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Note that in feminist literature, "matriarchy" may be used synonymously with matrilineality.

Matriarchy (or gynecocracy) refers to a gynecocentric form of society, in which the leading role is taken by the women and especially by the mothers of a community.[1]

There are no known societies that are unambiguously matriarchal,[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] although there are a number of attested matrilinear, matrilocal and avunculocal societies, especially among indigenous peoples of Asia and Africa,[9] such as those of the Basques, Minangkabau, Mosuo, Berbers or Tuareg. Strongly matrilocal societies sometimes are referred to as matrifocal, and there is some debate concerning the terminological delineation between matrifocality and matriarchy. Note that even in patriarchical systems of male-preference primogeniture there may occasionally be queens regnant, as in the case of Elizabeth I of England or Victoria of the United Kingdom.

According to The Cambridge ancient history [10]: "the predominance of a supreme goddess is probably a reflexion from the practice of matriarchy which at all times charactherized Elamite civilization to a greater or lesser degree". Elam is the first high-culture of Iran and, along with the Sumerians, is considered one of the most developed societies of the ancient history [11].

In 19th century scholarship, the hypothesis of matriarchy representing an early stage of human development — now mostly lost in prehistory, with the exception of some "primitive" societies — enjoyed popularity. The hypothesis survived into the 20th century and was notably advanced in the context of feminism and especially second wave feminism, but it is mostly discredited today.[12]

However, scholars and archeologists such as Marija Gimbutas and Riane Eisler [13] describe their notion of a "woman-centered" society surrounding goddess worship in both Paleolithic and Neolithic Europe by using the term matristic "exhibiting influence or domination by the mother figure". The notion of such a "woman-centered" society is also confirmed by archeologist Walter Burkert and James Mellaart: "The goddesses of Greek polytheism, so different and complementary," Walter Burkert has observed, in Homo Necans (1972) 1983:79f, "are nonetheless, consistently similar at an earlier stage, with one or the other simply becoming dominant in a sanctuary or city. Each is the Great Goddess presiding over a male society; each is depicted in her attire as Mistress of the Beasts, and Mistress of the Sacrifice, even Hera and Demeter".

Contents

Terminology

The word matriarchy is coined as the opposite of patriarchy, from Greek matēr "mother" and archein "to rule". According to the OED, the term "matriarchy" is first attested in 1885, building on an earlier matriarch, formed in analogy to patriarch already in the early 17th century. By contrast, gynæcocracy "rule of women" is in use since the 17th century, building on an actual Greek γυναικοκρατία found in Aristotle and Plutarch.[1][2]

The near-synonyms matrifocal and matricentric "having a mother as head of the family or household" are of more recent coinage, first used in the mid 20th century. Matriarchy can be understood as the public formation, in which woman occupies ruling position in a family (a primary cell of society).

Other 20th century formations are gynocentric, gynocentrism (simplified by using the reduced prefix gyno- for gynæco-) is the "dominant or exclusive focus on women", as opposed to androcentrism.

A recent school of "Matriarchal Studies" led by Heide Göttner-Abendroth is calling for a more inclusive redefinition of the term: Göttner-Abendroth defines "Modern Matriarchal Studies" as the "investigation and presentation of non-patriarchal societies", effectively defining "matriarchy" as "non-patriarchy".[14] Similarly, Peggy Reeves Sanday (2004) favors redefining and reintroducing the word matriarchy, especially in reference to contemporary matrilineal societies such as the Minangkabau.

According to her, the Island of Sumatra (Indonesia) and in Mosuo, the province of Sichuan (China), live within a matriarchal society.[15] The prefix ama is used for Greek female warriors, the amazons, in Africa and among the mosuo society, having the same meaning: In the language of the Moso the word Ama has the meaning Mother. This is a striking analogy to the name of the warlike Amazons. Well-fitting to this the Berbers in North Africa, which had been matriarchal in the past, call themselves Amazigh in their own language. Because of this we reason that the very ancient word Ama has the meaning »Mother« in its narrow sense. In the figurative sense it stands for »Matriarchal Culture.[15]

The prefix is also linked to the Babylonian mythology and its supreme goddess Tiamat: some sources identify her with images of a sea serpent or dragon. In the Enûma Elish, the Babylonian epic of creation, she gives birth to the first generation. The heavens and the earth are formed from her divided body. Thorkild Jacobsen[16] and Walter Burkert both argue for a connection with the Akkadian word for sea, tâmtu, following an early form, ti'amtum.[17] Tiamat could also have been derived from the Sumerian ti, life, and ama, mother.[18]

History of the concept

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19th century

Matriarchy was discovered by Joseph-Francois Lafitau[19] (1681–1746), who was first who named it "ginecocratie", then was recognized by J. Bachofen ("Das Mutterrecht") and was deeply investigated by Lewis H. Morgan, LL. D.[20] Many researchers studied the phenomenon of matriarchy afterward, but the basis was laid by the classics of sociology. In their works Bachofen and Morgan used such terms and expressions as mother-right, female rule, gyneocracy, and female authority. All these terms meant the same: the rule by females (mother or wife).

