Matter: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Matter

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the concept in physical sciences. For other uses, see Matter (disambiguation).
.Matter is a general term for the substance of which physical objects are made.^ But, it can be objected, all physical causation is ultimately to be explained in terms of atomic and subatomic occurrences.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MATTER, or MATERIAL SUBSTANCE, are terms introduced by philosophers; and, as used by them, imply a sort of independency, or a subsistence distinct from being perceived by a mind: but are never used by common people; or, if ever, it is to signify the immediate objects of sense.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ But it will be objected that, if there is no idea signified by the terms soul, spirit, and substance, they are wholly insignificant, or have no meaning in them.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

[1][2] .The term does not have single correct scientific meaning; different people in different fields use the term in different sometimes contradictory ways.^ I will not say that the terms idea and notion may not be used convertibly, if the world will have it so; but yet it conduceth to clearness and propriety that we distinguish things very different by different names.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ Such a tactic is just one way among several of stating the neutral identity theory in different words so that the current objection simply does not arise.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [We can say] that neurophysiological terms and the corresponding phenomenal terms, though widely differing in [meaning], and hence in the modes of confirmation of statements containing them, do have identical referents .
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.Whereas "matter" originally (in Aristotelian hylomorphism) referred not to an independent thing, but to a co-dependent "principle," the modern conception is that matter is a "substance" or entity unto itself, that is to say, it exists even apart from composing something else.^ How then came you to say, you conceived a house or tree existing independent and out of all minds whatsoever?
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That the proper objects of sight neither exist without mind, nor are the images of external things, was shewn even in that treatise.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ But philosophers, who have a greater extent of thought, and juster notions of the system of things, discover even the earth itself to be moved.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.Modern science identifies this "substance" through its physical properties; the most common current definition of matter is anything that has mass and occupies volume.^ MATTER - "Definitions: thing, affair, concern; material of thought, speech, or action XIII; substance serving as material XIV; physical or corporeal substance; XVII; things written or printed; subject of interest.
  • M/N 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: Reference]

^ What I can anything be more fantastical, more repugnant to Common Sense, or a more manifest piece of Scepticism, than to believe there is no such thing as matter?
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But because physical force is a product of mass and acceleration, whatever can exert physical force must have mass and must be capable of acceleration, that is, change of the rate of motion through space.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] .However, this definition has to be revised[citation needed] in light of quantum mechanics, where the concept of "having mass", and "occupying space" are not as well-defined as in everyday life.^ Place he defines to be that part of space which is occupied by any body; and according as the space is absolute or relative so also is the place.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.A more general view is that bodies are made of several substances, and the properties of matter (including mass and volume) are determined not only by the substances themselves, but by how they interact.^ By observing how ideas become general we may the better judge how words are made so.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The verdure of the country is much more perfect than is usual at this season of the year, when the autumnal hue has generally made considerable progress over trees and grass.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But in themselves they are only the motions and configurations of certain insensible particles of matter.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

In other words, matter is made up of interacting "building blocks",[4][5] the so-called particulate theory of matter.[6]
.Matter is commonly said to exist in four states (or phases): solid, liquid, gas and plasma.^ In the common sense of the word MATTER, is there any more implied than an extended, solid, figured, moveable substance, existing without the mind?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.However, advances in experimental technique have realized other phases, previously only theoretical constructs, such as Bose–Einstein condensates and Fermionic condensates.^ Finally to discover that he had only been dreaming of old age,--that he was really young, and could live such a life as he had pictured."
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such predictive power is important in another way because it enables the hypothesis postulating the theoretical entity to be tested by observation and experimentation, and thereby confirmed or disconfirmed.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I only say, there is no such thing as an intense real heat.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

A focus on an elementary-particle view of matter also leads to new phases of matter, such as the quark–gluon plasma.[7]
.In physics and chemistry, matter exhibits both wave-like and particle-like properties, the so-called wave–particle duality.^ Such properties are often called "emergent" properties, because they emerge only when certain sorts of complex physical systems have evolved from simpler material stuff.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Descartes suggested that the body works like a machine , that it has the material properties of extension and motion, and that it follows the laws of physics.
  • René_descartes encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8][9][10]
.In the realm of cosmology, extensions of the term matter are invoked to include dark matter and dark energy, concepts introduced to explain some odd phenomena of the observable universe, such as the galactic rotation curve.^ Such an entity is called a theoretical entity because it is an unobservable entity postulated as part of a theory designed to explain certain observed phenomena.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it certainly seems no matter how we explain the appropriateness of these actions, we shall not include a mental factor.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This I say, though we had some positive conception of Matter, though we knew its qualities, and could comprehend its existence, would yet be so far from explaining things, that it is itself the most inexplicable thing in the world.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.These exotic forms of "matter" do not refer to matter as "building blocks", but rather to currently poorly-understood forms of mass and energy.^ Being referred to the blacksmith, who owned one of these mills, the stranger said that he had come from Vermont to learn about the matter.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

[11]

Contents

Historical Development

Origins

.The pre-Socratics were among the first recorded speculators about the underlying nature of the visible world.^ First, then, it will be objected that by the foregoing principles all that is real and substantial in nature is banished out of the world, and instead thereof a chimerical scheme of ideas takes place.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

Thales (c. 624 BC–c. 546 BC) regarded water as the fundamental material of the world. Anaximander (c. 610 BC–c. 546 BC) posited that the basic material was wholly characterless or limitless: the Infinite (apeiron). Anaximenes (flourished 585 BC, d. 528 BC) posited that the basic stuff was pneuma or air. Heraclitus (c. 535–c. .475 BCE) seems to say the basic element is fire, though perhaps he means that all is change.^ HYL. But, after all, can anything be more absurd than to say, THERE IS NO HEAT IN THE FIRE? .
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ We say one book, one page, one line, etc.; all these are equally units, though some contain several of the others.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ His master rebuked him, but with kindness too, and not so that the dog felt himself bound to desist, though he seemed willing to allow his master all the time that could possibly be spared.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

