The Full Wiki

Mary of Teck: Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mary of Teck
Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions; Empress consort of India
Tenure 6 May 1910 – 20 January 1936
Coronation 22 June 1911
Spouse George V of the United Kingdom
Issue
Edward VIII of the United Kingdom
George VI of the United Kingdom
Mary, Princess Royal, Countess of Harewood
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
Prince George, Duke of Kent
Prince John
Full name
Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes
House House of Windsor
House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
House of Württemberg
Father Francis, Duke of Teck
Mother Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge
Born 26 May 1867(1867-05-26)
Kensington Palace, London
Died 24 March 1953 (aged 85)
Marlborough House, London
Burial 31 March 1953
St George's Chapel, Windsor

Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the consort of King-Emperor George V. By birth, she was a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, with the style Serene Highness. To her family, she was informally known as May, after her birth month.

Her father, who was of German extraction, married into the British Royal Family, and "May" was born and brought up in the United Kingdom. At the age of 24 she was betrothed to Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, the heir to the British throne, but six weeks after the announcement of the engagement he unexpectedly died of pneumonia. The following year she became engaged to the new heir, Albert Victor's brother, George. Before her husband's accession, she was successively Duchess of York, Duchess of Cornwall and Princess of Wales. As his queen consort from 1910, she supported her husband through World War I, his ill health, and major political changes arising from the aftermath of the war and the rise of socialism and nationalism. After George's death in 1936, her eldest son Edward became King-Emperor, but to her dismay he abdicated the same year in order to marry twice-divorced American socialite Mrs. Wallis Simpson. She supported her second son, Albert, who succeeded to the throne as George VI, until his death in 1952. She died the following year, at the beginning of the reign of her granddaughter, Elizabeth II. Briefly, there were three queens in the country: Mary; her daughter-in-law, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother; and Elizabeth II.

Queen Mary was known for setting the tone of the British Royal Family, as a model of regal formality and propriety, especially during state occasions. She was the first queen consort to attend the coronation of her husband's and her own successor. Noted for superbly bejewelling herself for formal events, she left a collection of jewels now considered priceless.

Contents

Early life

Princess Victoria Mary (May) of Teck was born on 26 May 1867 at Kensington Palace, London. Her father was Prince Francis, Duke of Teck, the son of Duke Alexander of Württemberg by his morganatic wife, Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde. Her mother was Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, the third child and younger daughter of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, and Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel. She was baptised in the Chapel Royal of Kensington Palace on 27 July 1867 by Charles Thomas Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury, and her three godparents were Queen Victoria, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII and May's father-in-law), and Princess Augusta, the Duchess of Cambridge.[1]

May's upbringing was "merry but fairly strict".[2] She was the eldest of four children, the only girl, and "learned to exercise her native discretion, firmness and tact" by resolving her three younger brothers' petty boyhood squabbles.[3] They played with their cousins, the children of the Prince of Wales, who were similar in age.[4] May was educated at home by her mother and governess (as were her brothers until they were sent to boarding schools).[5] The Duchess of Teck spent an unusually long time with her children for a lady of her time and class,[2] and enlisted May in various charitable endeavours, which included visiting the tenements of the poor.[6]

Although her mother was a grandchild of George III, May was only a minor member of the British Royal Family. Her father, the Duke of Teck, had no inheritance or wealth, and carried the lower royal style of Serene Highness because his parents' marriage was morganatic.[7] However, the Duchess of Teck was granted a Parliamentary Annuity of £5000, and received about £4000 a year from her mother, the Duchess of Cambridge.[8] Despite this, the family was deeply in debt and lived abroad from 1883, in order to economise.[9] The Tecks travelled throughout Europe, visiting their various relatives. They stayed in Florence, Italy, for a time, where May enjoyed visiting the art galleries, churches and museums.[10]

In 1885, the Tecks returned to London, and took up residence at White Lodge, in Richmond Park. May was close to her mother, and acted as an unofficial secretary, helping to organise parties and social events. She was also close to her aunt, the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (née Princess Augusta of Cambridge), and wrote to her every week. During World War I, the Crown Princess of Sweden helped pass letters from May to her aunt, who lived in enemy territory in Germany until her death in 1916.[11]

Engagements

Princess Victoria Mary of Teck shortly before her marriage to the Duke of York in 1893.