The following excerpts from Morgan's "Ancient Society" will explain the use of the terms:

"In a work of vast research, Bachofen has collected and discussed the evidence of female authority, mother-right, and of female rule, gynecocracy."

"Common lands and joint tillage would lead to joint-tenant houses and communism in living; so that gyneocracy seems to require for its creation, descent in the female line. Women thus entrenched in large households, supplied from common stores, in which their own gens so largely predominated in numbers, would produce the phenomena of mother right and gyneocracy, which Bachofen has detected and traced with the aid of fragments of history and of tradition."

Although Bachofen and Morgan confined the "mother right" inside households, it was the basis of female influence upon the whole society. The classics never thought that gyneocracy could mean "female government" in polity. They were aware of the fact that sexual structure of government had no relation to domestic rule and to roles of both sexes.

Friedrich Engels, among others studying historical groups, formed the notion that some contemporary primitive peoples did not grasp the link between sexual intercourse and pregnancy.[citation needed] Research indicated that sexual intercourse occurred from early ages and pregnancy only occurred much later, seemingly unrelated to the sexual activity. He proposed that these cultures had no clear notion of paternity, according to this hypothesis; women produced children mysteriously, without necessary links to the man or men with whom they had sex. When realization of paternity occurred, according to the hypothesis, men acted to claim a power to monopolize women and claim their offspring as possessions and patriarchy began.

The controversy surrounding prehistoric or "primal" matriarchy began in reaction to the book by Johann Jakob Bachofen Mother Right: An Investigation of the Religious and Juridical Character of Matriarchy in the Ancient World in 1861. Several generations of ethnologists were inspired by his pseudo-evolutionary theory of archaic matriarchy. Following him and Jane Ellen Harrison, several generations of scholars, usually arguing from known myths or oral traditions and examination of Neolithic female cult-figures, suggested that many ancient societies might have been matriarchal, or even, that there existed a wide-ranging matriarchal society prior to the ancient cultures of which we are aware.

20th century

Ethnographer Bronisław Malinowski from London School of Economics lived among aborigines of Trobriand Islands (Western Melanesia) and studied their society in 1914-1918. In his book "Argonauts Of The Western Pacific" [21] B. Malinowski pointed at matrilineal construction of islander's societies and at high female position:

"Their system of kinship is matrilineal, and women hold a very good position, and wield great influence." (Chapter I)

"The Trobrianders are matrilineal, that is, in tracing descent and settling inheritance, they follow the maternal line. A child belongs to the clan and village community of its mother, and wealth, as well as social position, arc inherited, not from father to son, but from maternal uncle to nephew." (Chapter II)

"As regards kinship, the main thing to be remembered is that the natives are matrilineal, and that the succession of rank, membership in all the social groups, and the inheritance of possessions descend in the maternal line." (Chapter II)

Property was succeeded inside the mother-line: "The ownership of trees in the village grove and ownership in garden plots is ceded by the father to his son during the lifetime of the former. At his death, it often has to be returned to the man's rightful heirs, that is, his sister's children." (Chapter II)

Man had life-long obligation to work for women and their relatives in that society: "They entail a life-long obligation of every man to work for his kinswomen and their families. When a boy begins to garden, he does it for his mother. When his sisters grow up and marry, he works for them. If he has neither mother nor sisters, his nearest female blood relation will claim the proceeds of his labour". (Chapter VI)

Malinowski gave confirmations (by study several different tribes of the Western Pacific, which reprecent a stage of human history; method of comparison is popular in ethnography) of Morgan's idea that matriarchy (gyneocracy) was common feature of primitive societies at early stages, and that female rule needed matrilineality for its existence. He also confirmed that matrilineality often goes with promiscuous free-love[22] (that was dicovered[citation needed] by Bachofen).

Austrian writer Bertha Diener, also known by her American pseudonym as Helen Diner, wrote Mothers and Amazons (1930) which was the first work to focus on women's cultural history. She is regarded as a classic of feminist matriarchal study.[23] Her view is that in the past all human societies were matriarchal, then, at some point, most shifted to patriarchal and degenerated.

