelley: Romance and Reality. 1989. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991. ISBN 0801842182.
  • Wake, Ann M Frank. "Women in the Active Voice: Recovering Female History in Mary Shelley's Valperga and Perkin Warbeck". Iconoclastic Departures: Mary Shelley after "Frankenstein". Essays in Honor of the Bicentenary of Mary Shelley's Birth. Ed. Syndy M. Conger, Frederick S. Frank, and Gregory O'Dea. Madison, NJ: Farleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997. ISBN 0836836845.
  • White, Daniel E. "'The god undeified': Mary Shelley's Valperga, Italy, and the Aesthetic of Desire". Romanticism on the Net 6 (May 1997). Retrieved on 22 February 2008.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Nothing contributes so much to tranquilize the mind as a steady purpose — a point on which the soul may fix its intellectual eye...
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (30 August 17971 February 1851) was an English novelist. She was born Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, daughter of Mary Wollstonecraft and William Godwin, and married Percy Bysshe Shelley.

Contents

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  • My greatest pleasure was the enjoyment of a serene sky amidst these verdant woods: yet I loved all the changes of Nature; and rain, and storm, and the beautiful clouds of heaven brought their delights with them. When rocked by the waves of the lake my spirits rose in triumph as a horseman feels with pride the motions of his high fed steed.
    But my pleasures arose from the contemplation of nature alone, I had no companion: my warm affections finding no return from any other human heart were forced to run waste on inanimate objects.
  • The last man! Yes I may well describe that solitary being's feelings, feeling myself as the last relic of a beloved race, my companions extinct before me... .
    • Journal entry on the writing of her science-fiction novel The Last Man (14 May 1824)
  • At the age of twenty six I am in the condition of an aged person — all my old friends are gone ...^ A couple of entries ago, I suggested making things easy on yourself by writing shorter blog posts from time to time (or all the time if it fits your blog).
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Some of you may have noticed my short tweet last night about a special treat for you all on the site.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Raised on it, entered by his 'guardian' at the age of… About.com Fiction Writing .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    & my heart fails when I think by how few ties I hold to the world....
    • Journal (15 May 1824)

Frankenstein (1818)