In December 1891, May was engaged to her second cousin, once-removed, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, the eldest son of the Prince of Wales.[12] The choice of May as bride for the Duke owed much to Queen Victoria's fondness for her, as well as to her strong character and sense of duty. However, the Duke of Clarence and Avondale died six weeks later, in the worldwide influenza pandemic which swept through Britain in the winter of 1891–2.[13]

Despite this setback, Queen Victoria still favoured May as a suitable candidate to marry a future king; and Albert Victor's brother, Prince George, Duke of York, now second in line to the throne, evidently became close to May during their shared period of mourning.[14] In May 1893, George duly proposed; May accepted, and they were soon deeply in love. Their marriage was a success. George wrote to May every day they were apart and, unlike his father, never took a mistress.[15]

Duchess of York

Princess Victoria Mary, The Duchess of Cornwall and York. Ottawa, 1901.

May married Prince George, Duke of York, on 6 July 1893 at the Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace, in London.[16] The new Duke and Duchess of York lived in York Cottage on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk, and in apartments in St. James's Palace. York Cottage was a modest house for royalty, but it was a favourite of George, who liked a relatively simple life.[17] They had six children: Edward, Albert, Mary, Henry, George and John.

The Duchess loved her children, but she put them into the care of a nanny, as was usual in upper-class families at the time. The first nanny was dismissed for insolence and the second for abusing the children. This second woman, anxious to suggest that the children preferred her to anyone else, would pinch Edward and Albert whenever they were about to be presented to their parents, so that they would start crying and be speedily returned to her. On discovery, she was replaced by her effective and much-loved assistant, Mrs. Bill.[18]

Sometimes, Queen Mary appears to have been a distant mother. At first, she failed to notice the nanny's abuse of the young Princes Edward and Albert,[19] and her youngest son, Prince John, was housed in a private farm on the Sandringham Estate, in the care of Mrs. Bill, perhaps to hide his epilepsy from the public. However, despite her austere public image and her strait-laced private life, Mary was a caring mother in many respects, revealing a fun-loving and frivolous side to her children and teaching them history and music. Edward wrote fondly of his mother in his memoirs: "Her soft voice, her cultivated mind, the cosy room overflowing with personal treasures were all inseparable ingredients of the happiness associated with this last hour of a child's day ... Such was my mother's pride in her children that everything that happened to each one was of the utmost importance to her. With the birth of each new child, Mama started an album in which she painstakingly recorded each progressive stage of our childhood".[20] He expressed a less charitable view, however, in private letters to his wife after his mother's death: "My sadness was mixed with incredulity that any mother could have been so hard and cruel towards her eldest son for so many years and yet so demanding at the end without relenting a scrap. I'm afraid the fluids in her veins have always been as icy cold as they are now in death."[21]

As Duke and Duchess of York, George and May carried out a variety of public duties. In 1897, she became the Patron of the London Needlework Guild in succession to her mother. The Guild, initially established as The London Guild in 1882, was renamed several times, eventually taking the name of its Patron in 1914.[22]

On 22 January 1901, Queen Victoria died, and May's father-in-law, Albert Edward, ascended the throne as Edward VII. For most of the rest of that year, George and May were styled TRH The Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York. For eight months they toured the British Empire, visiting Gibraltar, Malta, Egypt, Ceylon, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Mauritius, South Africa and Canada. No royal had undertaken such an ambitious tour before. She broke down in tears at the thought of leaving her children, who were to be left in the care of their grandparents, for such a lengthy period of time.[23]

Princess of Wales

The Princess of Wales at the Coronation Ceremony, 1902.