The controversy was reinforced further by the publication of The White Goddess by Robert Graves (1948) and his later analysis of classical Greek mythology and the vestiges of earlier myths that had been rewritten after a profound change in the religion of Greek civilization that occurred within its very early historical times.

From the 1950s, Marija Gimbutas developed a theory of an Old European culture in neolithic Europe which had matriarchal traits, replaced by the patriarchal system of the Proto-Indo-Europeans with the spread of Indo-European languages beginning in the Bronze Age.

From the 1970s these ideas were taken up by popular writers of second-wave feminism and, expanded with the speculations of Margaret Murray on witchcraft, by the Goddess movement, feminist Wicca, as well as work by Elizabeth Gould Davis, Riane Eisler, and Merlin Stone.

The concept of a matriarchal golden age in the Neolithic has been denounced as feminist wishful thinking in The Inevitability of Patriarchy, Why Men Rule, more recently by Philip G. Davis Goddess Unmasked, 1998, and Cynthia Eller, professor at Montclair State University The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory, 2000. According to Eller, Gimbutas had a large part in constructing a myth of historical matriarchy by examining Eastern Europe cultures that she asserts, by and large, never really bore any resemblance in character to the alleged universal matriarchal suggested by Gimbutas and Graves. She asserts that in "actually documented primitive societies" of recent (historical) times, paternity is never ignored and that the sacred status of goddesses does not automatically increase female social status, and believes that this affirms that utopian matriarchy is simply an inversion of antifeminism. The feminist scenarios of Neolithic matriarchy have been called into question and are not emphasized in third-wave feminism.

The original evidence recognized by Gimbutas, however, of Neolithic societies being more egalitarian than the Bronze Age Indo-European and Semitic patriarchies remains valid. Gimbutas herself has not described these societies as "matriarchal", preferring the term "woman-centered" or "matristic". Del Giorgio in The Oldest Europeans (2006) insists on a matrifocal, matrilocal, matrilineal Paleolithic society. Kurt Derungs is a non-academic author advocating an "anthropology of landscape" based on alleged matriarchal traces in toponymy and folklore.

Feminist authors adhering to the Modern Matriarchal Studies school of thought[24] consider any non-patriarchic form of society as falling within their field, including all examples of matrilineality, matrilocality and avunculism, regardless of discussions on the extent of "matrifocality".[citation needed]

Comparison with matrifocality

Due to a lack of a clear and consistent definition of the word matriarchy several anthropologists have begun to use the term matrifocality. Matrifocality refers to societies in which women, especially mothers, occupy a central position, and the term does necessarily imply domination by women or mothers.[25] Anthropologist R. L. Smith (2002) refers to 'matrifocality' as the kinship structure of a social system where the mothers assume structural prominence.[25] The Nair community in Kerala in South India is a prime example of matrifocality. This can be attributed to the fact that the community being warriors by profession, were bound to lose male members at youth, leading to a situation where the females assumed the role of running the family. Some consider the use of the term a euphemism, lacking a parallel to patriarchy, which is not redefined in the same fashion.

While the existence of numerous matrilineal or avuncular societies is undisputed, it has been recognized since the 1970s that there are no societies which are matriarchal in the strong sense that some societies are patriarchal. Joan Bamberger in her 1974 The Myth of Matriarchy argued that the historical record contains no reliable evidence of any society in which women dominated. Anthropologist Donald Brown's list of "human cultural universals" (i.e. features shared by all current human societies) includes men being the "dominant element" in public political affairs (Brown 1991, p. 137), which he asserts is the contemporary opinion of mainstream anthropology.

In mythology

A famous legendary gynecocracy related by classical Greek writers was the Amazon society. Herodotus reported that the Sarmatians were descendants of Amazons and Scythians, and that their females observed their ancient maternal customs, "frequently hunting on horseback with their husbands; in war taking the field; and wearing the very same dress as the men". Moreover, said Herodotus, "No girl shall wed till she has killed a man in battle". In the story related by Herodotus, a group of Amazons was blown across the Maeotian Lake (the Sea of Azov) into Scythia near the cliff region (today's southeastern Crimea). After learning the Scythian language, they agreed to marry Scythian men, on the condition that they not be required to follow the customs of Scythian women. According to Herodotus, this band moved toward the northeast, settling beyond the Tanais (Don) river, and became the ancestors of the Sauromatians.

