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"Material Girl"
A blond female sits on a bed partially wrapping a mauve colored silk cloth around her. Her short hair is arranged roughly on her head. Above her image, the words "Madonna" is written in blue lowercase. Beneath the word, "Material Girl" is written on the right hand side.
Single by Madonna
from the album Like a Virgin
B-side "Pretender"
Released January 30, 1985
Format 12" maxi single, CD single
Recorded 1984
Genre Pop, dance-pop, New Wave
Length 4:01
Label Sire, Warner Bros.
Writer(s) Peter Brown, Roberta Rans
Producer Nile Rodgers
Madonna singles chronology
"Like a Virgin"
(1984)
"Material Girl"
(1985)
"Crazy for You"
(1985)

"Material Girl" is a song by American recording artist Madonna. It was released on January 30, 1985, by Sire Records, as the second single from her sophomore album Like a Virgin. It also appears slightly remixed on the 1990 greatest hits compilation The Immaculate Collection and in its original form on the 2009 greatest hits compilation Celebration. The song was written by Peter Brown and Roberta Rans, while Nile Rodgers produced the track. Madonna explained that the concept of the song was similar to her life's situation at that time. According to her, the song was provocative, hence she was attracted to it.

"Material Girl" incorporated New wave music and consists of synth arrangements with a robotic voice repeating the hook. The lyrics identify with materialism, with Madonna asking for a rich and affluent life, rather than romance and relationships. Contemporary and old critics have frequently noted "Material Girl" and "Like a Virgin" as the songs that made Madonna an icon. "Material Girl" was a commercial success, reaching the top-five in Australia, Belgium, Canada, Ireland, Japan and United Kingdom. It reached the position two of the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States, becoming her third top-five single there.

The music video was a mimicry of Marilyn Monroe's performance of the song "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" from the 1953 film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. The mimicked scenes are interspersed with scenes of a Hollywood director trying to win the heart of an actress, played by Madonna herself. Discovering that, contrary to her song, the young woman was not impressed by money and expensive gifts, he pretended to be penniless and succeeded in taking her out on a date. Scholars noted the symbology of the video and deduced it as a medium for promoting Madonna's image. She has performed the song in four of her world tours, most of them being mimicry of the song and the video.

"Material Girl" has been covered by a number of artists, including Britney Spears, The Chipettes and Hilary Duff. It has appeared in films like Moulin Rouge! (2001) and Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason (2004). Madonna has often remarked that she regrets recording "Material Girl" as the name became a pseudonym for her in mainstream media. Time and again she has tried to shun herself from the phrase 'material girl'. The song was an empowering influence for women, marking them as liberal and was the subject of many scholarly debates.

Contents

Background

"Material Girl" was written by Peter Brown and Roberta Rans, while Nile Rodgers produced the track.[1] In 1986, Madonna told Company magazine, that although she did not write or create the song, the lyrical meaning and concept did apply to her situation at that point of time. She elaborated, "I'm very career-oriented. You are attracted to people who are ambitious that way, too, like in the song 'Material Girl'. You are attracted to men who have material things because that's what pays the rents and buys you furs. That's the security. That lasts longer than emotions."[1] During a 2009 interview with Rolling Stone, Madonna was asked by interviewer Austin Scaggs regarding her first feelings, after listening to the demos of "Like a Virgin" and "Material Girl". Madonna responded by saying, "I liked them both because they were ironic and provocative at the same time but also unlike me. I am not a materialistic person, and I certainly wasn't a virgin, and, by the way, how can you be like a virgin? I liked the play on words, I thought they were clever. They're so geeky, they're cool."[2]

Composition

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"Material Girl" was one of the first Madonna songs to incorporate New Wave music and consists of synth arrangements, with a strong backbeat supporting it. A robotic male voice repeats the hook "Living in a material world".[3] The song is set in the time signature of common time, with a metronome of 120 beats per minute. It is set in the key of C major, with Madonna's voice spanning from the tonal nodes of C4 to C5. The song is built in the chord progression of C–Bb–Am–C–F–Dm–C in the verses and F–G–G–Am in the chorus.[4] The bassline in the song with the post-disco origins is reminiscent of The Jacksons' "Can You Feel It", which appeared on their 1980 album Triumph. Furthermore, the strophes remind of the refrain from Melissa Manchester's hit "You Should Hear How She Talks About You" (1982).[3][5]