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.
We are unfashioned creatures, but half made up, if one wiser, better, dearer than ourselves — such a friend ought to be — do not lend his aid to perfectionate our weak and faulty natures.
  • You will rejoice to hear that no disaster has accompanied the commencement of an enterprise which you have regarded with such evil forebodings. I arrived here yesterday, and my first task is to assure my dear sister of my welfare and increasing confidence in the success of my undertaking.^ I want to hear from one of you.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Dear Literary Ladies,A book that I've toiled on and believe in with all my heart has been rejected by more than a dozen publishers.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ MJ, thanks for inviting me to post my letter (which first ran yesterday on Jane Litte's Dear Author).
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • Robert Walton in "Letter 1"
  • I feel a cold northern breeze play upon my cheeks, which braces my nerves and fills me with delight. Do you understand this feeling? This breeze, which has travelled from the regions towards which I am advancing, gives me a foretaste of those icy climes. Inspirited by this wind of promise, my daydreams become more fervent and vivid. I try in vain to be persuaded that the pole is the seat of frost and desolation; it ever presents itself to my imagination as the region of beauty and delight. There, Margaret, the sun is forever visible, its broad disk just skirting the horizon and diffusing a perpetual splendour. .
    • Robert Walton in "Letter 1"
  • I feel my heart glow with an enthusiasm which elevates me to heaven, for nothing contributes so much to tranquillize the mind as a steady purpose — a point on which the soul may fix its intellectual eye.
    • Robert Walton in "Letter 1"
  • My life might have been passed in ease and luxury, but I preferred glory to every enticement that wealth placed in my path.^ I began by making a list in my journal of specific features of life in Los Alamos that distinguished it from other places I might have grown up.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This feels so much less cluttered and so much more productive than it did when my desktop was full of files.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Oh, that some encouraging voice would answer in the affirmative! .My courage and my resolution is firm; but my hopes fluctuate, and my spirits are often depressed.^ The two lists often find themselves intertwined, the requests representing the fruit we hope to harvest as the result of fulfilling our resolutions.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .I am about to proceed on a long and difficult voyage, the emergencies of which will demand all my fortitude: I am required not only to raise the spirits of others, but sometimes to sustain my own, when theirs are failing.^ Please review all advertisements and links carefully and apply only if you are comfortable with the requirements for the position.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Grinch) who has commented on what a terrible thing I’m doing, using my blog to talk about my own publishing efforts.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Some of you may have noticed my short tweet last night about a special treat for you all on the site.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Robert Walton in "Letter 1"
  • I have one want which I have never yet been able to satisfy, and the absence of the object of which I now feel as a most severe evil, I have no friend, Margaret: when I am glowing with the enthusiasm of success, there will be none to participate my joy; if I am assailed by disappointment, no one will endeavour to sustain me in dejection.^ However, it never easy to find one, that is so readable, looks nice, clean and yet artistic..
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A truly entertaining letter to read but no doubt an infuriating one to receive.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Well: On some level (even if you moan and whine about how you aren’t a famous writer yet or how no one is paying for your brilliance yet or you… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .I shall commit my thoughts to paper, it is true; but that is a poor medium for the communication of feeling.^ Just to sit down and to get onto paper what’s in my head, my memories and thoughts.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Robert Walton in "Letter 1"
  • There is something at work in my soul which I do not understand.^ But, I’ve always suspected there was something more at work.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .I am practically industrious — painstaking, a workman to execute with perseverance and labour — but besides this there is a love for the marvellous, a belief in the marvellous, intertwined in all my projects, which hurries me out of the common pathways of men, even to the wild sea and unvisited regions I am about to explore.
    • Robert Walton in "Letter 2"
  • What can stop the determined heart and resolved will of man?^ Dear Literary Ladies,A book that I've toiled on and believe in with all my heart has been rejected by more than a dozen publishers.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Of all the articles I wrote this week, my favorite is about reevaluating career goals.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Some of you may have noticed my short tweet last night about a special treat for you all on the site.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Robert Walton in "Letter 3"
  • We are unfashioned creatures, but half made up, if one wiser, better, dearer than ourselves — such a friend ought to be — do not lend his aid to perfectionate our weak and faulty natures.
    • Victor Frankenstein, quoted by Robert Walton in "Letter 4"
  • The ancient teachers of this science...^ No one can copy our formula that makes up our human brand.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Aren't we supposed to flail ourselves for our failings and weaknesses, promise to be better, and then within a fortnight (if you're lucky) fall, fall again into a pattern of loathsome idleness?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ With Christmas less than a week away, and many of us enjoying holidays at home with our loved ones, what better time to launch the Protagonize Winter Challenge competition?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    promised impossibilities and performed nothing. .The modern masters promise very little; they know that metals cannot be transmuted and that the elixir of life is a chimera but these philosophers, whose hands seem only made to dabble in dirt, and their eyes to pore over the microscope or crucible, have indeed performed miracles.^ They promise you the world on a platter for minimal effort, and it’s all a very closely-kept secret… that can be yours for only $49.99 (or insert your favorite price tag here).
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Little did he or Lynes know, but his life story would soon fill many a book.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Again.Now, Amazon isn't racist (as far as we know), so that's a plus, but they have been a little "sketchy" and "monopoly-ish" in the past.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .They penetrate into the recesses of nature and show how she works in her hiding-places.^ People are killed or driven into hiding because someone somewhere has labeled their work “blasphemy.” School children with attitude get away with refusing to do their homework because they know that school officials are easily spooked by anything relating to religion.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Regular readers are familiar with you and your content, so they’re already keyed into how you write and what you’re about.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .They ascend into the heavens; they have discovered how the blood circulates, and the nature of the air we breathe.^ Regular readers are familiar with you and your content, so they’re already keyed into how you write and what you’re about.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    They have acquired new and almost unlimited powers; they can command the thunders of heaven, mimic the earthquake, and even mock the invisible world with its own shadows.
    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. .3
  • I felt as if my soul were grappling with a palpable enemy; one by one the various keys were touched which formed the mechanism of my being; chord after chord was sounded, and soon my mind was filled with one thought, one conception, one purpose.^ This desire for effortless writing encourage me sit down one day, a green tea by my side and write everything down that I felt could make the process itself effortless.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    So much has been done, exclaimed the soul of Frankenstein — more, far more, will I achieve; treading in the steps already marked, I will pioneer a new way, explore unknown powers, and unfold to the world the deepest mysteries of creation.
    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 3
  • One of the phenomena which had peculiarly attracted my attention was the structure of the human frame, and, indeed, any animal endued with life. .Whence, I often asked myself, did the principle of life proceed?^ In my ministry as a Life on Life Coach, I often ask those I coach to begin journaling about the things they are processing.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .It was a bold question, and one which has ever been considered as a mystery; yet with how many things are we upon the brink of becoming acquainted, if cowardice or carelessness did not restrain our inquiries.^ How many did you see...who was your favorite?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ How to Nominate Your Favorite Book on Social Media To keep things simple, leave a comment nominating one book.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Too Many Choices First, if you know two dozen ways to describe “happy,” how will you choose the one to use?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. .4