On 9 November 1901, nine days after arriving back in Britain and on the King's sixtieth birthday, George was created Prince of Wales. The family moved their London residence from St James's Palace to Marlborough House. As Princess of Wales, May accompanied her husband on trips to Austria-Hungary and Württemberg in 1904. The following year, she gave birth to her last child, John. It was a difficult labour, and although May recovered quickly, her newborn son suffered respiratory problems.[24]

From October 1905 the Prince and Princess of Wales undertook another eight month tour, this time of India, and the children were once again left in the care of their grandparents.[25] They passed through Egypt both ways and on the way back stopped in Greece. The tour was almost immediately followed by a trip to Spain, for the wedding of King Alfonso XIII to Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, at which the bride and groom narrowly avoided assassination.[26] Only a week after returning to Britain, May and George went to Norway for the coronation of King Haakon VII and Queen Maud (George's sister).

Queen consort

King George V and Queen Mary.

On 6 May 1910, Edward VII died. The Prince of Wales ascended the throne as George V, and May became his queen consort. When her husband asked her to drop one of her two official names, Victoria Mary, she chose to be called Mary, preferring not to take the name of her husband's grandmother, Queen Victoria.[27] Queen Mary was crowned with the King on 22 June 1911 at Westminster Abbey. Later in the year, the new King and Queen travelled to India for the Delhi Durbar held on 12 December 1911, and toured the sub-continent as Emperor and Empress of India, returning to Britain in February.[28]

The beginning of Mary's period as consort brought her into conflict with the Dowager Queen Alexandra. Although the two were on friendly terms, Alexandra could be stubborn; she demanded precedence over Mary at the funeral of Edward VII, was slow in leaving Buckingham Palace, and kept some of the royal jewels that should have been passed to the new queen.[29]

During World War I, Queen Mary instituted an austerity drive at the palace, where she rationed food, and visited wounded and dying servicemen in hospital, which she found a great emotional strain.[30] After three years of war against Germany and with anti-German feeling in Britain running high, the Russian Imperial Family, which had been deposed by a revolutionary government, was refused asylum, possibly in part because the Tsar's wife was German-born.[31] News of the Tsar's abdication provided a boost to those in Britain who wished to replace the monarchy with a republic.[32] After republicans used the couple's German heritage as an argument for reform, George abandoned his German titles and renamed the Royal House from the German "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to the British "Windsor". Other royals anglicised their names; the Battenbergs became the Mountbattens, for example. The Queen's relatives also abandoned their German titles, and adopted the British surname of Cambridge (derived from the Dukedom held by Queen Mary's British grandfather). The war ended in 1918 with the defeat of Germany and the abdication and exile of the Kaiser.

Teck-Cambridge Family

Two months after the end of the war, Queen Mary's youngest son, John, died at the age of thirteen. She described her shock and sorrow in her diary and letters, extracts of which were published after her death: "our poor darling little Johnnie had passed away suddenly ... The first break in the family circle is hard to bear but people have been so kind & sympathetic & this has helped us [the King and me] much."[33]

Queen Mary's staunch support of her husband continued during the latter half of his reign. She advised him on speeches, and used her extensive knowledge of history and royalty to advise him on certain matters affecting his position. He appreciated her discretion, intelligence and judgement.[34] She maintained an air of self-assured calm throughout all her public engagements in the years after the war, a period marked by civil unrest over social conditions, Irish independence and Indian nationalism.[35]

In the late 1920s, George V became increasingly ill with lung problems, exacerbated by his heavy smoking. Queen Mary paid particular attention to his care. During his illness in 1928, one of his doctors, Sir Farquhar Buzzard, was asked who had saved the King's life. He replied, "The Queen".[36] In 1935, King George V and Queen Mary celebrated their silver jubilee, with celebrations taking place throughout the British Empire. In his jubilee speech, George paid public tribute to his wife, having told his speechwriter, "Put that paragraph at the very end. I cannot trust myself to speak of the Queen when I think of all I owe her."[37]

Queen Mother

George V died on 20 January 1936, after his physician, Baron Dawson of Penn, gave him an injection of morphine and cocaine which may have hastened his death.[38] Queen Mary's eldest son, Edward, Prince of Wales, ascended the throne as Edward VIII. She was now officially Queen Mother, though she did not use that title and was instead known as Her Majesty Queen Mary.

