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State Of Maryland
Flag of Maryland State seal of Maryland
Flag of Maryland Seal
Nickname(s): Old Line State; Free State; Little America;[1] America in Miniature[2]
Motto(s): Fatti maschii, parole femine
(Manly deeds, womanly words)
Map of the United States with Maryland highlighted
Official language(s) None (English, de facto)
Demonym Marylander
Capital Annapolis
Largest city Baltimore
Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area
Area  Ranked 42nd in the US
 - Total 12,407 sq mi
(32,133 km2)
 - Width 101 miles (145 km)
 - Length 249 miles (400 km)
 - % water 21
 - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N
 - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29′ W
Population  Ranked 19th in the US
 - Total 5,699,478 (2009 est.)[3]
5,296,486 (2000)
 - Density 541.9/sq mi  (209.2/km2)
Ranked 5th in the US
 - Median income  $68,080[4] (1st)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Hoye Crest[5]
3,360 ft  (1,024 m)
 - Mean 344 ft  (105 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[5]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  April 28, 1788 (7th)
Governor Martin O'Malley (D)
Lieutenant Governor Anthony G. Brown (D)
U.S. Senators Barbara Mikulski (D)
Ben Cardin (D)
U.S. House delegation 7 Democrats, 1 Republican (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations MD US-MD
Website http://www.maryland.gov

Maryland (Listeni /ˈmɛrələnd/)[6] is a state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia and the District of Columbia to the south and west, Pennsylvania to the north, and Delaware to the east. It is comparable in size to the European country of Belgium.[7] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Maryland has the highest median household income of any state, having surpassed New Jersey in 2006; Maryland's median household income was $68,080 in 2007.[4] For 2009, Maryland ranked first—for the third year in a row—as the U.S. state with the highest median income for 2008, with a median income of $70,545.[8] It was the seventh state to ratify the United States Constitution and bears two nicknames, the Old Line State and the Free State.

Maryland is a life sciences hub with over 350 biotechnology firms, making it the third-largest life sciences cluster in the nation.[9] Institutions and agencies located throughout Maryland include the University System of Maryland, The Johns Hopkins University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Celera Genomics, Human Genome Sciences (HGS), the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), MedImmune (recently purchased by AstraZeneca), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Contents

Geography

Physical geography

Maryland possesses a great variety of topography, hence its nickname, "America in Miniature."[10] It ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the bay, to gently rolling hills of oak forest in the Piedmont Region, and pine groves in the mountains to the west.

Physical regions of Maryland
Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay, largest estuary in the United States and the largest physical feature in Maryland.

Maryland is bounded on the north Pennsylvania, on the west by West Virginia, on the east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, and on the south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia. The mid-portion of this border is interrupted on the Maryland side by Washington, DC, which sits on land that was originally part of Maryland. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state, and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County (drained by the Youghiogheny River as part of the watershed of the Mississippi River), the eastern half of Worcester County (which drains into Maryland's Atlantic coastal bays), and a small portion of the state's northeast corner (which drains into the Delaware River watershed). So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State," a name currently used by Massachusetts.

The highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet (1,020 m), is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the border with West Virginia and near the headwaters of the North Branch of the Potomac River. Close to the small town of Hancock, in western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state, there is only about 1 mile (2 km) between its borders. This geographical curiosity makes Maryland the narrowest state, bordered by the Mason-Dixon Line to the north, and the north-arching Potomac River to the south.

Maryland state welcome sign

Portions of Maryland are included in various official and unofficial geographic regions. For example, the Delmarva Peninsula comprises the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland, the entire State of Delaware, and the two counties that make up the Eastern Shore of Virginia, while the westernmost counties of Maryland are considered part of Appalachia. Much of the Baltimore–Washington corridor lies just south of the Piedmont in the Coastal Plain,[11] though it straddles the border between the two regions.

A quirk of Maryland's geography is that the state contains no natural lakes.[12] During the last Ice Age, glaciers did not reach as far south as Maryland, and therefore did not carve out deep natural lakes as exist in northern states. There are numerous man-made lakes, the largest being Deep Creek Lake, a reservoir in Garrett County. The lack of glacial history also accounts for Maryland's soil, which is more sandy and muddy than the rocky soils of New England.

Human geography

Maryland counties

The majority of Maryland's population is concentrated in the cities and suburbs surrounding Washington, DC and Maryland's most populous city, Baltimore. Historically, these and many other Maryland cities developed along the fall line, the point at which rivers are no longer navigable from sea level due to the presence of rapids or waterfalls. Maryland's capital, Annapolis, is one exception to this rule, lying along the Severn River close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. Other major population centers include suburban hubs Columbia in Howard County, Silver Spring, Rockville and Gaithersburg in Montgomery County, Frederick in Frederick County and Hagerstown in Washington County. The eastern, southern, and western portions of the state tend to be more rural, although they are dotted with cities of regional importance such as Salisbury and Ocean City on the Eastern Shore, Lexington Park and Waldorf in Southern Maryland, and Cumberland in Western Maryland.

Geographic regions of Maryland

Maryland's history as a border state has led it to exhibit characteristics of both the Northern and Southern regions of the United States. Generally, rural Western Maryland between the West Virginian Panhandle and Pennsylvania has an Appalachian culture, the Southern and Eastern Shore regions of Maryland emulate a Southern culture,[13] while densely-populated Central Maryland—radiating outward from Baltimore and Washington D.C.—has more in common with that of the Northeast.[14] The U.S. Census Bureau designates Maryland as one of the South Atlantic States, but it is commonly associated with the Mid-Atlantic States and/or Northeastern United States by other federal agencies, the media, and some residents.[15][16][17][18][19]

Climate

Maryland has a wide array of climates for a state of its size. It depends on numerous variables, such as proximity to water, elevation, and protection from colder weather due to downslope winds.

The eastern half of Maryland lies on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, with very flat topography and very sandy or muddy soil. This region has a humid subtropical climate, with hot, humid summers and a short, mild to cool winter. This region includes the cities of Salisbury, Annapolis, Ocean City, and southern and eastern greater Baltimore.

Sunset over a marsh at Cardinal Cove, on the Patuxent River.

Beyond this region lies the Piedmont which lies in the transition between the humid subtropical climate zone and the subtropical highland zone (Köppen Cfb), with hot, humid summers and cool winters where average annual snowfall exceeds 20 inches and temperatures below 10°F are annual occurrences. This region includes Frederick, Hagerstown, Westminster, Gaithersburg and northern and western greater Baltimore.

Extreme western Maryland, in the higher elevations of Allegany County and Garrett County lie completely in the subtropical highland (Köppen Cfb)[20] zone, due to elevation (more typical of the Appalachian mountain region) with milder summers and cool, often snowy winters.

Precipitation in the state is characteristic of the East Coast. Annual rainfall ranges from 35 to 45 inches (890 to 1,100 mm) with more in higher elevations.[21] Nearly every part of Maryland receives 3.5–4.5 inches (89–110 mm) per month of rain. Average annual snowfall varies from 9 inches (23 cm) in the coastal areas to over 100 inches (250 cm) in the western mountains of the state.[22]

Because of its location near the Atlantic Coast, Maryland is somewhat vulnerable to tropical cyclones, although the Delmarva Peninsula, and the outer banks of North Carolina to the south provide a large buffer, such that a strike from a major hurricane (category 3 or above) is not very likely. More often, Maryland might get the remnants of a tropical system which has already come ashore and released most of its wind energy. Maryland averages around 30–40 days of thunderstorms a year, and averages around six tornado strikes annually.[23]

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Maryland cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Hagerstown 38/21 42/23 52/31 63/41 74/51 82/60 86/64 84/62 77/55 66/43 54/35 43/27
Frederick 41/25 46/27 56/35 67/44 77/54 85/62 89/67 87/66 80/59 68/47 57/38 46/30
Baltimore 44/30 47/31 57/39 68/48 77/58 86/68 91/73 88/71 81/64 70/52 59/42 49/33
Ocean City 44/28 46/30 53/35 61/44 70/53 79/62 84/67 83/67 78/62 68/51 58/41 49/32
[24]

Flora and fauna

The 2003 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map for the state of Maryland

As is typical of states on the East Coast, Maryland's plant life is abundant and healthy. A good dose of annual precipitation helps to support many types of plants, including seagrass and various reeds at the smaller end of the spectrum to the gigantic Wye Oak, a huge example of White oak, the state tree, which can grow in excess of 70 feet (21 m) tall. Maryland also possesses an abundance of pines and maples among its endemic tree life. Many foreign species are cultivated in the state, some as ornamentals, others as novelty species. Included among these are the Crape Myrtle, Italian Cypress, live oak in the warmer parts of the state,[25] and even hardy palm trees in the warmer central and eastern parts of the state.[26] USDA plant hardiness zones in the state range from Zone 5 in the extreme western part of the state to 6 and 7 in the central part, and Zone 8 around the southern part of the coast, the bay area, and most of metropolitan Baltimore. Invasive plant species, such as kudzu, tree of heaven, multiflora rose, and Japanese stiltgrass, choke out growth of endemic plant life.[27] Maryland's state flower, the Black-eyed Susan, grows in abundance in wild flower groups throughout the state. The state insect, the Baltimore Checkerspot Butterfly, is not common as it is near the southern edge of its range.[28] 435 species of birds have been reported from Maryland.[29]

Sunset over Hunt Valley, Maryland.

The state harbors a great number of deer, particularly in the woody and mountainous west of the state, and overpopulation can become a problem from year-to-year. The Chesapeake Bay provides the state with its huge[citation needed] cash crop of blue crabs, rockfish,[citation needed] and numerous seabirds.[citation needed] Mammals can be found ranging from the mountains in the west to the central areas and include bears,[30] bobcats,[31] foxes, raccoons, and Otters.[30]

Maryland is famous for its population of rare[30][32] wild horses found on Assateague island. Every year wild horses are captured and waded across a shallow bay for sale at Chincoteague, Virginia. This conservation technique ensures the tiny island is not overrun by the horses.

A purebred animal from Maryland is the Chesapeake Bay Retriever dog. It was bred specifically for water sports, hunting and search and rescue in the Chesapeake area.[33] The Chesapeake Bay Retriever was the first breed recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1878.[33]

Maryland's reptile and amphibian population is led by the Diamondback Terrapin turtle, which was adopted as the mascot of University of Maryland. The state is the territory of the Baltimore Oriole, which is the official state bird and mascot of the MLB team the Baltimore Orioles.[34]

Lawns in Maryland carry a variety of species, mostly due to its location in the Transition Zone for lawngrasses. The western part of the state is cold enough to support Kentucky Bluegrass, and Fine Fescues, which are widespread from the foothills west. The area around the Chesapeake Bay is usually turfed with transition species such as Zoysia, Tall fescue, and Bermudagrass. St. Augustine grass can be grown in the parts of the state that are in Zone 8. The warmer areas of Maryland, particularly the Eastern Shore and the Baltimore-Washington metroplex, are experiencing an increasing problem with the infestation of Fire Ants.[citation needed]

Environmental awareness

Maryland is one of the most environmentally friendly states in the country. In 2007, Forbes.com rated Maryland as the fifth "Greenest" state in the country behind three of the Pacific States and Vermont. Maryland ranks 40th in total energy consumption nationwide, and it managed less toxic waste per capita than all but six states in 2005.[35] In April 2007 Maryland joined the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)—a regional initiative formed by all of the Northeastern states, Washington D.C., and three Canadian provinces to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

History

Cecil Calvert, 1st Proprietor of the Maryland colony.

In 1629, George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore in the Irish House of Lords, fresh from his failure further north with Newfoundland's Avalon colony, applied to Charles I for a new royal charter for what was to become the Province of Maryland. Calvert's interest in creating a colony derived from his Catholicism and his desire for the creation of a haven for Catholics in the new world. In addition, he was familiar with the fortunes that had been made in tobacco in Virginia, and hoped to recoup some of the financial losses he had sustained in his earlier colonial venture in Newfoundland. George Calvert died in April 1632, but a charter for "Maryland Colony" (in Latin, "Terra Maria") was granted to his son, Cæcilius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, on June 20, 1632. The new colony was named in honor of Henrietta Maria, Queen Consort of Charles I.[36] The specific name given in the charter was phrased "Terra Mariae, anglice, Maryland". The English name was preferred over the Latin due in part to the undesired association of "Mariae" with the Spanish Jesuit Juan de Mariana.[37][38] Leonard, Cæcilius' younger brother, was put in charge of the expedition because Cæcilius did not want to go.

To try to gain settlers, Maryland used what is known as the headright system, which originated in Jamestown. The government awarded land to people who transported colonists to Maryland.

On March 25, 1634, Lord Baltimore sent the first settlers into this area. Although most of the settlers were Protestants, Maryland soon became one of the few regions in the British Empire where Catholics held the highest positions of political authority. Maryland was also one of the key destinations of tens of thousands of British convicts. The Maryland Toleration Act of 1649 was one of the first laws that explicitly dictated religious tolerance, though toleration was limited to Trinitarian Christians.

The royal charter granted Maryland the land north of the entire length of the Potomac River up to the 40th parallel. A problem arose when Charles II granted a charter for Pennsylvania. The grant defined Pennsylvania's southern border as identical to Maryland's northern border, the 40th parallel. But the terms of the grant clearly indicate that Charles II and William Penn assumed the 40th parallel would pass close to New Castle, Delaware when in fact it falls north of Philadelphia, the site of which Penn had already selected for his colony's capital city. Negotiations ensued after the problem was discovered in 1681.

A compromise proposed by Charles II in 1682, which might have resolved the issue, was undermined by Penn's receiving the additional grant of what is now Delaware—which previously had been part of Maryland.[39] The dispute remained unresolved for nearly a century, carried on by the descendants of William Penn and Lord Baltimore—the Calvert family, which controlled Maryland, and the Penn family, which controlled Pennsylvania. The conflict led to the Cresap's War (also known as the Conojocular War), a border conflict between Pennsylvania and Maryland, fought in the 1730s. Hostilities erupted in 1730 with a series of violent incidents prompted by disputes over property rights and law enforcement, and escalated through the first half of the decade, culminating in the deployment of military forces by Maryland in 1736 and by Pennsylvania in 1737. The armed phase of the conflict ended in May 1738 with the intervention of King George II, who compelled the negotiation of a cease-fire. A provisional agreement had been established in 1732. Negotiations continued until a final agreement was signed in 1760. The agreement defined Maryland's border with what is now Delaware as well as Pennsylvania. The border between Maryland and Pennsylvania was defined as the line of latitude 15 miles south of the southernmost house of Philadelphia, a line now known as the Mason-Dixon Line. Maryland's border with Delaware was based on a Transpeninsular Line and the Twelve-Mile Circle around New Castle.[39]

After Virginia made Anglicanism the established religion of the colony, numerous Puritans migrated from Virginia to Maryland, and were given land for a settlement called Providence (now Annapolis). In 1650, the Puritans revolted against the proprietary government and set up a new government that outlawed both Catholicism and Anglicanism. In March 1654, the 2nd Lord Baltimore sent an army under the command of Governor William Stone to put down the revolt. His Roman Catholic army was decisively defeated by a Puritan army near Annapolis in what was to be known as the "Battle of the Severn".[40][41]

The Puritan revolt lasted until 1658. In that year the Calvert family regained control of the colony and re-enacted the Toleration Act. However, after England's "Glorious Revolution" of 1688, when William of Orange and his wife Mary came to the throne and firmly established the Protestant faith in England, Maryland outlawed Catholicism until after the American Revolutionary War. Many wealthy planters built chapels on their land to practice their Catholicism in relative secrecy. During the persecution of Maryland Catholics by the Puritan revolutionary government, all of the original Catholic churches of southern Maryland were burned down.

St. Mary's City was the largest site of the original Maryland colony, and was the seat of the colonial government until 1708. St Mary's is now a historical site, with a small tourist center. In 1708, the seat of government was moved to Providence, which had been renamed Annapolis. The city was renamed in honor of Queen Anne in 1694.

Most of the English colonists arrived in Maryland as indentured servants, hiring themselves out as laborers for a fixed period to pay for their passage.[42] In the early years the line between indentured servants and African slaves or laborers was fluid, and white and black laborers lived and worked together. Some Africans were allowed to earn their freedom before slavery became a lifelong status.

Most of the free colored families formed in Maryland before the Revolution were descended from relationships or marriages between servant or free white women and enslaved, servant or free African or African-American men. Many such families migrated to Delaware, where land was cheaper.[43] As the flow of indentured laborers to the colony decreased with improving economic conditions in England, thousands more slaves were imported and racial caste lines hardened. The economy's growth and prosperity was based on slave labor, devoted first to the production of tobacco.

An artist's rendering of the bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore, which inspired the composition of the Star Spangled Banner.

Maryland was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. On February 2, 1781, Maryland became the 13th state to approve the ratification of the Articles of Confederation which brought into being the United States as a united, sovereign and national state. It also became the seventh state admitted to the U.S. after ratifying the new Constitution. The following year, in December 1790, Maryland ceded land selected by President George Washington to the federal government for the creation of Washington, D.C.. The land was provided from Montgomery and Prince George's Counties, as well as from Fairfax County and Alexandria in Virginia (though the lands from Virginia were later returned through retrocession). The land provided to Washington, D.C. is actually "sitting" inside the state of Maryland (land that is now defunct in theory).

During the War of 1812, the British military attempted to capture the port of Baltimore, which was protected by Fort McHenry. It was during this bombardment that the Star Spangled Banner was written by Francis Scott Key.

As in Delaware, numerous planters in Maryland had freed their slaves in the twenty years after the Revolutionary War. By 1860 Maryland's free black population comprised 49.1% of the total of African Americans in the state.[44] This contributed to the state's remaining loyal to the Union during the American Civil War. In addition, Governor Thomas Holliday Hicks temporarily suspended the state legislature, and President Abraham Lincoln had many of its fire eaters arrested prior to its reconvening. Many historians contend that there would never have been sufficient votes for secession.

Of the 115,000 men who joined the militaries during the Civil War, 85,000, or 77%, joined the Union army, while the remainder joined the Confederate Army. To help ensure Maryland's inclusion in the Union, President Lincoln suspended several civil liberties, including the writ of habeas corpus, an act deemed illegal by Maryland native Chief Justice Roger Taney. Lincoln ordered U.S. troops to place artillery on Federal Hill to threaten the city of Baltimore, and helped ensure the election of a new pro-union governor and legislature. Lincoln went so far as to jail certain pro-South members of the state legislature at Fort McHenry, including the Mayor of Baltimore, George William Brown. The grandson of Francis Scott Key was included in those jailed. The constitutionality of these actions is still debated.