  • Learn from me, if not by my precepts, at least by my example, how dangerous is the acquirement of knowledge and how much happier that man is who believes his native town to be the world, than he who aspires to become greater than his nature will allow.^ Dear Literary Ladies,A book that I've toiled on and believe in with all my heart has been rejected by more than a dozen publishers.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ For a name, that literally means "Great Nation", how long does it take for the feeling "Greater than the Nation" to settle in..
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ So I've composed a list of the books that I believe should be read by those who aspire to greatness in the mystery genre.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. .4
  • No one can conceive the variety of feelings which bore me onwards, like a hurricane, in the first enthusiasm of success.^ First, they feel like an attempt to skip the walking phase.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I bring that up because on one side of the coin, publishers don’t want to make their valued readers feel like potential criminals.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Life and death appeared to me ideal bounds, which I should first break through, and pour a torrent of light into our dark world.
    A new species would bless me as its creator and source; many happy and excellent natures would owe their being to me. No father could claim the gratitude of his child so completely as I should deserve theirs.
    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 4
  • It was on a dreary night of November that I beheld the accomplishment of my toils. .With an anxiety that almost amounted to agony, I collected the instruments of life around me, that I might infuse a spark of being into the lifeless thing that lay at my feet.^ An example would be the resolution to write and submit ten short stories with my request being that four or more of those stories might find… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In my ministry as a Life on Life Coach, I often ask those I coach to begin journaling about the things they are processing.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ All weekend long, the things I'm grateful for have been swirling around in my head.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 5
  • The different accidents of life are not so changeable as the feelings of human nature. I had worked hard for nearly two years, for the sole purpose of infusing life into an inanimate body. For this I had deprived myself of rest and health. .I had desired it with an ardour that far exceeded moderation; but now that I had finished, the beauty of the dream vanished, and breathless horror and disgust filled my heart. Unable to endure the aspect of the being I had created, I rushed out of the room and continued a long time traversing my bed-chamber, unable to compose my mind to sleep.^ When I write the proposals I am so often called upon to create, I’m not exactly leaving my heart with them even though… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ For The "Over Fifty" Crowd Long ago and far away, in a land that time forgot, Before the days of Dylan, or the dawn of Camelot.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Frankly, I can’t figure out why I continue running marathons*: my knees hurt; I love the couch; no one wants to see me in spandex; … I could [...
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 5
  • How can I describe my emotions at this catastrophe, or how delineate the wretch whom with such infinite pains and care I had endeavoured to form? His limbs were in proportion, and I had selected his features as beautiful. Beautiful! Great god, His yellow skin scarcely covered the work of muscle and arteries beneath; his hair was of a lustrous black, and flowing; his teeth of a pearly whiteness; but these luxuriances only formed a more horrid contrast with his watery eyes, that seemed almost of the same colour as the dun white sockets in which they were set, his shrivelled complexion, and straight black lips.
    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch 5.
  • I beheld the wretch — the miserable monster whom I had created. He held up the curtain of the bed; and his eyes, if eyes they may be called, were fixed on me. His jaws opened, and he muttered some inarticulate sounds, while a grin wrinkled his cheeks. He might have spoken, but I did not hear; one hand was stretched out, seemingly to detain me, but I escaped and rushed downstairs. I took refuge in the courtyard belonging to the house which I inhabited, where I remained during the rest of the night, walking up and down in the greatest agitation, listening attentively, catching and fearing each sound as if it were to announce the approach of the demoniacal corpse to which I had so miserably given life.
    Oh! No mortal could support the horror of that countenance. A mummy again endued with animation could not be so hideous as that wretch. I had gazed on him while unfinished; he was ugly then, but when those muscles and joints were rendered capable of motion, it became a thing such as even Dante could not have conceived.
    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 5
  • It is decided as you may have expected; all judges had rather that ten innocent should suffer than that one guilty should escape. But she has confessed.
    • Victor Frankenstein of Justine Moritz in Ch. 8
  • I did confess, but I confessed a lie. .I confessed, that I might obtain absolution; but now that falsehood lies heavier at my heart than all my other sins. The God of heaven forgive me!^ Dear Literary Ladies,A book that I've toiled on and believe in with all my heart has been rejected by more than a dozen publishers.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I began by making a list in my journal of specific features of life in Los Alamos that distinguished it from other places I might have grown up.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .Ever since I was condemned, my confessor has besieged me; he threatened and menaced, until I almost began to think that I was the monster that he said I was.^ I return the favor when she reads a book I've read, since books are my thing and films are hers.But we recently went to see AVATAR and it got me thinking about the role of story.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    He threatened excommunication and hell fire in my last moments if I continued obdurate. .Dear lady, I had none to support me; all looked on me as a wretch doomed to ignominy and perdition.^ Dear Literary Ladies,A book that I've toiled on and believe in with all my heart has been rejected by more than a dozen publishers.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    What could I do? In an evil hour I subscribed to a lie; and now only am I truly miserable.
    • Justine Moritz in Ch. 8
  • Live, and be happy, and make others so.
    • Justine Moritz in Ch. .8
  • Not the tenderness of friendship, nor the beauty of earth, nor of heaven, could redeem my soul from woe; the very accents of love were ineffectual.^ Frankly, I can’t figure out why I continue running marathons*: my knees hurt; I love the couch; no one wants to see me in spandex; … I could [...
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    I was encompassed by a cloud which no beneficial influence could penetrate.
    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 9
  • I ought to be thy Adam; but I am rather the fallen angel
    • The monster in Ch. 10
  • While I listened to the instructions which Felix bestowed upon the Arabian, the strange system of human society was explained to me. I heard of the division of property, of immense wealth and squalid poverty, of rank, descent, and noble blood.
    The words induced me to turn towards myself. I learned that the possessions most esteemed by your fellow creatures were high and unsullied descent united with riches. A man might be respected with only one of these advantages, but without either he was considered, except in very rare instances, as a vagabond and a slave, doomed to waste his powers for the profits of the chosen few! And what was I? Of my creation and creator I was absolutely ignorant, but I knew that I possessed no money, no friends, no kind of property. I was, besides, endued with a figure hideously deformed and loathsome; I was not even of the same nature as man. .I was more agile than they and could subsist upon coarser diet; I bore the extremes of heat and cold with less injury to my frame; my stature far exceeded theirs.^ Dear Literary Ladies,A book that I've toiled on and believe in with all my heart has been rejected by more than a dozen publishers.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I've talked more than a few times here about upcoming remakes and how they seem to be on the rise, and it's started more than one conversation between my dad and I about deserving books that could be easily turned into scripts that might then be easily (or not so) turned into great movies.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There could be any number of answers to that question, but the one I’m looking for is that they led to the unexpected email appearance a couple of days ago of a far-removed cousin on my mother’s father’s branch of the family.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    When I looked around I saw and heard of none like me. .Was I, then, a monster, a blot upon the earth, from which all men fled and whom all men disowned?