Within the year, Edward caused a constitutional crisis by announcing his desire to marry his twice-divorced American mistress, Mrs. Wallis Simpson. Queen Mary disapproved of divorce, which was against the teaching of the Anglican Church, and thought Mrs. Simpson wholly unsuitable to be the wife of a king. After receiving advice from the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Stanley Baldwin, as well as the Dominion governments, that he could not remain king and marry Mrs. Simpson, Edward abdicated. Though loyal and supportive of her son, Queen Mary could not comprehend why Edward would neglect his royal duties in favour of his personal feelings.[39] Mrs. Simpson had been presented formally to both King George V and Queen Mary at court,[40] but Queen Mary later refused to meet her either in public or privately.[41] Queen Mary saw it as her duty to provide moral support for her second son, the reserved and stammering Prince Albert, Duke of York, who ascended the throne in Edward's place, taking the name George VI. When Mary attended the coronation, she became the first dowager queen ever to do so.[42] Edward's abdication did not lessen her love for him, but she never wavered in her disapproval of the damage she believed had been done to the Crown.[15][43]

Queen Mary with her granddaughters, Princesses Margaret (front) and Elizabeth.

Queen Mary took an interest in the upbringing of her granddaughters, Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret, and took them on various excursions in London, to art galleries and museums. (The Princesses' own parents thought it unnecessary for them to be taxed with any demanding educational regime.)[44]

During World War II, George VI wished his mother to be evacuated from London. Although she was reluctant, she decided to live at Badminton House, Gloucestershire, with her niece, Mary Somerset, Duchess of Beaufort, the daughter of her brother Lord Cambridge.[45] Her personal belongings were transported from London in seventy pieces of luggage. Her household, which comprised fifty-five servants, occupied most of the house, except for the Duke and Duchess's private suites, until after the war. The only people to complain about the arrangements were the royal servants, who found the house too small,[46] though Queen Mary annoyed her niece by having the ancient ivy torn from the walls as she considered it unattractive and a hazard. From Badminton, in support of the war effort, she visited troops and factories and directed the gathering of scrap materials. She was known to offer lifts to soldiers she spotted on the roads.[47] In 1942, her youngest surviving son, Prince George, Duke of Kent, was killed in an air crash while on active service. Queen Mary finally returned to Marlborough House in June 1945, after the war in Europe had resulted in the defeat of Nazi Germany.

Queen Mary was an eager collector of objects and pictures with a royal connection.[48] She paid above-market estimates when purchasing jewels from the estate of Dowager Empress Marie Feodorovna[49] and paid almost three times the estimate when buying the family's Cambridge Emeralds from Lady Kilmorey, mistress of her late brother Prince Francis.[50] In 1924, the famous architect Sir Edwin Lutyens created Queen Mary's Dolls' House for her collection of miniature pieces.[51] Indeed, she has sometimes been criticised for her aggressive acquisition of objets d'art for the Royal Collection. On several occasions, she would express to hosts, or others, that she admired something they had in their possession, in the expectation that the owner would be willing to donate it.[52] Her extensive knowledge of, and research into, the Royal Collection helped in identifying artefacts and artwork that had gone astray over the years.[53] The Royal Family had lent out many objects over previous generations. Once she had identified unreturned items through old inventories, she would write to the holders, requesting that they be returned.[54]

In 1952, King George VI died, the third of Queen Mary's children to predecease her; her eldest granddaughter, Princess Elizabeth, ascended the throne. Queen Mary died the next year of lung cancer (referred to publicly as "gastric problems"[55]) at the age of 85, only ten weeks before Elizabeth II's coronation. She let it be known that, in the event of her death, the coronation was not to be postponed. Her remains lay in state at Westminster Hall, where large numbers of mourners filed past her coffin. She is buried beside her husband in the nave of St. George's Chapel, Windsor.[56]

Legacy

Sir Henry "Chips" Channon wrote that she was "above politics ... magnificent, humorous, worldly, in fact nearly sublime, though cold and hard. But what a grand Queen."[57]

The ocean liners RMS Queen Mary and RMS Queen Mary 2;[58] the Royal Navy battlecruiser, HMS Queen Mary which was destroyed at the Battle of Jutland in 1916; Queen Mary College, University of London;[59] Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong; Queen Mary's Peak, the highest mountain in Tristan da Cunha; and Queen Mary Land in Antarctica are named in her honour.