Empedocles (c. 490–430 BC) spoke of four basic materials of which everything was made: earth, water, air, and fire.[12] .Meanwhile, Parmenides argued that change does not exist, and Democritus that everything is composed of minuscule, inert bodies of all shapes called atoms.^ If the latter, then we must acknowledge something new to befall the Deity; which implies a sort of change: and all change argues imperfection.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Each body therefore, considered in itself, is infinitely extended, and consequently void of all shape or figure.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ Matter, I say, and each particle thereof, is according to them infinite and shapeless, and it is the mind that frames all that variety of bodies which compose the visible world, any one whereof does not exist longer than it is perceived.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.All of these notion had deep philosophical problems.^ It is the view of many of these linguistic philosophers that language holds the key to the final termination the problems and puzzles that have perplexed philosophers for centuries.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

[13]
.Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) was the first to put the conception on a sound philosophical basis, which he did in his natural philosophy, especially in Physics book I.[14] He adopted as as reasonable suppositions the four Empedoclean elements, but added a fifth, aether.^ Descartes' first systematic presentation of his natural philosophy.
  • René_descartes encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Descartes is often regarded as the first modern thinker to provide a philosophical framework for the natural sciences as these began to develop.
  • René_descartes encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, it is plain philosophers amuse themselves in vain, when they inquire for any natural efficient cause, distinct from a mind or spirit.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

Nevertheless these elements are not basic in Aristotle's mind. .Rather they, like everything else in the visible world, are composed of the basic principles matter and form.^ They are in principle just like a machine such as a watch, although much more complicated.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Matter, I say, and each particle thereof, is according to them infinite and shapeless, and it is the mind that frames all that variety of bodies which compose the visible world, any one whereof does not exist longer than it is perceived.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ The existence of Matter, or bodies unperceived, has not only been the main support of Atheists and Fatalists, but on the same principle doth Idolatry likewise in all its various forms depend.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.The word Aristotle uses for matter, ὑλη (hyle or hule), can be literally translated as wood or timber, that is, "raw material" for building.^ It should also be noted that the word 'material,' rather than 'physical,'has been used throughout.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Associated spellings/words: methy, methu ['wine'] + hyle ['matter; wood'] (Greek)."
  • M/N 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Associated spellings/words: mead ['drink made by ferment- ing a mixture of honey and water'] + hule ['wood']."
  • M/N 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: Reference]

[15] Indeed, Aristotle's conception of matter is intrinsically linked to something being made or composed. .In other words, in contrast to the early modern conception of matter as simply occupying space, matter for Aristotle is definitionally linked to process or change: matter is what underlies a change of substance.^ PHIL. And doth not MATTER, in the common current acceptation of the word, signify an extended, solid, moveable, unthinking, inactive Substance?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Or, indeed, how could there be any proof at all one way or other, to a man who takes the liberty to unsettle and change the common signification of words?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In the common sense of the word MATTER, is there any more implied than an extended, solid, figured, moveable substance, existing without the mind?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.For example, a horse eats grass: the horse changes the grass into itself; the grass as such does not persist in the horse, but some aspect of it—its matter—does.^ PHIL. Again, have you not acknowledged that no real inherent property of any object can be changed without some change in the thing itself?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ I say, secondly, that, although we believe things to exist which we do not perceive, yet we may not believe that any particular thing exists, without some reason for such belief: but I have no reason for believing the existence of Matter.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ But still, methinks, I have some confused perception that there is such a thing as MATTER. .
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

The matter is not specifically described (e.g., as atoms), but consists of whatever persists in the change of substance from grass to horse. .Matter in this understanding does not exist independently (i.e., as a substance), but exists interdependently (i.e., as a "principle") with form and only insofar as it underlies change.^ By Matter, therefore, we are to understand an inert, senseless substance, in which extension, figure, and motion do actually subsist.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ Initially, Descartes arrives at only a single principle: thought exists.
  • René_descartes encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since, therefore, as well those degrees of heat that are not painful, as those that are, can exist only in a thinking substance; may we not conclude that external bodies are absolutely incapable of any degree of heat whatsoever?
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It can be helpful to conceive of the relationship of matter and form as very similar to that between parts and whole.^ They would be laws expressing a causal relationship between physical events in causal chains and mental events that are neither part of a causal chain nor causally affect some chain.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is therefore upon the whole no parity of case between Spirit and Matter.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ And indeed it seems to me very plain that the supposition of Matter, that is a thing perfectly unknown and inconceivable, cannot serve to make us conceive anything.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.For Aristotle, matter as such can only receive actuality from form; it has no activity or actuality in itself, similar to the way that parts as such only exist in a whole (otherwise they would be independent wholes).^ Or, if this will not do, how is it possible I should be assured of the reality of this thing, which I actually see in this place, by supposing that some unknown thing, which I never did or can see, exists after an unknown manner, in an unknown place, or in no place at all?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The string makes no difference to the total energy of the weight; but it makes all the difference in the world to the particular way in which the energy is distributed between the potential and the kinetic forms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What think you of TASTES, do they exist without the mind, or no?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

Early Modernity

René Descartes (1596–1650) was the originator of the modern conception of matter. Being a geometer, he redefined matter to be suitable for abstract, mathematical treatment as that which occupies space:
.So, extension in length, breadth, and depth, constitutes the nature of bodily substance; and thought constitutes the nature of thinking substance.^ He says: "We may thus easily have two clear and distinct notions or ideas, the one of created substance which thinks, the other of corporeal substance, provided we carefully separate all the attributes of thought from those of extension."
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

And everything else which can be attributed to body presupposes extension, and is only a mode of that which is extended

René Descartes, Principles of Philosophy[16]

