Masturbate: Wikis


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Gustav Klimt's "A Young Woman Masturbating" (1916).
Self-portrait of Egon Schiele 1911, depicting masturbation.
Masturbation, 1911, copper engraving by Mihály Zichy.

Masturbation refers to sexual stimulation, especially of one's own genitals (self masturbation), often to the point of orgasm.[1] The stimulation can be performed manually, by other types of bodily contact (short of sexual intercourse), by use of objects or tools, or by some combination of these methods.[2] Masturbation is a common form of autoeroticism, and the two words are often used as synonyms, although masturbation with a partner (mutual masturbation) is also common. Animal masturbation has been observed in many species, both in the wild and in captivity.[3][4][5]

Contents

Etymology

The word masturbation is believed to derive from either the Greek word mezea (μεζεα, "penises") or the Latin manus ("hand") and the Latin turbare ("to disturb").[6] A competing etymology based on the Latin manu stuprare ("to defile with the hand") is said by the Oxford English Dictionary to be an "old conjecture".[7]

Techniques

Ways of masturbating common to members of both sexes include pressing or rubbing the genital area, either with the fingers or against an object such as a pillow; inserting fingers or an object into the anus (see anal masturbation); and stimulating the penis or vulva with electric vibrators, which may also be inserted into the vagina or anus. Members of both sexes may also enjoy touching, rubbing, or pinching the nipples or other erogenous zones while masturbating. Both sexes sometimes apply lubricating substances to intensify sensation.

Reading or viewing pornography, or sexual fantasy, are often common adjuncts to masturbation. Often people will call upon memories during masturbation. Masturbation activities are often ritualised. Various fetishes and paraphilias can also play a part in the masturbation ritual. Some potentially harmful or fatal activities include autoerotic asphyxiation and self-bondage.

Some people get sexual pleasure by inserting objects into the urethra (the tube through which urine and, in men, semen, flows).[8] If these objects are urethral sounds, the practice is known as "sounding".[9] Other objects such as ball point pens and thermometers are sometimes used, although this practice can lead to injury and/or infection.[10] Some people masturbate by using machines that simulate intercourse.

Men and women may masturbate until they are close to orgasm, stop for a while to reduce excitement, and then resume masturbating. They may repeat this cycle multiple times. This "stop and go" build-up can achieve even stronger orgasms.[11] Rarely, people quit stimulation just before orgasm to retain the heightened energy that normally comes down after orgasm[12]. Doing this could lead to temporary discomfort due to pelvic congestion.

Austrian psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich in his 1922 essay Concerning Specific Forms of Masturbation tried to identify healthy and unhealthy forms of masturbation. He tried to relate the way people masturbated to their degree of inclination towards the opposite sex and to their psycho-sexual pathologies.

Female

A woman masturbating.

Female masturbation techniques include a woman stroking or rubbing her vulva, especially her clitoris, with her index and/or middle fingers. Sometimes one or more fingers may be inserted into the vagina to repeatedly stroke its frontal wall where the g-spot is located.[13] Masturbation aids such as a vibrator, dildo or Ben Wa balls can also be used to stimulate the vagina and clitoris. Many women caress their breasts or stimulate a nipple with the free hand, if these are receptive areas for sexual stimulation. Anal stimulation is also enjoyed by some. Lubrication is sometimes used during masturbation, especially when penetration is involved, but this is not universal and many women find their natural lubrication sufficient.

Common positions include lying on back or face down, sitting, squatting, kneeling or standing. In a bath or shower a female may direct tap water at her clitoris and vulva. Lying face down one may use the hands, one may straddle a pillow, the corner or edge of the bed, a partner's leg or some scrunched-up clothing and "hump" the vulva and clitoris against it. Standing up a chair, the corner of an item of furniture or even a washing machine can be used to stimulate the clitoris through the labia and clothing. Some masturbate using only pressure applied to the clitoris without direct contact, for example by pressing the palm or ball of the hand against underwear or other clothing.

In the 1920s, Havelock Ellis reported that turn-of-the-century seamstresses using treadle-operated sewing machines could achieve orgasm by sitting near the edge of their chairs.[14]

Women can sexually stimulate themselves by crossing their legs tightly and clenching the muscles in their legs, creating pressure on the genitals. This can potentially be done in public without observers noticing. Thoughts, fantasies, and memories of previous instances of arousal and orgasm can produce sexual excitation. Some women can orgasm spontaneously by force of will alone, although this may not strictly qualify as masturbation as no physical stimulus is involved.[15][16]

Sex therapists will sometimes recommend that female patients take time to masturbate to orgasm, especially if they have not done so before.[17][18]

Male

An uncircumcised man masturbating, with the foreskin slid up and down over the glans head

Male masturbation techniques are influenced by a number of factors and personal preferences. Techniques may also differ between circumcised and uncircumcised males. Some techniques which may work for one individual can be difficult or uncomfortable for another person.

The most common male masturbation technique is simply to hold the penis with a loose fist and then to move the hand up and down the shaft. This type of stimulation is typically all that is required to achieve orgasm and ejaculation. The speed of the hand motion will vary from person to person, although it is not uncommon for the speed to increase as ejaculation nears and for it to decrease during the ejaculation itself.[19] When uncircumcised, stimulation of the penis in this way comes from the "pumping" of the foreskin, in which the foreskin is held and slid up and down over the glans head, which depending on foreskin length, is completely or partly covered, and then uncovered, in a rapid motion. During this time, the glans itself may widen and lengthen as the stimulation continues, becoming purplish in colour, while the rapid sliding motion of the foreskin over the glans reduces friction. For circumcised males, on whom the glans is mostly or completely uncovered, this technique creates more direct contact between the hand and the glans. To avoid soreness from this resulting friction, some males prefer to use a personal lubricant during masturbation.