A series of distinguished British actresses have portrayed Queen Mary on stage and screen, including Dame Wendy Hiller (on the London stage in Crown Matrimonial),[60] Dame Flora Robson (in A King's Story), Dame Peggy Ashcroft (in Edward & Mrs Simpson), Phyllis Calvert (in The Woman He Loved), Gaye Brown (in All the King's Men), Dame Eileen Atkins (in Bertie and Elizabeth), Miranda Richardson (in The Lost Prince), and Margaret Tyzack (in Wallis & Edward).[61]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

Queen Mary's arms.
  • 26 May 1867 – 6 July 1893: Her Serene Highness Princess Victoria Mary of Teck
  • 6 July 1893 – 22 January 1901: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of York
  • 22 January 1901 – 9 November 1901: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall and York
  • 9 November 1901 – 6 May 1910: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales
    • in Scotland: 22 January 1901 – 6 May 1910: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Rothesay
  • 6 May 1910 – 20 January 1936: Her Majesty The Queen
  • 20 January 1936 – 24 March 1953: Her Majesty Queen Mary

Honours

Arms

The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom are impaled with her family arms – first and fourth quarters, the arms of her grandfather, HRH Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge (the Royal Arms used by the House of Hanover); second and third quarters, the arms of her father, HH The Duke of Teck.[62]

Ancestry

Issue

Name Birth Death Notes[63]
Edward VIII 23 June 1894 28 May 1972 Abdicated, later Duke of Windsor; married, 1937, Wallis Simpson; no issue.
George VI 14 December 1895 6 February 1952 Married, 1923, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon; had issue, including Elizabeth II.
Mary, Princess Royal 25 April 1897 28 March 1965 Married, 1922, Henry Lascelles, 6th Earl of Harewood; had issue.
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester 31 March 1900 10 June 1974 Married, 1935, Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott; had issue.
Prince George, Duke of Kent 20 December 1902 25 August 1942 Married, 1934, Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark; had issue.
Prince John 12 July 1905 18 January 1919 Suffered from epilepsy; no issue.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ The Times (London), Monday, 29 July 1867 p. 12 col. E.
  2. ^ a b Pope-Hennessy, p. 66.
  3. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 45.
  4. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 55.
  5. ^ Pope-Hennessy, pp. 68, 76, 123.
  6. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 68.
  7. ^ Pope-Hennessy, pp. 36–37.
  8. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 114.
  9. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 112.
  10. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 133.
  11. ^ Pope-Hennessy, pp. 503–505.
  12. ^ May's maternal grandfather, Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, was a brother of Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, who was the father of Queen Victoria, Albert Victor's paternal grandmother.
  13. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 201.
  14. ^ Edwards, p. 61.
  15. ^ a b Prochaska.
  16. ^ Her bridesmaids were The Princesses Maud and Victoria of Wales, Victoria Melita, Alexandra and Beatrice of Edinburgh, Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, Margaret and Patricia of Connaught and Strathearn and Alice and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg.
  17. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 291.
  18. ^ Wheeler-Bennett, pp. 16–17.
  19. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 393.
  20. ^ HRH The Duke of Windsor, pp. 24–25.
  21. ^ Ziegler, p. 538.
  22. ^ Queen Mary's Clothing Guild official website, http://www.queenmarysclothingguild.org.uk/, retrieved 5 June 2009  
  23. ^ Edwards, p. 115.
  24. ^ Edwards, pp. 142–143.
  25. ^ Edwards, p. 146.
  26. ^ The driver of their coach and over a dozen spectators were killed by a bomb thrown by an anarchist, Mateo Morales.
  27. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 421.
  28. ^ Pope-Hennessy, pp. 452–463.
  29. ^ Edwards, pp. 182–193.
  30. ^ Edwards, pp. 244–245.
  31. ^ Edwards, p. 258.
  32. ^ Edwards, p. 262.
  33. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 511.
  34. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 549.
  35. ^ Edwards, p. 311.
  36. ^ Gore, p. 243.
  37. ^ The Times (London), Wednesday, 25 March 1953 p. 5.
  38. ^ Watson, pp. 21–30.
  39. ^ Airlie, p. 200.
  40. ^ HRH The Duke of Windsor, p. 255.
  41. ^ HRH The Duke of Windsor, p. 334.
  42. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 584.
  43. ^ Edwards, p. 401, and Pope-Hennessy, p. 575.
  44. ^ Edwards, p. 349.
  45. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 596.
  46. ^ Mosley, p. 308.
  47. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 600.
  48. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 412.
  49. ^ Clarke.
  50. ^ Thomson, Mark (29 August 2005), Document – A Right Royal Affair, BBC Radio 4  
    See also Kilmorey Papers (D/2638), Public Record Office of Northern Ireland.
  51. ^ Pope-Hennessy, pp. 531–534.
  52. ^ Rose, p. 284.
  53. ^ Pope-Hennessy, p. 414.
  54. ^ HRH The Duke of Windsor, p. 238.
  55. ^ The Times (London), Wednesday, 25 March 1953 p. 8.
  56. ^ Royal Burials in the Chapel by location, St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, http://www.stgeorges-windsor.org/about-st-georges/royal-connection/burial/burials-in-the-chapel-by-location.html, retrieved 5 June 2009  
  57. ^ Channon, p. 473.
  58. ^ Technically, the QMII was named after the original ocean liner, and is only indirectly named after the Queen.
  59. ^ Moss & Saville, pp. 57–62.
  60. ^ Dame Wendy Hiller, The Guardian, 16 May 2003, http://arts.guardian.co.uk/news/obituary/0,12723,957472,00.html, retrieved 5 June 2009  
  61. ^ Queen Mary (Character), Internet Movie Database Inc, http://www.imdb.com/character/ch0042865/, retrieved 5 June 2009  
  62. ^ Maclagan & Louda, pp. 30–31.
  63. ^ Weir, pp. 323–330.