.For Descartes, matter has only the property of extension, so its only activity aside from locomotion is to exclude other bodies: this is the mechanical philosophy.^ In other words, the knowledge claim is only one among many other factors that we must weigh in our evaluation of the various mind-body positions.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both replies state, essentially, that there is good reason to conclude that minds and bodies do not causally interact either because, according to the dualistic interactionist, they have only one property in common or because whatever other properties each has, they are not causally relevant to the other.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I tell you, extension is only a mode, and Matter is something that supports modes.
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Descartes makes an absolute distinction between mind, which he defines as unextended, thinking substance, and matter, which he defines as unthinking, extended substance.^ HYL. Is the mind extended or unextended?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ And, lastly, whether, in case I granted all you contend for, it would make anything to your purpose; it not being easy to conceive how the external or absolute existence of an unthinking substance, distinct from its being perceived, can be inferred from my allowing that there are certain things perceived by the mind of God, which are to Him the occasion of producing ideas in us?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ I do not quite see how he would make such a picture tell its own story;--but I find the idea suggestive to my own mind, and I think I could make something of it.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

[17] They are independent things. .In contrast, Aristotle defines matter and the formal/forming principle as complementary principles which together compose one independent thing (substance).^ To all which, and whatever else of the same sort may be objected, I answer, that by the principles premised we are not deprived of any one thing in nature.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ The only thing whose existence we deny is that which philosophers call Matter or corporeal substance.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ At a distance, mountain summits look close together, almost as if forming one mountain, though in reality a village lies in the depths between them.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

In short, Aristotle defines matter (roughly speaking) as what things are made of, but Descartes elevates matter to be a thing in itself.
.The continuity and difference between Descartes' and Aristotle's conceptions is noteworthy.^ According to Descartes we can clearly distinguish between three different kinds of substances: one the eternal substance God, and the other two, substances created by God.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.In both conceptions, matter is passive or inert.^ But when it is applied to Matter as above described, it can be taken in neither of those senses; for Matter is said to be passive and inert, and so cannot be an agent or efficient cause.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

In the respective conceptions matter has different relationships to intelligence. .For Aristotle, matter and intelligence (form) exist together in an interdependent relationship, whereas for Descartes, matter and intelligence (mind) are definitionally opposed, independent substances.^ How then came you to say, you conceived a house or tree existing independent and out of all minds whatsoever?
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ That neither our thoughts, nor passions, nor ideas formed by the imagination, exist without the mind, is what everybody will allow.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ Neither can it be denied that this tulip may exist independent of your mind or mine; but, that any immediate object of the senses,—that is, any idea, or combination of ideas—should exist in an unthinking substance, or exterior to ALL minds, is in itself an evident contradiction.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[18]
Isaac Newton (1643–1727) inherited Descartes' mechanical conception of matter, but added to it. .Newton restores to matter intrinsic properties in addition to extension (at least on a limited basis), such as mass.^ These include such properties as mass, weight, spatial location, specific electrical charge, and the like.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Newton viewed matter as "solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, movable particles", which were "even so very hard as never to wear or break in pieces."^ She is very vivacious and smart, laughing and singing and talking all the time,--talking sensibly; but still, taking the view of matters that a city girl naturally would.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

[19] .The "primary" properties of matter were amenable to mathematical description, unlike "secondary" qualities such as color or taste.^ For the clearer understanding of this, you must know sensible qualities are by philosophers divided into Primary and Secondary.
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, the very same arguments which you admitted as conclusive against the Secondary Qualities are, without any farther application of force, against the Primary too.
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some there are who make a distinction betwixt primary and secondary qualities.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

[19] .In the 19th century, following the development of the periodic table, and of atomic theory, atoms were seen as being the fundamental constituents of matter; atoms formed molecules and compounds.^ Hence it follows that when I examine, by my other senses, a thing I have seen, it is not in order to understand better the same object which I had perceived by sight, the object of one sense not being perceived by the other senses.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[20]

Later Developments

.The modern conception of matter has been refined many times in history, in light of the improvement in knowledge of just what the basic building blocks are, and in how they interact.^ How many different scenes it sheds light on?
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But because many causes are radically different from their effects, there is no reason to think mental events and brain events cannot causally interact merely because they are so different.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Light and colours, heat and cold, extension and figures- in a word the things we see and feel- what are they but so many sensations, notions, ideas, or impressions on the sense?
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

In the late 19th century with the discovery of the electron, and in the early 20th century, with the discovery of the atomic nucleus, and the birth of particle physics, matter was seen as made up of electrons, protons and neutrons interacting to form atoms. .Today, we know that even protons and neutrons are not indivisible, they can be divided into quarks, while electrons are part of a particle family called leptons.^ For the clearer understanding of this, you must know sensible qualities are by philosophers divided into Primary and Secondary.
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lights and shadows are continually flitting across my inward sky, and I know neither whence they come nor whither they go; nor do I inquire too closely into them.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the evening, she sits singing by the hour, with the musical part of the establishment, often breaking into laughter, whereto she is incited by the tricks of the boys.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

Both quarks and leptons are elementary particles, and are currently seen as being the fundamental constituents of matter.[21]
These quarks and leptons interact through four fundamental forces: gravity, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and strong interactions. .The Standard Model of particle physics is currently the best explanation for all of physics, but despite decades of efforts, gravity cannot yet be accounted for at the quantum-level; it is only described by classical physics (see quantum gravity and graviton).^ I cannot by any effort of thought conceive the abstract idea above described.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[22] Interactions between quarks and leptons are the result of an exchange of force-carrying particles (such as photons) between quarks and leptons.[23] The force-carrying particles are not themselves building blocks. .As one consequence, mass and energy (which cannot be created or destroyed) cannot always be related to matter (which can be created out of non-matter particles such as photons, or even out of pure energy, such as kinetic energy).^ As Chisholm points out, such ploys cannot be considered as providing behavioral analyses of psychological sentences because "In all probability .
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HYL. I must acknowledge the difficulties you are concerned to clear are such only as arise from the non-existence of Matter, and are peculiar to that notion.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ And even when a fish of reputable aspect is drawn out, one feels a shyness about touching him.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.Force carriers are usually not considered matter: the carriers of the electric force (photons) possess energy (see Planck relation) and the carriers of the weak force (W and Z bosons) are massive, but neither are considered matter either.^ It seems then you have no idea at all, neither relative nor positive, of Matter; you know neither what it is in itself, nor what relation it bears to accidents?
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PHIL. It seems then you have no idea at all, neither relative nor positive, of Matter; you know neither what it is in itself, nor what relation it bears to accidents?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[24] .However, while these particles are not considered matter, they do contribute to the total mass of atoms, subatomic particles, and all systems which contain them.^ It may be, however, that these sentences simply seem or sound odd or unusual to us now, but that they are not meaningless.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor are they empty or incomplete, otherwise than upon your supposition—that Matter is an essential part of all corporeal things.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ We say one book, one page, one line, etc.; all these are equally units, though some contain several of the others.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