The phrase 'material girl' used in the lyric of the song was used in an early Eighties song by The Police. In that song, the lyrics by Sting portray humanity as spirits in the material world. However, Madonna's song does the opposite and identifies with materialism.[3] The lyrics explain that what Madonna wants is money, good clothes, the perfect life and men who are able to supply those materialistic things. A cross-reference to the 1960 song "Shop Around by The Miracles is also present. The lyrics also portray relationships in terms of capitalism as commodities, and romance becomes synonymous to trading stocks and shares.[3] The title was a polysemy like the lyrics. It deduced Madonna as the desired and most respected woman.[6]

Critical reception

Author Rikky Rooksby, in his book Madonna: the complete guide to her music, compared the song with those of Cyndi Lauper because of Madonna's shrill voice in the song. He added that the song was a "pungent satire on the Reagan/Thatcher young-guns-go-for-it era. Which just goes to show that pop music and irony don't mix."[3] Stephen Thomas Erlewine from Allmusic said that "Material Girl" was one of the songs that made Madonna an icon, other being "Like a Virgin" from the same album, both remaining as a definitive statement. He added that both tunes overshadow the rest of the record, "because they are a perfect match of theme and sound."[7] Debby Miller from Rolling Stone, felt that the song portrayed Madonna as a more practical girl than previous female singers.[8] Dave Karger from Entertainment Weekly, while reviewing the album in 1995, felt that the song came off a bit repetitious and immature when compared to the present context.[9] Jim Farber from Entertainment Weekly felt that the song provided then critics a way to criticize Madonna's work.[10] Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine commented that Madonna had "defined a generation with hits like 'Material Girl'."[11][12] Tony Power from Blender called the song ambitious.[13] Alfred Soto from Stylus Magazine compared the song with "Everything She Wants" by Wham!.[14] Michael Paoletta from Billboard commented that the song sustained a "fevered dance-rock momentum."[15] Nancy Erlick from Billboard said that "singer and team conquer once more with their irresistible assembly of new and used pop hooks."[16] In 2003, Madonna fans were asked to vote for their Top 20 Madonna singles of all time by Q magazine. "Material Girl" was allocated the fifteenth spot on the list.[17]

Chart performance

The song debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 during the week of February 9, 1985, at position forty-three, when "Like a Virgin" was descending out of the top ten.[18] The single climbed the Hot 100 quickly, jumping thirteen spots to number five the week of March 9, 1985,[19] and eventually spent two weeks at position two, held off by REO Speedwagon's "Can't Fight This Feeling" and Phil Collins' "One More Night".[20][21] The week the song slipped to position three, her upcoming single "Crazy for You" reached number four, giving Madonna two simultaneous top-five hits.[1] "Material Girl" reached the top of the Hot Dance Music/Club Play Chart but was less successful on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks chart, failing to enter the top forty.[22] The song also topped the .[23] In Canada, the song debuted on the RPM Singles Chart at position seventy-six, on the issue dated February 16, 1985.[24] After five weeks, it reached a peak position of four on the chart[25] and was present for twenty-one weeks.[26] It was ranked forty-six on the RPM Year-End chart.[27]

In Australia, the song reached the top five and peaked at four.[28] In the United Kingdom, "Material Girl" debuted on the UK Singles Chart at position twenty-four on March 2, 1985[29] and reached a peak of three. It was present for a total of ten weeks on the chart.[30] The song was certified silver by the British Phonographic Industry for shipment of 200,000 copies of the song.[31] Across Europe, the song reached the top-ten in Austria, Belgium, Ireland, Netherlands and the Eurochart Hot 100 Singles[32][33][34][35] while reaching the top-forty of Germany, Italy and Switzerland.[32][36][37] In New Zealand and Japan, the song reached the top-five.[32][38]

Music video

A young blond woman, wearing a pink gown, gloves, and jewellery looks towards the camera. She has her right hand in her mouth. The woman is flanked by men in tuxedo, who carry a pink heart. The backdrop is red in color. A young blond woman in pink gown and gloves, is surrounded by men in tuxedos, who display a number of jewels to her. Behind the group, a number of red steps are visible.
The music video for "Material Girl" (left) was inspired by Marilyn Monroe's "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" from the 1953 film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (right).