Another technique used by both circumcised and uincircumcised males is to place just the index finger and thumb around the penis about halfway along the penis and repeatedly slide the shaft skin up and down. A variation on this is to place the fingers and thumb on the penis as if playing a flute, and then shuttle them back and forth.[19] Another common technique is to lie face down on a comfortable surface such as a mattress or pillow and rub the penis against it. This technique may include the use of a simulacrum, or artificial vagina.

Auto-fellatio.

There are many other variations on male masturbation techniques. Men may also rub or massage the glans, the rim of the glans, and the frenular delta. Some men place both hands directly on their penis during masturbation, while others use their free hand to fondle their testicles, nipples, or other parts of their body. Some may keep their hand stationary while pumping into it with pelvic thrusts in order to simulate the motions of sexual intercourse. Others may also use vibrators and other sexual devices more commonly associated with female masturbation. A few extremely flexible males can reach and stimulate their penis with their tongue or lips, and so perform autofellatio.

The prostate gland is one of the organs that contributes fluid to semen. As the prostate is touch-sensitive, some directly stimulate it using a well-lubricated finger or dildo inserted through the anus into the rectum. Stimulating the prostate from outside, via pressure on the perineum, can be pleasurable as well. Some men also enjoy anal stimulation, with fingers or otherwise, without any prostate stimulation.

A somewhat controversial ejaculation control technique is to put pressure on the perineum, about halfway between the scrotum and the anus, just before ejaculating. This can, however, redirect semen into the bladder (referred to as retrograde ejaculation).

Mutual masturbation

Mutual masturbation is a sexual act where two or more people stimulate themselves or one another sexually, usually with the hands.

It can be part of a full repertoire of sexual intercourse. It may be used as an interlude, foreplay, or as an alternative to penetration. For some people, non-penetrative sex or frottage is the primary sexual activity of choice above all others. Participants who do not want full sexual intercourse thus still enjoy mutual masturbation.

Mutual masturbation is practiced by people of all sexual orientations. When used as an alternative to penile-vaginal penetration, the goal may be to preserve virginity or to prevent pregnancy. Some people choose it as an alternative to casual sex because it results in sexual satisfaction without actual sex. For some people, masturbating with friends helps lift the stigma they feel surrounding the act. This helps them develop their orgasm, increase its pleasure, and inspires them to masturbate on a more frequent basis.[20]

Frequency, age, and sex

Frequency of masturbation is determined by many factors, e.g., one's resistance to sexual tension, hormone levels influencing sexual arousal, sexual habits, peer influences, health and one's attitude to masturbation formed by culture; E. Heiby and J. Becker examined the latter.[21] Medical causes have also been associated with masturbation.[22][23][24]

Different studies have found that masturbation is frequent in humans. Alfred Kinsey's 1950's studies on US population have shown that 92% of men and 62% of women have masturbated during their lifespan.[16] Similar results have been found in a 2007 British national probability survey. It was found that, between individuals aged 16 to 44, 95% of men and 71% of women masturbated at some point in their lives. 73% of men and 37% of women reported masturbating in the four weeks before their interview, while 53% of men and 18% of women reported masturbating in the previous seven days.[25]

In 2009, the U.K. Government joined Holland and other European nations in encouraging teens to masturbate at least daily. An orgasm was defined as a right in its health pamphlet. This was done in response to data and experience from the other EU member states to reduce teen pregnancy and STIs (STDs), and to promote healthy habits.[26]

In the book Human Sexuality: Diversity in Contemporary America, by Strong, Devault and Sayad, the authors point out, "A baby boy may laugh in his crib while playing with his erect penis (although he does not ejaculate). Baby girls sometimes move their bodies rhythmically, almost violently, appearing to experience orgasm." Italian gynecologists Giorgio Giorgi and Marco Siccardi observed via ultrasound a female fetus masturbate to orgasm.[27]

It appears that females are less likely to masturbate while in an active heterosexual relationship than men. Popular belief asserts that individuals of either sex who are not in sexually active relationships tend to masturbate more frequently than those who are; however, much of the time this is not true as masturbation alone or with a partner is often a feature of a relationship. Contrary to conventional wisdom, several studies actually reveal a positive correlation between the frequency of masturbation and the frequency of intercourse. One study reported a significantly higher rate of masturbation in gay men and women who were in a relationship.[25][28][29][30]

Evolutionary utility

Masturbation may increase fertility during intercourse. A 2009 Australian study found daily ejaculation to be an important factor in sperm health and motility.[31]

Female masturbation alters conditions in the vagina, cervix and uterus, in ways that can alter the chances of conception from intercourse, depending on the timing of the masturbation. A woman's orgasm between one minute before and up to 45 minutes after insemination favors the chances of that sperm reaching her egg. If, for example, she has had intercourse with more than one male, such an orgasm can increase the likelihood of a pregnancy by one of them.[32][33] Female masturbation can also provide protection against cervical infections by increasing the acidity of the cervical mucus and by moving debris out of the cervix.[33]