[25][26]

Definitions

Common definition

The DNA molecule is an example of matter under the "atoms and molecules" definition.
.The common definition of matter is anything that has both mass and volume (occupies space).^ What I can anything be more fantastical, more repugnant to Common Sense, or a more manifest piece of Scepticism, than to believe there is no such thing as matter?
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HYL. What I can anything be more fantastical, more repugnant to Common Sense, or a more manifest piece of Scepticism, than to believe there is no such thing as MATTER? .
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[27][28] For example, a car would be said to be made of matter, as it occupies space, and has mass.
The observation that matter occupies space goes back to antiquity. However, an explanation for why matter occupies space is recent, and is argued to be a result of the Pauli exclusion principle.[29][30] .Two particular examples where the exclusion principle clearly relates matter to the occupation of space are white dwarf stars and neutron stars, discussed further below.^ They claim only that these two different kinds of terms have the same referents , not that they have the same meanings , They claim, for example, that the expression 'brain process' has the same referents as the expression 'sensation,' but the two are clearly different in meaning.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Amount of substance

The international standards organization Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) uses the terminology "amount of substance", rather than "matter". To quote the SI brochure:[31]
."Amount of substance is defined to be proportional to the number of specified elementary entities in a sample, the proportionality constant being a universal constant which is the same for all samples.^ Besides, if you will trust your senses, is it not plain all sensible qualities coexist, or to them appear as being in the same place?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Both the forty-ninth state and Alaska have all the same properties, such as the properties of being the most northerly state, the largest state, and the state nearest Russia.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The same may be said of all other real things, or corporeal substances, which compose the world.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.The unit of amount of substance is called the mole, symbol mol, and the mole is defined by specifying the mass of carbon 12 that constitutes one mole of carbon 12 atoms.^ METH /p - "Pertaining to an atom grouping that contains only one carbon atom."
  • M/N 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: Reference]

^ "Definitions: wine from wood; wood alchohol, poisonous substance, containing only one carbon atom in its molecule, obtained from heating wood in the absence of air.
  • M/N 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: Reference]

By international agreement this was fixed at 0.012 kg, i.e. 12 g.
  • 1. The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12; its symbol is "mol".
  • 2. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles."

Atoms and molecules definition

.A definition of "matter" that is based upon its physical and chemical structure is: matter is made up of atoms and molecules.^ Ducasse's third reason is based on an important truth, namely, nothing in the definition of 'causation' entails that all cases of causation involve a transfer of physical energy.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First Scientific Objection: Interaction Violates Conservation of Energy Principle The first scientific objection is based upon the principle of the conservation of energy, which states that the amount of energy in a closed physical system remains constant.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Definitions: wine from wood; wood alchohol, poisonous substance, containing only one carbon atom in its molecule, obtained from heating wood in the absence of air.
  • M/N 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: Reference]

.This definition is consistent with the BIPM definition of "amount of substance" above, but is more specific about the constituents of matter.^ He can bring Mr. E---- to no terms, and the more they talk about the matter, the further they appear to be from a settlement.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the common sense of the word MATTER, is there any more implied than an extended, solid, figured, moveable substance, existing without the mind?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

(For further discussion, see the Discussion and background and Quarks and leptons definition sections). .As an example, deoxyribonucleic acid molecules (DNA) are matter under this definition because they are made of atoms.^ But, we are told, if they seem obvious and easy to grown men, it is only because by constant and familiar use they are made so.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ You cannot argue that there are really and naturally no colours on objects: because by artificial managements they may be altered, or made to vanish.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If they seem so to grown men it is only because by constant and familiar use they are made so.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.This definition can be extended to include charged atoms and molecules, so as to include plasmas (gases of ions) and electrolytes (ionic solutions), which are not obviously included in the atoms and molecules definition.^ "Definitions: wine from wood; wood alchohol, poisonous substance, containing only one carbon atom in its molecule, obtained from heating wood in the absence of air.
  • M/N 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: Reference]

Alternatively, one can adopt the protons, neutrons and electrons definition.

Protons, neutrons and electrons definition

.A definition of "matter" more fine-scale than the atoms and molecules definition is: matter is made up of what atoms and molecules are made of, meaning anything made of protons, neutrons, and electrons.^ Can there be anything more extravagant than this?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The verdure of the country is much more perfect than is usual at this season of the year, when the autumnal hue has generally made considerable progress over trees and grass.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have seldom seen anything more beautiful than the cove on the border of which the huts are situated; and the more I looked, the lovelier it grew.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

[32] .This definition goes beyond atoms and molecules, however, to include substances made from these building blocks that are not simply atoms or molecules, for example white dwarf matter — typically, carbon and oxygen nuclei in a sea of degenerate electrons.^ It may be, however, that these sentences simply seem or sound odd or unusual to us now, but that they are not meaningless.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it certainly seems no matter how we explain the appropriateness of these actions, we shall not include a mental factor.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Examples of these would include, say, the achiness of a pain, or the yellowish color of a visual afterimage.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

At a microscopic level, the constituent "particles" of matter such as protons, neutrons and electrons obey the laws of quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality. .At an even deeper level, protons and neutrons are made up of quarks and the force fields (gluons) that bind them together (see Quarks and leptons definition below).^ In the evening, the company at the hotel made up two whist parties, at one of which I sat down,--my partner being an agreeable young lady from Portsmouth.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These hues appeared to be thrown together without design; and yet there was perfect harmony among them, and a softness and a delicacy made up of a thousand different brightnesses.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

