Mathematical sciences is a broad term that refers to those academic disciplines that are primarily mathematical in nature but may not be universally considered subfields of mathematics proper. Statistics, for example, is mathematical in its methods but grew out of political arithmetic which merged with inverse probability and grew through applications in the social sciences and biometrics to become its own separate, though closely allied, field. Computer science, computational science, operations research, cryptology, econometrics, theoretical physics, and actuarial science are other fields that may be considered mathematical sciences.
Some institutions offer degrees in mathematical sciences (e.g., the United States Military Academy) or applied mathematical sciences (e.g., the University of Rhode Island).