Amazons came to play a role in Roman historiography. Caesar reminded the Senate of the conquest of large parts of Asia by Semiramis and the Amazons. Successful Amazon raids against Lycia and Cilicia contrasted with effective resistance by Lydian cavalry against the invaders.[26] Diodorus relates the story of Hercules defeating the Amazons at Themiscyre. Philostratus places the Amazons in the Taurus mountains. Ammianus places them east of Tanais, as neighbouring the Alans. Procopius places them in the Caucasus. Although Strabo shows scepticism as to their historicity, the Amazons in general continue to be taken as historical throughout Late Antiquity. Several Church Fathers speak of the Amazons as of a real people. Solinus embraces the account of Plinius. Under Aurelianus, captured Gothic women were identified as Amazons.[27] The account of Justinus was influential, and was used as a source by Orosius who continued to be read during the European Middle Ages. Medieval authors thus continue the tradition of locating the Amazons in the North, Adam of Bremen placing them at the Baltic Sea and Paulus Diaconus in the heart of Germania.[28]

Historian Ronald Hutton has argued that there is no necessary correlation between the worship of female deities and relative levels of social or legal egalitarianism, noting the late classical Greek and Roman religions, where goddesses played an important role. The changes from the earlier mythology are not considered in her analysis, however, and the late classical myths were dominated by male deities. Hutton also has pointed out that in more recent European history, in 17th century Spain, there were many religious institutions staffed exclusively by women.

In classical Greek mythology, Zeus is said to have swallowed his pregnant wife, the goddess Metis, who was carrying their daughter, Athene. The mother and child created havoc inside Zeus. He had swallowed the goddess because a prophecy had been foretold that the child of Metis would become greater than her father. After suffering great discomfort and terrible headaches, Hephaestus split Zeus's head, allowing Athene, in full battle armour, to burst forth from his forehead, thereafter being described as "being 'born' of Zeus." The prophecy was later proven true, as Athene's worship, as goddess of both wisdom and the strategic aspect of battle, surpassed that of Zeus, king of Olympus. Robert Graves suggested that this myth displaced earlier myths in which Athene and her mother existed in established religious beliefs that had to change when a major cultural change introduced a patriarchy to replace a matriarchy, interpreting it symbolically.

Bamberger (1974) examines several matriarchal myths from South American cultures and concludes that portraying the women from this matriarchal period as evil often serves to restrain contemporary women.

In popular culture

Mary Renault's historical novels about Greek mythology and history such as The King Must Die combine motifs of political conflict between goddess and god worshippers with The Golden Bough's hypothesis about dying and reviving gods. The patriarchal conquest of matriarchy motif is found in dozens of fantasy novels, from Marion Zimmer Bradley's historical revisions of Arthurian romance and the Trojan War to works such as Guy Gavriel Kay's A Song for Arbonne. Gender roles and the conflict of patriarch vs. matriarchy is a major theme in the Wheel of Time books by Robert Jordan.