Quarks and leptons definition

Under the "quarks and leptons" definition, the elementary and composite particles made of the quarks (in purple) and leptons (in green) would be "matter"; while the gauge bosons (in red) would not be "matter". However, interaction energy inherent to composite particles (for example, gluons involved in neutrons and protons) contribute to the mass of ordinary matter.
.As may be seen from the above discussion, many early definitions of what can be called ordinary matter were based upon its structure or "building blocks". On the scale of elementary particles, a definition that follows this tradition can be stated as: ordinary matter is everything that is composed of elementary fermions, namely quarks and leptons.[33][34] The connection between these formulations follows.^ In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul , a treatise on the Early Modern version of what are now commonly called emotions, he goes so far as to assert that he will write on his topic "as if no one had written on these matters before".
  • René_descartes encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is therefore upon the whole no parity of case between Spirit and Matter.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Third Philosophical Objection: The Problem of Other Minds The third objection is based upon what is called the problem of other minds.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Leptons (the most famous being the electron), and quarks (of which baryons, such as protons and neutrons, are made) combine to form atoms, which in turn form molecules.^ Both the forty-ninth state and Alaska have all the same properties, such as the properties of being the most northerly state, the largest state, and the state nearest Russia.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Often the rocks are broken, square and angular, so as to form a kind of staircase; though, for the most part, such as would require a giant stride to ascend them.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.Because atoms and molecules are said to be matter, it is natural to phrase the definition as: ordinary matter is anything that is made of the same things that atoms and molecules are made of.^ PHIL. That there is no such thing as what PHILOSOPHERS CALL MATERIAL SUBSTANCE, I am seriously persuaded: but, if I were made to see anything absurd or sceptical in this, I should then have the same reason to renounce this that I imagine I have now to reject the contrary opinion.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ This reductive claim states more than that each sensation is the same thing as some brain process, because the use of the phrase 'nothing over and above' also implies that sensations have only the physiological properties of certain brain processes.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But, in both cases, my aim is only to know what ideas are connected together; and the more a man knows of the connexion of ideas, the more he is said to know of the nature of things.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.(However, notice that one also can make from these building blocks matter that is not atoms or molecules.^ Being referred to the blacksmith, who owned one of these mills, the stranger said that he had come from Vermont to learn about the matter.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The burial-ground is on one of them, and there is another, on the summit of which appears a single tombstone, as if there were something natural in making these hills the repositories of the dead.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Definitions: wine from wood; wood alchohol, poisonous substance, containing only one carbon atom in its molecule, obtained from heating wood in the absence of air.
  • M/N 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: Reference]

) .Then, because electrons are leptons, and protons and neutrons are made of quarks, this definition in turn leads to the definition of matter as being "quarks and leptons", which are the two types of elementary fermions.^ When you have climbed it on one side, and gaze from the summit at the other, you feel as if you had made a discovery,--the landscape being quite different on the two sides.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the evening, the company at the hotel made up two whist parties, at one of which I sat down,--my partner being an agreeable young lady from Portsmouth.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.Carithers and Grannis state: Ordinary matter is composed entirely of first-generation particles, namely the [up] and [down] quarks, plus the electron and its neutrino.[35] (Higher generations particles quickly decay into first-generation particles, and thus are not commonly encountered.^ The first states that because humans have evolved from primitive particles which were material only and had no minds, humans themselves have no minds.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has filled up, so far as it is filled, by the soil being washed down from the higher ground on each side.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thing or Being is the most general name of all; it comprehends under it two kinds entirely distinct and heterogeneous, and which have nothing common but the name.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

[36])
.This definition of ordinary matter is more subtle than it first appears.^ What I can anything be more fantastical, more repugnant to Common Sense, or a more manifest piece of Scepticism, than to believe there is no such thing as matter?
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The yeomen appeared to be more in their element than I have ever seen them anywhere else, except, indeed, at labor,--more so than at musterings and such gatherings of amusement.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HYL. What I can anything be more fantastical, more repugnant to Common Sense, or a more manifest piece of Scepticism, than to believe there is no such thing as MATTER? .
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.All the particles that make up ordinary matter (leptons and quarks) are elementary fermions, while all the force carriers are elementary bosons.^ This morning shone as bright as if it meant to make up for all the dismalness of the past days.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

[37]. .The W and Z bosons that mediate the weak force are not made of quarks or leptons, and so are not ordinary matter, even if they have mass.^ This annoyance has made me endure the bad weather with even less than ordinary patience; and my faith was so far exhausted that, when they told me yesterday that the sun was setting clear, I would not even turn my eyes towards the west.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If they demonstrate an unlimited power in their cause; God is active and omnipotent, but Matter an inert mass.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[38] In other words, mass is not something that is exclusive to ordinary matter.
.The quark–lepton definition of ordinary matter, however, identifies not only the elementary building blocks of matter, but also includes composites made from the constituents (atoms and molecules, for example).^ There are others, however, who say that no matter how difficult it may be to find adequate contextual definitions of this kind, it can nevertheless be done.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Definitions: wine from wood; wood alchohol, poisonous substance, containing only one carbon atom in its molecule, obtained from heating wood in the absence of air.
  • M/N 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: Reference]

.Such composites contain an interaction energy that holds the constituents together, and may constitute the bulk of the mass of the composite.^ This may be what happens but it is highly unlikely that the many, many gains and losses of energy that supposedly result from millions of mind-body interactions all balance out evenly.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But, as the several qualities united or blended together form entire sensible things, nothing hinders why such things may not be supposed to exist without the mind.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

As an example, to a great extent, the mass of an atom is simply the sum of the masses of its constituent protons, neutrons and electrons. .However, digging deeper, the protons and neutrons are made up of quarks bound together by gluon fields (see dynamics of quantum chromodynamics) and these gluons fields contribute significantly to the mass of hadrons.^ These hues appeared to be thrown together without design; and yet there was perfect harmony among them, and a softness and a delicacy made up of a thousand different brightnesses.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

[39] In other words most of what composes the "mass" of ordinary matter is due to the binding energy of quarks within protons and neutrons.[40] For example, the sum of the mass of the three quarks in a nucleon is approximately 12.5 MeV/c2, which is low compared to the mass of a nucleon (approximately 938 MeV/c2).[36][41] The bottom line is that most of the mass of everyday objects comes from the interaction energy of its elementary components.