Because Maryland remained in the Union, it was exempted from the anti-slavery provisions of the Emancipation Proclamation (The Emancipation Proclamation only applied to states in rebellion). In 1864 the state held a constitutional convention that culminated in the passage of a new state constitution. Article 24 of that document outlawed the practice of slavery. In 1867 the state extended suffrage to non-white males.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 319,728
1800 341,548 6.8%
1810 380,546 11.4%
1820 407,350 7.0%
1830 447,040 9.7%
1840 470,019 5.1%
1850 583,034 24.0%
1860 687,049 17.8%
1870 780,894 13.7%
1880 934,943 19.7%
1890 1,042,390 11.5%
1900 1,188,044 14.0%
1910 1,295,346 9.0%
1920 1,449,661 11.9%
1930 1,631,526 12.5%
1940 1,821,244 11.6%
1950 2,343,001 28.6%
1960 3,100,689 32.3%
1970 3,922,399 26.5%
1980 4,216,975 7.5%
1990 4,781,468 13.4%
2000 5,296,486 10.8%
Est. 2009 5,699,478 [3] 7.6%
Maryland population distribution

As of 2006, Maryland has an estimated population of 5,615,727, which is an increase of 26,128, or 0.5%, from the prior year and an increase of 319,221, or 6.0%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 189,158 people (that is 464,251 births minus 275,093 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 116,713 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 129,730 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13,017 people.

In 2006, 645,744 were counted as foreign born, which represents mainly people from Latin America and Asia. About 4.0% are undocumented (illegal) immigrants.[45] Maryland also has a large Korean American population.[46] In fact, 1.7% are Korean, while as a whole, almost 6.0% are Asian.[47]

Most of the population of Maryland lives in the central region of the state, in the Baltimore Metropolitan Area and Washington Metropolitan Area, both of which are part of the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area. The Eastern Shore is less populous and more rural, as are the counties of western and southern Maryland.

The two counties of Western Maryland, Allegany and Garrett, are mountainous and sparsely populated, resembling West Virginia more than they do the rest of Maryland.

The center of population of Maryland is located on the county line between Anne Arundel County and Howard County, in the unincorporated town of Jessup.[48]

Ethnicity

The five largest reported ancestries in Maryland are German (15.7%), Irish (11.7%), English (9%), unspecified American (5.8%), and Italian (5.1%).[49]

African-Americans are concentrated in Baltimore City, Prince George's County, and the southern Eastern Shore. Most of the Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland are populated by Marylanders of British ancestry, with the Eastern Shore traditionally Methodist and the southern counties Catholic. Western and northern Maryland have large German-American populations. Italians and Poles are centered mostly in the large city of Baltimore. Jews are numerous throughout Montgomery County and in Pikesville and Owings Mills northwest of Baltimore. Hispanics are numerous in Hyattsville/Langley Park, Wheaton and Gaithersburg.

Maryland has one of the largest proportions of racial minorities in the country, trailing only the four minority-majority states.[50]

Demographics of Maryland (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 66.99% 29.02% 0.76% 4.53% 0.12%
2000 (Hispanic only) 3.73% 0.51% 0.10% 0.06% 0.02%
2005 (total population) 65.29% 30.16% 0.76% 5.30% 0.13%
2005 (Hispanic only) 5.01% 0.61% 0.12% 0.09% 0.03%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 3.06% 9.89% 5.73% 23.72% 16.27%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 0.76% 9.57% 2.48% 23.38% 13.02%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 42.16% 27.78% 27.26% 48.06% 32.49%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

Religion

The famous Washington D.C. Temple of the Mormon Church located adjacent to the Beltway in Kensington.

Maryland was founded for the purpose of providing religious toleration of England's Roman Catholic minority. Nevertheless, Parliament later reversed that policy and discouraged the practice of Catholicism in Maryland. Due to immigration patterns, Catholics have not been a majority in Maryland since early Colonial times. Nonetheless, Catholicism is the largest single denomination in Maryland. Judaism is the largest non-Christian religion with 241,000 adherents, or 4.3% of the total population.[51] The present religious composition of the state is shown below:

Religions in Maryland

Christian

Other

Protestant 56% Roman Catholic 23% Jewish 4%
Baptist 18% Other Christian 3% Other Religions 1%
Methodist 11% Non-Religious 13%
Lutheran 6%
Other Protestant 21%

Despite the Protestant majority, Maryland has been prominent in U.S. Catholic tradition, partially because it was intended by George Calvert as a haven for English Catholics. Baltimore was the seat of the first Catholic bishop in the U.S. (1789), and Emmitsburg was the home and burial place of the first American-born citizen to be canonized, St. Elizabeth Ann Seton. Georgetown University, the first Catholic University, was founded in 1789 in what was then part of Maryland.[52] The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Baltimore was the first Roman Catholic cathedral built in the United States.

Economy

The reverse side of the Maryland quarter shows the dome of the State House in Annapolis.

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Maryland's gross state product in 2006 was US$257 billion.[53] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Maryland households are currently the wealthiest in the country, with a median household income of $68,080[4] which puts it ahead of New Jersey and Connecticut, which are second and third respectively. Two of Maryland's counties, Howard and Montgomery, are the third and seventh wealthiest counties in the nation respectively. Also, the state's poverty rate of 7.8% is the lowest in the country.[54][55][56] Per capita personal income in 2006 was US$43,500, 5th in the nation.

Maryland's economic activity is strongly concentrated in the tertiary service sector, and this sector, in turn, is strongly influenced by location. One major service activity is transportation, centered on the Port of Baltimore and its related rail and trucking access. The port ranked 10th in the U.S. by tonnage in 2002 (Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, "Waterborne Commerce Statistics"). Although the port handles a wide variety of products, the most typical imports are raw materials and bulk commodities, such as iron ore, petroleum, sugar, and fertilizers, often distributed to the relatively close manufacturing centers of the inland Midwest via good overland transportation. The port also receives several different brands of imported motor vehicles and is the number two auto port in the U.S.[57]

A second service activity takes advantage of the close location of the center of government in Washington, D.C. and emphasizes technical and administrative tasks for the defense/aerospace industry and bio-research laboratories, as well as staffing of satellite government headquarters in the suburban or exurban Baltimore/Washington area. In addition, many educational and medical research institutions are located in the state. In fact, the various components of The Johns Hopkins University and its medical research facilities are now the largest single employer in the Baltimore area. Altogether, white collar technical and administrative workers comprise 25% of Maryland's labor force, one of the highest state percentages in the country.

Maryland has a large food-production sector. A large component of this is commercial fishing, centered in Chesapeake Bay, but also including activity off the short Atlantic seacoast. The largest catches by species are the blue crab, oysters, striped bass, and menhaden. The Bay also has uncounted millions of overwintering waterfowl in its many wildlife refuges. While not, strictly speaking, a commercial food resource, the waterfowl support a tourism sector of sportsmen.

Agriculture is an important part of the state's economy.

Maryland has large areas of fertile agricultural land in its coastal and Piedmont zones, although this land use is being encroached upon by urbanization. Agriculture is oriented to dairying (especially in foothill and piedmont areas) for nearby large city milksheads plus specialty perishable horticulture crops, such as cucumbers, watermelons, sweet corn, tomatoes, muskmelons, squash, and peas (Source:USDA Crop Profiles). In addition, the southern counties of the western shoreline of Chesapeake Bay are warm enough to support a tobacco cash crop zone, which has existed since early Colonial times but declined greatly after a state government buyout in the 1990s. There is also a large automated chicken-farming sector in the state's southeastern part; Salisbury is home to Perdue Farms. Maryland's food-processing plants are the most significant type of manufacturing by value in the state.

Manufacturing, while large in dollar value, is highly diversified with no sub-sector contributing over 20% of the total. Typical forms of manufacturing include electronics, computer equipment, and chemicals. The once mighty primary metals sub-sector, which at one time included what was then the largest steel factory in the world at Sparrows Point, still exists, but is pressed with foreign competition, bankruptcies, and company mergers. During World War II the Glenn L. Martin Company (now part of Lockheed Martin) airplane factory near Essex, MD employed some 40,000 people.

Mining other than construction materials is virtually limited to coal, which is located in the mountainous western part of the state. The brownstone quarries in the east, which gave Baltimore and Washington much of their characteristic architecture in the mid-1800s, were once a predominant natural resource. Historically, there used to be small gold-mining operations in Maryland, some surprisingly near Washington, but these no longer exist.

Maryland imposes 5 income tax brackets, ranging from 2% to 6.25% of personal income.[58] The city of Baltimore and Maryland's 23 counties levy local "piggyback" income taxes at rates between 1.25% and 3.2% of Maryland taxable income. Local officials set the rates and the revenue is returned to the local governments quarterly. The top income tax bracket of 9.45% is the fifth highest combined state and local income tax rates in the country, behind only New York City's 11.35%, California’s 10.3%, Rhode Island’s 9.9%, and Vermont’s 9.5%.[59] Maryland's state sales tax is 6%. All real property in Maryland is subject to the property tax. Generally, properties that are owned and used by religious, charitable, or educational organizations or property owned by the federal, state or local governments are exempt. Property tax rates vary widely. No restrictions or limitations on property taxes are imposed by the state, meaning cities and counties can set tax rates at the level they deem necessary to fund governmental services. These rates can increase, decrease or remain the same from year to year. If the proposed tax rate increases the total property tax revenues, the governing body must advertise that fact and hold a public hearing on the new tax rate. This is called the Constant Yield Tax Rate process.

Baltimore City is the eighth largest port in the nation, and was at the center of the February 2006 controversy over the Dubai Ports World deal because it was considered to be of such strategic importance. The state as a whole is heavily industrialized, with a booming economy and influential technology centers. Its computer industries are some of the most sophisticated in the United States, and the federal government has invested heavily in the area. Maryland is home to several large military bases and scores of high level government jobs.

Transportation

The Maryland Department of Transportation, headquartered in the Hanover area of unincorporated Anne Arundel County,[60] oversees transportation in the state.

Roads

The sign used to mark Maryland's state highways.
Maryland, showing major cities and roads

Maryland's Interstate highways include I-95, which enters the northeast portion of the state, goes through Baltimore, and becomes part of the eastern section of the Capital Beltway to the Woodrow Wilson Bridge. I-68 connects the western portions of the state to I-70 at the small town of Hancock. I-70 continues east to Baltimore, connecting Hagerstown and Frederick along the way. I-83 connects Baltimore to southern central Pennsylvania (Harrisburg and York, Pennsylvania). Maryland also has a portion of I-81 that runs through the state near Hagerstown. I-97, fully contained within Anne Arundel County and the shortest one- or two-digit Interstate highway outside of Hawaii, connects the Baltimore area to the Annapolis area.

There are also several auxiliary Interstate highways in Maryland. Among them are two beltways encircling the major cities of the region: I-695, the McKeldin (Baltimore) Beltway, which encircles Baltimore; a portion of I-495, and the Capital Beltway, which encircles Washington, D.C. I-270, which connects the Frederick area with Northern Virginia and the District of Columbia through major suburbs to the northwest of Washington, is a major commuter route and is as wide as fourteen lanes at points. Both I-270 and the Capital Beltway are currently extremely congested; however, the ICC or Intercounty Connector, which began construction in November 2007, is hoped to alleviate some of the congestion over time. Construction of the ICC was a major part of the campaign platform of former Governor Robert Ehrlich, who was in office from 2003 until 2007, and of Governor Martin O'Malley, who succeeded him.

The Chesapeake Bay Bridge, which connects Maryland's Eastern and Western Shores, is the most popular route for tourists to reach the resort town of Ocean City.

Maryland also has a state highway system that contains routes numbered from 2 through 999, however most of the higher-numbered routes are either not signed or are relatively short. Major state highways include Routes 2 (Governor Ritchie Highway/Solomons Island Road), 4 (Solomons Island Road), 5 (Branch Avenue/Leonardtown Road/Point Lookout Road), 32, 45 (York Road), 97 (Georgia Avenue), 100 (Paul T. Pitcher Memorial Highway), 210 (Indian Head Highway), 235 (Three Notch Road), 295 (Baltimore-Washington Parkway), 355, 404, and 650 (New Hampshire Avenue).

Airports

Maryland's largest airport is Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (formerly known as Friendship Airport and recently renamed for Baltimore-born former and first African-American Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall). The only other airports with commercial service are at Hagerstown and Salisbury. The Maryland suburbs of Washington, D.C. are also serviced by the other two airports in the region, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Dulles International Airport, both in Northern Virginia.

Rail

Amtrak trains, including the high speed Acela Express serve Baltimore's Penn Station, BWI Airport, New Carrollton, and Aberdeen along the Washington D.C. to Boston Northeast Corridor. In addition, train service is provided to Rockville and Cumberland by Amtrak's Washington D.C. to Chicago Capitol Limited. MARC commuter trains, operated by the Maryland Transit Administration (MTA), connect nearby Washington, D.C., Frederick, Baltimore, and intermediate towns. The WMATA Washington Metro rapid transit/subway and bus system serve Montgomery and Prince George's Counties. The MTA's Light Rail and Metro Subway systems serve Baltimore City and adjacent suburbs.

Shipping Canals

Located on Maryland's Eastern Shore lies the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. It was established to connect the northern Delaware Bay to the Chesapeake Bay. Construction began in Chesapeake City, Maryland.

Law and government

The Government of Maryland is conducted according to the state constitution. The Government of Maryland, like the other 49 state governments, has exclusive authority over matters that lie entirely within the state's borders, except as limited by the Constitution of the United States. Maryland is a republic; the United States Constitution guarantees the state a "republican form of government"[61] although there is considerable disagreement about the meaning of that phrase.

Power in Maryland is divided among three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. The Maryland General Assembly is composed of the Maryland House of Delegates and the Maryland Senate. Maryland's governor is unique in the United States as the office is vested with significant authority in budgeting. The legislature may not increase the governor's proposed budget expenditures. Unlike most other states, significant autonomy is granted to many of Maryland's counties.

Most of the business of government is conducted in Annapolis, the state capital. Virtually all state and county elections are held in even-numbered years not divisible by four, in which the President of the United States is not elected – this, as in other states, is intended to divide state and federal politics.

The judicial branch of state government consists of one united District Court of Maryland that sits in every county and Baltimore City, as well as 24 Circuit Courts sitting in each County and Baltimore City, the latter being courts of general jurisdiction for all civil disputes over $30,000.00, all equitable jurisdiction and major criminal proceedings. The intermediate appellate court is known as the "Court of Special Appeals" and the state supreme court is the "Court of Appeals". The appearance of the judges of the Maryland Court of Appeals is unique in that Maryland is the only state whose judges wear red robes.[62]

Politics

Since before the Civil War, Maryland's politics have been largely controlled by the Democrats, even as the party's platform has changed considerably in that time. State politics are dominated by Baltimore and the populous suburban counties bordering Washington, D.C.: Montgomery and Prince George's. Forty-three percent of the state's population resides in these three jurisdictions, each of which contain large, traditionally Democratic voting bloc(s): African Americans in Baltimore and Prince George's, federal employees in Prince George's and Montgomery, and postgraduates in Montgomery. The remainder of the state, particularly Western Maryland and the Eastern Shore, is more supportive of Republicans.

Spiro Agnew, former Vice President of the United States and the highest-ranking political leader in Maryland's history.

Maryland has supported the Democratic nominee in each of the last five presidential elections, by an average margin of 15.4%. In 1980, it was one of only six states to vote for Jimmy Carter. Maryland is often among the Democratic nominees' best states. In 1992, Bill Clinton fared better in Maryland than any other state except his home state of Arkansas. In 1996, Maryland was Clinton's sixth best, in 2000 Maryland ranked fourth for Gore and in 2004 John Kerry showed his fifth best performance in Maryland.

Barack Obama won the state's 10 electoral votes in 2008 with 61.9% of the vote to John McCain's 36.5%. Both of Maryland's U.S. Senators and seven of its eight Representatives in Congress are Democrats, and Democrats hold supermajorities in the state Senate and House of Delegates. The previous Governor, Robert Ehrlich, was the first Republican to be elected to that office in four decades, and after one term lost his seat to Baltimore Mayor Martin J. O'Malley, a Democrat.

U.S. Congressman Steny Hoyer (MD-5), a Democrat, was elected as Majority Leader for the 110th Congress of the House of Representatives, and 111th Congress, serving in that post since January 2007. His district covers parts of Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, in addition to all of Charles, Calvert and St. Mary's counties in southern Maryland.[63]

The 2006 election cycle brought no significant change in this pattern of Democratic dominance. After Democratic Senator Paul Sarbanes announced that he was retiring, Democratic Congressman Benjamin Cardin defeated Republican Lieutenant Governor Michael S. Steele, with 55% of the vote, against Steele's 44%. The governorship was also a point of interest, as Republican incumbent Robert Ehrlich was defeated by Democratic challenger Martin O'Malley, the Mayor of Baltimore, 53% to 46%. Montgomery County Executive Doug Duncan, another leading candidate for the Democratic slot, pulled out of the highly anticipated primary, announcing his withdrawal on June 22, 2006, citing clinical depression.

While Maryland is a Democratic Party stronghold, perhaps its best known political figure is a Republican – former Governor Spiro Agnew, who served as United States Vice President under Richard Nixon. He was Vice President from 1969 to 1973, when he resigned in the aftermath of revelations that he had taken bribes while he was Governor of Maryland. In late 1973, a court found Agnew guilty of violating tax laws.

Education

Primary and secondary education

Memorial Chapel at the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland's largest university.

Public primary and secondary education in Maryland is overseen by the Maryland State Department of Education, which is headquartered in Baltimore.[64] The highest educational official in the state is the State Superintendent of Schools, currently Dr. Nancy Grasmick, who is appointed by the State Board of Education to a four-year term of office. The Maryland General Assembly has given the Superintendent and State Board autonomy to make educationally related decisions, limiting its own influence on the day to day functions of public education. Each county and county-equivalent in Maryland has a local Board of Education charged with running the public schools in that particular jurisdiction.

The budget for education was $5.5 billion in 2009, representing about 40% of the state's general fund.[65]

Maryland has a broad range of private primary and secondary schools. Many of these are affiliated with various religious sects, including parochial schools of the Catholic Church, Quaker schools, Seventh-day Adventist schools, and Jewish schools. In 2003, Maryland law was changed to allow for the creation of publicly funded charter schools, although the charter schools must be approved by their local Board of Education and are not exempt from state laws on education, including collective bargaining laws.

In 2008, the state led the entire country in the percentage of students passing Advanced Placement examinations. 23.4 percent of students earned passing grades on the AP tests given in May 2008. This marks the first year that Maryland earned this honor.[66] Three Maryland high schools (in Montgomery County) were ranked among the top 100 in the country based on these test scores.[67]

Colleges and universities

The oldest college in Maryland, and the third oldest college in the United States, is St. John's College, founded in 1696 as King William's School. Maryland has 18 other private colleges and universities, the most prominent of which is Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876 with a grant from Baltimore entrepreneur Johns Hopkins.