In males, masturbation flushes out old sperm with low motility from the male's genital tract. The next ejaculate then contains more fresh sperm, which have higher chances of achieving conception during intercourse. If more than one male has intercourse with a female, the sperm with the highest motility will compete more effectively.[34][35][36]

Health and psychological effects

Benefits

It is held in many mental health circles that masturbation can relieve depression and lead to a higher sense of self-esteem.[37] Masturbation can also be particularly useful in relationships where one partner wants more sex than the other – in which case masturbation provides a balancing effect and thus a more harmonious relationship.[38]

Mutual masturbation, the act by which two or more partners stimulate themselves in the presence of each other, allows a couple to reveal the "map to [their] pleasure centers". By watching a partner masturbate, one finds out the methods they use to please him- or herself, allowing each partner to learn exactly how the other enjoys being touched. Intercourse, by itself, is often inconvenient or impractical at times to provide sufficient sexual release for many people. Mutual masturbation allows couples to enjoy each other and obtain sexual release as often as they need but without the inconveniences and risks associated with sex.[38]

In 2003, an Australian research team led by Graham Giles of The Cancer Council Australia[39] found that males masturbating frequently had a lower probability to develop prostate cancer. Men who averaged five or more ejaculations weekly in their 20s had significantly lower risk. However they could not show a direct causation. The study also indicated that increased ejaculation through masturbation rather than intercourse would be more helpful as intercourse is associated with diseases (STDs) that may increase the risk of cancer instead. However, this benefit may be age related. A 2008 study concluded that frequent ejaculation between the ages of 20 and 40, may be correlated with higher risk of developing prostate cancer. On the other hand, frequent ejaculation in one's 50s was found to be correlated with a lower such risk in this same study.[40]

A study published in 1997 found an inverse association between death from coronary heart disease and frequency of orgasm even given the risk that myocardial ischaemia and myocardial infarction can be triggered by sexual activity.

The association between frequency of orgasm and all cause mortality was also examined using the midpoint of each response category recorded as number of orgasms per year. The age adjusted odds ratio for an increase of 100 orgasms per year was 0.64 (0.44 to 0.95).

That is, a difference in mortality appeared between any two subjects when one subject ejaculated at around two times per week more than the other. Assuming a broad range average of between 3 to 5 ejaculations per week for healthy males, this would mean 5 to 7 ejaculations per week. This is consistent with a 2003 Australia article on the benefits against prostate cancer. The strength of these correlations increased with increasing frequency of ejaculation.[41]

A 2008 study at Tabriz Medical University found ejaculation reduces swollen nasal blood vessels, freeing the airway for normal breathing. The mechanism is through stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and is long lasting. The study author suggests "It can be done [from] time-to-time to alleviate the congestion and the patient can adjust the number of intercourses or masturbations depending on the severity of the symptoms."[42]

Masturbation is also seen as a sexual technique that protects individuals from the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Support for such a view, and for making it part of the American sex education curriculum, led to the dismissal of US Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders during the Clinton administration. E.U. Nations include masturbation in their sex education and promote the practice. (see above)

Sexual climax, from masturbation or otherwise, leaves one in a relaxed and contented state. This is frequently followed closely by drowsiness and sleep – particularly when one masturbates in bed.

Some professionals consider masturbation to function as a cardiovascular workout.[43] Though research is still as yet scant, those suffering from cardiovascular disorders (particularly those recovering from myocardial infarction, or heart attacks) should resume physical activity (including sexual intercourse and masturbation) gradually and with the frequency and rigor which their physical status will allow. This limitation can serve as encouragement to follow through with physical therapy sessions to help improve endurance.

Blood pressure

Both sex and masturbation lower blood pressure. A small study has shown that in one test group, recent full intercourse resulted in the lowest average blood pressure in stressful situations. Masturbation then led to lower blood pressure than did no recent sexual activity.[44]

Pregnancy

Masturbation involving both a man and a woman (see mutual masturbation) can result in pregnancy only if semen contacts the vulva. Masturbation with a partner can also theoretically result in transmission of sexually transmitted diseases by contact with bodily fluids.

Male masturbation may be used as a method to obtain semen for third party reproductive procedures such as artificial insemination and IVF which may involve the use of either partner or donor sperm.

At a sperm bank or fertility clinic, a special room or cabin may be set aside so that semen may be produced by male masturbation for use in fertility treatments such as artificial insemination. Such a facility is known as a masturbatorium (US) or men's production room (UK). A bed or couch is usually provided for the man, and pornographic films or other material may be made available.

Problems for males

A man whose penis has suffered a blunt trauma, severe bend or other injury during intercourse or masturbation may, rarely, sustain a penile fracture[45][46][47] or suffer from Peyronie's disease.[48] Phimosis is "a contracted foreskin (that) may cause trouble by hurting when an attempt is made to pull the foreskin back".[49] In these cases, any energetic manipulation of the penis can be problematic.