Smaller building blocks?

“In the past, the search for building blocks of matter has led us to more and more 'elementary' entities – from the molecule to the atom, to the nucleus and electrons, to the nucleons, and eventually to the quarks. .Have we completed this 'onion peeling' process ... ?”[42] The Standard Model groups matter particles into three generations, where each generation consists of two quarks and two leptons.^ Thoreau tells me that these noisy assemblages consist of three different species of blackbirds; but I forget the other two.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not, I think, the most ancient families that have tombs,--their ancestry for two or three generations having been reposited in the earth before such a luxury as a tomb was thought of.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He sees what she is about, and contrives matters so that she throws herself completely into his power, and is ruined,--all in jest.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

The first generation is the up and down quarks, the electron and the electron neutrino; the second includes the charm and strange quarks, the muon and the muon neutrino; the third generation consists of the top and bottom quarks and the tauon and tauon neutrino.[43] “... the most natural explanation to the existence of higher generations of quarks and leptons is that they correspond to excited states of the first generation, and experience suggests that excited systems must be composite.”[42]

Discussion and background

.The common definition in terms of occupying space and having mass is in contrast with most physical and chemical definitions of matter, which rely instead upon its structure and upon attributes not necessarily related to volume and mass.^ But because physical force is a product of mass and acceleration, whatever can exert physical force must have mass and must be capable of acceleration, that is, change of the rate of motion through space.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, although this first objection may have been refuted, there remains the problem of explaining the meaning of 'relation B' without having to rely on psychological terms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But how can physical force be exerted upon that which has no mass, no size, no spatial r location?
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

James Clerk Maxwell discussed matter in his work Matter and Motion.[44] .He carefully separates "matter" from space and time, and defines it in terms of the object referred to in Newton's first law of motion.^ PHIL. Consequently the same body may to another seem to perform its motion over any space in half the time that it doth to you.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, the will is termed the motion of the soul; this infuses a belief that the mind of man is as a ball in motion, impelled and determined by the objects of sense, as necessarily as that is by the stroke of a racket.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ Is not the motion of a body swift in a reciprocal proportion to the time it takes up in describing any given space?
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

In the 19th century, the term "matter" was actively discussed by a host of scientists and philosophers, and a brief outline can be found in Levere.[45] A textbook discussion from 1870 suggests matter is what is made up of atoms:[46]
Three divisions of matter are recognized in science: masses, molecules and atoms.
A Mass of matter is any portion of matter appreciable by the senses.
A Molecule is the smallest particle of matter into which a body can be divided without losing its identity.
An Atom is a still smaller particle produced by division of a molecule.
.Rather than simply having the attributes of mass and occupying space, matter was held to have chemical and electrical properties.^ These include such properties as mass, weight, spatial location, specific electrical charge, and the like.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The famous physicist J. J. Thomson wrote about the "constitution of matter" and was concerned with the possible connection between matter and electrical charge.^ Instead, the question concerns whether such causal connections, between the mental and the material, are immediate or proximate and Broad's example does not really bear on this question at all.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

[47] There is an entire literature concerning the "structure of matter", ranging from the "electrical structure" in the early 20th century,[48] to the more recent "quark structure of matter", introduced today with the remark: Understanding the quark structure of matter has been one of the most important advances in contemporary physics.[49] In this connection, physicists speak of matter fields, and speak of particles as "quantum excitations of a mode of the matter field".[8][9] And here is a quote from de Sabbata and Gasperini: "With the word "matter" we denote, in this context, the sources of the interactions, that is spinor fields (like quarks and leptons), which are believed to be the fundamental components of matter, or scalar fields, like the Higgs particles, which are used to introduced mass in a gauge theory (and which, however, could be composed of more fundamental fermion fields)."[50]
.The term "matter" is used throughout physics in a bewildering variety of contexts: for example, one refers to "condensed matter physics",[51] "elementary matter",[52] "partonic" matter, "dark" matter, "anti"-matter, "strange" matter, and "nuclear" matter.^ HYL. True, but that is only one sense of the term MATTER. .
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Psychological terms and certain physicalistic terms refer to, or denote, or name the very same entities, namely, certain physical processes in human bodies.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Being referred to the blacksmith, who owned one of these mills, the stranger said that he had come from Vermont to learn about the matter.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

In discussions of matter and antimatter, normal matter has been referred to by Alfvén as koinomatter.[53] .It is fair to say that in physics, there is no broad consensus as to an exact definition of matter, and the term "matter" usually is used in conjunction with some modifier.^ Thus interactionism is not committed to what there is reason to think is false, namely, that there is a gap between some neural events and others, a gap no neural event fills.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the dualist says that mental objects have purely mental properties, and perhaps some that are neither mental nor material, and no others, the reductive materialist claims that mental objects have purely material properties (and perhaps some that are neither mental nor material properties), and no others .
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HYL. But, after all, can anything be more absurd than to say, THERE IS NO HEAT IN THE FIRE? .
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

Phases of ordinary matter

A solid metal cup containing liquid nitrogen slowly evaporating into gaseous nitrogen. Evaporation is the phase transition from a liquid state to a gas state.
Phase diagram for a typical substance at a fixed volume. Vertical axis is Pressure, horizontal axis is Temperature. The green line marks the freezing point (above the green line is solid, below it is liquid) and the blue line the boiling point (above it is liquid and below it is gas). So, for example, at higher T, a higher P is necessary to maintain the substance in liquid phase. At the triple point the three phases; liquid, gas and solid; can coexist. .Above the critical point there is no detectable difference between the phases.^ If there is no difference between them, how can this be accounted for?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The string makes no difference to the total energy of the weight; but it makes all the difference in the world to the particular way in which the energy is distributed between the potential and the kinetic forms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HYL. You have indeed clearly satisfied me—either that there is no difficulty at bottom in this point; or, if there be, that it makes equally against both opinions.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