The first and largest public university in the state is the University of Maryland, College Park, which was founded as the Maryland Agricultural College in 1856 and became a public land grant college in 1864. Towson University, founded in 1866, is the state's second largest university. Baltimore is home to the Maryland Institute College of Art. The majority of public universities in the state are affiliated with the University System of Maryland. Two state-funded institutions, Morgan State University and St. Mary's College of Maryland, as well as two federally funded institutions, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and the United States Naval Academy, are not affiliated with the University System of Maryland.

Sports

With two major metropolitan areas, Maryland has a number of major and minor professional sports franchises. Two National Football League teams play in Maryland, the Baltimore Ravens in Baltimore City and the Washington Redskins in Prince George's County. The Baltimore Orioles are the state's Major League Baseball franchise, with the Washington Nationals located nearby in Washington D.C. The National Hockey League's Washington Capitals and the National Basketball Association's Washington Wizards formerly played in Maryland, until the construction of a Washington arena in 1997 (originally known as MCI Center, renamed Verizon Center in 2006). Maryland enjoys considerable historical repute for the talented sports players of its past, including: Cal Ripken Jr. and Babe Ruth.

Other professional sports franchises in the state include five affiliated minor league baseball teams, one independent league baseball team, the Baltimore Blast indoor soccer team, two indoor football teams, and three low-level outdoor soccer teams.

The official state sport of Maryland, since 1962, is jousting; the official team sport since 2004 is lacrosse.[68] In 2008, intending to promote physical fitness for all ages, walking became the official state exercise. Maryland is the first state with an official state exercise.[69]

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Maryland Facts". Maryland Office of Tourism. http://www.visitmaryland.org/Students/Pages/MarylandFacts.aspx. Retrieved June 2, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2009-01.csv. Retrieved 2009-12-30. 
  4. ^ a b c U.S. Census Bureau, August 26, 2008
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  6. ^ For those who distinguish them, Maryland is pronounced as in merry Pronunciation: /ˈmɛri/, not as in the name Mary Pronunciation: /ˈmɛəri/. (Random House Dictionary)
  7. ^ "Belgium". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2008-05-15. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/be.html. Retrieved 15 May 2008. "Area – comparative: about the size of Maryland" 
  8. ^ Les Christie (September 22, 2009). "Where to find the fattest paychecks". money.cnn.com. Cable News Network. http://money.cnn.com/2009/09/21/news/economy/highest_income_census/?postversion=2009092203. Retrieved November 8, 2009. 
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  13. ^ "The South As It's [sic] Own Nation". League of the South. 2004. http://dixienet.org/New%20Site/thesouthasitsownnation.shtml. Retrieved 2008-05-23. "On the other hand, areas beyond these thirteen States maintain their Southern culture to varying degrees. Much of Missouri remains basically Southern, as do parts of southern Maryland and Maryland’s eastern shore." 
  14. ^ Beck, John; Randall, Aaron; and Frandsen, Wendy (2007-06-27). "Southern Culture: An Introduction" (PDF). Carolina Academic Press. pp. 14–15. http://www.cap-press.com/pdf/1517.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-23. "Kentucky, Missouri, West Virginia [...] and Maryland —slaveholding states and regions before the Civil War that did not secede from the Union – are also often included as part of the South. As border states, these states always were crossroads of values and customs, and today [...] parts of Maryland seem to have become part of the “Northeast." 
  15. ^ "Regions of the United States". American Memory. The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/rrhtml/regdef.html. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  16. ^ "Region 3: The Mid-Atlantic States". www.epa.gov. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/region03/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  17. ^ "Your Local FBI Office". www.fbi.gov. Federal Bureau of Investigation. http://www.fbi.gov/contact/fo/fo.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
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  19. ^ "Best Regional Colleges". www.princetonreview.com. The Princeton Review. http://www.princetonreview.com/best-regional-colleges.aspx. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
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  21. ^ Precipitation Map
  22. ^ Snowfall Map
  23. ^ [1] NOAA National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on October 24, 2006.
  24. ^ "Average Weather for Ocean City, MD - Temperature and Precipitation". Weather.com. http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USMD0295?from=search. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  25. ^ Zone Hardiness Map through Prairie Frontier
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  27. ^ Invasive Species of concern in Maryland
  28. ^ Euphydryas phaeton (Drury, 1773), Butterflies and Moths of North America
  29. ^ "Official list of the birds of Maryland". Maryland/District of Columbia Records Committee. http://www.mdbirds.org/mddcrc/pdf/mdlist.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  30. ^ a b c [2] Maryland's Public Information Network Retrieved on 4-9-2008.
  31. ^ Therres, Glenn (Fall 2007). "Lions in our mountains? The mystery of cougars in Maryland" (PDF). Wildlife and Heritage. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. http://www.dnr.state.md.us/naturalresource/fall2007/lions.pdf. Retrieved 6 July 2009. "Historically bobcats were distributed statewide but during the post colonization period densities began to plummet. By the mid-1900s, populations had probably reached all-time lows, with remnant populations existing only in western Maryland. This prompted the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) to classify them as a state-listed “Species of Special Concern.” During the past quarter century, occupied range and densities have increased markedly. Results from the annual Bowhunter Survey and the Hunter Mail survey have identified bobcat sightings in 14 of Maryland’s 23 counties. Currently, bobcats have dual legal classification in Maryland. In addition to the Species of Special Concern designation, they are also defined as a Game Animal / Furbearer with a closed harvest season." 
  32. ^ Assateague Island National Seashore Wild Ponies
  33. ^ a b Chesapeake Bay Retriever History
  34. ^ Maryland Government Website – Maryland State Bird
  35. ^ Forbes.com – America's Greenest States
  36. ^ "Maryland's Name". Maryland at a Glance. Maryland State Archives. http://www.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/mdmanual/01glance/html/name.html. Retrieved 2008-01-21. 
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  39. ^ a b Hubbard, Bill, Jr. (2009). American Boundaries: the Nation, the States, the Rectangular Survey. University of Chicago Press. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-0-226-35591-7. 
  40. ^ John Esten Cooke (1883). Virginia, a history of the people. Houghton, Mifflin. pp. 208–216. http://books.google.com/books?id=5U4IAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA208&lpg=PA208&dq=%22battle+of+the+severn%22&source=web&ots=pRTUk3UwBY&sig=sq1jbSeEAr3Gho-X_2ngpvvhVt4. 
  41. ^ "History - Seventeenth Century through the Present". Anne Arundel County—Citizens Information Center. 2003. http://www.aacounty.org/AboutAACo/history.cfm. 
  42. ^ "Indentured Servants and the Pursuits of Happiness". Crandall Shifflett, Virginia Tech.
  43. ^ Paul Heinegg. Free African Americans in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware Accessed 15 February 2008
  44. ^ Peter Kolchin, American Slavery: 1619-1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1993, pp.81-82
  45. ^ Turner Brinton, "April-editions/060405-Wednesday/ImmigrateDebate_CNS-UMCP.html Immigration Bill Could Impact Maryland," Capital News Service, 5 April 2006. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
  46. ^ Yau, Jennifer (2007). "The Foreign Born from Korea in the United States". Migration Policy Institute. http://www.migrationinformation.org/USfocus/display.cfm?id=273. Retrieved 2007-12-23. 
  47. ^ "About Us: Korean Americans in Maryland". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. http://www.jhsph.edu/kacp/about_us.html. Retrieved 2007-12-23. 
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  49. ^ "Italian American Population in All 50 States". Niaf.org. http://www.niaf.org/research/2000_census_4.asp. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
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  52. ^ It became a part of the District of Columbia when that city was created in the 1790s.
  53. ^ "State Economic Growth Widespread in 2006" (PDF). bea.gov. U.S. Department of Commerce: Bureau of Economic Analysis. http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/regional/gdp_state/2007/pdf/gsp0607.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  54. ^ U.S. Poverty Rate Drops; Ranks of Uninsured Grow washingtonpost.com.
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  56. ^ US Poverty Rate Declines Significantly FOXNews.com.
  57. ^ "Port of Baltimore". Automotive Logistics Buyers' Guide 2007. Ultima Media. http://www.automotivelogisticsmagazine.com/aml/buyersguide/baltimore.shtml. Retrieved 2008-01-21. 
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  60. ^ "MDOT Departments." Maryland Department of Transportation. Retrieved on March 23, 2009.
  61. ^ "Article IV". United States Constitution. Legal Information Institute. http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.articleiv.html#section4. Retrieved 2008-01-21. 
  62. ^ [4]
  63. ^ Steny Hoyer, Fifth Congressional District of Maryland. U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved December 8, 2006 from http://hoyer.house.gov
  64. ^ "About MSDE." Maryland State Department of Education. Retrieved on March 22, 2009.
  65. ^ "Slicing education?". gazette.net. The Gazette. October 30, 2009. p. A-9. http://www.gazette.net/stories/10302009/poliedi181547_32521.shtml. Retrieved November 12, 2009. "As it stands, the $5.5 billion Maryland spends on education makes up about 40 percent of the general fund budget...." 
  66. ^ de Vise, Daniel (5 February 2009). "Md. Leads U.S. in Passing Rates on AP Exams". Washington Post. pp. B1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/02/04/AR2009020401459.html. Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  67. ^ "Best High Schools: Gold Medal List". usnews.com. U.S. News & World Report. http://www.usnews.com/articles/education/high-schools/2008/12/04/best-high-schools-gold-medal-list.html?PageNr=1. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  68. ^ "State Symbols". Maryland State Archives. http://www.msa.md.gov/msa/mdmanual/01glance/html/symbols/sport.html. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  69. ^ dll/article?AID=/20080930/NEWS01/80930067 STATE SYMBOLS: Marylanders take a walk, and eat cake too. Retrieved September 30, 2008.

Further reading

  • Robert J. Brugger. Maryland, A Middle Temperament: 1634-1980 (1996)
  • Suzanne Ellery Greene Chappelle, Jean H. Baker, Dean R. Esslinger, and Whitman H. Ridgeway. Maryland: A History of its People (1986)
  • Lawrence Denton. A Southern Star for Maryland (1995)

External links


Preceded by
Massachusetts
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on April 28, 1788 (7th)
Succeeded by
South Carolina

Coordinates: 39°00′N 76°42′W / 39°N 76.7°W / 39; -76.7


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

For other places with the same name, see Maryland (disambiguation).
The state sport is indeed jousting
The state sport is indeed jousting

Maryland [1] on the Mid-Atlantic, nicknamed America in Miniature, has a little bit of everything: both sea and mountain, urban and rural, historic and modern. It ranges from some of the nation's most densely populated areas around Washington, D.C., to bucolic rural areas in the east around the Chesapeake Bay and Eastern Shore, and in the Appalachian Mountains in the west. Baltimore is the state's biggest city, with literal boatloads of tourist attractions around its Inner Harbor; Annapolis, with its historical maritime charm, is its capital.

Maryland's regions
Maryland's regions
Capital Region
The population core of Maryland—mostly suburbs and exurbs of Washington, D.C.
Central Maryland
Including the quintessentially Maryland cities of Baltimore and Annapolis
Eastern Shore
Maryland's lowlands east of the Chesapeake, home to the beach resort Ocean City as well as Assateague Island National Seashore
Southern Maryland
A solidly Chesapeake region with charming bed & breakfasts and bay island destinations, an easy drive from D.C.
Western Maryland
Where Maryland gets mountainous and rugged, with some charming, laid-back, smaller cities, and outdoor opportunities at Deep Creek Lake and on the Appalachian Trail
  • Annapolis — the quaint state (and one-time national) capital, with strong maritime, naval, and seafood traditions
  • Baltimore — Maryland's big city on the Chesapeake, home to the Inner Harbor, a magnificent Aquarium, Camden Yards, lots of history, and vibrant city life
  • Bethesda — the urban-upscale hotspot in the D.C. inner suburbs, with over 200 restaurants
  • College Park — a vibrant college town just outside the D.C. city limits
  • Cumberland — railroad town in the Appalachian Mountains and the C&O Canal terminus
  • Frederick — Bustling historic city near Harpers Ferry, famous for antiques and outlets
  • Hagerstown — quaint small city at the foot of the Appalachians, famous for its outlets
  • Ocean City — very popular seaside resort city on a barrier island, with loads of restaurants and night clubs
  • Solomons Island — a small historic town and popular weekend getaway on the Chesapeake at the mouth of the Patuxent River
The massive Chesapeake Bay Bridge
The massive Chesapeake Bay Bridge
  • Antietam Battlefield — site of the bloodiest single day in American History, at the first battle of the Civil War in the North
  • Appalachian Trail — the great Appalachian Trail passes through the Maryland panhandle for a mere 40 miles, but that includes one excellent and easy hike to the ever popular rock-climbing mecca of Annapolis Rock—it's also just fun to be able to say that you walked across the state of Maryland, which you can do in just a couple of days
  • Assateague Island National Seashore — a beautiful national park of a barrier island, populated by wild ponies
  • Catoctin Mountain Park — a big, rugged National Park centered around Catoctin Mountain, and home to the Presidential retreat of Camp David
  • Chesapeake Bay — the Great Shellfish Bay is a whole travel region of its own, offering fishing, crabbing, swimming, boating, sailing, unique island communities, placid bed & breakfasts, and just plain beautiful sunsets
  • Deep Creek Lake — Maryland's mountain/lake resort and spa
  • Great Falls — the spectacular Great Falls along the Potomac River, plus endless walking/biking trails along the historic Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
  • St. Mary's City — Maryland's original colonial capital and one of the very first British settlements in North America
  • Patapsco Valley State Park — a big state park with over 32 miles of well-marked trails leading to historic and natural sites of interest, all just a half-hours drive away from Baltimore

Understand

The largest and most well known geographic feature of Maryland is the Chesapeake Bay, the world's third largest estuary. At one time it was called the world's protein basket because it produced so much seafood in the form of fish and shellfish, in particular its most famous product, Blue Crabs. Today the bay is a poster child for what happens from overfishing and pollution, but Maryland leads the country in many progressive "Save the Bay" programs to save wetlands, and halt the flow of pollutants from the more than 12 million people who live in its watershed from Pennsylvania to Virginia. The Chesapeake Bay is a magnet for sailing and fishing sports activities.

The state is bounded to the south by the Potomac River, which offers opportunities for boating, and bicycling along the disused Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Trail, leading from Washington, D.C. to Cumberland.

The western part of the state is much more mountainous than the eastern lowlands, and offers hiking along the Appalachian Trail, whitewater recreation in the Youghiogheny River, and historical sites such as Antietam Battlefield, where the events of the bloodiest single day in American history unfolded.

Ocean City offers an economy that caters to the huge seasonal influx of beach-goers. It has an odd charm in the winter, with discounted hotels, deserted beaches and empty restaurants.

Geography and Climate

The state crosses many different geographical zones, from the low, sandy barrier islands of the Atlantic Coast to the fertile, lowlands of the Chesapeake Basin, which rise into the foothills of the Piedmont, and eventually the rugged terrain of the Appalachian Mountains. Maryland has been called "America in Miniature" because of the great difference of landscape one can experience in such a small area.

The climate of Maryland varies as much as its topography. The lower elevation Atlantic Coastal Plain, which surrounds the Chesapeake Bay and includes the major cities of Baltimore, Annapolis, and Salisbury has a mild subtropical climate, with hot, humid summers and cool winters with very little snow. As one moves away from the Bay and higher in elevation, the climate becomes more continental, with milder summers and colder winters including the major cities of Hagerstown and Cumberland. In the mountains of the west summers are cool, and winters can be very cold with heavy snows. The mountains protect the eastern half of Maryland from much of the harsh winter weather experienced in the Great Lakes region.

Flying in the Maryland flag
Flying in the Maryland flag

By plane

Many international and domestic flights arrive into the state's main airport, Baltimore-Washington International (IATA: BWI). Many air travelers to Maryland arrive at Reagan National Airport (IATA: DCA) and Dulles International Airport (IATA: IAD), both located in northern Virginia. In addition, regional flights can be booked to Salisbury (IATA: SBY).

By train

Amtrak trains arrive at stations in Aberdeen, Baltimore, BWI, Cumberland, New Carrollton, Rockville, and Salisbury.

By car

Maryland is served by several main Interstate highways, and a number of other routes enter the state. Interstates 68 and 70 are the main east-west interstate highways in the state, and Interstates 81, 83, 95 and 97 are major north-south routes. In addition, US Routes 219, 220, 29, 11, 15, 1, and 13 are major north-south arteries.

  • Maryland Transit Authority [2] for bus, light rail, subway, and MARC commuter train information.
  • Montgomery and Prince George's Counties in Central Maryland are served by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (METRO) [3]
The U.S.S. Constellation museum-ship in the Baltimore Inner Harbor
The U.S.S. Constellation museum-ship in the Baltimore Inner Harbor

Maryland's biggest attractions by way of sightseeing are almost all in Baltimore, centered around the Inner Harbor, including the National Aquarium, historic Fort McHenry, the Maryland Zoo, and a host of great museums. Annapolis is sightseeing destination #2, home to the Maryland State House (which once served as the nation's capitol), the U.S. Naval Academy, and a lovely historic center. Ocean City has its fair share of fun tourist kitsch as well. For more off-the-beaten path sights, look for the National Mormon Temple in Kensington at Christmas time, or visit Cumberland's historic district, set in the beautiful Allegheny Mountains.

Do

The big activities here revolve either around sporting events, or outdoor sports. Sports are a big deal in Baltimore, which is a city utterly mad for Baltimore Ravens football—half the businesses in the city deck themselves out in the teams colors. No less important to the city is the Baltimore Orioles baseball team. Sports are just as big a deal on the college scene at the University of Maryland, in College Park, where the Terrapins draw huge crowds from the counties surrounding the school.

Outdoor sports are concentrated in the east and the west of the state, since the middle is overrun by dense suburbia. Boating and crabbing are the big draws on the Chesapeake Bay, and there's beach camping to be done at Assateague Island National Seashore. In the west, there is great trekking opportunities in the Appalachian MountainsAppalachian Trail or otherwise. On the trail in Maryland, is a huge rock climbing draw at Annapolis Rock. The big state parks, like Catoctin Mountain Park and Patapsco Valley State Park, also have loads of really nice woodland hiking trails.