Bibliography

  • Airlie, Mabell (1962), Thatched with Gold, London: Hutchinson  
  • Channon, Sir Henry; Edited by Robert Rhodes James (1967), Chips: The Diaries of Sir Henry Channon, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson  
  • Clarke, William (1995), The Lost Fortune Of The Tsars  
  • Edwards, Anne (1984), Matriarch: Queen Mary and the House of Windsor, Hodder and Stoughton, ISBN 0340244658  
  • Gore, John (1941), King George V: A Personal Memoir, London: John Murray  
  • Maclagan, Michael; Louda, Jiří (1999), Line of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, London: Little, Brown & Co, ISBN 0-85605-469-1  
  • Mosley, Charles (ed.) (2003), "Duke of Beaufort, 'Seat' section", Burke's Peerage & Gentry, 107th edition, I  
  • Moss, G. P.; Saville, M. V. (1985), From Palace to College – An illustrated account of Queen Mary College, University of London, ISBN 0-902238-06-X  
  • Pope-Hennessy, James (1959), Queen Mary, London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.  
  • Prochaska, Frank (September 2004; online edn, January 2008), "Mary (1867–1953)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press), doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/34914, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/34914, retrieved 5 June 2009  
  • Rose, Kenneth (1983), King George V, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 0297782452  
  • Watson, Francis (1986), "The Death of George V", History Today 36  
  • Weir, Alison (1995), Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy Revised edition, Random House, ISBN 0-7126-7448-9  
  • Wheeler-Bennett, Sir John (1958), King George VI, London: Macmillan  
  • Windsor, HRH The Duke of (1951), A King's Story, London: Cassell and Co  
  • Ziegler, Philip (1990), King Edward VIII, London: Collins, ISBN 0-00-215741-1  

External links

British royalty
Preceded by
Alexandra of Denmark
Queen consort of the United Kingdom
1910–1936
Vacant
Title next held by
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Empress consort of India
1910–1936
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Prince of Wales
Grand Master of the Order of the British Empire
1936–1953
Succeeded by
The Duke of Edinburgh


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Mary of Teck (1867-05-261953-03-24), born Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes, was Queen consort of George V of the United Kingdom and grandmother of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. She was Queen Mother from 1936 to 1952.