The music video was inspired by Madonna's admiration of Marilyn Monroe and mimicked the later's performance of the song "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend" from the 1953 film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes.[1] It featured an appearance by actor Keith Carradine, who played Madonna's love interest. The video was the first to showcase Madonna's acting ability, as it combined the dance routines of "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friends" with the storyline of a man who impresses Madonna with flowers, rather than diamonds.[1] In a 1987 interview with New York Daily News, Madonna said:

"Well my favorite scene in all of Monroe's movies is when she does that dance sequence for 'Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend'. And when it came time to do the video for the song [Material Girl], I said, I can just redo that whole scene and it will be perfect. [...] Marilyn was made into something not human in a way, and I can relate to that. Her sexuality was something everyone was obsessed with and that I can relate to. And there were certain things about her vulnerability that I'm curious about and attracted to."[1][39]

The music video was shot January 10 and 11, 1985, at Ren-Mar Studios in Hollywood, California, and was directed by Mary Lambert. It was produced by Simon Fields with principal photography by Peter Sinclair, editing by Glenn Morgan and choreography by Kenny Ortega. Actor Robert Wuhl appeared in the video's opening. The music video was at the same time, an exegesis and a critique of the lyrics and Madonna herself.[6] It was on the set of the video that Madonna met her first husband, actor Sean Penn.[39]

The video opened with two men watching a rush in the screening rooms of a Hollywood studio. On the screen, an actress played by Madonna, sang and danced to "Material Girl", dressed like Monroe from "Diamonds Are a Girl's Best Friend". One of the men, played by Carradine, was a director or a producer and was immensely rich. He fell in love with the actress and wanted to express his passion for her.[6] He told his employee, played by Wuhl: "She's [Madonna] fantastic, I knew she'd be a star." The employee answered: "She could be. She could be great. She could be a major star." The former then concluded by saying: "She is a star, George."[6] Madonna wore a pink sleeveless gown and had her hair in blond locks ala Monroe.[40] The background was a reconstruction of the Monroe video, complete with staircase, chandeliers and a number of tuxedo clad chorus boys.[39] Madonna dances and sings the song, while she is showered with cash, expensive jewelery, furs and is carried by the men over the stairs. At one time, she alludes herself from the men, by dismissing them with her fan. As the producer tried to impress Madonna, he came to know that she does not like material things, rather prefers simple romance. He pretended to be penniless, and brought her hand-cut flowers while paying a poor man a large amount to borrow (or possibly buy) his dirty truck to take her on a date. His plan seemed to work because the final scene showed him and Madonna kissing in the truck in an intimate position.[39]

It was in the video of "Material Girl" that Madonna began to accept and utilize herself being compared to Monroe. However, she established a safe distance from those comparisons and developed inside the same pastiche. Details like the usage of different gloves or different fans in the video, brought forth the connections between these women, however Madonna alluded herself in subtle ways.[41] The fan in Monroe's hand for the original video, was an iconography of the Sudarshana Chakra (wheel) held by the Indian God Vishnu. Scholar Georges-Claude Guilbert, who wrote Madonna as postmodern myth: how one star's self-construction rewrites sex, said that the fan symbolized fiery desire aroused by Monroe as well as ritual sacrifice, eerily foreshadowing her untimely death in 1962.[41] Madonna's fan, which appeared at the end of the video, signified that Madonna – while paying her tribute to Monroe – was signaling that she had no intention of being a victim like her, and that she was on the path of becoming a feminist post-modern myth.[41] Author Nicholas Cook commented that the video promoted Madonna's identity as the song suggested, with the purpose of shifting "Madonna's image from that of a disco-bimbo to authentic star."[42] Lisa A. Lewis, author of Gender, Politics and MTV said that with the video, Madonna achieved the rare distinction of being accepted as a literature medium by the music authors.[43] "Material Girl" was nominated for best female video at the 1985 MTV Video Music Awards but lost to Tina Turner's "What's Love Got to Do with It".[44] The video was ranked at position fifty-four on VH1's 100 Greatest Videos.[45]

Live performances

"Material Girl" was performed by Madonna on four of her world tours. She ended The Virgin Tour (1985) with a self-parodying performance of the song. She wore a boob tube and a tight white skirt and carried a bunch of notes in her left hand.[46] At the end of the performance she asked the audience "Do you really think I'm a material girl?...I'm not...Take it [Throwing fake money]... I don't need money... I need love."[47] As she began to strip off more clothes, she was apprehended and marched offstage by an extra posing as her father. In Detroit, Tony Ciccone himself did the honors.[46] The performance was included in the VHS release Live – The Virgin Tour.[48] In the Who's That Girl World Tour of 1987, Madonna performed it as a medley with "Dress You Up" and "Like a Virgin". She wore an elaborate costume, inspired by Dame Edna Everage. It consisted of a hat strewn with fake fruits, flowers and feathers, jeweled batwing spectacles with heavy, black frames, a ruffled skirt, a bodice covered with objects like watches and dolls and fishnets. Author Carol Clrek stated that the dress was more "ludicrous for Madonna, than humorous."[49] Two different performances of the song on this tour can be found on the videos: Who's That Girl – Live in Japan, filmed in Tokyo, Japan, on June 22, 1987,[50] and Ciao, Italia! – Live from Italy, filmed in Turin, Italy, on September 4, 1987.[51]