Annapolis Rock on the Appalachian Trail
Annapolis Rock on the Appalachian Trail

Other more eccentric local activities include:

  • Duckpin bowling Maryland is one of the few remaining places to experience this dying sport. With smaller bowling balls, funny-shaped pins and three throws per frame, duckpins represent a unique regional experience.
  • Lacrosse Maryland is perhaps the hotbed of high school and college lacrosse -- it became the official state team sport in 2004. Johns Hopkins is a perennial contender for the men's national championship; the University of Maryland has been powerhouse on the women's side. A ticket to one of these matches represents a different sort of spectator experience than you get at a football, baseball or basketball game.
  • Maryland Renaissance Festival [4] Crownsville, MD. Phone: (800) 296-7304. Celebrating its 30th year as of 2006, the Renaissance Festival is held every fall on the weekends (and Labor Day) between the last weekend of August and the third weekend of October. Probably your only chance to view the Maryland state sport of jousting.
  • Maryland State Fair, Timonium, MD. [5]. Livestock shows, entertainment, a vast midway full of thrill rides and carnival attractions, and even a horse race all make up the Maryland State Fair, held the last weeks of August through the first days of September.
  • Preakness Baltimore, MD. [6]. The second jewel in the legendary Triple Crown of thoroughbred horse racing happens every May at Pimlico Race Track in northwest Baltimore. Parties, parades, and other events throughout the Baltimore lead up to the anticipated race.
A small portion of your crabs at a feast
A small portion of your crabs at a feast

A crab feast primer

A quick review of crab-eating technique can be useful: To open the crab, flip it upside-down and look for the long "lever" on the belly. Get your finger under it and pull to pry the shell open, revealing the meat and guts inside. Most are too squeamish to eat the greenish guts and grayish gills, but a true Marylander eats all of the crab. (And doesn't everyone anyway when eating soft shells?) You'll be given a small wooden hammer to crack the legs to get at the meat, but you can also just give them a good bite to break the shell. Enjoy!

Local Maryland cuisine is as richly exotic. Unfortunately, it's also under-appreciated or over-fished, and therefore can sometimes be hard to find.

Without a doubt, the state is known first for its Maryland Blue Crabs, fished from the Chesapeake Bay, served in magnificent quantities, drenched in Old Bay (a peppery mix of celery salt, bay leaf, mustard seed, black and red pepper, cinnamon, and ginger), accompanied by copious amounts of beer, and a total, wonderful mess. The blue crab, symbol of the state, adorns drivers licenses and other state paraphernalia, and is a considerable source of state pride—all the more disappointing that over-fishing and farm run-off into the bay have decimated the local blue crab population, greatly limiting the fishing haul, and meaning that you are eating crabs from somewhere else unless you caught them yourself. The no less magnificent crab feasts continue, though, along and around the Bay in small crab shacks and in restaurants around Annapolis and Baltimore, and throughout the Chesapeake Bay region.

Soft Shell Blue Crabs, another Maryland staple, are available throughout the world in fine restaurants as a high class delicacy; here they're everyday bar food in the summer. The Chesapeake Blue Crabs are a bit of a natural freak, crabs that "molt" annually as they outgrow their shells. The shells grow back, but smart fishermen don't give them a chance. Don't worry about how to eat these crabs—just open your mouth and start biting, and eat it all. And there's a real pleasure to eating a "delicacy" on a hamburger bun with some lettuce, mustard, and tomato, while taking a shady respite from the summer sun, by the beach or otherwise.

Further along the Maryland line of crab cuisine is the crab cake, which comes in many varieties. You can find them anywhere in the state, at any American restaurant. But quality varies wildly, and most will leave you thinking, "well, I would have rather just had the crab." For the undisputed best, which Maxim rated one of the top 10 dishes in the world, go to standing-room-only Faidley's in Baltimore's Lexington Market and order a pair of jumbo lumps.

Aside from crabs, shellfish in general are a classic cornerstone of Maryland cuisine, (no surprise, given "Chesapeake" is Algonquian for "Great Shellfish Bay") and raw oysters on the half shell are a local delicacy. They're typically appreciated with a dash of hot sauce, and clams are often served the same way. Steamed mussels can make for a warming winter evening dinner, and Bertha's in Baltimore serves the state's most famous (and tastiest) mussel.

From here, the cuisine gets stranger and harder to locate: Maryland Fried Chicken? Say what? Yes, fried chicken is a Maryland specialty, and you'll find countless places in Kentucky touting the stuff. It's basically just your garden variety fried chicken, but smothered in creamy gravy. You're unlikely to find it really anywhere, but try looking along US-50 towards Ocean City for unassuming shacks bearing "Chicken" signs. If you just want some good chicken, head to a Royal Farms gas station, which, for reasons beyond anyone's understanding, serves up fine fried chicken (if you get it fresh out of the oven, that is).

The most esoteric Maryland dishes range from roasted terrapin to fried muskrat to roasted eel to boiled raccoon. Good luck finding these, though. Again, Faidley's in Baltimore is a good place to look, although these wildly rare dishes are only available there seasonally. Hopefully top local chefs will come to their senses and start cooking upscale variations on these interesting local dishes, and realize that the Italian-French-American fine dining you can find in any city throughout the country is a little uninventive.

Lastly, there are several Mid-Atlantic foods worth looking for, mostly in diners. A slice of scrapple for breakfast is a fried delicious must, despite its origins (pig organs and scraps), which do terrify the uninitiated and the cowardly.

Old Annapolis
Old Annapolis

The best places around the state to enjoy some nightlife and drinks, unsurprisingly, are in the more metropolitan areas, like Bethesda, Silver Spring, and above all Baltimore in Fells Point and Washington Square. Many of the clubs and bars in Baltimore's Inner Harbor -- though not all -- tend to be tourist traps with overpriced drinks and cover charges.

Beer lovers will want to try a few of the state's great craft brews. Wild Goose and Blue Ridge Ales are among the most popular. Both brands offer a variety of styles - stouts, porters, ales, ESBs, IPAs,and Goldens. Also, Clipper City, Deep Creek, and Foggy Bottom are brands worth sampling.

The great drink of Maryland, however, has all but disappeared since Prohibition—Maryland rye whiskey. The distilleries that once dotted the Baltimore County countryside have all shut down, and production of rye whiskey is now centered around Kentucky. But the Baltimore hasn't lost its taste for the beverage, and in the city's dive bars you can still order a dirt-cheap and tasty rye 'n soda. Stores in the area sell "Pikesville Rye" at a great value, which is the only Maryland rye that never ceased production, although the operations have relocated to Kentucky.

Stay safe

In Baltimore, the main tourist areas are very safe (and heavily patrolled by police); one does not, however, have to wander far to find more dangerous areas. The rest of the state, with the exception of some non-touristy parts of Prince George's County and Annapolis, is very safe.

  • Delaware - America's second smallest state, Delaware is located to the north of Maryland along the Chesapeake Bay.
  • Pennsylvania - Located to the north of Maryland, the city of Philadelphia makes an easy weekend trip from most destinations in Maryland, and offers a glimpse into America's Revolutionary War era history.
  • West Virginia - Maryland's western neighbor is the only state in the USA to lie completely within a mountain range (in this case, the Appalachians).
  • Washington, D.C. - The nation's capital is a must-see for most visitors, with a wealth of sites including the Capitol, the White House, the Smithsonian Museum, and a vast array of other monuments and attractions.
  • Virginia - Maryland's southern neighbor is bordered by ocean and mountains and has much to offer travelers interested in history and scenic landscapes.
This is a usable article. It gives a good overview of the region, its sights, and how to get in, as well as links to the main destinations, whose articles are similarly well developed. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MARYLAND, a South Atlantic state of the United States, and one of the original thirteen, situated between latitudes 37° 53' and 39° 44' N. and longitudes 750 4' and 79° 33' W. (the precise western boundary has not been determined). It is bounded N. by Pennsylvania and Delaware; E. by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean; S. and W. by the Potomac river and its north branch, which separate it, except on the extreme W. border, from Virginia and West Virginia; W., also, by West Virginia. It is one of the small states of the Union - only seven are smaller - its total area being 12,327 sq. m. of which 2386 sq. m. are water surface.

Physical Features. - Maryland is crossed from north to south by each of the leading topographical regions of the east section of the United States - the Coastal Plain, the Piedmont Plateau, the Appalachian Mountains, and the Appalachian Plateau - hence its great diversity of surface. The portion within the Coastal Plain embraces nearly the whole of the south-east half of the state and is commonly known as tide-water Maryland. It is marked off from the Piedmont Plateau by a " Fall Line " extending from Washington (D.C.) north-east through Baltimore to a point a little south of the north-east corner of the state, and is divided by the Chesapeake Bay into two parts known as the East Shore and the West Shore. The East Shore is a low level plain, the least elevated section of the state. Along its entire Atlantic border extends the narrow sandy Sinepuxent Beach, which encloses a shallow lagoon or bay also called Sinepuxent at the north, where, except in the extreme north, it is very narrow, and Chincoteague at the south, where its width is in most places from 4 to 5 m. Between this and the Chesapeake to the west and north-west there is a slight general rise, a height of about Too ft. being reached in the extreme north. A water-parting extending from north-east to south-west and close to the Atlantic border separates the East Shore into two drainage systems, though that next to the Atlantic is insignificant. That on the Chesapeake side is drained chiefly by the Pocomoke, Nanticoke, Choptank and Chester rivers, together with their numerous branches, the general direction of all of which is south-west. The branches as well as the upper parts of the main streams flow through broad and shallow valleys; the middle courses of the main streams wind their way through reed-covered marshes, the water ebbing and flowing with the tide; in their lower courses they become estuarine and the water flows between low banks. The West Shore is somewhat more undulating than the East and also more elevated. Its general slope is from north-west to south-east; along the west border are points 300 ft. or more in height. The principal rivers crossing this section are the Patuxent, Patapsco and Gunpowder, with which may be grouped the Potomac, forming the state's southern boundary. These rivers, lined in most instances with terraces 30 to 40 ft. high on one or both sides, flow south-east into the Chesapeake Bay through valleys bounded by low hills. The Fall Line, which forms the boundary between the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont Plateau, is a zone in which a descent of about 100 ft. or more is made in many places within a few miles and in consequence is marked by waterfalls, cascades and rapids.

The part of Maryland within the Piedmont Plateau extends west from the Fall Line to the base of Catoctin Mountain, or the west border of Frederick county, and has an area of about 2500 sq. m. In general it has a broad rolling surface. It is divided into two sections by an elevated strip known as Parr's Ridge, which extends from north-east to south-west a short distance west of the middle. The east section rises from about 450 ft. along the Fall Line to from 850 to 900 ft. along the summit of Parr's Ridge. Its principal streams are those that cross the West Shore of the Coastal Plain and here wind their way from Parr's Ridge rapidly toward the south-east in narrow steep-sided gorges through broad limestone valleys. To the west of Parr's Ridge the surface for the most part slopes gently down to the east bank of the Monocacy river (which flows nearly at a right angle with the streams east of the Ridge), and then from the opposite bank rises rapidly toward the Catoctin Mountain; but just above the mouth of the Monocacy on the east side of the valley is Sugar Loaf Mountain, which makes a steep ascent of 1250 ft.

The portion of the state lying within the Appalachian Region is commonly known as Western Maryland. To the eastward it abounds in mountains and valleys; to the westward it is a rolling plateau. West of Catoctin Mountain (1800 ft.) is Middletown Valley, with Catoctin Creek running through it from north to south, and the Blue Ridge Mountains (2400 ft.), near the Pennsylvania border, forming its west slope. Farther west the serrated crests of the Blue Ridge overlook the Greater Appalachian Valley, here 73 m. in width, the broad gently-rolling slopes of the Great Cumberland or Hagerstown Valley occupying its eastern and the Appalachian Ridges its western portion. Through the eastern portion Antietam Creek to the east and Conococheague Creek to the west flow rapidly in meandering trenches that in places exceed 75 ft. in depth. The Appalachian Ridges of the western portion begin with North Mountain on the east and end with Wills Mountain on the west. They are long, narrow, uniformly-sloping and level-crested mountains, extending along parallel lines from north-east to southwest, and reaching a maximum height in Martin's Ridge of more than 2000 ft. Overlooking them from the west are the higher ranges of the Alleghenies, among which the Savage, Backbone and Negro Mountains reach elevations of 3000 ft. or more. In the extreme west part of the state these mountains merge, as it were, into a rolling plateau, the Appalachian Plateau, having an average elevation of 2500 ft. All rivers of Western Maryland flow south into the Potomac except in the extreme west, where the waters of theYoughiogheny and its tributaries flow north into the Monongahela. Fauna and Flora. - In primitive times deer, ducks, turkeys, fish and oysters were especially numerous, and wolves, squirrels and crows were a source of annoyance to the early settlers. Deer, black bears and wild cats (lynx) are still found in some uncultivated sections. Much more numerous are squirrels, rabbits, " groundhogs " (woodchucks), opossums, skunks, weasels and minks. Many species of ducks are also still found; and the reed-bird (bobolink), " partridge " (elsewhere called quail or " Bob White "), ruffed grouse (elsewhere called partridge), woodcock, snipe, plover and Carolina rail still abound. The waters of the Chesapeake Bay are especially rich in oysters and crabs, and there, also, shad, alewives, " striped " (commonly called " rock ") bass, menhaden, white perch and weak-fish (" sea-trout ") occur in large numbers. Among the more common trees are several species of oak, pine, hickory, gums and maple, and the chestnut, the poplar, the beech, the cypress and the red cedar; the merchantable pine has been cut, but the chestnut and other hard woods of West Maryland are still a product of considerable value. Among wild fruit-trees are the persimmon and Chickasaw plum; grape-vines and a large variety of berry-bushes grow wild and in abundance.

Table of contents

Climate

The climate of Maryland in the south-east is influenced by ocean and bay - perhaps also by the sandy soil - while in the west it is influenced by the mountains. The prevailing winds are westerly; but generally north-west in winter in the west section and south-west in summer in the south section. In the south the normal winter is mild, the normal summer rather hot; in the west the normal winter is cold, the normal summer cool. The normal average annual temperature for the entire state is between 53° and 54° F., ranging from 48° at Grantsville in the north-west to 53° at Darlington in the north-east, and to 57° at Princess Anne in the south-east. The normal temperature for the state during July (the warmest month) is 75.2° F., and during January (the coldest month) 32.14° F. Although the west section is generally much the cooler in summer, yet both of the greatest extremes recorded since 1891 were at points not far apart in Western Maryland: 109° F. at Boettcherville and - 26° F. at Sunnyside. The normal annual precipitation for the state is about 43 in. It is greatest, about 53 in., on the east slope of Catoctin Mountain, owing to the elevations which obstruct the moisture-bearing winds, and is above the average along the middle of the shores of the Chesapeake. It is least, from 25 to 35 in., in the Greater Appalachian Valley, in the south on the West Shore, and along the Atlantic border. During spring and summer the precipitation throughout the state is about 2 in. more than during autumn and winter.

Soils and Agriculture

The great variety of soils is one of the more marked features of Maryland. On the East Shore to the north is a marly loam overlying a yellowish-red clay sub-soil, to the south is a soil quite stiff with light coloured clay, while here and there, especially in the middle and south, are considerable areas both of light sandy soils and tidal marsh loams. On the West Shore the soils range from a light sandy loam in the lower levels south from Baltimore to rather heavy loarns overlying a yellowish clay on the rolling uplands and on the terraces along the Potomac and Patuxent. Crossing the state along the lower edge of the Fall Line is a belt heavy with clay, but so impervious to water as to be of little value for agricultural purposes. The soils of the Piedmont Plateau east of Parr's Ridge are, like the underlying rocks, exceptionally variable in composition, texture and colour. For the most part they are considerably heavier with clay than are those of the Coastal Plain, and better adapted to general agricultural purposes. Light loams, however, are found both in the north-east and south-east. A soil of very close texture, the gabbro, is found, most largely in the north-east. Alluvial loams occupy the narrow river valleys; but the most common soil of the section is that formed from gneiss with a large per cent. of clay in the subsoil. West of Parr's Ridge in the Piedmont, the principal soils are those the character of which is determined either by decomposed red sandstone or by decomposed limestone. In the east portion of the mountainous region the soil so well adapted to peach culture contains much clay, together with particles of Cambrian sandstone. In Hagerstown Valley are rich red or yellow limestone-clay soils. The Allegheny ridges have only a thin stony soil; but good limestone, sandstone, shale and alluvial soils, occur in the valleys and in some of the plateaus of the extreme west.

Of the total land surface of the state 82% was in 1900 included in farms and 68% of the farmland was improved. There were 46,012 farms, of which 15,833 contained less than 50 acres, 3940 contained 260 acres or more, and 79 contained 1,000 acres or more - the average size being 112.4 acres. In 1890, 69% of the farms were worked by the owners or their managers, in 1900 only 66.4%; but share tenants outnumber cash tenants by almost three to one. Of the total number of farms about seven times as many are operated by white as by negro farmers, though the number of farms operated by white share tenants outnumber those operated by negro share tenants by only about five to one. Of all the inhabitants of the state, at least tenears old, who in 1900 were engaged in gainful occupations, 20.8% were farmers. The leading agricultural pursuits are the growing of Indian corn and wheat and the raising of livestock, yet it is in the production of fruits, vegetables and tobacco, that Maryland ranks highest as an agricultural state, and in no other state except South Carolina is so large a per cent. of the value of the crop expended for fertilizers. In 1907, according to the Year Book of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Indian corn crop was 22,196,000 bushels, valued at $11,986,000; the wheat crop was 14,763,000 bushels, valued at $14,172,000; the oat crop was 825,000 bushels, valued at $404,000; and the crop of rye was 315,000 bushels, valued at $236,000. Of the livestock, hogs were the most numerous in 1900, cattle next, sheep third, and horses fourth. The hay and forage crop of 1899 (exclusive of corn-stalks) grew on 374,848 acres. Until after the middle of the 18th century tobacco was the staple crop of Maryland, and the total yield did not reach its maximum until 1860 when the crop amounted to 51,000 hhds.; from this it decreased to 14,000 hhds., or 12,356,838 lb in 1889; in 1899 it rose again to 24,589,480 lb, in 1907 the crop was only 56,962,000 lb, less than that of nine other states. In market-garden products, including small fruits, Maryland ranked in 1899 sixth among the states of the Union, the crop being valued at $4,766,760, an increase of 350.9% over that of 1889. In the yield both of strawberries and of tomatoes it ranked first; the yield of raspberries and blackberries is also large. In its crop of greenpeas Maryland was exceeded (1899) by New York only; in sweet Indian corn it ranked fifth; in kale, second; in spinach, third; in cabbages, ninth. The number of peach-trees, especially in the west part of the state, where the quality is of the best, is rapidly increasing, and in the yield of peaches and nectarines the state ranked thirteenth in 1899; in the yield of pears it ranked fifth; in apples seventeenth.

The Indian-corn, wheat and livestock sections of the state, are in the Piedmont Plateau, the Hagerstown Valley and the central portion of the East Shore. Garrett county in the extreme northwest, however, raises the largest number of sheep. Most of the tobacco is grown in the south counties of the West Shore. The great centre for vegetables and small fruits is in the counties bordering on the north-west shore of the Chesapeake, and in Howard, Frederick and Washington counties, directly west, Anne Arundel county producing the second largest quantity of strawberries of all the counties in the Union in 1899. Peaches and pears grow in large quantities in Kent and neighbouring counties on the East Shore and in Washington and Frederick counties; apples grow in abundance in all parts of the Piedmont Plateau.