Compulsive masturbation

There is no scientific evidence of any causative relationship between masturbation and any form of mental disorder. Excessive or compulsive sexual behavior is generally understood to be a symptom rather than a cause.[50][51]

Compulsive masturbation, as well as other compulsive behaviors, can be signs of an emotional problem. As such, that may need to be addressed by a mental health specialist. [52] As with any "nervous habit", it is more helpful to consider the causes of that compulsive behavior, rather than try to repress the masturbation.[53][54]

There is some discussion between professionals and other interested parties as to the existence of, and validity of the concept of, sexual addiction. Compulsive masturbation is regarded as one of the symptoms of sexual addiction by the proponents of that concept.[55][56]

In history and society

Masturbation was depicted in 19th century Shunga prints, such as this piece by Kunisada.
A satyr masturbating. Greek krater from 6th century BC

There are depictions of male masturbation in prehistoric rock paintings around the world. Most early people seem to have connected human sexuality with abundance in nature. A clay figurine of the 4th millennium BC from a temple site on the island of Malta, depicts a woman masturbating.[57] However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common.

From the earliest records, ancient Sumer had a relaxed attitude toward sex, and masturbation was a popular technique for enhancing potency, either alone or with a partner.[58][59]

Male masturbation became an even more important image in ancient Egypt: when performed by a god it could be considered a creative or magical act: the god Atum was believed to have created the universe by masturbating to ejaculation, and the ebb and flow of the Nile was attributed to the frequency of his ejaculations. Egyptian pharaohs, in response to this, were at one time required to masturbate ceremonially into the Nile.[60]

The ancient Greeks had a more relaxed attitude toward masturbation than the Egyptians did, regarding the act as a normal and healthy substitute for other forms of sexual pleasure. They considered it a safety valve against destructive sexual frustration. The Greeks also dealt with female masturbation in both their art and writings. One common term used for it was anaphlan, which roughly translates as "up-fire".

Diogenes, speaking in jest, credited the god Hermes with its invention: he allegedly took pity on his son Pan, who was pining for Echo but unable to seduce her, and taught him the trick of masturbation in order to relieve his suffering. Pan in his turn taught the habit to young shepherds.[61]

As late as the seventeenth century in Europe the practice was commonly employed by nannies to put their young male charges to sleep.[62] That tolerance was soon to change. The first use of the word "onanism" to consistently and specifically refer to masturbation appears to be Onania, an anonymous pamphlet first distributed in London in 1716. It drew on familiar themes of sin and vice, this time in particular against the "heinous sin" of "self-pollution". After dire warnings that those who so indulged would suffer impotence, gonorrhea, epilepsy and a wasting of the faculties (included were letters and testimonials supposedly from young men ill and dying from the effects of compulsive masturbation) the pamphlet then goes on to recommend as an effective remedy a "Strengthening Tincture" at 10 shillings a bottle and a "Prolific Powder" at 12 shillings a bag, available from a local shop.

A patented device designed to prevent masturbation by inflicting electric shocks upon the perpetrator, by ringing an alarm bell, and through spikes at the inner edge of the tube into which the penis is inserted. The entire patent document: Page 1, 2, 3, 4.

One of the many horrified by the descriptions of malady in Onania was the notable Swiss physician Samuel-Auguste Tissot. In 1760, he published L'Onanisme, his own comprehensive medical treatise on the purported ill-effects of masturbation. Citing case studies of young male masturbators amongst his patients in Lausanne, Switzerland as basis for his reasoning, Tissot argued that semen was an "essential oil" and "stimulus" that, when lost from the body in great amounts, would cause "a perceptible reduction of strength, of memory and even of reason; blurred vision, all the nervous disorders, all types of gout and rheumatism, weakening of the organs of generation, blood in the urine, disturbance of the appetite, headaches and a great number of other disorders."

Though Tissot's ideas are now considered conjectural at best, his treatise was presented as a scholarly, scientific work in a time when experimental physiology was practically nonexistent. The authority with which the work was subsequently treated – Tissot's arguments were even acknowledged and echoed by luminaries such as Kant and Voltaire – arguably turned the perception of masturbation in Western medicine over the next two centuries into that of a debilitating illness.

This continued well into the Victorian Era, where such medical censure of masturbation was in line with the widespread social conservatism and opposition to open sexual behavior common at the time.[63][64] There were recommendations to have boys' pants constructed so that the genitals could not be touched through the pockets, for schoolchildren to be seated at special desks to prevent their crossing their legs in class and for girls to be forbidden from riding horses and bicycles because the sensations these activities produce were considered too similar to masturbation. Boys and young men who nevertheless continued to indulge in the practice were branded as "weak-minded."[65] Many "remedies" were devised, including eating a bland, meatless diet. This approach was promoted by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (inventor of corn flakes) and Rev. Sylvester Graham (inventor of Graham crackers). The medical literature of the times describes procedures for electric shock treatment, infibulation, restraining devices like chastity belts and straitjackets, cauterization or – as a last resort – wholesale surgical excision of the genitals. Routine neonatal circumcision was widely adopted in the United States and the UK at least partly because of its believed preventive effect against masturbation (see also History of male circumcision). In later decades, the more drastic of these measures were increasingly replaced with psychological techniques, such as warnings that masturbation led to blindness, hairy hands or stunted growth. Some of these persist as myths even today.