    I cannot describe to you the agony that these reflections inflicted upon me; I tried to dispel them, but sorrow only increased with knowledge.^ The only rules are that if you read something posted by someone you cannot tease or scorn someone on it, or laugh at them unless it was meant to be funny.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Oh, that I had forever remained in my native wood, nor known nor felt beyond the sensations of hunger, thirst, and heat!
    • The monster in Ch. .13
  • I admired virtue and good feelings and loved the gentle manners and amiable qualities of my cottagers, but I was shut out from intercourse with them, except through means which I obtained by stealth, when I was unseen and unknown, and which rather increased than satisfied the desire I had of becoming one among my fellows.^ Yes, reading is important and I need to read the books I have rather than go out and purchase new books as soon… A Book Inside - How to Write and Publish a Book .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ When I was little, I loved to stretch out across my bed and write stories.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I got my hands on a copy as soon as it was out, and it’s good…really good.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • The monster in Ch. 14
  • My person was hideous and my stature gigantic. What did this mean? Who was I? What was I? Whence did I come? What was my destination? These questions continually recurred, but I was unable to solve them.
    • The monster in Ch. 15
  • Paradise Lost excited different and far deeper emotions. .I read it, as I had read the other volumes which had fallen into my hands, as a true history.^ This was not a forced break, which I have done in the past, but a true do-nothingness that has settled into the part of my morning that I once filled with writing.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    It moved every feeling of wonder and awe that the picture of an omnipotent God warring with his creatures was capable of exciting. I often referred the several situations, as their similarity struck me, to my own. Like Adam, I was apparently united by no link to any other being in existence; but his state was far different from mine in every other respect. He had come forth from the hands of God a perfect creature, happy and prosperous, guarded by the especial care of his Creator; he was allowed to converse with and acquire knowledge from beings of a superior nature, but I was wretched, helpless, and alone.
    • The monster in Ch. .15
  • Soon after my arrival in the hovel I discovered some papers in the pocket of the dress which I had taken from your laboratory.^ Can you share some quick insights on how you developed plots and characters?My methods of work are very simple & soon told.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ My head is my study, & there I keep the various plans of stories for years some times, letting them grow as they will till I am ready to put them on paper.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    At first I had neglected them, but now that I was able to decipher the characters in which they were written, I began to study them with diligence. .It was your journal of the four months that preceded my creation.^ About a month after I started my business, I created the most successful marketing campaign I’ve ever had.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .You minutely described in these papers every step you took in the progress of your work; this history was mingled with accounts of domestic occurrences.^ Normally some kind of event that distracts you from your work would be an end to your goals.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ How did you do it, and what did you do with the rest of your time?I work from two and a half to three hours a day.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Ask yourself this question about your current work-in-progress: What character is in every scene and on every page?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    You doubtless recollect these papers. Here they are. .Everything is related in them which bears reference to my accursed origin; the whole detail of that series of disgusting circumstances which produced it is set in view; the minutest description of my odious and loathsome person is given, in language which painted your own horrors and rendered mine indelible.^ You add a description, a cover, set your price and you are set.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In this video, we’ll give you some tips for avoiding what *not* to write about, and how to mine your own life experiences for great subjects.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    I sickened as I read. 'Hateful day when I received life!' I exclaimed in agony. 'Accursed creator! Why did you form a monster so hideous that even you turned from me in disgust? .God, in pity, made man beautiful and alluring, after his own image; but my form is a filthy type of yours, more horrid even from the very resemblance.^ To enlarge this image just click on it.Watch this video on making your own perfect paperback books.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Thanks for all the feedback to my post, Making More Time To Write: Cleaning Up Your Inbox and Improving Your E-mail System.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Satan had his companions, fellow devils, to admire and encourage him, but I am solitary and abhorred.'
    • The monster to Victor Frankenstein in Ch. .15
  • I am an unfortunate and deserted creature, I look around and I have no relation or friend upon earth. These amiable people to whom I go have never seen me and know little of me.^ For me, it was telling people and knowing they were going to be asking for updates, and the fact that if I failed to complete it, everyone would know of my failure and they would have fodder to deride me for months.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    I am full of fears, for if I fail there, I am an outcast in the world forever.
    • The monster to the blind man in Ch. .15
  • I have good dispositions; my life has been hitherto harmless and in some degree beneficial; but a fatal prejudice clouds their eyes, and where they ought to see a feeling and kind friend, they behold only a detestable monster.
    • The monster to the blind man in Ch.^ Since they spring from the world of the novel, only those who have read it will see the merits of some designs at this point.
      • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Before my eyes drooped so low I had to crawl between the covers, about 2500 words had bubbled forth, and they were nothing I’d envisioned or considered writing.
      • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