The woodland area of the state in 1900 was 4400 sq. m., about 44% (estimated in 1907 to be 3450 sq. m., about 35%) of the total land area, but with the exception of considerable oak and chestnut, some maple and other hard woods in west Maryland, about all of the merchantable timber has been cut. The lumber industry, nevertheless, has steadily increased in importance, the value of the product in 1860 amounting to only $605,864, that in 1890 to $1,600,472, and that in 1900 to $2,650,082, of which sum $2,495,169 was the value of products under the factory system; in 1905 the value of the factory product was $2,750,339.

Fisheries

In 1897 the value of the fishery product of Maryland was exceeded only by that of Massachusetts, but by 1901, although it had increased somewhat during the four years, it was exceeded by the product of New Jersey, of Virginia and of New York. Oysters constitute more than 80% of the total value, the product in 1901 amounting to 5,685,561 bushels, and being valued at $3,031,518. The supply on natural beds has been diminishing, but the planting of private beds promises a large increase. Crabs are next in value and are caught chiefly along the East Shore and in Anne Arundel and Calvert counties on the West Shore. Shad, to the number of 3,111,181 and valued at $120,602, were caught during 1901. In Somerset and Worcester counties clams are a source of considerable value. The terrapin catch decreased in value from $22,333 in 1891 to $1,139 in 1901. The total value of the fish product of 1901 was $3,767,461. The state laws for the protection of fish and shell-fish were long carelessly enforced because of the fishermen's strong feeling against them, but this sentiment has slowly, changed and enforcement has become more vigorous.

Minerals and Manufactures

The coal deposits, which form a part of the well-known Cumberland field, furnish by far the most important mineral product of the state; more than 98% of this, in 1901, was mined in Allegany county from a bed about 20 m. long and 5 m. wide and the remainder in Garrett county, whose deposits, though undeveloped, are of great value. The coal is of two varieties: bituminous and semi-bituminous. The bituminous is of excellent quality for the manufacture of coke and gas, but up to 5902 had been mined only in small quantities. Most of the product has been of the semi-bituminous variety and of the best quality in the country for the generation of steam. Nearly all the high grade blacksmithing coal mined in the United States comes from Maryland. The deposits were discovered early in the 19th century (probably first in 5804 near the present Frostburg), but were not exploited until railway transport became available in 1842, and the output was not large until after the close of the Civil War; in 1865 it was 1,025,208 short tons, from which it steadily increased to 5,532,628 short tons in 1907. From 1722 until the War of Independence the iron-ore product of North and West Maryland was greater than that of any of the other colonies, but since then ores of superior quality have been discovered in other states and the output in Maryland, taken chiefly from the west border of the Coastal Plain in Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, has become comparatively of little importance-24,367 long tons in 1902 and only 8269 tons in 1905. Gold, silver and copper ores, have been found in the state, and attempts have been made to mine them, without much success. The Maryland building stone, of which there is an abundance of good quality, consists chiefly of granites, limestones, slate, marble and sandstones, the greater part of which is quarried in the east section of the Piedmont Plateau especially in Cecil county, though some limestones, including those from which hydraulic cement is manufactured, and some sandstones are obtained from the western part of the Piedmont Plateau and the east section of the Appalachian region; the value of stone quarried in the state in 1907 was $1,439,355, of which $1,183,753 was the value of granite, $142,825 that of limestone, $98,918 that of marble, and $13,859 that of sandstone. Brick, potter's and tile clays are obtained most largely along the west border of the Coastal Plain, and fire-clay from the coal region of West Maryland; in 1907 the value of clay products was $1,886,362. Materials for porcelain, including flint, feldspar and kaolin, abound in the east portion of the Piedmont, the kaolin chiefly in Cecil county, and material for mineral paint in Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, as well as farther north-west.

Between 1850 and 1900, while the population increased 103.8%, the average number of wage-earners employed in manufacturing establishments increased 258.5%, constituting 5.2% of the total population in 1850 and 9.1% in 1900. In 1900 the total value of manufactured goods was $242,552,990, an increase of 41.1% over that of 1890. Of the total given for 1900, $211,076,143 was the value of products under the factory system; and in 1905 the value of factory products was $243,375,996, being 15.3% more than in 1900. The products of greatest value in 5905 were: custom-made men's clothing; fruits and vegetables and oysters, canned and preserved; iron and steel; foundry and machine-shop products, including stoves and furnaces; flour and grist mill products; tinware, coppersmithing and sheet iron working; fertilizers; slaughtering and meat-packing; cars and repairs by steam railways; shirts; cotton goods; malt liquors; and cigars and cigarettes. In the value of fertilizers manufactured, and in that of oysters canned and preserved, Maryland was first among the states in 1900 and second in 1905; in 1900 and in 1905 it was fourth among the states in the value of men's clothing. Baltimore is still the great manufacturing centre, but of the state's total product the percentage in value of that manufactured there decreased from 82.5 in 1890 to 66.5 in 1900, and to 62.3 (of the factory product) in 1905. The largest secondary centres are Cumberland, Hagerstown and Frederick the total value of whose factory products in 1905 was less than $10,000,000.

Communications

Tide-water Maryland is afforded rather unusual facilities of water transportation by the Chesapeake Bay, with its deep channel, numerous deep inlets and navigable tributaries, together with the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, which crosses the state of Delaware and connects its waters with those of the Delaware river and bay. As early as 1783 steps were taken to extend these facilities to the navigable waters of the Ohio, chiefly by improving the navigation of the Potomac above Georgetown. By 1820 this project was merged into a movement for a Chesapeake and Ohio canal along the same line. Ground was broken in 1828 and in 1850 the canal was opened to navigation from Georgetown to Cumberland, a distance of 186 m. In 1878 and again in 1889 it was wrecked by a freshet, and since then has been of little service.' However, on the same day that ground was broken for this canal, ground was also broken for the Baltimore & Ohio railway, of which 15 m. was built in1828-1830and which was one of the first steam railway lines in operation in the United States. Since then railway building has progressed steadily. In Maryland (and including the District of Columbia) there were 259 m. of railway in 1850, 386 m. in 1860, 671 m. in 1870, and 1040 m. in 1880; in 1890, in Maryland alone, the mileage was 1270.04 m., and in 1909 it was 1394.19 m. The more important railway lines are the Baltimore & Ohio, the Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington (controlled by the Pennsylvania and a consolidation of the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore, and the Baltimore & Potomac), the Western Maryland, the West Virginia Central & Pittsburg (leased by the Western Maryland), the Northern Central, the Maryland electric railways (including what was formerly the Baltimore & Annapolis Short Line), and the Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis electric railway. Baltimore is the chief railway centre and its harbour is one of the most important in the country.

Inhabitants

The population of Maryland in 1880 was 934,943; in 1890, 1,042,390, an increase of 11.5%; in 1900, 1,188,044 (14%); in 1910, 1,295,346 (increase 9%). Of the total population in 1900 there were 952,424 whites, 235,064 negroes, 544 Chinese, 9 Japanese and 3 Indians, the increase in the white population from 1890 to 1900 being 15.2%, while that of the negroes was only 9%. In 1900 there were 1,094,110 native born to 93,934 foreign-born, and of the foreign-born 44,990 were natives of Germany and 68,600 were residents of the city of Baltimore. The urban population, i.e. total population of cities of 4000 or more inhabitants, in 1900, was 572,795, or 48.2% of the total and an increase of 16.6% over that of 1890; while the rural population, i.e. population outside of incorporated places, was 539,685, an increase of about 8% over that of 1890. There are about S9 religious sects, of which the members of the Roman Catholic Church, which was prominent in the early history of Maryland, are far the most numerous, having in 1906 166,941 members out of 473,257 communicants of all denominations; in the same year there were 137,156 Methodists, 34,965 Protestant Episcopalians, 32,246 Lutherans, 30,928 Baptists, 17,895 Presbyterians and 13,442 members of the Reformed Church in the United States. The chief cities are Baltimore, pop. (1910) 55 8 ,4 8 5, Cumberland 21,839, Hagerstown 16,507, Frederick 10,411 and Annapolis 8609.

Government

The state constitution of 1867, the one now in force, has been frequently amended, all that is required for its amendment being a three-fifths vote of all of the members elected to each of the two houses of the General Assembly, followed by a majority vote of the state electorate, and it is further ' Maryland and Delaware together began the construction of the Delaware and Chesapeake canal (132 m. long) across the north part of the state of Delaware, between the Delaware river and Chesapeake Bay; this canal received Federal aid in 1828, was completed in 1829, and in 1907 was chosen as the most practicable route for a proposed ship waterway between the Chesapeake and the Delaware.

2 The population at previous censuses was as follows: 319,728 in 1 79 0; 34 1 ,54 8 in 1800; 380,546 in 1810; 4 0 7,35 0 in 1820; 447,040 in 1830; 470,019 in 1840; 583,034 in 1850; 687,049 in 1860; and 780,894 in 1870.

provided that once in twenty years, beginning with 1887, the wish of the people in regard to calling a convention for altering the constitution shall be ascertained by a poll. Any constitution or constitutional amendment proposed by such constitutional convention comes into effect only if approved by a majority of the votes cast in a popular election. Since 1870 suffrage has been the right of all male citizens (including negroes) twenty-one years of age or over who shall have lived within the state for one year and within the county or the legislative district of the city of Baltimore in which they may offer to vote for six months immediately preceding an election; persons convicted of larceny or other infamous crime and not since pardoned by the governor, as well as lunatics or those who have been convicted of bribery at a previous election are excepted. In 1908 the General Assembly passed a law providing for annual direct primary elections (outside of Baltimore; and making the Baltimore special primary law applicable to state as well as city officials), but, as regards state officers, making only a slight improvement upon previous conditions inasmuch as the county or district is the unit and the vote of county or district merely " instructs " delegates to the party's state nominating convention, representation in which is not strictly in proportion to population, the rural counties having an advantage over Baltimore; no nomination petition is required. In the same year a separate law was passed providing for primary elections for the choice of United States senators; but here also the method is not that of nomination by a plurality throughout the state, but by the vote of counties and legislative districts, so that this measure, like the other primary law, is not sufficiently direct to give Baltimore a vote proportional to its population.

The chief executive authority is vested in a governor elected bypopular vote for a term of four years. Since becoming a state Maryland has had no lieutenant-governor except under the constitution of 1864; and the office of governor is to be filled in case of a vacancy by such person as the General Assembly may elect. 3 Any citizen of Maryland may be elected to the office who is thirty years of age or over, who has been for ten years a citizen of the state, who has lived in the state for five years immediately preceding election, and who is at the time of his election a qualified voter therein. Until 1838 the governor had a rather large appointing power, but since that date most of the more important offices have been filled by popular election. He, however, still appoints, subject to the confirmation of the senate, the secretary of state, the superintendent of public education, the commissioner of the land office, the adjutantgeneral, justices of the peace, notaries public, the members of numerous administrative boards, and other administrative officers.. He is himself one of the board of education, of the board of public works, and of the board for the management of the house of correction. No veto power whatever was given to the governor until 1867, when, in the present constitution, it was provided that no bill vetoed by him should become a law unless passed over his veto by a three-fifths vote of the members elected to each house, and an amendment of 1890 (ratified by the people in 1891) further provides that any item of a money bill may likewise be separately vetoed. The governor's salary is fixed by the constitution at $4500 a year. Other executive officers are a treasurer, elected by joint ballot of the General Assembly for a term of two years, a comptroller elected by popular vote for a similar term, and an attorney-general elected by popular vote for four years.

The legislature, or General Assembly, meets biennially in evennumbered years, at Annapolis, and consists of a Senate and a House of Delegates. Senators are elected, one from each of the twentythree counties and one from each of the four legislative districts of the city of Baltimore, for a term of four years, the terms of one-half expiring every two years. Delegates are elected for a term of two years, from each county and from each legislative district of Baltimore, according to population, as follows: for a population of 18,000 or less, two delegates; 18,000 to 28,000, three; 28,000 to 40,000, four; 40,000 to 55,000, five; 55,000 and upwards, six. Each legislative district of Baltimore is entitled tc -he number of delegates to which the largest county shall or may be entitled under the foregoing apportionment, and the General Assembly may from time to time alter the boundaries of Baltimore city districts in order to equalize their population. This system of apportionment gives to the rural counties a considerable pplitical advantage over the city of Baltimore, which, with 42.8% of the total population according to the census of 1900, has only 4 out of 27 members of the Senate and only 24 out of tot members of the House of Delegates. Since far back in the colonial era, no minister, preacher, or priest The General Assembly regularly elected the governor during the period 1776-1838.

has been eligible to a seat in either house. A senator must be twentyfive years of age or over, and both senators and delegates must have lived within the state at least three years and in their county or legislative district at least one year immediately preceding their election.

The constitution provides that no bill or joint resolution shall pass either house except by an affirmative vote of a majority of all the members elected to that house and requires that on the final vote the yeas and nays be recorded.

Justice, &c. - The administration of justice is entrusted to a court of appeals, circuit courts, special courts for the city of Baltimore, orphans' courts, and justices of the peace. Exclusive of the city of Baltimore, the state is divided into seven judicial circuits, in each of which are elected for a term of fifteen years one chief judge and two associate judges, who at the time of their election must be members of the Maryland bar, between the ages of thirty and seventy, and must have been residents of the state for at least five years. The seven chief judges so elected, together with one elected from the city of Baltimore, constitute the court of appeals, the governor with the advice and consent of the senate designating one of the eight as chief judge of that court. The court has appellate jurisdiction only. The three judges elected in each circuit constitute the circuit court of each of the several counties in such circuit. The courts have both original and appellate jurisdiction and are required to hold at least two sessions to which jurors shall be summoned every year in each county of its circuit, and if only two such terms are held, there must be two other and intermediate terms to which jurors shall not be summoned. Three other judges are elected for four-year terms, in each county and in the city of Baltimore to constitute an orphans' court. The number of justices of the peace for each county is fixed by local law; they are appointed by the governor, subject to the confirmation of the Senate, for a term of two years.

In the colonial era Maryland had an interesting list of governmental subdivisions - the manor, the hundred, the parish, the county, and the city - but the two last are about all that remain and even these are in considerable measure subject to the special local acts of the General Assembly. In general, each county has from three to seven commissioners - the number is fixed by county laws - elected on a general ticket of each county for a term of from two to six years, entrusted with the charge and control of property owned by the county, empowered to appoint constables, judges of elections, collectors of taxes, trustees of the poor, and road supervisors, to levy taxes, to revise taxable valuations of real property, and open or close public roads.

In Maryland a wife holds her property as if single except that she can convey real estate only by a joint deed with her husband (this requirement being for the purpose of effecting a release of the husband's " dower interest "), neither husband nor wife is liable for the separate debts of the other, and on the death of either the rights of the survivor in the estate of the other are about equal. Wife-beating is made punishable by whipping in gaol, not exceeding forty lashes. Prior to 1841 a divorce was granted by the legislature only, from then until 1851 it could be granted by either the legislature or the equity courts, since 1851 by the courts only. The grounds for a divorce a mensa et thoro, which may be granted for ever or for a limited time only, are cruelty, excessively vicious conduct, or desertion; for a divorce a vinculo matrimonii the chief grounds are impotence at the time of marriage, adultery or deliberate abandonment for three years. There is no homestead exemption law and exemptions from levy for the satisfaction of debts extend only to $loo worth of property, besides wearing apparel and books and tools used by the debtor in his profession or trade, and to all money payable in the nature of insurance. Employers of workmen in a clay or coal mine, stone quarry, or on a steam or street railway are liable for damage in case of an injury to any of their workmen where such injury is caused by the negligence of the employer or of any servant or employee of the employer. The chief of the bureau of labour statistics is directed in case of danger of a strike or lockout to seek to mediate between the parties and if unsuccessful in that, then to endeavour to secure their consent to the formation of a board of arbitration.

The state penal and charitable institutions include a penitentiary at Baltimore; a house of correction at Jessups, two houses of refuge at Baltimore; a house of reformation in Prince George's county; St Mary's industrial school for boys at Baltimore; an industrial home for negro girls at Melvale; an asylum and training school for the feeble-minded at Owings Mills; an infirmary at Cumberland; the Maryland hospital for the insane at Cantonsville; the Springfield state hospital for the insane; the Maryland school for the deaf and dumb at Frederick city; and the Maryland school for the blind at Baltimore. Each of these is under the management of a board appointed by the governor subject to the confirmation of the senate. Besides these there are a large number of stateaided charitable institutions. In 1900 there was created a board of state aid and charities, composed of seven members appointed by the governor for a term of two years, not more than four to be reappointed. There is also a state lunacy commission of four members, who are appointed for terms of four years, one annually, by the governor.

Education

The basis of the present common school system was laid in 1865, after which a marked development was accompanied by some important changes in the system and its administration, and the percentage of total illiteracy (i.e. inability to write among those ten years old and over) decreased from 19.3 in 1800 to 11 in 1900, while illiteracy among the native whites decreased during the same period from 7.8 to 4.1 and among negroes from 59.6 to 35 2. At the head of the system is a state board and a state superintendent, and under these in each county is a county board which appoints a superintendent for the county and a board of trustees for each school district none of which is to be more than four miles square. The state board is composed of the governor as its president, the state superintendent as its secretary, six other members appointed by the governor for a term of six years, and, as ex-officio members without the right to vote, the principals of the state and other normal schools. Prior to 1900 the principal of the state normal was ex-officio state superintendent, but since then the superintendent has been appointed by the governor for a term of four years. Each county board is also appointed by the governor for a term of six years. In both the state and the county boards at least one-third of the members appointed by the governor are not to be of the dominant political party and only one-third of the members are to be appointed every two years. The state board enacts by-laws for the administration of the system; its decision of controversies arising under the school law is final; it may suspend or remove a county superintendent for inefficiency or incompetency; it issues life state certificates, but applicants must have had seven years of experience in teaching, five in Maryland, and must hold a first-class certificate or a college or normal school diploma; and it pensions teachers who have taught successfully for twenty-five years in any of the public or normal schools of the state, who have reached the age of sixty, and who have become physically or mentally incapable of teaching longer, the pension amounting to $200 a year. The legislature of 1908 passed a law under which the minimum pay for a teacher holding a first-class certificate should be $350 a year after three years' teaching, $400 after five years' teaching and $450 after eight years' teaching. By a law of 1904 all teachers who taught an average of 15 pupils were to receive at least $300. School books are purchased out of the proceeds of the school tax, but parents may purchase if they prefer. In 1908 the average school year was nine and seven-tenths months - ten in the cities and nine and four-tenths in the counties; the aim is ten months throughout, and a law of 1904 provides that if a school is taught less than nine months a portion of the funds set apart for it shall be withheld. A compulsory education law of 1902 - to operate, however, only in the city of Baltimore and in Allegany county - requires the attendance for the whole school year of children between the ages of eight and twelve and also of those between the ages of twelve and sixteen who are not employed at home or elsewhere. A separate school for negro children is to be maintained in every election district in which the population warrants it. The system is maintained by a state tax of 16 cents on each $ioo of taxable property.