For the Blond Ambition World Tour in 1990, Madonna and her supporting dancers Niki Haris and Donna De Lory were dressed in a fluffy dressing gown and with curling pins in their hair. Singing the song with a strong mid-western accent, they later got up and revealed a frivolish pink dress underneath their gown, in which they danced around. Madonna replaced the words "experience has made me rich" with "experience has made me bitch". After that, she produced dollar bills out of her corsage and threw them up in the air for the audience to catch.[52] Two different performances were taped and released on video, the Blond Ambition – Japan Tour 90, taped in Yokohama, Japan, on April 27, 1990,[53] and the Live! – Blond Ambition World Tour 90, taped in Nice, France, on August 5, 1990.[54] During the Re-Invention World Tour of 2004, a general setlist was decided where the show rehearsals would start with "I'm So Stupid" from American Life, "Dress You Up" and "Material Girl". But "Dress You Up" and "I'm So Stupid" were later dropped from the show.[55] Hence "Material Girl" was transferred as the closing song of the military segment of the show and was re-arranged as a electric guitar version. Madonna wore military themed clothes and sang the song while standing in front of a microphone and playing an electric guitar.[56] The backdrops displayed mathematical equations along with DNA helixes rushing through the screens.[57]

Cover versions

Mexican Latin Pop singer Byanka covered the song in Spanish in 1985, under the title "Chica Material".[58] The children's show Sesame Street did a loose parody of the song in 1989 with completely different lyrics called "Cereal Girl". The "music video" was about a monster girl who loves cereal after tasting a bowl of it.[59] The Chipettes performed a cover version on the 1980s Alvin and the Chipmunks cartoon.[60] In 1998 the song was sampled for the number-two dance hit "If You Buy This Record (Your Life Will Be Better)" by The Tamperer featuring Maya.[61] Industrial band KMFDM covered the song for the 1999 Virgin Voices: A Tribute To Madonna: Vol 1 tribute album.[62] The same year, Britney Spears performed the song in her ...Baby One More Time Tour, calling Madonna and Janet Jackson as her biggest inspirations.[63] Deathgrind band Exhumed covered the song as part of a limited edition bonus CD for their 2004 album Platters of Splatter.[64] Richard Cheese and Lounge Against the Machine covered the song in lounge music style on his 2004 album I'd Like a Virgin.[65]

Pop singer Hilary Duff and her sister, Haylie, recorded a cover of the song for the beginning of the film Material Girls (2006), in which both actresses starred. Their cover was to be produced by Timbaland, and was originally to have been produced by Lil Jon, with the released version being produced by the Dead Executives.[66] According to Haylie, the song was to be released as a single but there was no time to shoot a music video.[67] Icelandic singer Hafdis Huld performed the song at The Secret Garden Festival and The Big Chill in the summer of 2007.[68] On her sold out May 16, 2009 concert at the National Auditorium of Mexico City, Mexican Latin Pop singer, Yuridia performed a cover version of "Material Girl".[69] An avant garde/folk rock cover of the song by Mountain Party was included on the 2007 Madonna tribute compilation Through the Wilderness.[70]

The song was part of the "Sparkling Diamonds" medley in the 2001 film Moulin Rouge!.[71] In the 2004 movie Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason, the song was used for the scene where Bridget gets out of a Thai jail.[72] The 2006 Nintendo DS rhythm-action game Elite Beat Agents contains a cover version of the song for one of the game's levels. The level follows two celebutantes trapped on a deserted island.[73] It also appears in the video game Karaoke Revolution Party and in Nintendo's Wii Music, a 2008 music video game for the Wii.[74][75]

Legacy

After its release, the phrase 'material girl' became another name for Madonna. She often remarked that "Material Girl" is the song she most regrets recording, as it became a label that has been attached to her for decades. She also said if she had known this, she probably would have never recorded it.[1] After making the video, Madonna said she never wanted to be compared to Monroe, despite posing as the Hollywood icon and recreating many of Marilyn's signature poses for various photos shoots, most notably a 1991 issue of Vanity Fair.[47] Reflecting on the song, Madonna told author J. Randy Taraborrelli:

"I can't completely disdain the song and the video, because they certainly were important to my career. But talk about the media hanging on a phrase and misinterpreting the damn thing as well. I didn't write that song, you know, and the video was about how the girl rejected diamonds and money. But God forbid irony should be understood. So when I'm ninety, I'll still be the Material Girl. I guess it's not so bad. Lana Turner was the Sweater Girl until the day she died."[39]

Academics analyzed the usage of the term "material" as odd, because according to them, "materialistic" was to be the correct word. However, that would have posed problems of versification for Madonna and songwriter Brown.[6] Guilbert commented that "material girl" designated a certain type of liberated women, thus deviating from its original coinage which meant a girl who is tangible and accessible.[6] Cook said that the meaning and impact of "material girl" was no more circumscribed by the video, rather by its song. Its influence was seen later among such diverse groups such as female versus male, gay versus straight, and academic versus teenage.[76]

In 1993, a conference was held at the University of California at Santa Barbara, with the subject as Madonna: Feminist Icon or Material Girl? The conference pondered on the duality of Madonna as both of them and deduced that the question of Madonna's feminism is not easy to decide. Some of the feminists left the conference, citing that they had not been able to make up their minds.[77] As New Age concept devoured America in the late 1990s, Madonna tried her best to shun the name 'material girl' and embarked on a spiritual quest of her own. Journals like The Times and The Advocate declared her as "the Ethereal Girl" and "Spiritual Girl" respectively.[78]

Track listing

  • Official versions
  1. Album Version – 4:00
  2. Extended Dance Remix – 6:05
  3. Video Version – 4:43
  4. Remastered Version from The Immaculate Collection – 3:50
  • 7" Single
  1. "Material Girl" – 4:00
  2. "Pretender" – 4:28
  • Japan CD single
  1. "Material Girl" (Extended Dance Remix) – 6:10
  2. "Into The Groove" – 4:45
  3. "Angel" (Extended Dance Mix) – 6:14
  • 12" Single
  1. "Material Girl" (Extended Dance Remix) – 6:05
  2. "Pretender" – 4:28

Credits and personnel

Charts

Chart (1985) Peak
Position
Australia Kent Music Report[28] 4
Austrian Singles Chart[32] 8
Belgian VRT Top 30[33] 3
Canadian RPM Singles Chart[25] 4
Dutch Top 40[32] 7
Eurochart Hot 100 Singles[35] 5
French Singles Chart[32] 47
German Singles Chart[36] 13
Irish Singles Chart[34] 3
Italian Singles Chart[37] 18
Japanese International Singles Chart[38] 2
New Zealand Singles Chart[32] 5
Swiss Singles Chart[32] 15
UK Singles Chart[30] 3
U.S. Billboard Hot 100[21] 2
Preceded by
"Bad Habits" by Jenny Burton
U.S. Billboard Hot Dance Music/Club Play number-one single
March 30, 1985
Succeeded by
"In My House" by Mary Jane Girls