      ^ "So you are in Ingram's?," they ask, as if it's some kind of legitimizing checkpoint in order to go any further.
      • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

      15
  • I gave vent to my anguish in fearful howlings. I was like a wild beast that had broken the toils, destroying the objects that obstructed me and ranging through the wood with a stag-like swiftness. Oh! What a miserable night I passed! The cold stars shone in mockery, and the bare trees waved their branches above me; now and then the sweet voice of a bird burst forth amidst the universal stillness. All, save I, were at rest or in enjoyment; I, like the arch-fiend, bore a hell within me, and finding myself unsympathized with, wished to tear up the trees, spread havoc and destruction around me, and then to have sat down and enjoyed the ruin.
    But this was a luxury of sensation that could not endure; I became fatigued with excess of bodily exertion and sank on the damp grass in the sick impotence of despair. .There was none among the myriads of men that existed who would pity or assist me; and should I feel kindness towards my enemies?^ In the last part of my character revision series I made the case for why all your significant characters should have some kind of arc.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .No; from that moment I declared everlasting war against the species, and more than all, against him who had formed me and sent me forth to this insupportable misery.^ Dear Literary Ladies,A book that I've toiled on and believe in with all my heart has been rejected by more than a dozen publishers.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ What I did I’ve turned off all desktop icons (no more using the desktop as a storage area), gotten rid of as many menubar status… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • The monster to Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 16
  • Unfeeling, heartless creator! You had endowed me with perceptions and passions and then cast me abroad an object for the scorn and horror of mankind. .But on you only had I any claim for pity and redress, and from you I determined to seek that justice which I vainly attempted to gain from any other being that wore the human form.^ If you think fear of failure or rejection is the only thing holding you back from being a successful writer, think again!
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Writing is easy: All you do is sit staring at a blank sheet of paper until drops of blood form on your forehead~ Gene Fowler If only it were that easy.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It means I’m pushing the words instead of being pulled by them.” — Raymond Chandler When it comes to your writing, is your muse pulling you or is the other way around?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • The monster to Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 16
  • I am alone and miserable; man will not associate with me; but one as deformed and horrible as myself would not deny herself to me. My companion must be of the same species and have the same defects. This being you must create.
    • The monster to Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 16
  • I am content to reason with you. I am malicious because I am miserable. Am I not shunned and hated by all mankind? .You, my creator, would tear me to pieces and triumph; remember that, and tell me why I should pity man more than he pities me?^ I’m delighted to tell you all those links still work – a wonder in my opinion.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Dear Literary Ladies,A book that I've toiled on and believe in with all my heart has been rejected by more than a dozen publishers.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ For me, it was telling people and knowing they were going to be asking for updates, and the fact that if I failed to complete it, everyone would know of my failure and they would have fodder to deride me for months.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ... Shall I respect man when he condemns me? Let him live with me in the interchange of kindness, and instead of injury I would bestow every benefit upon him with tears of gratitude at his acceptance. But that cannot be; the human senses are insurmountable barriers to our union. Yet mine shall not be the submission of abject slavery. I will revenge my injuries; if I cannot inspire love, I will cause fear, and chiefly towards you my arch-enemy, because my creator, do I swear inextinguishable hatred. .Have a care; I will work at your destruction, nor finish until I desolate your heart, so that you shall curse the hour of your birth.^ In the event this does happen, how do you prove that the infringed work is your own?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Normally some kind of event that distracts you from your work would be an end to your goals.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Freelance Switch: It’s easy to take for granted, but being organized with your record keeping saves you a lot of time that can be used for working on projects.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • The monster to Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 17
  • I intended to reason. This passion is detrimental to me, for you do not reflect that you are the cause of its excess. If any being felt emotions of benevolence towards me, I should return them a hundred and a hundredfold; for that one creature's sake I would make peace with the whole kind! But I now indulge in dreams of bliss that cannot be realized. What I ask of you is reasonable and moderate; I demand a creature of another sex, but as hideous as myself; the gratification is small, but it is all that I can receive, and it shall content me. .It is true, we shall be monsters, cut off from all the world; but on that account we shall be more attached to one another.^ Do you think your writing will change anybody?Carver: … Good fiction is partly a bringing of the news from one world to another.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I quickly discovered it was one thing to have an idea, but quite another to get it to be more than a few pages of disjointed thoughts.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ What I did I’ve turned off all desktop icons (no more using the desktop as a storage area), gotten rid of as many menubar status… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Our lives will not be happy, but they will be harmless and free from the misery I now feel. Oh! .My creator, make me happy; let me feel gratitude towards you for one benefit!^ But you have to make a start, so let’s get to it.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you’d have asked me a year ago whether I’d be doing a “best of” post to cap off my blog, I’d have said “What blog?” What a difference a year makes.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You feel creative and you want to create, but you’re just not inspired.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .Let me see that I excite the sympathy of some existing thing; do not deny me my request!^ I return the favor when she reads a book I've read, since books are my thing and films are hers.But we recently went to see AVATAR and it got me thinking about the role of story.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Let me give you some good things that you can receive when you get an online writing job.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Here, in case you missed them, are some of my favorite posts from the year: Pulse Warmers: What little things help you through your day?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • The monster to Victor Frankenstein in Ch. .17
  • If you consent, neither you nor any other human being shall ever see us again; I will go to the vast wilds of South America.^ Showing that you’re a trustworthy human being, making a connection, reaching out one-to-one.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It means I’m pushing the words instead of being pulled by them.” — Raymond Chandler When it comes to your writing, is your muse pulling you or is the other way around?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you’re going… 3:17 a.m.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    My food is not that of man; I do not destroy the lamb and the kid to glut my appetite; acorns and berries afford me sufficient nourishment. My companion will be of the same nature as myself and will be content with the same fare. .We shall make our bed of dried leaves; the sun will shine on us as on man and will ripen our food.^ She’s been hitting us up for food and shelter for 9 years but still leaves the room when I walk in.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In order to achieve greater things in life we must take extreme action at times t hat makes us step outside of our comfort zone.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .The picture I present to you is peaceful and human, and you must feel that you could deny it only in the wantonness of power and cruelty.^ Writing might feel like the worst thing you could… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Pitiless as you have been towards me, I now see compassion in your eyes; let me seize the favourable moment and persuade you to promise what I so ardently desire.
    • The monster to Victor Frankenstein in Ch. .17
  • I swear to you, by the earth which I inhabit, and by you that made me, that with the companion you bestow I will quit the neighbourhood of man and dwell, as it may chance, in the most savage of places.^ If you haven’t had a chance to check it out, may I recommend you do so?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    My evil passions will have fled, for I shall meet with sympathy! My life will flow quietly away, and in my dying moments I shall not curse my maker.
    • The monster to Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 17
  • I must not be trifled with, and I demand an answer. .If I have no ties and no affections, hatred and vice must be my portion; the love of another will destroy the cause of my crimes, and I shall become a thing of whose existence everyone will be ignorant.^ Had it been Tony Blair then that would have been another thing entirely I'm sure although not in my head.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Somehow, the act of putting pen to paper (or fingers to computer keys for that matter) cause the things we discuss to become a cognitive learning experience.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Frankly, I can’t figure out why I continue running marathons*: my knees hurt; I love the couch; no one wants to see me in spandex; … I could [...
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    My vices are the children of a forced solitude that I abhor, and my virtues will necessarily arise when I live in communion with an equal. I shall feel the affections of a sensitive being and become linked to the chain of existence and events from which I am now excluded.
    • The monster to Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 17
  • As I sat, a train of reflection occurred to me which led me to consider the effects of what I was now doing. .Three years before, I was engaged in the same manner and had created a fiend whose unparalleled barbarity had desolated my heart and filled it forever with the bitterest remorse.^ In my three years of blogging, I do not remember another month with so much important breaking news for writers.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ When I write the proposals I am so often called upon to create, I’m not exactly leaving my heart with them even though… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .I was now about to form another being of whose dispositions I was alike ignorant; she might become ten thousand times more malignant than her mate and delight, for its own sake, in murder and wretchedness.^ I quickly discovered it was one thing to have an idea, but quite another to get it to be more than a few pages of disjointed thoughts.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This time around — and in the spirit of the season, of course — we have a real prize, kindly donated by none other than one of our more prolific members, smac972.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Being the new block in town, nothing would make the Wrimo Report feel more welcome than if you read it, told your friends about it, and then submitted your own NaNoWriMo story for consideration!
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .He had sworn to quit the neighbourhood of man and hide himself in deserts, but she had not; and she, who in all probability was to become a thinking and reasoning animal, might refuse to comply with a compact made before her creation.
    They might even hate each other; the creature who already lived loathed his own deformity, and might he not conceive a greater abhorrence for it when it came before his eyes in the female form?^ Before my eyes drooped so low I had to crawl between the covers, about 2500 words had bubbled forth, and they were nothing I’d envisioned or considered writing.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I was deeply offended by their presumption that I could never be less judgmental, even though my sister and I have raised judging others to an art form.So I've been seriously thinking about being judgmental.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Be it about the day’s happenings, what they’re thinking that day, memories sparked by their life or even something their children do.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    She also might turn with disgust from him to the superior beauty of man; she might quit him, and he be again alone, exasperated by the fresh provocation of being deserted by one of his own species. .Even if they were to leave Europe and inhabit the deserts of the new world, yet one of the first results of those sympathies for which the daemon thirsted would be children, and a race of devils would be propagated upon the earth who might make the very existence of the species of man a condition precarious and full of terror.^ I am one of those traditionalists who believe that, in order to write a good crime novel today, you must have read and studied the greats of the genre.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ On this day each climber stood before the mountain they were about to climb alone (even if we have a critique group, we are very much alone with our stories) to ponder their chances.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If one of your New Year's resolutions is to submit work to literary journals for the first time, the collection of articles in the link above will help your do so in an organized, professional way.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Had I right, for my own benefit, to inflict this curse upon everlasting generations? .I had before been moved by the sophisms of the being I had created; I had been struck senseless by his fiendish threats; but now, for the first time, the wickedness of my promise burst upon me; I shuddered to think that future ages might curse me as their pest, whose selfishness had not hesitated to buy its own peace at the price, perhaps, of the existence of the whole human race.
    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch.^ When I write the proposals I am so often called upon to create, I’m not exactly leaving my heart with them even though… .
      • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

      ^ I’m excited to include Quips and Tips for Spiritual Seekers – my newest blog – for the first time in my roundup of articles!
      • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Right around a year ago now, I made my first cent online.
      • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