Image of a chastity belt from a patent document. For entire document, see: Page 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

At the same time, the supposed medical condition of hysteria—from the Greek hystera or uterus—was being treated by what would now be described as medically administered or medically prescribed masturbation for women. Techniques included use of the earliest vibrators and rubbing the genitals with placebo creams.[66]

Medical attitudes toward masturbation began to change at the beginning of the 20th century when H. Havelock Ellis, in his seminal 1897 work Studies in the Psychology of Sex, questioned Tissot's premises, cheerfully named famous men of the era who masturbated and then set out to disprove (with the work of more recent physicians) each of the claimed diseases of which masturbation was purportedly the cause. "We reach the conclusion", he wrote, "that in the case of moderate masturbation in healthy, well-born individuals, no seriously pernicious results necessarily follow."

Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of The Scout Association, incorporated a passage in the 1914 edition of Scouting for Boys warning against the dangers of masturbation. This passage stated that the individual should run away from the temptation by performing physical activity which was supposed to tire the individual so that masturbation could not be performed. By 1930, however, Dr. F. W. W. Griffin, editor of The Scouter, had written in a book for Rover Scouts that the temptation to masturbate was "a quite natural stage of development" and, citing Ellis' work, held that "the effort to achieve complete abstinence was a very serious error."

The works of Sexologist Alfred Kinsey during the 1940s and 1950s insisted that masturbation was an instinctive behavior for both males and females, citing the results of Gallup Poll surveys indicating how common it was in the United States. Some critics of this theory held that his research was biased and that the Gallup Poll method was redundant for defining "natural behavior".

In 1994, when the Surgeon General of the United States, Dr. Joycelyn Elders, mentioned as an aside that it should be mentioned in school curricula that masturbation was safe and healthy, she was forced to resign,[67] with opponents asserting that she was promoting the teaching of how to masturbate. Many believe this was the result of her long history of promoting controversial viewpoints and not due solely to her public mention of masturbation.

Religious views

A temple relief at Khajuraho in Madhya Pradesh, India features a couple in a sexual embrace with a man and a woman masturbating to either side.
See also Religion and sexuality for broader coverage

Religions vary broadly in their views of masturbation, from considering it completely impermissible[68] to encouraging and refining it (see, for example Neotantra and Taoist sexual practices).

Philosophical arguments

Immanuel Kant regarded masturbation as a violation of the moral law. In the Metaphysics of Morals (1797) he made the a posteriori argument that 'such an unnatural use of one's sexual attributes' strikes 'everyone upon his thinking of it' as 'a violation of one's duty to himself', and suggested that it was regarded as immoral even to give it its proper name (unlike the case of the similarly undutiful act of suicide). He went on, however, to acknowledge that 'it is not so easy to produce a rational demonstration of the inadmissibility of that unnatural use', but ultimately concluded that its immorality lay in the fact that 'a man gives up his personality … when he uses himself merely as a means for the gratification of an animal drive'.

Subsequent critics of masturbation tended to argue against it on more physiological grounds, however.

Law

The legal status of masturbation throughout history has varied from virtually unlimited acceptance to complete illegality. In a 17th century law code for the Puritan colony of New Haven, Connecticut "blasphemers, homosexuals and masturbators" were eligible for the death penalty.[69]

Cultural views and practices

Masturbate-a-thon

CSC Herme Masturbate-a-Thon Logo Original for Wiki.jpg

Masturbation is accepted as a healthy practice and safe method for sharing pleasure without some of the dangers that can accompany intercourse. It is socially accepted and even celebrated in certain circles. Group masturbation events can be easily found online. Masturbation marathons are events that are occurring across the globe. These events provide a supportive, encouraging environment where masturbation can be performed openly among young and old without embarrassment. Participants talk openly with onlookers while masturbating to share techniques and describe the pleasure and benefits.[70][71] Masturbate-a-thons are often charity events that are "intended to encourage people to explore safer sex, talk about masturbation and lift the taboos that still surround the subject."[72] May is considered "Masturbation Month" by sex-positive organizations and activists, including Betty Dodson, Joani Blank, Susan Block, and Carol Queen.

Encouraged masturbation

In the UK in 2009, a leaflet has been issued by the NHS in Sheffield carrying the slogan, "an orgasm a day keeps the doctor away". It also says: "Health promotion experts advocate five portions of fruit and veg a day and 30 minutes' physical activity three times a week. What about sex or masturbation twice a week?" This leaflet has been circulated to parents, teachers and youth workers and is meant to update sex education by telling older school students about the benefits of enjoyable sex. Its authors have said that for too long, experts have concentrated on the need for "safe sex" and committed relationships while ignoring the principal reason that many people have sex. The leaflet is entitled Pleasure. Instead of promoting teenage sex, it could encourage young people to delay losing their virginity until they are certain they will enjoy the experience, said one of its authors.[73][74]

The Spanish region of Extremadura launched a programme in 2009 to encourage in young people, aged between 14 and 17, "sexual self-exploration and the discovery of self-pleasure". The €14,000 campaign includes leaflets, flyers, a "fanzine", and workshops for the young in which they receive instruction on masturbation techniques along with advice on contraception and self-respect. The initiative, whose slogan is, "Pleasure is in your own hands" has angered local right-wing politicians and challenged traditional Roman Catholic views. Officials from the neighbouring region of Andalucia have expressed an interest in copying the programme.[75]