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Feldman 2000, p. 195
  2. ^ Scaggs, Austin (2009-10-29). "Madonna Looks Back: The Rolling Stone Interview". Rolling Stone (San Francisco: Jann Wenner) (1090): 51. ISSN 0035-791X. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Rooksby 2004, p. 16
  4. ^ "Digital Sheet Music - Madonna Ciccone - Material Girl". Musicnotes. Alfred Publishing. http://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/mtd.asp?ppn=MN0037600. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  5. ^ Cinquemani, Sal (2005-11-04). "Madonna: Confessions On A Dance Floor". Slant Magazine. http://www.slantmagazine.com/music/music_review.asp?ID=685. Retrieved 2006-06-20. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Guilbert 2002, p. 43
  7. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2002-09-13). "allmusic ((( Like a Virgin > Overview )))". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:h9fpxqq5ldje. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  8. ^ Miller, Debbie (1985-01-17). "Madonna: Like A Virgin : Music Reviews". Rolling Stone (Jann Wenner). http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/madonna/albums/album/246700/review/6210108/like_a_virgin. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  9. ^ Karger, Dave (1995-11-10). "Madonna - Like a What?". Entertainment Weekly (Time Inc.). http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,299445,00.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  10. ^ Farber, Jim (2001-07-20). "The Girl Material". Entertainment Weekly (Time Inc.). http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,168394,00.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  11. ^ Cinquemani, Sal (2003-09-09). "American Idol: 20 Years of Madonna". Slant Magazine. http://www.slantmagazine.com/music/features/americanidol.asp. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  12. ^ Cinquemani, Sal (2001-09-09). "Madonna: Like a Virgin (Remaster)". Slant Magazine. http://www.slantmagazine.com/oldurlredirect.php?type=music&ID=117. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  13. ^ Power, Tony (1985-01-01). "Like a Virgin - Review". Blender. Alpha Media Group. http://www.blender.com/guide/back-catalogue/54916/like-virgin.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  14. ^ Soto, Alfred (2007-10-23). "Madonna - Like a Virgin / The Immaculate Collection". Stylus Magazine. http://www.stylusmagazine.com/articles/diamond/madonna-like-a-virgin-the-immaculate-collection.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  15. ^ Paoletta, Michael (1984-11-24). "Album Reviews: Spotlight". Billboard (New York: Nielsen Business Media, Inc) 96 (47). ISSN 0006-2510. http://books.google.co.in/books?lr=&id=nyQEAAAAMBAJ&q=madonna+video#v=snippet&q=madonna%20video&f=false. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  16. ^ Erlick, Nancy (1985-02-09). "Single Reviews: Pop". Billboard (New York: Nielsen Business Media, Inc) 97 (6): 12. ISSN 0006-2510. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=uCQEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA1919&dq=madonna+material+girl&lr=&as_pt=MAGAZINES&cd=12#v=onepage&q=madonna%20material%20girl&f=false. 
  17. ^ Reporter, Staff (2003-12-09). "Top 20 Madonna Singles of All-time". Q magazine (San Francisco: Bauer Media Group) 19 (23). ISSN 0955-4955. 
  18. ^ "The Billboard Hot 100: Week of February 9, 1985". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 1985-02-09. http://www.billboard.com/#/charts/hot-100?chartDate=1985-02-09&order=gainer. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  19. ^ "The Billboard Hot 100: Week of March 9, 1985". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 1985-03-09. http://www.billboard.com/#/charts/hot-100?chartDate=1985-03-09. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  20. ^ "The Billboard Hot 100: Week of March 16, 1985". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 1985-03-09. http://www.billboard.com/#/charts/hot-100?chartDate=1985-03-16. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  21. ^ a b "The Billboard Hot 100: Week of March 23, 1985". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 1985-03-09. http://www.billboard.com/#/charts/hot-100?chartDate=1985-03-23. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  22. ^ "allmusic ((( Madonna > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles )))". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:jvfyxqe5ldae~T51. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  23. ^ "Rock On The Net: The ARC Archive: March 23, 1985". 1985-03-23. http://www.rockonthenet.com/archive/1985/03-23.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  24. ^ "Top Singles - Volume 41, No. 23, February 16, 1985". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. 1985-02-16. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/rpm/028020-119.01-e.php?&file_num=nlc008388.9585&volume=41&issue=23&issue_dt=February%2016%201985&type=1&interval=24&PHPSESSID=4dp17sl7hp9qmhhj3vmcenr836. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  25. ^ a b "Top Singles - Volume 42, No. 4, April 06 1985". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. 1985-04-06. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/rpm/028020-119.01-e.php?&file_num=nlc008388.0506&volume=42&issue=4&issue_dt=April%2006%201985&type=1&interval=24&PHPSESSID=4dp17sl7hp9qmhhj3vmcenr836. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  26. ^ "Top Singles - Volume 42, No. 17, July 06 1985". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. 1985-07-06. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/rpm/028020-119.01-e.php?&file_num=nlc008388.0545&volume=42&issue=17&issue_dt=July%2006%201985&type=1&interval=24&PHPSESSID=4dp17sl7hp9qmhhj3vmcenr836. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  27. ^ "RPM's Top 100 Singles of 1985". RPM. RPM Music Publications Ltd. 1985-12-28. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/rpm/028020-119.01-e.php?&file_num=nlc008388.0619&volume=43&issue=16&issue_dt=December%2028%201985&type=1&interval=24&PHPSESSID=4dp17sl7hp9qmhhj3vmcenr836. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  28. ^ a b Kent, David (1993) (doc). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. Australian Chart Book, St Ives, N.S.W.. ISBN 0-646-11917-6. 
  29. ^ "Chart Stats - UK Singles Chart For 03/02/1985". The Official Charts Company. Chartstats. 1985-03-02. http://www.chartstats.com/chart.php?week=19850302. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  30. ^ a b "Chartstats - Madonna - Material Girl". The Official Charts Company. Chartstats. http://www.chartstats.com/songinfo.php?id=12296. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
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References

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