The higher state educational institutions are two normal schools and one agricultural college. One of the normal schools was opened in Baltimore in 1866, the other at Frostburg in 1904. Both are under the management of the state Board of Education, which appoints the principals and teachers and prescribes the course of study. There is besides, in Washington College at Chestertown, a normal department supported by the state and under the supervision of the state Board of Education. The Maryland Agricultural College, to which an experiment station has been added, was opened in 1859; it is at College Park in Prince George's county, and is largely under state management. Maryland supports no state university, but Johns Hopkins University, one of the leading institutions of its kind in the country, receives $25,000 a year from the state; the medical department of the university of Maryland receives an annual appropriation of about $2500, and St John's College, the academic department of the university of Maryland, receives from the state $13,000 annually and gives for each county in the state one free scholarship and one scholarship covering all expenses. Among the principal institutions in the state are the university of Maryland, an outgrowth of the medical college of Maryland (1807) in Baltimore, with a law school (reorganized in 1869), a dental school (1882), a school of pharmacy (1904), and, since 1907, a department of arts and science in St John's College (non-sect., opened in 1789) at Annapolis; Washington College, with a normal department (non-sect., opened in 1782) at Chestertown; Mount St Mary's College (Roman Catholic, 1808) at Emmitsburg; New Windsor College (Presbyterian, 1843) at New Windsor; St Charles College (Roman Catholic, opened in 1848) and Rock Hill College (Roman Catholic, 1857) near Ellicott City; Loyola College (Roman Catholic, 1852) at Baltimore; Western Maryland College (Methodist Protestant, 1867) at Westminster; Johns Hopkins University (nonsect., 1876) at Baltimore; Morgan College (coloured, Methodist, 1876) at Baltimore; Goucher College (Methodist, founded 1884, opened 1888) at Baltimore; several professional schools mostly in Baltimore (q.v.); the Peabody Institute at Baltimore; and the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis.

Revenue

The state's revenue is derived from a general direct property tax, a licence tax, corporation taxes, a collateral inheritance tax, fines, forfeitures and fees; and the penitentiary yields an annual net revenue of about $40,000. There is no provision for a general periodic assessment, but a state tax commissioner appointed by the governor, treasurer and comptroller assesses the corporations, and the county commissioners (in the counties) and the appeal tax court (in the city of Baltimore) revise valuations of real property every two years. From 1820 to 1836 Maryland, in its enthusiasm over internal improvements, incurred an indebtedness of more than $16,000,000. To meet the interest, such heavy taxes were levied that anti-tax associations were formed to resist the collection, and in 1842 the state failed to pay what was due; but the accumulated interest had been funded by 1848 and was paid soon afterwards, the expenses of the government were curtailed by the constitution of 1851, and after the Civil War the amount of indebtedness steadily decreased until in 1902 the funded debt was $6,909,326 and the net debt only $2,797,269.13, while on the 1st of October 1908 the net debt was $366,643.91. As a result of incurring the large debt, a clause in the constitution prohibits the legislature from contracting a debt without providing by the imposition of taxes for the payment of the interest annually and the principal within fifteen years, except to meet a temporary deficiency not exceeding $50,000. The first bank of the state was established in 1790, and by 1817 there was one in each of twelve counties and several in Baltimore; in1818-1820and in1837-1839there were several serious bank failures, but there have been no serious failures since. A constitutional provision makes each stockholder in a state bank liable to the amount of his share or shares for all the bank's debts and liabilities. A savings bank is taxed on its deposits, and a state bank is taxed on its capital-stock.

History

The history of Maryland begins in 1632 with the procedure of Charles I. to grant a charter conveying almost unlimited territorial and governmental rights therein to George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore (1580?-1632), and styling him its absolute lord and proprietor. George Calvert died before the charter had passed the great seal, but about two months later in the same year it was issued to his eldest son, Cecilius. In November 1633 two vessels, the " Ark " and the " Dove," carrying at least two hundred colonists under Leonard Calvert (c. 1582-1647), a brother of the proprietor, as governor, sailed from Gravesend and arrived in Maryland late in March of the following year. Friendly relations were at the outset established with the Indians, and the province never had much trouble with that race; but with William Claiborne (1589?-1676?), the arch-enemy of the province as long as he lived, it was otherwise. He had opposed the grant of the Maryland charter, had established a trading post on Kent Island in Chesapeake Bay in 1631, and when commanded to submit to the new government he and his followers offered armed resistance. A little later, during his temporary absence in England, his followers on the island were reduced to submission; but in 1644, while the Civil War in England was in progress, he was back in the province assisting Richard Ingle, a pirate who claimed to be acting in the interest of parliament, in raising an insurrection which deprived Governor Calvert of his office for about a year and a half. Finally, the lord proprietor was deprived of his government from 1654 to 1658 in obedience to instructions from parliament which were originally intended to affect only Virginia, but were so modified, through the influence of Claiborne and some Puritan exiles from Virginia who had settled in Maryland, as to apply also to " the plantations within Chesapeake Bay." Then the long continued unrest both in the mother country and in the province seems to have encouraged Josias Fendall, the proprietor's own appointee as governor, to strike a blow against the proprietary government and attempt to set up a commonwealth in its place; but this revolt was easily suppressed and order was generally preserved in the province from the English Restoration of 1660 to the English Revolution of 1688.

Meanwhile an interesting internal development had been in progress. The proprietor was a Roman Catholic and probably it was his intention that Maryland should be an asylum for persecuted Roman Catholics, but it is even more clear that he was desirous of having Protestant colonists also. To this end he promised religious toleration from the beginning and directed his officers accordingly; this led to the famous toleration act passed by the assembly in 1649, which, however, extended its protection only to sects of Trinitarian Christianity. Again, although the charter reserved to the proprietor the right of calling an assembly of the freemen or their delegates at such times and in such form and manner as he should choose, he surrendered in 1638 his claim to the sole right of initiating legislation. By 1650 the assembly had been divided into two houses, in one of which sat only the representatives of the freemen without whose consent no bill could become a law, and annual sessions as well as triennial elections were coming to be the usual order. When suffrage had thus come to be a thing really worth possessing, the proprietor, in 1670, sought to check the opposition by disfranchising all freemen who did not have a freehold of fifty acres or a visible estate of forty pounds sterling. But this step was followed by more and more impassioned complaints against him, such as: that he was interfering with elections, that he was summoning only a part of the delegates elected, that he was seeking to overawe those summoned, that he was abusing his veto power, and that he was keeping the government in the hands of Roman Catholics, who were mostly members of his own family. About this time also the north and east boundaries of the province were beginning to suffer from the aggressions of William Penn. The territory now forming the state of Delaware was within the boundaries defined by the Maryland charter, but in 1682 it was transferred by the duke of York to William Penn and in 1685 Lord Baltimore's claim to it was denied by an order in council, on the ground that it had been inhabited by Christians before the Maryland charter was granted. In the next place, although it was clear from the words of the charter that the parallel of 40° N. was intended for its north boundary, and although Penn's charter prescribed that Pennsylvania should extend on the south to the " beginning of the fortieth degree of Northern Latitude," a controversy arose with regard to the boundary between the two provinces, and there was a long period of litigation; in 1763-1767 Charles Mason and` Jeremiah Dixon, two English mathematicians, established the line named from them (see Mason And Dixon Line), which runs along the parallel 39° 43' 26" 3 N. and later became famous as the dividing line between the free states and the slave states. While the proprietor was absent defending his claims against Penn the English Revolution of 1688 was started. Owing to the death of a messenger there was long delay in proclaiming the new monarchs in Maryland; this delay, together with a rumor of a Popish plot to slaughter the Protestants, enabled the opposition to overthrow the proprietary government, and then the crown, in the interest of its trade policy, set up a royal government in its place, in 1692, without, however, divesting the proprietor of his territorial rights. Under the royal government the Church of England was established, the people acquired a strong control of their branch of the legislature and they were governed more by statute law and less by executive ordinance. The proprietor having become a Protestant, the proprietary government was restored in 1715. Roman Catholics were disfranchised immediately afterward. In 1730 Germans began to settle in considerable numbers in the west-central part of the colony, where they greatly promoted its industrial development but at the same time added much strength to the opposition. The first great dispute between proprietor and people after the restoration of 1715 was with regard to the extension of the English statutes to Maryland, the popular branch of the legislature vigorously contending that all such statutes except those expressly excluded extended to the province, and the lord proprietor contending that only those in which the dominions were expressly mentioned were in force there. Many other disputes speedily followed and when the final struggle between the English and French for possession in America came, although appropriations were made at its beginning to protect her own west frontier from the attacks of the enemy, a dead-lock between the two branches of the assembly prevented Maryland from responding to repeated appeals from the mother country for aid in the latter part of that struggle. This failure was used as an argument in favour of imposing the famous Stamp Act. Nevertheless, popular clamour against parliament on account of that measure was even greater than it had been against the proprietor. The stamp distributor was driven out, and the arguments of Daniel Dulany (1721-1797), the ablest lawyer in the province, against the act were quoted by speakers in parliament for its repeal.

In the years immediately preceding the Declaration of Independence Maryland pursued much the same course as did other leading colonies in the struggle - a vessel with tea on board was even burned to the water's edge - and yet when it came to the decisive act of declaring independence there was hesitation. As the contest against the proprietor had been nearly won, the majority of the best citizens desired the continuance of the old government and it was not until the Maryland delegates in the Continental Congress were found almost alone in holding back that their instructions not to vote for independence were rescinded. The new constitution drawn and adopted in 1776 to take the place of the charter was of an aristocratic rather than a democratic nature. Under it the property qualification for suffrage was a freehold of 50 acres or £30 current money, the property qualifications for delegates £500, for senators £loo°, and for governor £5000. Four delegates were chosen from each county and two each from Baltimore and Annapolis, the same as under the proprietary government, population not being taken into account. Senators were chosen by a college of fifteen electors elected in the same manner as the delegates, and the governor by a joint ballot of the two houses of assembly. In 1802 negroes were disfranchised, and in 1810 property qualifications for suffrage and office were abolished. The system of representation that, with the rapid growth of population in the north-east sections, especially in the city of Baltimore, placed the government in the hands of a decreasing minority also began to be attacked about this time; but the fear of that minority which represented the tobacco-raising and slave-holding counties of south Maryland, with respect to the attitude of the majority toward slavery prevented any changes until 1837, when the opposition awakened by the enthusiasm over internal improvements effected the adoption of amendments which provided for the election of the governor and senators by a direct vote of the people, a slight increase in the representation of the city of Baltimore and the larger counties, and a slight decrease in that of the smaller counties. Scarcely had these amendments been carried when the serious financial straits brought on by debt incurred through the state's promotion of internal improvements gave rise to the demand for a reduction of governmental expenses and a limitation of the power of the General Assembly to contract debts. The result was the new constitution of 1851, which fully established representation in the counties on the basis of population and further increased that of Baltimore. The constitution of 1851 was however chiefly a patchwork of compromises. So, when during the Civil War Maryland was largely under Federal control and the demand arose for the abolition of slavery by the state, another constitutional convention was called, in 1864, which framed a constitution providing that those who had given aid to the Rebellion should be disfranchised and that only those qualified for suffrage in accordance with the new document could vote on its adoption. This was too revolutionary to stand long and in 1867 it was superseded by the present constitution. In national affairs Maryland early took a stand of perhaps farreaching consequences in refusing to sign the Articles of Confederation (which required the assent of all the states before coming into effect), after all the other states had done so (in 1779), until those states claiming territory between the Alleghany Mountains and the Mississippi and north of the Ohio - Virginia, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut - should have surrendered such claims. As those states finally yielded, the Union was strengthened by reason of a greater equality and consequently less jealousy among the original states, and the United States came into possession of the first territory in which all the states had a common interest and out of which new states were to be created. In the War of 1812 Frederick, Havre de Grace, and Frenchtown were burned by the British; but particularly noteworthy were the unsuccessful movements of the enemy by land and by sea against Baltimore, in which General Robert Ross (c. 1766-1814), the British commander of the land force, was killed before anything had been accomplished and the failure of the fleet to take Fort McHenry after a siege of a day and a night inspired the song The Star-spangled Banner, composed by Francis Scott Key who had gone under a flag of truce to secure from General Ross the release of a friend held as a prisoner by the British and during the attack was detained on his vessel within the British lines. In 1861 Maryland as a whole was opposed to secession but also opposed to coercing the seceded states. During the war that followed the west section was generally loyal to the north while the south section favoured the Confederacy and furnished many soldiers for its army; but most of the state was kept under Federal control, the writ of habeas corpus being suspended. The only battle of much importance fought on Maryland soil during the war was that of Sharpsburg or Antietam on the 16th and 17th of September 1862. As between political parties the state has usually been quite equally divided. From 1820 to 1860, however, the Whigs were in general a trifle the stronger; and from 1866 to 1895 the Democrats were triumphant; in 1895 a Republican governor was elected; in 1896 Maryland gave McKinley 3 2, 23 2 votes more than it gave Bryan; and in 1904 seven Democratic electors and one Republican were chosen; and in 1908 five Democratic and three Republican.

The proprietors of Maryland were: Cecilius Calvert, second Lord Baltimore (1605[?]-1675) from 1632 to 1675; Charles Calvert, third Lord Baltimore (1629-1715) from 1675 to 1715; Benedict Leonard Calvert, fourth Lord Baltimore (1684?-1715) 1715; Charles Calvert, fifth Lord Baltimore (1699-1751) from 1715 to 1751; Frederick Calvert, sixth and last Lord Baltimore (1731-1771) from 1751 to 1771; Henry Harford, from 1771 to 1776.

Governors of Maryland. Proprietary. Leonard Calvert .

Richard Ingle (usurper) .

Edward Hill (chosen by the council) .

Leonard Calvert Thomas Greene William Stone. Richard Bennett Edmund Curtis William Claiborne William Stone. .

William Fuller and others (appointed by the commissioners of parliament) .

Josias Fendall .

Philip Calvert .

Charles Calvert .

Charles Calvert, third Lord Baltimore. Cecilius Calvert (titular) and Jesse Wharton (real) . .

Thomas Notley. Charles Calvert, third Lord Baltimore Benedict Leonard Calvert (titular) and council (real). William Joseph (president of the council).. Protestant Associators under John Coode .

Sir Lionel Copley .

Sir Edmund Andros

Francis Nicholson .

Nathaniel Blackistone .

Thomas Tench (president of the council)

1692-1693

1693-1694

1694-1699

1699-1702

1702-1704

John Seymour .

1704-1709

Edward Lloyd (president of the council)

1709-1714

John Hart .

1714-1715

John Hart .

1715-1720

Charles Calvert .

1720-1727

Benedict Leonard Calvert

1727-1731

Samuel Ogle. .

1731-1732

Charles Calvert, fifth Lord Baltimore

1732-1733

Samuel Ogle .

1733-1742

Thomas Bladen

1742-1747

Samuel Ogle .

1747-1752

Benjamin Tasker (president of the council)

1752-1753

Horatio Sharpe .

1752-1769

Robert Eden. .

1769-1774

Robert Eden (nominal) and Convention and Council

of Safety (real)

1774-1776

Thomas Johnson

177

-1779

Thomas Sim Lee

177

-1782

William Paca. .

178

-1785

William Smallwood

178

-1788

John Eager Howard

178

-1791

George Plater 1..

179

-1792

Royal. State 1 Died in office.

(commissioners of parliament)

163 31 645 1645 1646-1646-16471647-1649-1649-165216521652-1654-1654-16581658-1660-1660-16611661-1675-1675-1676 1676-1676-16791679-1684-1684-16881688-1689-1689-1692James Brice (acting) .

Thomas Sim Lee. John H. Stone .

John Henry. Benjamin Ogle John Francis Mercer Robert Bowie. .

Robert Wright' .

J ames Butcher (acting) .

Edward Lloyd.. Robert Bowie.. Levin Winder .

Charles Ridgely. Charles Goldsborough .

Samuel Sprigg.. Samuel Stevens, jun.

Joseph Kent .

Daniel Martin. Thomas King Carroll .

Daniel Martin. George Howard (acting) .

George Howard .

James Thomas. Thomas W. Veazey William Grason .

Francis Thomas .

Thomas G. Pratt. Philip Francis Thomas .

Enoch Louis Lowe.. Thomas Watkins Ligon. Thomas Holliday Hicks .

Augustus W. Bradford. Thomas Swann .

Oden Bowie. William Pinkney Whyte2 James Black Groome. John Lee Carroll .

William T. Hamilton Robert M. McLane. Henry Lloyd. Elihu E. Jackson Frank Brown. .

Lloyd Lowndes. John Walter Smith Edwin Warfield. Austin L. Crothers .

Bibliography. - Publications of the Maryland Geological Survey (Baltimore, 1897); Maryland Weather Service Climatology and Physical Features, biennial reports (Baltimore,1892-); United States Census; Reports of the U.S. Fish Commissioner and Bureau of Fisheries (Washington, 1871); State Department, Maryland Manual, a Compendium of Legal, Historical and Statistical Information (Baltimore, 1900-); B.C. Steiner, Citizenship and Suf f rage in Maryland (Baltimore, 1895), an historical review of the subject; J. W. Harry, The Mar y land Constitution of 1851, Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science (Baltimore, 1902), contains an account of the agitation from 1835 to 1850 for constitutional reform; B. C. Steiner, History of Education in Maryland, Circulars of Information of the United States Bureau of Education (Washington, 1894), a general historical survey of the common schools, public and private, and a particular account of each college, university and professional school; A. D. Mayo, The Final Establishment of the American School System in West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia and Delaware, Report of the Commissioner of Education (Washington, 1905) contains an interesting account of the development of the public school system of the state from 1864 to 1900; F. S. Adams, Taxation in Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Studies (Baltimore, 1900), an historical account of the sources of the state's revenue and administration of its taxing system; A. V. Bryan, History of State Banking in Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Studies (Baltimore, 1899), a careful study of the state's experience with banks from 1790 to 1864; J. L. Bozman, History of Maryland from 1633 to 1660 (Baltimore, 1837), a compilation of much of the more important material relating to the early history of the province; J. V. L. McMahon, An Historical View of the Government of Maryland from its Colonization to the Present Day (Baltimore, 1833), an able treatment of the subject by a learned jurist; J. T. Scharf, History of Maryland (Baltimore, 1879), the most extensive general history of the state, but it contains numerous errors and the arrangement is poor; W. H. Browne, Maryland: the History of a Palatinate (Boston, 188 4 and 1895), an excellent outline of the colonial history; N. D. Mereness, Maryland as a Proprietary Province (New York, 1901), a constitutional history of the province in the light of its industrial and social development, contains a bibliography; and Bernard 1 Resigned on the 6th of May 1808.