Among some cultures, such as the Hopi in Arizona, the Wogeno in Oceania, and the Dahomeans and Namu of Africa, masturbation is encouraged, including regular masturbation between males. In certain Melanesian communities this is expected between older and younger boys. One interesting twist is the Sambia tribe of New Guinea. This tribe has rituals and rites of passage surrounding manhood which lasts several years and involves ejaculation through fellatio often several times a day. Semen is valued and masturbation is seen as a waste of semen and is therefore frowned upon even though frequent ejaculation is encouraged. The capacity and need to ejaculate is developed or nurtured for years from an early age but through fellatio so that it can be consumed rather than wasted. Semen is ingested for strength and is considered in the same line as mothers' milk.[76]

Rites of passage

Other cultures have rites of passage into manhood that culminate in the first ejaculation of a male, usually by the hands of a tribal elder. In some tribes such as the Agta, Philippines, stimulation of the genitals is encouraged from an early age.[77] Upon puberty, the young male is then paired off with a "wise elder" or "witch doctor" who uses masturbation to build his ability to ejaculate in preparation for a ceremony. The ceremony culminates in a public ejaculation before a celebration. The ejaculate is saved in a wad of animal skin and worn later to help conceive children. In this and other tribes, the measure of manhood is actually associated more with the amount of ejaculate and his need than penis size. Frequent ejaculation through masturbation from an early age fosters frequent ejaculation well into adulthood.[78]

Euphemisms

While "masturbation" is the medical term for this practice, many other terms and expressions are in common use. In the vernacular, terms such as "pleasuring oneself", "wanking" and "jerking off" are common. A large variety of other euphemisms and dysphemisms exist which describe masturbation. For a list of terms, see the entry for masturbate in Wikisaurus.

In popular culture

Paintings and drawings

There are depictions of male masturbation in prehistoric rock paintings around the world. Most early people seem to have connected human sexuality with abundance in nature. A clay figurine of the 4th millennium BC from a temple site on the island of Malta depicts a woman masturbating. However, in the ancient world depictions of male masturbation are far more common.

Music

In popular music, there are a several notable songs that deal with the issue of masturbation. Some of the earliest examples are "My Ding-a-Ling" by Chuck Berry and "Mary Ann with the Shaky Hand" and "Pictures of Lily" by The Who.[79]

More recent popular songs include "I Touch Myself" by the Divinyls, "Dancing With Myself" by Billy Idol, "Everyday I Die" by Gary Numan,"You're Makin' Me High" by Toni Braxton, "Touch of My Hand" by Britney Spears, "Orgasm Addict" by the Buzzcocks, "Longview" by Green Day, "Wow, I Can Get Sexual Too" by Say Anything, "Fingers" by P!nk[80], So Happy I Could Die by Lady Gaga, "Masturbating Jimmy" by The Tiger Lillies and "When Life Gets Boring " by Gob. The 1983 recording "She Bop" by Cyndi Lauper, was one of the first fifteen songs ever required to carry Parental Advisory sticker for sexual content.[81] In a 1993 interview on The Howard Stern Show, Lauper claimed she recorded the vocal track in the nude.[82] The 1980 number-one hit "Turning Japanese" by The Vapors has often been believed to be a euphemistic reference to the facial expression men make at orgasm, [83] a theory refuted by songwriter Dave Fenton.[84]

The song "Masturbates" by rock group Mindless Self Indulgence also deals with the concept of auto-erotic activity in a punk framework.

Literature

In October 1972, an important censorship case was held in Australia, leading to the banning of Philip Roth's novel Portnoy's Complaint in that country due to its masturbation references. The censorship led to public outcry at the time.[85]

Television

In the Seinfeld episode "The Contest"[86], the show's main characters enter into a contest to see who can go the longest without masturbating. Because Seinfeld's network, NBC, did not think masturbation was a suitable topic for prime time television, the word is never used. Instead, the subject is described using a series of euphemisms. "Master of my domain" became a part of the american lexicon from this episode.

Another NBC show, Late Night with Conan O'Brien, had a character known as the Masturbating Bear, a costume of a bear with a diaper covering its genitals. The Masturbating Bear would touch his diaper to simulate masturbation. Prior to leaving Late Night to become host of The Tonight Show, Conan O'Brien retired the character due to concerns about its appropriateness in an earlier time slot.[87]

In March 2007 the UK broadcaster Channel 4 was to air a season of television programmes about masturbation, called Wank Week. (Wank is a Briticism for masturbate). The series came under public attack from senior television figures, and was pulled amid claims of declining editorial standards and controversy over the channel's public service broadcasting credentials. However, its constituent films may yet be shown by the channel at a later date.[88]