Sourced

  • Really! This might be Roumania!
    • Of the Abdication Crisis, 1936.
    • James Pope-Hennessy, Life of Queen Mary (1959), ch.7.ii

Un-Sourced

  • Well, Mr. Baldwin, this is a pretty kettle of fish!
    • Comment during the abdication crisis.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

File:Queenmaryformalportrait
Queen Mary in a formal photograph

Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the queen consort of King George V of the United Kingdom, who was also Emperor of India. By birth, she was a member of the House of Teck in Germany, and through her mother, she was a distant member of the British Royal Family. Within her family, she was given the nickname "May".

Princess Mary was born at Kensington Palace in London on 26 May 1867. Her mother was Princess Mary Adelaide,a daughter of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge. Also a granddaughter of King George III. Her father was Francis, Duke of Teck. Due to her parent's financial troubles, Princess Mary spent much of her early life abroad in order to economise, and in 1883, the Tecks returned to London in 1883, living at White Lodge in Richmond Park.

In 1891, Princess Mary, who was liked by Queen Victoria, became engaged to Prince Albert Victor, the eldest son of Prince Albert Edward, Prince of Wales. Prince Albert Victor was the heir to the throne after his father, bringing Princess Mary and her family to the senior end of the Royal Family. However, a few weeks before the wedding, Prince Albert Victor died of influenza. Nevertheless, Queen Victoria still favoured Mary as a royal bride, and therefore arranged for her to marry Albert Victor's brother, Prince George, created Duke of York. They were married at St. James's Palace, London, on 6 July 1893.

Princess Mary was devoted to her children and to her public duties. She left her children in the care of a nanny, Charlotte "Lalla" Bill, and taught her children history and music. With her public duties, she was equally devoted, becoming Patron of a number of charities. When her father-in-law became King Edward VII, Prince George and Princess Mary undertook an eight month tour of the British Empire. No royal had undertaken such a big tour before. However, Princess Mary broke down in tears at the thought of leaving her children, leaving them in the care of their doting grandparents.

In 1910, Edward VII died, and Prince George ascended the throne as George V. Mary thus became Queen. During the First World War, Queen Mary was criticised for her German heritage. The conflict with Germany forced George V to change the name of the Royal House from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to Windsor. He also stripped the all titles from those members of the Royal Family who fought for Germany. Following the war, Queen Mary continued her public duties, and suffered family tragedy when she lost her youngest son, Prince John of the United Kingdom. In 1935, King George celebrated his Silver Jubilee, commemorating 25 years of his reign, and Queen Mary accompanied him during the official tours and visits that took place. Queen Mary, using her extensive knowledge of history and royal protocol to advise and support her husband on matters of state.

In 1936, King George V died. His death was shortened by an injection of morphine and cocaine, administered by his doctor. Queen Mary supported her son, now King Edward VIII, during his reign. In December, however, the King abdicated the throne because he wished to marry a divorced American commoner, Wallis Warfield Simpson. This put his brother, Prince Albert, Duke of York, in his place as King George VI. King George VI was shy, and was at first reluctant to take on his new duties and responsibilities. Queen Mary and his wife, Queen Elizabeth, supported him in his new role. The former King Edward VIII became the Duke of Windsor, went to live in France, and maintained a cool relationship with his family in England. No member of the family attended his wedding to Wallis in 1937, and she was never received by Queen Mary.

During the Second World War, Queen Mary lived at Badminton House, owned by her niece's husband, the Duke of Beaufort. She continued her duties and supported the war effort. Following the war, she returned to her pre-war home, Marlborough House. She continued her public duties in old age, surviving to see her granddaughter, Elizabeth, ascend the throne as Queen Elizabeth II. After suffering with lung cancer (described officially as "gastric problems"), Queen Mary died at Marlborough House on 24 March 1953. She lay in state at Westminster Hall before being buried beside her husband at St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message