2 Resigned in 1874 to become (March 4, 1875) U.S. senator from Maryland.

C. Steiner, Maryland during the English Civil War (2 vols., Baltimore, 1906-190.7), one of the Johns Hopkins University Studies. (N. D. M.)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Map of US highlighting Maryland

Etymology

From Mary + land.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Maryland

Plural
-

Maryland

  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital: Annapolis.

Derived terms

Translations

See also


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Maryland
Flag of Maryland State seal of Maryland
Flag of Maryland SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Old Line State; Free State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Fatti maschii
(Manly deeds, womanly words)
Map of the United States with Maryland highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif None (English, de facto)
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Annapolis
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Baltimore
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 42ndImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 12,407 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(32,133 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 101 miles (145 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 249 miles (400 km)
 - % water 21
 - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N
 - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 19thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 5,600,388
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 541.9/sq mi 
209.2/km² (5th)
 - Median incomeImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  $56,763 (3rd)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Hoye Crest[1]
3,360 ft  (1,024 m)
 - Mean 344 ft  (105 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[1]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  April 28, 1788 (7th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Martin O'Malley (D)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Barbara Mikulski (D)
Ben Cardin (D)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zoneImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations MDImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-MDImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.maryland.gov

Maryland (IPA: /ˈmɛrələnd/) is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States of America. It is comparable in size to the European country of Belgium. According to the most recent information provided by the U.S. Census Bureau, as of August 2007, Maryland is now the wealthiest state in the United States, with a median household income of $65,144, ahead of New Jersey which had previously held that title.[2]

It was the seventh state to ratify the United States Constitution and bears two nicknames, the Old Line State and the Free State. Its history as a border state has led it to exhibit characteristics of both the Northern and Southern regions of the United States. As a general rule, the rural areas of Maryland, such as Western, Southern, and Eastern Maryland, are more Southern in culture, while densely-populated Central Maryland — areas in the Baltimore and the Washington Beltway Regions — exhibit more Northern characteristics.

Maryland is a life sciences hub with over 350 biotechnology firms, making it the third-largest such cluster in the nation.[3] Institutions and agencies located throughout Maryland include University System of Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Contents

Geography

Physical geography

See also: List of islands in Maryland and List of rivers in Maryland

Maryland possesses a great variety of topography, hence its nickname, "America in Miniature."[4] It ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with water snakes and large bald cypress near the bay, to gently rolling hills of oak forest in the Piedmont Region, and mountain pine groves in the west.

Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay, largest freshwater estuary in the world and the largest physical feature in Maryland.

Maryland is bounded on the north by Pennsylvania, on the west by West Virginia, on the east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, and on the south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia. The mid-portion of this border is interrupted on the Maryland side by Washington, which sits on land originally part of Maryland. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state, and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exception of a portion of Garrett County drained by the Youghiogheny River, as part of the watershed of the Mississippi River, the eastern half of Worcester County, which drains into Maryland's Atlantic Coastal Bays, and a small portion of the state's northeast corner which drains into the Delaware River watershed. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State," a name currently used by Massachusetts.

The highest point in Maryland is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, which is in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the border with West Virginia and near the headwaters of the North Branch of the Potomac River. Maryland's only ski area, Wisp, is located close to Backbone Mountain. In western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state, is a point at which the state is only about 1-mile (2 km) wide. This geographical curiosity, which makes Maryland the narrowest state, is located near the small town of Hancock, and results from Maryland's northern and southern boundaries being marked by the Mason-Dixon Line and the north-arching Potomac River, respectively.

Portions of Maryland are included in a number of official and unofficial geographic regions. For example, the Delmarva Peninsula comprises the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland, the entire state of Delaware, and the two counties that make up the Eastern Shore of Virginia, and the westernmost counties of Maryland are considered part of Appalachia. Much of the Baltimore-Washington corridor lies in the rolling hills of the Appalachian Piedmont.

A quirk of Maryland's geography is that the state contains no natural lakes.[5] During the last Ice Age, glaciers did not reach as far south as Maryland, and therefore did not carve out deep natural lakes as exist in northern states. There are numerous man-made lakes, the largest being Deep Creek Lake, a reservoir in Garrett County. The lack of glacial history also accounts for Maryland's soil, which is more sandy and muddy than the rocky soils of New England

Human geography

Maryland counties
See also: List of counties in Maryland, List of incorporated places in Maryland, and List of census-designated places in Maryland

The majority of Maryland's population is concentrated in the cities and suburbs surrounding Washington and Maryland's most populous city, Baltimore. Historically, these cities and many others in Maryland developed along the fall line, the point at which rivers are no longer navigable from sea level due to the presence of rapids or waterfalls. Maryland's capital, Annapolis, is one exception to this rule, lying along the Severn River close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. Other major population centers include suburban hubs Columbia in Howard County, Silver Spring, Rockville and Gaithersburg in Montgomery County, Frederick in Frederick County and Hagerstown in Washington County. The eastern, southern, and western portions of the state tend to be more rural, although they are dotted with cities of regional importance such as Salisbury and Ocean City on the eastern shore, Waldorf and La Plata in southern Maryland, and Cumberland in Western Maryland.

Climate

Maryland has wide array of climates for a state of its size. It depends on numerous variables, such as proximity to water, elevation, and protection from northern weather due to downslope winds.

The eastern half of Maryland lies on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, with very flat topography and very sandy or muddy soil. This region has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with hot, humid summers and a short, mild to cool winter. This region includes the cities of Salisbury, Annapolis, Ocean City, and southern and eastern greater Baltimore.

Sunset over a marsh at Cardinal Cove, on the Patuxent River.

Beyond this region lies the Piedmont which lies in the transition between the humid subtropical climate zone and the humid continental climate zone (Köppen Dfa), with hot, humid summers and moderately cold winters where significant snowfall and significant subfreezing temperatures are an annual occurrence. This region includes Frederick, Hagerstown, Westminster, Gaithersburg and northern and western greater Baltimore.

Extreme western Maryland, in the higher elevations of Allegany County and Garrett County lie completely in the Humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa) due to elevation (more typical of inland New England and the Midwestern U.S.) with milder summers and cold, snowy winters. Some parts of extreme western Maryland possess the cool summer Humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb), with summer average temperatures below 71°F.[6]

Precipitation in the state is very generous, as it is on most of the East Coast. Annual rainfall ranges from 40-45 inches (1000-1150 mm) in virtually every part of the state, falling very evenly. Nearly every part of Maryland receives 3.5-4.5 inches (95-110 mm) per month of precipitation. Snowfall varies from 9 inches (23 cm) in the coastal areas to over 100 inches (250 cm) a winter in the western mountains of the state.[7]


Because of its location near the Atlantic Coast, Maryland is somewhat vulnerable to tropical cyclones, although the Delmarva Peninsula, and the outer banks of North Carolina to the south provide a large buffer, such that a strike from a major hurricane (category 3 or above) is not very likely. More often, Maryland might get the remnants of a tropical system which has already come ashore which dumps a huge amount of rain. Maryland averages around 30-40 days of thunderstorms a year, and averages around 6 tornado strikes annually.[8]

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Maryland cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Hagerstown 38/21 42/23 52/31 63/41 74/51 82/60 86/64 84/62 77/55 66/43 54/35 43/27
Frederick 41/25 46/27 56/35 67/44 77/54 85/62 89/67 87/66 80/59 68/47 57/38 46/30
Baltimore 44/29 47/31 57/39 68/48 77/58 86/68 91/73 88/71 81/64 70/52 59/42 49/33
Ocean City 44/28 46/30 53/35 61/44 70/53 79/62 84/67 83/67 78/62 68/51 58/41 49/32
[2]

Flora and fauna

The 2003 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map for the state of Maryland

As is typical of states on the East Coast, Maryland's plant life is abundant and healthy. A good dose of annual precipitation helps to support many types of plants, including seagrass and various reeds at the smaller end of the spectrum to the gigantic Wye Oak, a huge example of White oak, the state tree, which can grow in excess of 70 feet (20 m) tall. Maryland also possesses an abundance of pines and maples among its endemic tree life. Many foreign species are cultivated in the state, some as ornamentals, others as novelty species. Included among these are the Crape Myrtle, Italian Cypress, live oak in the warmer parts of the state, and even hardy palm trees in the warmer central and eastern parts of the state. USDA plant hardiness zones in the state range from Zone 5 in the extreme western part of the state to 6 and 7 in the central part, and Zone 8 around the southern part of the coast, the bay area, and most of metropolitan Baltimore. Large areas of Maryland have problems with kudzu, an invasive plant species that chokes out growth of endemic plant life.

The state harbors a great number of deer, particularly in the woody and mountainous west of the state, and overpopulation can become a problem from year-to-year. The Chesapeake Bay provides the state with its huge cash crop of blue crabs, and the southern and eastern portion of Maryland is warm enough to support a tobacco cash crop.

Lawns in Maryland carry a variety of species, mostly due to its location in the Transition Zone for lawngrasses. The western part of the state is cold enough to support Kentucky Bluegrass, and Fine Fescues, which are widespread from the foothills west. The area around the Chesapeake Bay is usually turfed with transition species such as Zoysia, Tall fescue, and Bermudagrass. St. Augustine grass can be grown in the parts of the state that are in Zone 8.

History

Main article: History of Maryland
See also: Annapolis Convention
Cecil Calvert, 1st Proprietor of the Maryland colony.

In 1629, George Calvert in the Irish House of Lords, fresh from his failure further north with Newfoundland's Avalon colony, applied to Charles I for a new royal charter for what was to become the Province of Maryland. Calvert's interest in creating a colony derived from his Catholicism and his desire for the creation of a haven for Catholics in the new world. In addition, he was familiar with the fortunes that had been made in tobacco in Virginia, and hoped to recoup some of the financial losses he had sustained in his earlier colonial venture in Newfoundland. George Calvert died in April 1632, but a charter for "Maryland Colony" (in Latin, "Terra Maria") was granted to his son, Cæcilius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, on June 20, 1632. The new colony was named in honor of Henrietta Maria, Queen Consort of Charles I.[9]

To try to gain settlers, Maryland used what is known as the headright system, which originated in Jamestown.

On March 25, 1634, Lord Baltimore sent the first settlers into this area. Although most of the settlers were Protestants, Maryland soon became one of the few regions in the British Empire where Catholics held the highest positions of political authority. Maryland was also one of the key destinations of tens of thousands of British convicts. The Maryland Toleration Act of 1649 was one of the first laws that explicitly dictated religious tolerance, although toleration was limited to Trinitarian Christians.

The royal charter granted Maryland the Potomac River and territory northward to the fortieth parallel. This proved a problem, because the northern boundary would put Philadelphia, the major city in Pennsylvania, partially within Maryland, resulting in conflict between the Calvert family, which controlled Maryland, and the Penn family, which controlled Pennsylvania. This led to the Cresap's War (also known as the Conojocular War), a border conflict between Pennsylvania and Maryland, fought in the 1730s. Hostilities erupted in 1730 with a series of violent incidents prompted by disputes over property rights and law enforcement, and escalated through the first half of the decade, culminating in the deployment of military forces by Maryland in 1736 and by Pennsylvania in 1737. The armed phase of the conflict ended in May 1738 with the intervention of King George II, who compelled the negotiation of a cease-fire. A final settlement was not achieved until 1767, when the Mason-Dixon Line was recognized as the permanent boundary between the two colonies.

After Virginia made the practice of Anglicanism mandatory, a large number of Puritans migrated from Virginia to Maryland, and were given land for a settlement called Providence (now Annapolis). In 1650, the Puritans revolted against the proprietary government and set up a new government that outlawed both Catholicism and Anglicanism. In March 1654, the 2nd Lord Baltimore sent an army under the command of Governor William Stone to put down the revolt. His Roman Catholic army was decisively defeated by a Puritan army near Annapolis in what was to be known as the "Battle of the Severn".[10][11]

The Puritan revolt lasted until 1658. In that year the Calvert family regained control of the colony and re-enacted the Toleration Act. However, after England's "Glorious Revolution" of 1688, when William of Orange and his wife Mary came to the throne and firmly established the Protestant faith in England, Catholicism was again outlawed in Maryland, until after the American Revolutionary War. Many wealthy plantation owners built chapels on their land so they could practice their Catholicism in relative secrecy. During the persecution of Maryland Catholics by the Puritan revolutionary government, all of the original Catholic churches of southern Maryland were burned down.

St. Mary's City was the largest site of the original Maryland colony, and was the seat of the colonial government until 1708. St Mary's is now an archaeological site, with a small tourist center. In 1708, the seat of government was moved to Providence, which had been renamed Annapolis. The city was renamed in honor of Queen Anne in 1694.

An artist's rendering of the bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore, which inspired the composition of the Star Spangled Banner.

Maryland was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. On February 2, 1781, Maryland became the 13th state to approve the ratification of the Articles of Confederation which brought into being the United States as a united, sovereign and national state. It also became the seventh state admitted to the US after ratifying the new Constitution. The following year, in December of 1790, Maryland ceded land selected by President George Washington to the federal government for the creation of Washington. The land was provided from Montgomery and Prince George's Counties, as well as from Fairfax County and Alexandria in Virginia (though the lands from Virginia were later returned through retrocession). The land provided to Washington is actually "sitting" inside the state of Maryland (land that is now defunct in theory).

During the War of 1812, the British military attempted to capture the port of Baltimore, which was protected by Fort McHenry. It was during this bombardment that the Star Spangled Banner was written by Francis Scott Key.

Despite widespread support for the Confederate States of America among many wealthy landowners, who had a vested interest in slavery, Maryland did not secede from the Union during the American Civil War. This may be due in part to the temporary suspension of the Legislature by Governor Thomas Holliday Hicks and arrest of many of its fire eaters by President Abraham Lincoln prior to its reconvening. Many historians contend that the votes for secession would not have been there regardless of these actions. Of the 115,000 men who joined the militaries during the Civil War, 85,000, or 77%, joined the Union army. To help ensure Maryland's inclusion in the Union, President Lincoln suspended several civil liberties, including the writ of habeas corpus, an act deemed illegal by Maryland native Chief Justice Roger Taney. He ordered US troops to place artillery on Federal Hill to directly threaten the city of Baltimore. Lincoln also helped ensure the election of a new pro-union governor and legislature. President Lincoln even went so far as to jail certain pro-South members of the state legislature at Fort McHenry including the Mayor of Baltimore, George William Brown. Ironically, the grandson of Francis Scott Key was included in those jailed. The Constitutionality of these actions is still a source of controversy and debate. Because Maryland remained in the Union, it was exempted from the anti-slavery provisions of the Emancipation Proclamation (The Emancipation Proclamation only applied to states in rebellion). A constitutional convention was held during 1864 that culminated in the passage of a new state constitution on November 1 of that year. Article 24 of that document outlawed the practice of slavery. The right to vote was extended to non-white males in 1867.

Demographics

Maryland population distribution

As of 2006, Maryland has an estimated population of 5,615,727, which is an increase of 26,128, or 0.5%, from the prior year and an increase of 319,221, or 6.0%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 189,158 people (that is 464,251 births minus 275,093 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 116,713 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 129,730 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13,017 people.

In 2006, 645,744 were counted as foreign born, which represents mainly people from Latin America and Asia. About 4.0% are undocumented (illegal) immigrants.[12]

Most of the population of Maryland lives in the central region of the state, in the Baltimore Metropolitan Area and Washington Metropolitan Area, both of which are part of the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area. The Eastern Shore is less populous and more rural, as are the counties of western and southern Maryland.

The two counties of Western Maryland (Allegany, Garrett, are mountainous and sparsely populated, resembling West Virginia more than they do the rest of Maryland. Although the African American proportion is not as high as it was during the eighteenth century peak of tobacco plantation production (when it was 38%), Maryland still has the largest black population of any state outside of the Deep South. Maryland also has the second largest Korean American population, trailing only Texas. In fact, 1.7% are Korean, while as a whole, almost 6.0% are Asian.

The center of population of Maryland is located on the county line between Anne Arundel County and Howard County, in the unincorporated town of Jessup [3].

Race

The five largest reported ancestries in Maryland are German (15.7%), Irish (11.7%), English (9%), unspecified American (5.8%), and Italian (5.1%[4]).

African-Americans are concentrated in Baltimore City, Prince George's County, and the southern Eastern Shore. Most of the Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland are populated by Marylanders of British ancestry, with the Eastern Shore traditionally Methodist and the southern counties Catholic. Western and northern Maryland have large German-American populations. Italians and Poles are centered mostly in the large city of Baltimore. Jews are numerous throughout Montgomery County and in Pikesville northwest of Baltimore. Hispanics are numerous in Highlandtown, Hyattsville/Langley Park, Wheaton and Gaithersburg.

Maryland has one of the largest proportions of racial minorities in the country, trailing only the four minority-majority states.

{{US DemogTable|Maryland|03-24.csv|= | 66.99| 29.02| 0.76| 4.53| 0.12|= | 3.73| 0.51| 0.10| 0.06| 0.02|= | 65.29| 30.16| 0.76| 5.30| 0.13|= | 5.01| 0.61| 0.12| 0.09| 0.03|= | 3.06| 9.89| 5.73| 23.72| 16.27|= | 0.76| 9.57| 2.48| 23.38| 13.02|= | 42.16| 27.78| 27.26| 48.06| 32.49}}

Religion

Maryland was founded for the purpose of providing religious toleration of England's Catholic minority. Nevertheless, Parliament later reversed that policy and discouraged the practice of Catholicism in Maryland. Despite the founding intent of the colony, Catholics have never been in a majority in Maryland since early Colonial times. Nonetheless, it is the largest single denomination in Maryland. The present religious composition of the state is shown below:

Religions in Maryland

Christian

Other

Protestant 56% Roman Catholic 23% Jewish 4%
Baptist 18% Other Christian 3% Other Religions 1%
Methodist 11% Non-Religious 13%
Lutheran 6%
Other Protestant 21%

Despite the Protestant majority, Maryland has been prominent in US Catholic tradition, partially because it was intended by George Calvert as a haven for English Catholics. Baltimore was the location of the first Catholic bishop in the U.S. (1789), and Emmitsburg was the home and burial place of the first American-born citizen to be canonized, St. Elizabeth Ann Seton. Georgetown University, the first Catholic University, was founded in 1789 in what was then part of Maryland[13].