The dotted line shows the anomalous behavior of water: ice melts at constant temperature with increasing pressure.[54]
.In bulk, matter can exist in several different forms, or states of aggregation, known as phases,[55] depending on ambient pressure, temperature and volume.^ But, as the several qualities united or blended together form entire sensible things, nothing hinders why such things may not be supposed to exist without the mind.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ But allowing Matter to exist, and the notion of absolute existence to be clear as light; yet, was this ever known to make the creation more credible?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In effect, it is something imperfect that cannot exist, an idea wherein some parts of several different and inconsistent ideas are put together.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

[56] .A phase is a form of matter that has a relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (such as density, specific heat, refractive index, and so forth).^ It is a consequence of this theory that things such as pain have both sorts of properties: mental properties such as achiness, as well as material properties such as a specific electrical charge.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, such a being falls within the subject matter of physics.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such properties are often called "emergent" properties, because they emerge only when certain sorts of complex physical systems have evolved from simpler material stuff.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.These phases include the three familiar ones (solids, liquids, and gases), as well as more exotic states of matter ( such as plasmas, superfluids, supersolids, Bose–Einstein condensates, ...^ This theory, then, claims that although there are many true sentences using psychological terms, we do not have to infer from this that these terms refer to mental objects, events, and states, because we can reformulate every one of these sentences in such a way that we use only terms that refer to material objects, events, and states.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I like him well enough, however; but, after all, these originals in a small way, after one has seen a few of them, become more dull and commonplace than even those who keep the ordinary pathway of life.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HYL. What I can anything be more fantastical, more repugnant to Common Sense, or a more manifest piece of Scepticism, than to believe there is no such thing as MATTER? .
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

). A fluid may be a liquid, gas or plasma. There are also paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases of magnetic materials. .As conditions change, matter may change from one phase into another.^ Phases of matter Changes of states o...
  • Matter Definition | Definition of Matter at Dictionary.com 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The special properties of matter, on the other hand, depend on internal structure and thus differ from one form of matter, i.e., one substance, to another.
  • Matter - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But, that one thing may stand under or support another, must it not be extended?
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

These phenomena are called phase transitions, and are studied in the field of thermodynamics. .In nanomaterials, the vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume results in matter that can exhibit properties entirely different from those of bulk material, and not well described by any bulk phase (see nanomaterials for more details).^ But Spinoza disagrees with materialists when he goes on to claim that what is conceived in these two different ways is neither mental nor material because it has both physical properties and mental properties.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To help understand the difference between the neutral identity theory and reductive materialism, it will be helpful to revert to the chart used earlier (see p.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I might as well doubt of my own being, as of the being of those things I actually see and feel.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

Phases are sometimes called states of matter, but this term can lead to confusion with thermodynamic states. .For example, two gases maintained at different pressures are in different thermodynamic states (different pressures), but in the same phase (both are gases).^ According to this principle, objects that may seem to be different from each other are really identical if "both" have all the same properties, and if they are identical, then both have all the same properties.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But Spinoza disagrees with materialists when he goes on to claim that what is conceived in these two different ways is neither mental nor material because it has both physical properties and mental properties.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ J. J. C. Smart maintains a thesis much the same as Feigl's, but he states it specifically in terms of sensations and brain nrocesses.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Solid

.Solids are characterized by a tendency to retain their structural integrity; if left on their own, they will not spread in the same way gas or liquids would.^ There would, consequently, be different results in the brain, which would in turn have different bodily results, so that the body would be affected in many different ways given the same input of energy.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the men bestowed half as much care on their own personal cleanliness, they would be all the better and healthier men therefor.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They would have certain physiological properties because of their causal role in physiological explanations, but they also could have those purely psychological properties that each person so intimately experiences them to have in his own case.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many solids, like rocks and concrete, have very high hardness and rigidity and will tend to break or shatter when subject to various forms of stress, but others like steel and paper are more flexible and will bend.^ He looks more like a German--or, as he says, like a Swiss--than a Frenchman, having very light hair and a light complexion, and not a French expression.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, the knowledge claim is only one among many other factors that we must weigh in our evaluation of the various mind-body positions.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As fast as it went on, the foam subsided behind it, so that it looked somewhat like a sea-serpent, or other monster, swimming very rapidly.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

Solids are often composed of crystals, glasses, or long chain molecules (e.g. rubber and paper). Some solids are amorphous such as glass. A common example of a solid is the solid form of water, ice.

Liquid

In a liquid, the constituents frequently are touching, but able to move around each other. So unlike a gas, it has cohesion and viscosity. Compared to a solid, the forces holding constituents together are weaker, and it is not rigid, but adapts a shape decided by its container. Liquids are hard to compress. A common example is water.

Gas

A gas is a state of aggregation without cohesion; a vapor. .Thus a gas has no resistance to changing shape (beyond the inertia of its constituents, which have to be knocked aside).^ They thus would have no size, shape, weight, mass, or spatial location.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus attaching strings of different length to the weight changes the course of the weight but in no way affects the overall amount of energy of the weight.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

The distance between constituent particles is flexible, determined, for example, by the size of a container and the number of particles, not by internal forces. A common example is the vapor form of water, steam.