      .20
  • Slave, I before reasoned with you, but you have proved yourself unworthy of my condescension.^ Or you may be saying to yourself daily, "I need traffic to my website."
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Remember that I have power; you believe yourself miserable, but I can make you so wretched that the light of day will be hateful to you. .You are my creator, but I am your master; obey!^ With fiction writing exercises that focus on character creation, you can start building skills that allow you get under your character’s skin and get inside his head.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It’s easy to get seduced by your excitement over the characters you’ve created, and in your zeal to share with… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It is something that you should consider your personal creation.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • The monster to Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 20
  • I had feelings of affection, and they were requited by detestation and scorn. Man! You may hate, but beware! .Your hours will pass in dread and misery, and soon the bolt will fall which must ravish from you your happiness forever.^ I’ll dodge it, though, by saying you must follow your own bent.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Your car has a flat tire and you have been wandering for hours.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ How did you do it, and what did you do with the rest of your time?I work from two and a half to three hours a day.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Are you to be happy while I grovel in the intensity of my wretchedness? You can blast my other passions, but revenge remains — revenge, henceforth dearer than light or food! .I may die, but first you, my tyrant and tormentor, shall curse the sun that gazes on your misery.^ Some of you may have noticed my short tweet last night about a special treat for you all on the site.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you want to participate, just drop me an email with the word "Prompt" in the subject line and your name (first, last, or both) in the body of the email.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If this is your first item to write a dissertation, then we suggest that you also write an outline first.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Beware, for I am fearless and therefore powerful.
    • The monster to Victor Frankenstein in Ch. .20
  • How mutable are our feelings, and how strange is that clinging love we have of life even in the excess of misery!^ How can we do this in our everyday life?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. .20
  • Death snatches away many blooming children, the only hopes of their doting parents; how many brides and youthful lovers have been one day in the bloom of health and hope, and the next a prey for worms and the decay of the tomb!^ A one time investment, a one time effort that only requires you to login once a day to check the volume of sales that you have made.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Too Many Choices First, if you know two dozen ways to describe “happy,” how will you choose the one to use?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Of what materials was I made that I could thus resist so many shocks, which, like the turning of the wheel, continually renewed the torture?
    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 21
  • I soon learned that Mr. Kirwin had shown me extreme kindness. He had caused the best room in the prison to be prepared for me (wretched indeed was the best); and it was he who had provided a physician and a nurse. It is true, he seldom came to see me, for although he ardently desired to relieve the sufferings of every human creature, he did not wish to be present at the agonies and miserable ravings of a murderer. He came, therefore, sometimes to see that I was not neglected, but his visits were short and with long intervals.
    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 21
  • To me the walls of a dungeon or a palace were alike hateful. The cup of life was poisoned forever, and although the sun shone upon me, as upon the happy and gay of heart, I saw around me nothing but a dense and frightful darkness...
    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. .21
  • Heavy misfortunes have befallen us, but let us only cling closer to what remains and transfer our love for those whom we have lost to those who yet live.^ Since they spring from the world of the novel, only those who have read it will see the merits of some designs at this point.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ We don't know the people who change our lives .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Subscribers to the print newspaper, even those who subscribe only to the Sunday paper,… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • Victor's father in Ch. 21
  • Nothing is so painful to the human mind as a great and sudden change. The sun might shine or the clouds might lower, but nothing could appear to me as it had done the day before. A fiend had snatched from me every hope of future happiness; no creature had ever been so miserable as I was; so frightful an event is single in the history of man. .But why should I dwell upon the incidents that followed this last overwhelming event?^ This event builds upon last fall’s Author Guide to Marketing with Teleseminars.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the last part of my character revision series I made the case for why all your significant characters should have some kind of arc.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Mine has been a tale of horrors; I have reached their acme, and what I must now relate can but be tedious to you. .Know that, one by one, my friends were snatched away; I was left desolate.^ Now usually I just flex my creativity and do away with them, but I've been stumped on one for awhile--the word 'magic.'
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 23
  • By the sacred earth on which I kneel, by the shades that wander near me, by the deep and eternal grief that I feel, I swear; and by thee, O Night, and the spirits that preside over thee, to pursue the daemon who caused this misery, until he or I shall perish in mortal conflict. .For this purpose I will preserve my life; to execute this dear revenge will I again behold the sun and tread the green herbage of earth, which otherwise should vanish from my eyes forever.^ It should begin with your intent and purpose, then with your strategy and then as part of your… Life on Avenue Z .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .And I call on you, spirits of the dead, and on you, wandering ministers of vengeance, to aid and conduct me in my work.^ I’m delighted to tell you all those links still work – a wonder in my opinion.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Can you share some quick insights on how you developed plots and characters?My methods of work are very simple & soon told.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I thought it would be fun to share some of my early work with you here.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Let the cursed and hellish monster drink deep of agony; let him feel the despair that now torments me.
    • Victor Frankenstein in Ch. 24
  • Oh! .When will my guiding spirit, in conducting me to the daemon, allow me the rest I so much desire; or must I die, and he yet live?^ For the rest of that week, I wrote whenever time allowed me to pull out my little book—on the streets, on the trains, in the backs of churches while the rest of my group finished touring,… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    If I do, swear to me, Walton, that he shall not escape, that you will seek him and satisfy my vengeance in his death. .And do I dare to ask of you to undertake my pilgrimage, to endure the hardships that I have undergone?^ If you’d have asked me a year ago whether I’d be doing a “best of” post to cap off my blog, I’d have said “What blog?” What a difference a year makes.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    No; I am not so selfish. .Yet, when I am dead, if he should appear, if the ministers of vengeance should conduct him to you, swear that he shall not live — swear that he shall not triumph over my accumulated woes and survive to add to the list of his dark crimes.^ My partner mentioned this to the editor who then gave him his card and told him I should send him a clip.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .He is eloquent and persuasive, and once his words had even power over my heart; but trust him not.^ When I write the proposals I am so often called upon to create, I’m not exactly leaving my heart with them even though… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    His soul is as hellish as his form, full of treachery and fiend-like malice. Hear him not...
    • Victor Frankenstein to Robert Walton in Ch. 24
  • His eloquence is forcible and touching; nor can I hear him, when he relates a pathetic incident or endeavours to move the passions of pity or love, without tears. What a glorious creature must he have been in the days of his prosperity, when he is thus noble and godlike in ruin! He seems to feel his own worth and the greatness of his fall.
    • Robert Walton of Victor Frankenstein
  • From my infancy I was imbued with high hopes and a lofty ambition; but how am I sunk! Oh! .My friend, if you had known me as I once was, you would not recognize me in this state of degradation.^ I thought it would be fun to share some of my early work with you here.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I woke up to a text, from my painter friend – Traeger, that said, “Would you consider modeling nude for my drawing class?” You’ll be thrilled to know that my very first thought was, I can write about this!
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Despondency rarely visited my heart; a high destiny seemed to bear me on, until I fell, never, never again to rise.
    • Victor Frankenstein to Robert Walton in Ch. 24
  • Even where the affections are not strongly moved by any superior excellence, the companions of our childhood always possess a certain power over our minds which hardly any later friend can obtain. They know our infantine dispositions, which, however they may be afterwards modified, are never eradicated; and they can judge of our actions with more certain conclusions as to the integrity of our motives.
    • Victor Frankenstein to Robert Walton in Ch. 24