Economy

The reverse side of the Maryland quarter shows the dome of the State House in Annapolis.
See also: List of federal installations in Maryland and List of shopping malls in Maryland

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Maryland's gross state product in 2004 was US$228 billion.[14] According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2007 American Community Survey[15] released August 28, 2007 Maryland is currently the richest state in the country, with a median household income of $65,144 which puts it ahead of New Jersey and Connecticut, which are second and third respectively. Two of Maryland's counties, Howard and Montgomery, are the third and seventh wealthiest counties in the nation respectively. Also, the state's poverty rate of 7.8% is the lowest in the country.[16][17][18] Per capita personal income in 2006 was US$43,500, 5th in the nation. Average household income in 2002 was US$53,043, also 5th in the nation.[19]

Maryland's economic activity is strongly concentrated in the tertiary service sector, and this sector, in turn, is strongly influenced by location. One major service activity is transportation, centered around the Port of Baltimore and its related rail and trucking access. The port ranked 10th in the U.S. by tonnage in 2002 (Source: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, "Waterborn Commerce Statistics"). Although the port handles a wide variety of products, the most typical imports are raw materials and bulk commodities, such as iron ore, petroleum, sugar, and fertilizers, often distributed to the relatively close manufacturing centers of the inland Midwest via good overland transportation. The port also receives several different brands of imported motor vehicles.

A second service activity takes advantage of the close location of the center of government in Washington and emphasizes technical and administrative tasks for the defense/aerospace industry and bio-research laboratories, as well as staffing of satellite government headquarters in the suburban or exurban Baltimore/Washington area. In addition many educational and medical research institutions are located in the state. In fact, the various components of Johns Hopkins University and its medical research facilities are now the largest single employer in the Baltimore area. Altogether, white collar technical and administrative workers comprise 25% of Maryland's labor force, one of the highest state percentages in the country.

Maryland has a large food-production sector. A large component of this is commercial fishing, centered in Chesapeake Bay, but also including activity off the short Atlantic seacoast. The largest catches by species are the blue crab, oysters, striped bass, and menhaden. The Bay also has uncounted millions of overwintering waterfowl in its many wildlife refuges. While not, strictly speaking, a commercial food resource, the waterfowl support a tourism sector of sportsmen.

Agriculture is an important part of the state's economy.

Maryland has large areas of fertile agricultural land in its coastal and Piedmont zones, although this land use is being encroached upon by urbanization. Agriculture is oriented to dairying (especially in foothill and piedmont areas) for nearby large city milksheads plus specialty perishable horticulture crops, such as cucumbers, watermelons, sweet corn, tomatoes, muskmelons, squash, and peas (Source:USDA Crop Profiles). In addition, the southern counties of the western shoreline of Chesapeake Bay are warm enough to support a tobacco cash crop zone, which has existed since early Colonial times but declined greatly after a state government buyout in the 1990s. There is also a large automated chicken-farming sector in the state's southeastern part; Salisbury is home to Perdue Farms. Maryland's food-processing plants are the most significant type of manufacturing by value in the state.

Manufacturing, while large in dollar value, is highly diversified with no sub-sector contributing over 20% of the total. Typical forms of manufacturing include electronics, computer equipment, and chemicals. The once mighty primary metals sub-sector, which at one time included what was then the largest steel factory in the world at Sparrows Point, still exists, but is pressed with foreign competition, bankruptcies, and company mergers. During World War II the Glenn L. Martin Company (now part of Martin Marietta airplane factory near Essex employed some 40,000 people.

Mining other than construction materials is virtually limited to coal, which is located in the mountainous western part of the state. The brownstone quarries in the east, which gave Baltimore and Washington much of their characteristic architecture in the mid-1800s, were once a predominant natural resource. Historically, there used to be small gold-mining operations in Maryland, some surprisingly near Washington, but these no longer exist.

Maryland imposes 4 income tax brackets, ranging from 2% to 4.75% of personal income. The city of Baltimore and Maryland's 23 counties levy local "piggyback" income taxes at rates between 1.25% and 3.2% of Maryland taxable income. Local officials set the rates and the revenue is returned to the local governments quarterly. Maryland's state sales tax is 5%. All real property in Maryland is subject to the property tax. Generally, properties that are owned and used by religious, charitable, or educational organizations or property owned by the federal, state or local governments are exempt. Property tax rates vary widely. No restrictions or limitations on property taxes are imposed by the state, meaning cities and counties can set tax rates at the level they deem necessary to fund governmental services. These rates can increase, decrease or remain the same from year to year. If the proposed tax rate increases the total property tax revenues, the governing body must advertise that fact and hold a public hearing on the new tax rate. This is called the Constant Yield Tax Rate process.

Baltimore City is the eighth largest port in the nation, and was at the center of the February 2006 controversy over the Dubai Ports World deal because it was considered to be of such strategic importance. The state as a whole is heavily industrialized, with a booming economy and influential technology centers. Its computer industries are some of the most sophisticated in the United States, and the federal government has invested heavily in the area. Maryland is home to several large military bases and scores of high level government jobs.

Transportation

Roads

See also: List of Maryland state highways, List of minor Maryland state highways, and List of former Maryland state highways
The sign used to mark Maryland's state highways.

Maryland's Interstate highways include I-95, which enters the northeast portion of the state, goes through Baltimore, and becomes part of the eastern section of the Capital Beltway to the Woodrow Wilson Bridge. I-68 connects the western portions of the state to I-70 at the small town of Hancock. I-70 continues east to Baltimore, connecting Hagerstown and Frederick along the way. I-83 connects Baltimore to southern central Pennsylvania (Harrisburg and York). Maryland also has a portion of I-81 that runs through the state near Hagerstown. I-97, fully contained within Anne Arundel County and the shortest one- or two-digit Interstate highway outside of Hawaii, connects the Baltimore area to the Annapolis area.

There are also several auxiliary Interstate highways in Maryland. Among them are I-695, the McKeldin (Baltimore) Beltway, which encircles Baltimore; a portion of I-495, the Capital Beltway, which encircles Washington, D.C.; and the extremely wide I-270, which connects the Frederick area with the Washington area. The Capital Beltway is currently heavily congested; however, the ICC or Intercounty Connector, which may begin construction in 2007, could be the beginning of an outer, second beltway. Construction of the ICC was a major part of the campaign platform of former Governor Robert Ehrlich, who was in office from 2003 until 2007.

The Chesapeake Bay Bridge, which connects Maryland's Eastern and Western Shores, is the most popular route for tourists to reach the resort town of Ocean City.

Maryland also has a state highway system that contains routes numbered from 2 through 999, however most of the higher-numbered routes are either not signed or are relatively short. Major state highways include Routes 2 (Governor Ritchie Highway/Solomons Island Road), 4, 5, 32, 45 (York Road), 97 (Georgia Avenue), 100, 210 (Indian Head Highway), 295 (Baltimore-Washington Parkway), 355, and 404.

Airports

See also: List of airports in Maryland

Maryland's largest airport is Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (formerly known as Friendship Airport and recently renamed for former Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, who was born in Baltimore). The only other airports with commercial service are at Hagerstown and Salisbury. The Maryland suburbs of Washington, D.C., are also serviced by the other two airports in the region, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Dulles International Airport, both in Northern Virginia.

Trains

See also: List of Maryland railroads

Amtrak trains serve Baltimore's Penn Station, BWI Airport, New Carrollton, and Aberdeen along the Northeast Corridor. In addition, train service is provided to Rockville and Cumberland on the Amtrak Capitol Limited. MARC commuter trains, operated by the State's Transit Authority, connect nearby Washington, Frederick, Baltimore, and many towns between. The Washington Metro subway and bus system serve Montgomery County and Prince George's County. The Maryland Transit Administration's light rail and short subway system serve Baltimore City and adjacent suburbs.

Law and government

Main article: Government of Maryland

The Government of Maryland is conducted according to the state constitution. The Government of Maryland, like the other 49 state governments, has exclusive authority over matters that lie entirely within the state's borders, except as limited by the Constitution of the United States. Maryland is a republic; the United States guarantees her "republican form of government"[20] although there is considerable disagreement about the meaning of that phrase.

Power in Maryland is divided among three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. The Maryland General Assembly is composed of the Maryland House of Delegates and the Maryland Senate. Maryland's governor is unique in the United States as the office is vested with significant authority in budgeting. The legislature may not increase the governor's proposed budget expenditures. Unlike most other states, significant autonomy is granted to many of Maryland's counties.

Most of the business of government is conducted in Annapolis, the state capital. Virtually all state and county elections are held in even-numbered years not divisible by four, in which the President of the United States is not elected - this, as in other states, is intended to divide state and federal politics.

The judicial branch of state government consists of one united District Court of Maryland that sits in every county and Baltimore City, as well as 24 Circuit Courts sitting in each County and Baltimore City, the latter being courts of general jurisdiction for all civil disputes over $25,000.00, all equitable jurisdiction and major criminal proceedings. The intermediate appellate court is known as the "Court of Special Appeals" and the state supreme court is the "Court of Appeals". The appearance of the judges of the Maryland Court of Appeals is unique in that Maryland is the only state whose judges wear red robes.[21]

Politics

Since pre-Civil War times, Maryland politics has been largely controlled by the Democrats. Even as the politics of the Democratic party have shifted, over the last century, the views of the state have shifted with them. Blue-collar "Reagan Democrats" frequently vote Republican, but Maryland is nonetheless well-known for its loyalty to the Democratic Party, especially inside metropolitan areas. The state is dominated by the two urban/inner suburban regions of Baltimore and Washington, D.C. . In addition, many jobs are directly or indirectly dependent upon the federal government. As a result, Baltimore, Montgomery County and Prince George's County often decide statewide elections. This is balanced by lesser populated areas on the Eastern Shore, Western Maryland, and outer suburbs that tend to support Republicans, even though seven of nine Shore counties have Democratic-majority voter rolls.

Spiro Agnew, former Vice President of the United States and the highest-ranking political leader in Maryland's history.

Maryland has supported the Democratic nominee in the last four presidential elections, and by an average of 15.4%. In 1980, it was one of just six states to vote for Jimmy Carter. Maryland is often among the Democratic nominees' best states. In 1992, Bill Clinton fared better in Maryland than any other state except his home state of Arkansas. In 1996, Maryland was Clinton's 6th best, in 2000 Maryland ranked 4th for Gore and in 2004 John Kerry showed his 5th best performance in Maryland.

Both Maryland Senators and six of its eight Representatives in Congress are Democrats, and Democrats hold super-majorities in the state Senate and House of Delegates. The previous Governor, Robert Ehrlich, was the first Republican to be elected to that office in four decades, and after one term lost his seat to Baltimore Mayor Martin J. O'Malley, a Democrat.

U.S. Congressman Steny Hoyer (MD-5), a Democrat, is the Majority Leader for the 110th Congress of the House of Representatives. His district covers parts of Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, in addition to all of Charles, Calvert and St. Mary's counties in southern Maryland.[22]

John Kerry easily won the state's 10 electoral votes in 2004 by a margin of 13 percentage points with 55.9% of the vote. However, presidential election years are not deeply contested as national party resources are spent mostly in swing states.

The 2006 election cycle witnessed no significant change in this pattern of Democratic dominance, even though there were two major highly-contested races. After Democratic Senator Paul Sarbanes announced that he was retiring, Democratic Congressman Benjamin Cardin defeated Republican Lieutenant Governor Michael S. Steele, with 55% of the vote, against Steele's 44%. The governorship was also a point of interest, as Republican incumbent Robert Ehrlich was defeated by Democratic challenger Martin O'Malley, the Mayor of Baltimore, 53%-46%. Doug Duncan, another leading candidate for the Democratic slot, pulled out of the highly anticipated primary, announcing his withdrawal on June 22, 2006, citing clinical depression.

While Maryland is a Democratic party stronghold, perhaps its best known political figure is a Republican - former Governor Spiro Agnew, who served as United States Vice President under Richard Nixon. He was Vice President from 1969 to 1973, when he resigned in the aftermath of revelations that he had taken bribes while he was Governor of Maryland. In late 1973, a court found Agnew guilty of violating tax laws

The late Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall was raised in Baltimore, and during his time on the bench represented the liberal wing of the court that helped protect abortion on a federal level, and uphold laws eliminating racial discrimination in the public and private spheres.

Education

Primary and secondary education

Memorial Chapel at the University of Maryland, Maryland's largest university.
See also: List of school districts in Maryland and List of high schools in Maryland

Public primary and secondary education in Maryland is overseen by the Maryland State Department of Education. The highest educational official in the state is the State Superintendent of Schools, currently Dr. Nancy Grasmick, who is appointed by the State Board of Education to a four-year term of office. The Maryland General Assembly has given the Superintendent and State Board autonomy to make educationally-related decisions, limiting its own influence on the day to day functions of public education. Each county and county-equivalent in Maryland has a local Board of Education charged with running the public schools in that particular jurisdiction.

Maryland has a broad range of private primary and secondary schools. Many of these are affiliated with various religious sects, including parochial schools of the Catholic Church, Quaker schools, Seventh-day Adventist schools, and Jewish schools. In 2003, Maryland law was changed to allow for the creation of publicly funded charter schools, although the charter schools must be approved by their local Board of Education and are not exempt from state laws on education, including collective bargaining laws.

Colleges and universities

See also: List of colleges and universities in Maryland

The oldest college in Maryland, and the third oldest college in the United States, is St. John's College, founded in 1696 as King William's School. Maryland has 18 other private colleges and universities, the most prominent of which is Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876 with a grant from Baltimore entrepreneur Johns Hopkins.

The first and largest public university in the state is the University of Maryland, which was founded as the Maryland Agricultural College in 1856 and became a public land grant college in 1864. The majority of public universities in the state are affiliated with the University System of Maryland. Two state-funded institutions, Morgan State University and St. Mary's College, as well as two federally-funded institutions, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and the United States Naval Academy are not affiliated with the University System of Maryland.

Sports

See also: List of sports teams in Maryland

Due to the presence of two major metropolitan areas in the state, those surrounding Washington and Baltimore, Maryland has a number of major and minor professional sports franchises. Two teams of the National Football League play in Maryland, the Baltimore Ravens in Baltimore and the Washington Redskins in Prince George's County. The Baltimore Orioles are the Major League Baseball franchise in the state. The National Hockey League's Washington Capitals and the National Basketball Association's Washington Wizards used to play in Maryland until the construction of a new Washington-based arena in 1997. There are also a number of smaller sports franchises in the state, including five minor league baseball teams.

See also

   
Portal:Maryland
Maryland Portal

References

  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 6, 2006.
  2. ^ Christie, Les. "The richest (and poorest) places in the U.S.", CNN Money.com, [[2007-08-31|]]. Retrieved on 2007-10-15. 
  3. ^ Business in Maryland: Biosciences. Maryland Department of Business & Economic Development. Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
  4. ^ Explore our heritage: A little about Maryland - Maryland is America in Miniature. (2007). Annapolis and Anne Arundel County Conference and Visitors Bureau. Retrieved on September 5, 2007.
  5. ^ http://www.mgs.md.gov/esic/fs/fs15.html
  6. ^ Seasonality - InforMID. Tufts University Initiative for the Forecasting and Modeling of Infectious Diseases. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  7. ^ Snowfall Map
  8. ^ [1] NOAA National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on October 24, 2006.
  9. ^ http://www.mdarchives.state.md.us/msa/mdmanual/01glance/html/name.html
  10. ^ John Esten Cooke (1883). Virginia, a history of the people. Houghton, Mifflin, 208-216. 
  11. ^ History - Seventeenth Century through the Present. Anne Arundel County — Citizens Information Center (2003).
  12. ^ Turner Brinton, "Immigration Bill Could Impact Maryland," Capital News Service, 5 April 2006. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
  13. ^ It became a part of the District of Columbia when that city was created in the 1790's.
  14. ^ http://www.bea.gov/bea/newsrel/gspnewsrelease.htm
  15. ^ 2007 American Community Survey U.S. Census Bureau.
  16. ^ U.S. Poverty Rate Drops; Ranks of Uninsured Grow washingtonpost.com.
  17. ^ Maryland is ranked as richest state baltmioresun.com.
  18. ^ US Poverty Rate Declines Significantly FOXNews.com.
  19. ^ The State of Individual Giving in Maryland - 2005, The Association of Baltimore Area Grantmakers.
  20. ^ http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.articleiv.html#section4
  21. ^ http://www.lawlib.state.md.us/Scarlettext.doc]
  22. ^ [[U.S. House of Representatives|]]. Retrieved December 8, 2006 from http://hoyer.house.gov

Further reading

  • Robert J. Brugger. Maryland, A Middle Temperament: 1634-1980 (1996)
  • Suzanne Ellery Greene Chappelle, Jean H. Baker, Dean R. Esslinger, and Whitman H. Ridgeway. Maryland: A History of its People (1986)
  • Lawrence Denton. A Southern Star for Maryland (1995)

External links

All wikimedia projects
Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Maryland


Preceded by
Massachusetts
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on April 28, 1788 (7th)
Succeeded by
South Carolina

CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 39° N 76.7° W <span class="FA" id="genealogy_wikia_am" style="display:none;" />


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Simple English

State of Maryland
File:Flag of [[File:|100px|State seal of Maryland]]
Flag of Maryland Seal of Maryland
Also called: Old Line State; Free State
Saying(s): Fatti maschii, parole femine
(Manly deeds, womanly words)
Official language(s) None (English, de facto)
Capital Annapolis
Largest city Baltimore
Area  Ranked 42nd
 - Total 12,417 sq mi
(32,160 km²)
 - Width 90 miles (145 km)
 - Length 249 miles (400 km)
 - % water 21
 - Latitude 37°53'N to 39°43'N
 - Longitude 75°4'W to 79°33'W
Number of people  Ranked 19th
 - Total (2010) {{{2010Pop}}}
 - Density {{{2010DensityUS}}}/sq mi 
{{{2010Density}}}/km² (5th)
 - Average income  $56,763 (3rd)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Hoye Crest[1]
3,360 ft  (1,024 m)
 - Average 344 ft  (105 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[1]
0 ft  (0 m)
Became part of the U.S.  April 28, 1788 (7th)
Governor Martin O'Malley (D)
U.S. Senators Barbara Mikulski (D)
Ben Cardin (D)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations MD US-MD
Web site www.maryland.gov

Maryland is a state in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States of America. It is on the south east of the East Coast. Its capital is Annapolis, and its biggest city is Baltimore.

Its Governor is Martin O'Malley. He was elected in the 2006 election and re-elected in 2010. He used to be the mayor of Baltimore.

The state bird is the Baltimore Oriole, which is no longer found in Maryland. The state flower is the Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta). The state reptile is the diamondback terrapin. The state crustacean is the blue crab. The state motto is Fatti maschii, parole femine, which is Italian for "Manly deeds, womanly words". Maryland is the only state with a motto in Italian.

Maryland has many places important to the American Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, and the American Civil War. One of these places is Fort McHenry, which defended against the British Empire during the War of 1812. Another place is the Antietam National Battlefield, where the Battle of Antietam took place during the American Civil War.

Silver Spring, Bethesda, Gaithersburg, Rockville, Frederick, Hagerstown, Cumberland, Salisbury, Greenbelt are other cities.

References

frr:Maryland









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