The remake version (not the original) of The Wicker Man, starring Nicolas Cage, takes place within a fictional matriarchy in the state of Washington. The society, Summersisle, is modeled after honeybee culture and behavior.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ 'Matriarchy', Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  2. ^ Steven Goldberg, The Inevitability of Patriarchy, (William Morrow & Company, 1973).
  3. ^ Joan Bamberger,'The Myth of Matriarchy: Why Men Rule in Primitive Society', in M Rosaldo and L Lamphere, Women, Culture, and Society, (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1974), pp. 263-280.
  4. ^ Donald E. Brown, Human Universals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press), 1991.
  5. ^ Steven Goldberg, Why Men Rule, (Chicago, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company, 1993).
  6. ^ Cynthia Eller, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Won't Give Women a Future, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001).
  7. ^ Jonathan Marks, 'Essay 8: Primate Behavior', in The Un-Textbook of Biological Anthropology, (Unpublished, 2007), p. 11.
  8. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica describes this view as "consensus", listing matriarchy as a hypothetical social system. 'Matriarchy' Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007."
  9. ^ Modern Matriarchal Studies Definitions, Scope and Topicality - Heide Goettner-Abendroth
  10. ^ The Cambrigde ancient history, Volumes 1-4, p.400
  11. ^ African presence in early Asia, p.25
  12. ^ "The view of matriarchy as constituting a stage of cultural development now is generally discredited. Furthermore, the consensus among modern anthropologists and sociologists is that a strictly matriarchal society never existed." 'Matriarchy', Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  13. ^ Riane Eisler
  14. ^ Introduction to the "Second World Congress on Matriarchal Studies"
  15. ^ a b The Amazons
  16. ^ Jacobsen 1968:105.
  17. ^ Burkert, Walter. The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influences on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age 1993, p 92f.
  18. ^ Palmer, Abram Smythe .Babylonian influence on the Bible and popular beliefs : "Tĕhôm and Tiâmat", "Hades and Satan" : a comparative study of Genesis I. 2 (London, 1897)
  19. ^ ru:Лафито, Жозеф-Франсуа
  20. ^ L. Morgan, "Ancient Society Or Researches in the Lines of Human Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization"
  21. ^ "Argonauts Of The Western Pacific"
  22. ^ Citations from B.Malinowski "Argonauts of the Western Pacific": As a rule, amongst natives, a high position of women is associated with sex laxity [Southern Massim tribe:] The sexual life of these natives is extremely lax. Even when we remember the very free standard of sex morals in the Melanesian tribes of New Guinea, such as the Motu or the Mailu, we still find these natives exceedingly loose in such matters. Certain reserves and appearances which are usually kept up in other tribes, are here completely abandoned. As is probably the case in many communities where sex morals are lax, there is a complete absence of unnatural practices and sex perversions. Marriage is concluded as the natural end of a long and lasting liaison [Trobrianders:] ...their sexual life starts long before puberty arrives, and gradually shapes and develops as the organism matures... Chastity is an unknown virtue among these natives. At an incredibly early age they become initiated into sexual life... As they grow up, they live in promiscuous free-love, which gradually develops into more permanent attachments... Marriage is associated with hardly any public or private rite or ceremony. The woman simply joins her husband in his house... In her married life, the woman is supposed to remain faithful to her husband, but this rule is neither very strictly kept nor enforced. In all other ways, she retains a great measure of independence
  23. ^ Helen Diner Who wrote Mothers and Amazons (1930), entry at the Brooklyn Museum Dinner Party database of notable women. Accessed March 2008.
  24. ^ A first World Congress on Matriarchal Studies was held in 2003 in Luxembourg, Europe; it was sponsored by the Minister for Women's Affairs of Luxembourg, Marie-Josée Jacobs, and was organized and guided by Heide Goettner-Abendroth. A second one took place in 2005 in San Marcos, Texas, USA; it was sponsored by Genevieve Vaughan and again led by Heide Goettner-Abendroth.
  25. ^ a b Smith R.T. (2002) Matrifocality, in International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (eds) Smelser & Baltes, vol 14, pp 9416.
  26. ^ Strabo 5.504; Nicholas Damascenus.
  27. ^ Claudianus.
  28. ^ F. A. Ukert, Die Amazonen, Abhandlungen der philosophisch-philologischen Classe der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (1849), 63.

References

  • Bamberger, Joan. (1974). '"The Myth of Matriarchy: Why Men Rule in Primitive Society," in Woman, Culture, and Society, edited by Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere, pp. 263–280. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Brown, Donald. (1991). Human Universals. Philadelphia: Temple University Press
  • Czaplicka, Marie Antoinette. (1914). Aboriginal Siberia, a study in social anthropology. Oxford. Clarendon Press.
  • Davis, Philip, Goddess Unmasked, Spence Publishing, New York, 1998. ISBN 0-9653208-9-8; review: R. Sheaffer, Skeptical Inquirer (1999)[3]
  • del Giorgio, J.F. (2006). The Oldest Europeans. A.J.Place, ISBN 978-980-6898-00-4.
  • Eller, Cynthia (2001). The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Won't Give Women a Future. ISBN 0-8070-6793-8
  • Finley, M.I. (1962). The World of Odysseus. London. Pelican Books.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1991). "The Language of the Goddess".
  • Goldberg, Steven (1993) Why Men Rule: A Theory of Male Dominance, rev. ed. ISBN 0-8126-9237-3
  • Hutton, Ronald (1993). The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles ISBN 0-631-18946-7
  • Lapatin, Kenneth (2002). Mysteries of the Snake Goddess: Art, Desire, and the Forging of History. ISBN 0-306-81328-9
  • Sanday, Peggy Reeves. (2004). Woman at the Center: Life in a Modern Matriarchy. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8906-7
  • Shorrocks, Bryan. (2007). The Biology of African Savannahs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-857066-X
  • Stearns, Peter N. (2000). Gender in World History. New York Routledge. ISBN 0-415-22310-5
  • Smith R.T. (2002) Matrifocality, in International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (eds) Smelser & Baltes, vol 14, pp 9416.
  • Sukumar Raman, (2006). "A brief review of the status, distribution and biology of wild Asian elephants Elephas maximus." International Zoo Yearbook. (40)1; 1-8.
  • Yoshamya, Mitjel & Yoshamya, Zyelimer (2005). Gan-Veyan: Neo-Liburnic glossary, grammar, culture, genom. Old-Croatian Archidioms, Monograph I, p. 1 - 1224, Scientific society for Ethnogenesis studies, Zagreb.

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