  • Oh! Be men, or be more than men. Be steady to your purposes and firm as a rock. .This ice is not made of such stuff as your hearts may be; it is mutable and cannot withstand you if you say that it shall not.^ I’ll dodge it, though, by saying you must follow your own bent.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Or you may be saying to yourself daily, "I need traffic to my website."
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Being Creative With Troublesome Kin You are working on your family genealogy (or Lifestory Writing) and for sake of example, let's say that your great-great Writing for Your Wealth .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • Victor Frankenstein to ship's crew
  • Oh, Frankenstein! Generous and self-devoted being! What does it avail that I now ask thee to pardon me? I, who irretrievably destroyed thee by destroying all thou lovedst. Alas! He is cold, he cannot answer me. .
    • The monster
  • His voice seemed suffocated, and my first impulses, which had suggested to me the duty of obeying the dying request of my friend in destroying his enemy, were now suspended by a mixture of curiosity and compassion.^ Right around a year ago now, I made my first cent online.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I’ve had a request to write about the ‘creative process’ sitting in my suggestion box for several months now.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Tip of the day: go now, my friend…life’s too short to spend at home.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    I approached this tremendous being; I dared not again raise my eyes to his face, there was something so scaring and unearthly in his ugliness. .I attempted to speak, but the words died away on my lips.^ Now usually I just flex my creativity and do away with them, but I've been stumped on one for awhile--the word 'magic.'
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    The monster continued to utter wild and incoherent self-reproaches. .
    • Robert Walton
  • My heart was fashioned to be susceptible of love and sympathy, and when wrenched by misery to vice and hatred, it did not endure the violence of the change without torture such as you cannot even imagine.
    • The monster to Robert Walton
  • I seek not a fellow feeling in my misery.^ It seems like you can’t swing a dead cat in a bookstore anymore without hitting a paranormal or horror book featuring zombies, vampires, werewolves, or even Victorian-era sea monsters.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A Guest Post by Tomas Stonkus of Uncertain Change I have one question for you: “When did you grow up?” OKAY, that is actually just the first question.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Phew – such a load off – I can’t imagine what it’ll feel like to send a draft of my book to the publisher after months of researching, writing, and editing… I also had my hubby make a blog button for “The Adventurous… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    No sympathy may I ever find. .When I first sought it, it was the love of virtue, the feelings of happiness and affection with which my whole being overflowed, that I wished to be participated.^ The first fault I listed was being way too judgmental.And yet, my family is right--I see being judgmental as an… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    But now that virtue has become to me a shadow, and that happiness and affection are turned into bitter and loathing despair, in what should I seek for sympathy?
    I am content to suffer alone while my sufferings shall endure; when I die, I am well satisfied that abhorrence and opprobrium should load my memory. Once my fancy was soothed with dreams of virtue, of fame, and of enjoyment. .Once I falsely hoped to meet with beings who, pardoning my outward form, would love me for the excellent qualities which I was capable of unfolding.^ An example would be the resolution to write and submit ten short stories with my request being that four or more of those stories might find… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I also love the work of C.S. Lewis, George MacDonald, and G.K. Chesterton — all three being religious writers who’ve influenced me a lot over the years.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    I was nourished with high thoughts of honour and devotion. But now crime has degraded me beneath the meanest animal. No guilt, no mischief, no malignity, no misery, can be found comparable to mine. .When I run over the frightful catalogue of my sins, I cannot believe that I am the same creature whose thoughts were once filled with sublime and transcendent visions of the beauty and the majesty of goodness.^ He answered, “Not really.” And then he said, “Actually, you’re too good looking and your body is too beautiful for this – I like to draw people that are filled with… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This was not a forced break, which I have done in the past, but a true do-nothingness that has settled into the part of my morning that I once filled with writing.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    But it is even so; the fallen angel becomes a malignant devil. .Yet even that enemy of God and man had friends and associates in his desolation; I am alone.
    • The monster to Robert Walton
  • You, who call Frankenstein your friend, seem to have a knowledge of my crimes and his misfortunes.^ Recent Quips and Tips articles include helping friends who have breast cancer, improving your interview skills, and jazzing up your email signature.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ How many did you see...who was your favorite?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I am one of those traditionalists who believe that, in order to write a good crime novel today, you must have read and studied the greats of the genre.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .But in the detail which he gave you of them he could not sum up the hours and months of misery which I endured wasting in impotent passions.^ So I sent the book out to a super copy editor (if you need a copy editor, let me know and I'll put you in touch) and cleaned up everything we could find.I'm in… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    For while I destroyed his hopes, I did not satisfy my own desires. They were forever ardent and craving; still I desired love and fellowship, and I was still spurned. Was there no injustice in this? Am I to be thought the only criminal, when all humankind sinned against me?
    • The monster to Robert Walton
  • I, the miserable and the abandoned, am an abortion, to be spurned at, and kicked, and trampled on. Even now my blood boils at the recollection of this injustice.
    But it is true that I am a wretch. I have murdered the lovely and the helpless; I have strangled the innocent as they slept and grasped to death his throat who never injured me or any other living thing. I have devoted my creator, the select specimen of all that is worthy of love and admiration among men, to misery; I have pursued him even to that irremediable ruin.
    There he lies, white and cold in death. You hate me, but your abhorrence cannot equal that with which I regard myself.
    • The monster to Robert Walton
  • Fear not that I shall be the instrument of future mischief. My work is nearly complete. .Neither yours nor any man's death is needed to consummate the series of my being and accomplish that which must be done, but it requires my own.^ I’ll dodge it, though, by saying you must follow your own bent.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the last part of my character revision series I made the case for why all your significant characters should have some kind of arc.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The only thing I really have to whine about is being fat, and that's my own damn fault too.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Do not think that I shall be slow to perform this sacrifice. .I shall quit your vessel on the ice raft which brought me thither and shall seek the most northern extremity of the globe; I shall collect my funeral pile and consume to ashes this miserable frame, that its remains may afford no light to any curious and unhallowed wretch who would create such another as I have been.^ Had it been Tony Blair then that would have been another thing entirely I'm sure although not in my head.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ While I’m sorry to hear that some authors are no longer finding the site to their liking, I don’t see our current membership in quite the same negative light.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    I shall die. I shall no longer feel the agonies which now consume me or be the prey of feelings unsatisfied, yet unquenched. He is dead who called me into being; and when I shall be no more, the very remembrance of us both will speedily vanish. .I shall no longer see the sun or stars or feel the winds play on my cheeks.^ Frankly, I can’t figure out why I continue running marathons*: my knees hurt; I love the couch; no one wants to see me in spandex; … I could [...
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ While I’m sorry to hear that some authors are no longer finding the site to their liking, I don’t see our current membership in quite the same negative light.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • The monster to Robert Walton
  • Some years ago, when the images which this world affords first opened upon me, when I felt the cheering warmth of summer and heard the rustling of the leaves and the warbling of the birds, and these were all to me, I should have wept to die; now it is my only consolation.^ Right around a year ago now, I made my first cent online.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ For a few years now I have been writing hobby websites as a way to create some separate and passive streams of income.Actually, I plan to retire once the income from these money-making sites reaches a strong and consistent level.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Here, in case you missed them, are some of my favorite posts from the year: Pulse Warmers: What little things help you through your day?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Polluted by crimes and torn by the bitterest remorse, where can I find rest but in death?
    • The monster to Robert Walton
  • I shall die, and what I now feel be no longer felt. Soon these burning miseries will be extinct. I shall ascend my funeral pile triumphantly and exult in the agony of the torturing flames. The light of that conflagration will fade away; my ashes will be swept into the sea by the winds. My spirit will sleep in peace, or if it thinks, it will not surely think thus. Farewell.
    • The monster to Robert Walton