In other animal species

Masturbation in Bonobos

Masturbatory behavior has been documented in a very wide range of species. Individuals of some species have been known to create tools for masturbation purposes.[4]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Your Guide to Masturbation
  2. ^ Based on "masturbation" in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2003
  3. ^ Breeding Soundness Examination of the Stallion
  4. ^ a b Bruce Bagemihl: Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. St. Martin's Press, 1999. ISBN 0-312-19239-8
  5. ^ For further references, see also the main article Animal sexuality#Autoeroticism (masturbation).
  6. ^ Dally, Peter (1975). The Fantasy Factor. George Weidenfeld and Nicolson Limited. pp. 135. ISBN 0-297-76945-6. 
  7. ^ OED, s.v. masturbation
  8. ^ "Go ask Alice!: Cock-stuffing". Columbia University, New York. 2005-02-18. http://www.goaskalice.columbia.edu/3516.html. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  9. ^ Various authors (2006-04-21). "Urethral Sound" (html/wiki). Body Modification Ezine. http://wiki.bmezine.com/index.php/Urethral_Sound. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  10. ^ McPartlin, Daniel; Adam P. Klausner, MD; Tristan T. Berry, MD (2005-09-09). "Case report: A foreign body in the urethra". Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. http://jaapa.com/issues/j20050901/articles/urethral0905.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  11. ^ "Sex Editorials". 2004-03-16. http://sexeditorials.com/. Retrieved 2009-07-11.  "The Stop-And-Go Masturbation Technique for Men and Women"
  12. ^ Masturbation, Tantra and Self-love
  13. ^ Keesling, Barbara (November/December 99 (Last Reviewed: 30 August 2004)). "Beyond Orgasmatron". Psychology Today. http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/index.php?term=pto-19991101-000038&page=2. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  14. ^ Ellis, Havelock (1927), Studies in the Psychology of Sex (3rd edition), Volume I,; Auto-Erotism: A Study of the Spontaneous Manifestations of the Sexual Impulse; section I; "The Sewing-machine and the Bicycle:" quotes one Pouillet as saying "it is a well-recognized fact that to work a sewing-machine with the body in a certain position produces sexual excitement leading to the orgasm. The occurrence of the orgasm is indicated to the observer by the machine being worked for a few seconds with uncontrollable rapidity. This sound is said to be frequently heard in large French workrooms, and it is part of the duty of the superintendents of the rooms to make the girls sit properly." Studies in the Psychology of Sex, v. I, by Havelock Ellis at Project Gutenberg
  15. ^ Koedt, Anne (1970). "The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm". Chicago Women's Liberation Union. http://www.cwluherstory.org/classic-feminist-writings/myth-of-the-vaginal-orgasm.html. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  16. ^ a b The Kinsey Institute Data from Alfred Kinsey's studies. Published online.
  17. ^ Shuman, Tracy (2006-02). "Your Guide to Masturbation". WebMD, Inc./The Cleveland Clinic Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. http://www.webmd.com/content/article/45/2953_487.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  18. ^ Knowles, Jon (2002-11). "Masturbation — From Stigma to Sexual Health". Katharine Dexter McCormick Library/Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc.. http://www.plannedparenthood.org/news-articles-press/politics-policy-issues/medical-sexual-health/masturbation-6360.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  19. ^ a b "Advanced Masturbation". 2004-10-22. http://advancedmasturbation.com/. Retrieved 2009-07-11.  "The Full Fist Masturbation Technique" and "The Thumb-Forefinger Masturbation Technique"
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ [2]
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  23. ^ "Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery." Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Feb., 5(1):133-6.
  24. ^ "Severe impulsiveness as the primary manifestation of multiple sclerosis in a young female." Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2005 Dec., 59(6):739-42.
  25. ^ a b Gerressu, M., Mercer, C.H., Graham, C.A., Wellings, K. and Johnson, A.M. (2007). Prevalence of Masturbation and Associated Factors in a British National Probability Survey. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Published online.
  26. ^ Treptow, C. (14 july 2009). "U.K. Government Encourages Teen Masturbation?". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/MindMoodNews/story?id=8072314&page=1. 
  27. ^ "Ultrasonographic observation of a female fetus' sexual behavior in utero." American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1996 Sept;175(3):753.
  28. ^ Heilborn, M.L. and Cabral, C.S. (2006). Sexual practices in youth: analysis of lifetime sexual trajectory and last sexual intercourse. Cad Saude Publica, 22, 7, pp. 1471-81. Epub 2006 Jun 14.
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  31. ^ [3], "The Medical News: Daily sex good for sperm! 5 July 2009"
  32. ^ Baker, Robin (June 1996). Sperm Wars: The Science of Sex. Diane Books Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0788160042. 
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  34. ^ Thomsen, Ruth (October 2000). Sperm Competition and the Function of Masturbation in Japanese Macaques. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München. http://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/archive/00000105/. 
  35. ^ Baker, Robin R.; Bellis, Mark A. (November 1993). "Human sperm competition: Ejaculate adjustment by males and the function of masturbation.". Animal Behaviour 46 (5): p861, 25p. doi:10.1006/anbe.1993.1271. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3768815. 
  36. ^ Shackelford, Todd K.; Goetz, Aaron T. (February 2007). "Adaptation to Sperm Competition in Humans.". Current Directions in Psychological Science 16 (1): p47–50. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00473.x. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00473.x. 
  37. ^ Healthline.com http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/masturbation-1
  38. ^ a b "Masturbation key to healthy, functional sexual relationships". The Badger Herald, Daily campus newspaper. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: Badger Herald, Inc.. April 19, 2007. http://badgerherald.com/oped/2007/04/19/masturbation_key_to_.php. Retrieved July 2007. 
  39. ^ Giles, G.G.; G. Severi, D.R. English, M.R.E. McCredie, R. Borland, P. Boyle and J.L. Hopper (2003). Sexual factors and prostate cancer. BJU International. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2003.04319.x. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118853726/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  40. ^ Dimitropoulou, Polyxeni; Artitaya Lophatananon, Douglas Easton, Richard Pocock, David P. Dearnaley, Michelle Guy, Steven Edwards, Lynne O'Brien, Amanda Hall, Rosemary Wilkinson, Rosalind Eeles, Kenneth R. Muir (November 11, 2008). "Sexual activity and prostate cancer risk in men diagnosed at a younger age". BJU International 103 (2): 178–185. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08030.x. OCLC 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08030.x. PMID 19016689. 
  41. ^ Smith, George Davey; F; Y (December 20, 1997). "Sex and death: are they related? Findings from the Caerphilly cohort study". BMJ 315 (7123): 1641. PMID 9448525. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/315/7123/1641. Retrieved July 2007. 
  42. ^ "Masturbation could bring hay fever relief for men". April 2008. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn16872-masturbation-could-bring-hay-fever-relief-for-men.html?DCMP=OTC-rss&nsref=online-news. Retrieved August 2009. 
  43. ^ Graber, Benjamin; Benjamin Graber, Scott Balogh, Denis Fitzpatrick and Shelton Hendricks (June 1991). "Cardiovascular changes associated with sexual arousal and orgasm in men". Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment (Springer Netherlands) 4 (2): 151–165. doi:10.1007/BF00851611. 1079-0632 (Print) 1573-286X (Online). http://www.springerlink.com/content/m28k5475630n5872/. Retrieved 2004-12-28. 
  44. ^ Brody, Stuart. "Blood pressure reactivity to stress is better for people who recently had penile-vaginal intercourse than for people who had other or no sexual activity." Biological Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 2, February 2006, pages 214-222.
  45. ^ eMedicine article on Penile Fracture and Trauma
  46. ^ El Atat, R.; Sfaxi, M.; Benslama, R.; Amine, D.; Ayed, M.; Mouelli, B.; Chebil, M.; Zmerli, S. (Jan 2008). "Fracture of the penis: management and long-term results of surgical treatment. Experience in 300 cases". The Journal of trauma 64 (1): 121–125. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31803428b3. ISSN 0022-5282. PMID 18188109.  edit
  47. ^ Asgari, S.; Roshani, A.; Falahatkar, S.; Mokhtari, G.; Pourreza, F. (2007). "MP-21.01: Report on the early and late complications of 169 penile fractures". Urology 70: 160–161. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2007.06.119.  edit
  48. ^ American Academy of Family Physicians article on Peyronie's Disease: Current Management
  49. ^ netdoctor.co.uk article on Foreskin contraction (phimosis)
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  51. ^ Giles, J. (2006). No such thing as excessive levels of sexual behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35, 641-642.
  52. ^ University of Pennsylvania Office of Health Education article on masturbation
  53. ^ Childrens Medical Office of North Andover, P.C. article on Masturbation in Early Childhood
  54. ^ Patricia Fawver Ph.D (01/10/2006). "Sexual health". THE SEXUAL HEALTH NETWORK. http://www.sexualhealth.com/question/read/love-relationships/sexual-addiction-compulsion/11608/. 
  55. ^ Briken, P.; Habermann, N.; Berner, W.; Hill, A. (2007). "Diagnosis and Treatment of Sexual Addiction: A Survey among German Sex Therapists". Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity 14: 131–045. doi:10.1080/10720160701310450.  edit
  56. ^ BBC Relationships: Addicted to sex
  57. ^ "The Ħaġar Qim woman is... masturbating, with one hand languidly supporting her head. " Taylor, Timothy. Uncovering the prehistory of sex, British Archaeology, no 15, June 1996: [4].
  58. ^ Dening, Sarah. The Mythology of Sex. Macmillian 1996, ISBN 978 0028612072
  59. ^ Dening, Sarah, The Mythology of Sex Chapter 3
  60. ^ Johnathan Margolis, "O: The intimate history of the orgasm", 2003. p134
  61. ^ Dio Crysostom, Discourses, iv.20
  62. ^ The tyranny of pleasure, Jean Claude Guillebaud, Keith Torjoc; p.22
  63. ^ The Ritual of Circumcision
  64. ^ Stengers, Jean; van Neck, Anne. Masturbation: the history of a great terror. New York: Palgrave, 2001. ISBN 0-312-22443-5.
  65. ^ Surgical Appliance
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  67. ^ JackinLibrary: Joycelyn Elders
  68. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church". http://www.vatican.va/archive/ccc_css/archive/catechism/p3s2c2a6.htm#2352. Retrieved 2007-10-08. "Both the Magisterium of the Church, in the course of a constant tradition, and the moral sense of the faithful have been in no doubt and have firmly maintained that masturbation is an intrinsically and gravely disordered action." 
  69. ^ James, Lawrence (September 15, 1997). The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 41. ISBN 978-0312169855.  The context is a discussion of the social habits of the early North American colonists.
  70. ^ Masturbate-a-thon by The Center For Sex & Culture
  71. ^ viewlondon.co.uk article on Masturbation Marathon London
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Further reading

  • Brody, Stuart. "Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency" Journal Of Sex & Marital Therapy Volume 30, Issue 4, July - September 2004, Pages 251-261
  • DeMartino, Manfred F. Human Autoerotic Practices. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1979. ISBN 0-87705-373-1.
  • Marcus, Irwin M. Masturbation: From Infancy to Senescence. New York: International Universities Press, 1975. ISBN 0-8236-3150-8.
  • Hurlbert, David Farley & Karen Elizabeth Whittaker. (1991). "The Role of Masturbation in Marital and Sexual Satisfaction: A Comparative Study of Female Masturbators and Nonmasturbators." Journal of Sex Education & Therapy, 17(4), 272–282.
  • Buddhist Sexual Ethics, by Winton Higgins

External links








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