The Last Man (1826)

  • I have chosen my boat, and laid in my scant stores. .I have selected a few books; the principal are Homer and Shakespeare — But the libraries of the world are thrown open to me — and in any port I can renew my stock.^ I don’t often write or blog about traveling, but when I booked my third overseas vacation in a year, I decided to learn a few secrets of the travel writer trade!
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I am going with my gut instinct and first choice on this and not dwelling at all on selecting a poem from the book as I… Imperfect Clarity .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ When folks in “The Earthquake Capital of The World” are not hanging on from the latest tremor, they can be hanging on to their library books for as long as they like.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    I form no expectation of alteration for the better; but the monotonous present is intolerable to me. Neither hope nor joy are my pilots — restless despair and fierce desire of change lead me on. I long to grapple with danger, to be excited by fear, to have some task, however slight or voluntary, for each day's fulfilment. .I shall witness all the variety of appearance, that the elements can assume — I shall read fair augury in the rainbow — menace in the cloud — some lesson or record dear to my heart in everything.^ Dear Literary Ladies,A book that I've toiled on and believe in with all my heart has been rejected by more than a dozen publishers.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I’ve not made enough to retire, but having 1500 people read my work does not break my heart one bit.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Thus around the shores of deserted earth, while the sun is high, and the moon waxes or wanes, angels, the spirits of the dead, and the ever-open eye of the Supreme, will behold the tiny bark, freighted with Verney — the LAST MAN.

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Simple English

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (August 30, 1797February 1, 1851) was an author best known for writing the novel Frankenstein. She was in her teens when she wrote the book that is now a classic.

Biography

Mary Shelley was born on August 30, 1797 in London, England. She was the second daughter in her family. Her parents were Mary Wollstonecraft, a feminist, and William Godwin, a philosopher. Her mother died in childbirth. Her father was quick to marry again. Mary got a great education, something most girls did not have at the time.

During May of 1816, Mary and her future husband Percy Bysshe Shelley, traveled to Lake Geneva to spend summer near the famous poet Lord Byron. In terms of English literature, it was a great summer. Percy began work on "Hymn To Intellectual Beauty" and "Mont Blanc". At the same time, Mary was inspired to write her classic work.

One evening, the group of young writers decided to have a contest telling horror stories. Another guest, Dr John Polidori, came up with The Vampyre, later a strong influence on Bram Stoker's Dracula. Other guests told scary stories, but Mary could not think of one. But that night, she dreamt of the story she had wanted to tell. She wrote it down, and in time, her story would be published as Frankenstein, and it became more successful than any of the other writings produced that summer.

Mary had a number of different sources for her work; one was the Promethean myth from Ovid. The influence of John Milton's Paradise Lost (the book the 'monster' finds in the cabin) is also clearly seen in the novel. Also, both Shelleys had read William Beckford's Vathek.

Mary and Percy were both vegetarians, and strong advocates for "animal rights". One can see references to vegetarianism in her writing. For example, in her novel Frankenstein, the 'monster' was a vegetarian.

Returning to England in September of 1816, Mary and Shelley were stunned by two family suicides in quick succession. First, in November, Mary's older half-sister, Fanny Imlay, left the Godwin home and took her own life at a distant inn. Only weeks later, Shelley's first wife drowned herself in London's Hyde Park. Discarded and pregnant, she had not welcomed Shelley's invitation to join Mary and himself in their new household.

Shortly after Harriet's death, Shelley and Mary were married, now with Godwin's blessing. Their attempts to gain custody of Shelley's two children by Harriet failed, but their writing careers enjoyed more success when, in the spring of 1817, Mary finished Frankenstein.

Mary had several children, most of which died young.

Mary Shelley died on February 1, 1851 in London, and was buried at St. Peter's Churchyard in Bournemouth, in the English county of Dorset.

Three films have shown Mary Shelley, and the basic idea of the Frankenstein story in 1816: Gothic directed by Ken Russell (1986), Haunted Summer directed by Ivan Passer (1988) and Remando al viento (English title: Rowing with the Wind) directed by Gonzalo Suárez (1988).


Citable sentences

Up to date as of November 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mary Shelley, which are similar to those in the above article.








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