Plasma

Plasma is a fourth state of matter consisting of an overall charge-neutral mix of electrons, ions and neutral atoms.[57] .The plasma exhibits behavior peculiar to long range Coulomb forces in which the particles move in electromagnetic fields generated by and self-consistent with their own motions.^ And, after all their labour and struggle of thought, they are forced to own we cannot attain to any self-evident or demonstrative knowledge of the existence of sensible things.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ Fourthly, true motion is always changed by force impressed on the body moved.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.The sun and stars are plasmas, as is the Earth's ionosphere, and plasmas occur in neon signs.^ PHIL. Moses mentions the sun, moon, and stars, earth and sea, plants and animals.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

Plasmas of deuterium and tritium ions are used in fusion reactions.[58] The term plasma was applied for the first time by Tonks and Langmuir in 1929, to the inner regions of a glowing ionized gas produced by electric discharge in a tube.[59]

Bose–Einstein condensate

.This state of matter was first discovered by Satyendra Nath Bose, who sent his work on statistics of photons to Albert Einstein for comment.^ Not that there would not be much evil discovered there; but, as he was conscious of being in a state of mental and moral improvement, working out his progress onward, he would not shrink from such a scrutiny.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.Following publication of Bose's paper, Einstein extended his treatment to massive particles fixed in number, and predicted this fifth state of matter in 1925. Bose–Einstein condensates were first realized experimentally by several different scientific groups in 1995 for rubidium, sodium, and lithium, using a combination of laser and evaporative cooling.^ The peculiar weariness and depression of spirits which is felt after a day wasted in turning over a magazine or other light miscellany, different from the state of the mind after severe study; because there has been no excitement, no difficulties to be overcome, but the spirits have evaporated insensibly.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence, it follows there is an infinite number of parts in each particle of Matter which are not perceived by sense.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus there are only a finite number of different human brain states.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

[60] Bose–Einstein condensation for atomic hydrogen was achieved in 1998.[61]
.The Bose–Einstein condensate is a liquid-like superfluid that occurs at low temperatures in which all atoms occupy the same quantum state.^ It was like a day-dream to look at it; and the students ought to be day-dreamers, all of them,--when cloud-land is one and the same thing with the substantial earth.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Going farther forward, on the same level, we come to the crew's department, part of which is occupied by the cooking-establishment, where all sorts of cooking is going on for the officers and men.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both the forty-ninth state and Alaska have all the same properties, such as the properties of being the most northerly state, the largest state, and the state nearest Russia.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

In low-density systems, it occurs at or below 10−5 K.[61]

Fermionic condensate

A fermonic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures. It is closely related to the Bose–Einstein condensate under similar conditions. Unlike the Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates are formed using fermions instead of bosons. .The earliest recognized fermionic condensate described the state of electrons in a superconductor; the physics of other examples including recent work with fermionic atoms is analogous.^ Each of us thinks that he knows that there are other persons, beings with minds as well as bodies, beings who perform mental as well as physical acts and who are in both mental and physical states.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

The first atomic fermionic condensate was created in 2003.[62] These atomic fermionic condensates are studied at temperatures in the vicinity of 50–350 nK.[63]
A hypothetical fermionic condensate that appears in theories of massless fermions with chiral symmetry breaking is the chiral condensate or the quark condensate.[64]
A model of a neutron star's internal structure. (Other models exist.[65]) At a depth of about 10 km the core becomes a superfluid liquid primarily of neutrons. The section at the left shows density vs. radius. Data from Luminet et al.[66]

Core of a neutron star

.Because of its extreme density, the core of a neutron star falls under no other state of matter.^ No one hesitates to hold that draughts and colds in the head are causally connected, although the two are extremely unlike each other.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And you must expect no other to all the questions you put for the future about Matter.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The peculiar weariness and depression of spirits which is felt after a day wasted in turning over a magazine or other light miscellany, different from the state of the mind after severe study; because there has been no excitement, no difficulties to be overcome, but the spirits have evaporated insensibly.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

While a white dwarf is about as massive as the sun (up to 1.4 solar masses, the Chandrasekhar limit), the Pauli exclusion principle prevents its collapse to smaller radius, and it becomes an example of degenerate matter. In contrast, neutron stars are between 1.5 and 3 solar masses, and achieve such density that the protons and electrons are crushed to become neutrons. .Neutrons are fermions, so further collapse is prevented by the exclusion principle, forming so-called neutron degenerate matter.^ The existence of Matter, or bodies unperceived, has not only been the main support of Atheists and Fatalists, but on the same principle doth Idolatry likewise in all its various forms depend.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

[67][68]
Phases of nuclear matter; Compare with Siemens & Jensen.[69]
Relativistic gold ions collide to make a hadronic fireball; frame from animation by Brookhaven National Laboratory (RHIC)

Quark–gluon plasma

Gluons are elementary particles that cause quarks to interact, and are indirectly responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei. .The quark–gluon plasma is a hypothetical phase of matter, a phase of matter as yet not observed, supposed to exist in the early universe and to have evolved into a hadronic-gas phase.^ PHIL. Pray where do you suppose this unknown Matter to exist?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ I say, secondly, that, although we believe things to exist which we do not perceive, yet we may not believe that any particular thing exists, without some reason for such belief: but I have no reason for believing the existence of Matter.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ But secondly, though we should grant this unknown substance may possibly exist, yet where can it be supposed to be?
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

[70] .At extremely high energy the strong force is anticipated to become so weak that the atomic nuclei break down into a bunch of loose quarks, which distinguishes the quark–gluon phase from normal plasma.^ He knocked off one of the bunches, and carrying it home, or to a camp, or wherever he lived, he put it on the fire, and melted it down into clear lead.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

In collisions of relativistic heavy ions, a phase transition occurs from the nuclear, hadronic phase to a matter phase consisting of quarks and gluons. So far, experimental results have shown that instead of a weakly interacting plasma, an almost ideal liquid is produced.[7][71] An animation can be found at Gold ion collision @ RHIC.

Transparent Aluminum

.In 2009, scientists from Oxford University led an international team in using the FLASH laser synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany to create a new state of matter, transparent aluminum.^ I suppose they used to emigrate across the border, while New York was a slave State.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

Using a short pulse from the FLASH laser, they removed a core electron from each aluminium atom, but did not destroy or disrupt the metal’s crystalline structure. What resulted was an aluminum that was almost invisible to ultraviolet radiation. Scientists involved in the discovery suggest that this will aid in further research concerning planetary science and nuclear fusion. The effect on the aluminum lasted for 40 femtoseconds.[72]

Structure of ordinary matter

In particle physics, fermions are particles which obey Fermi–Dirac statistics. Fermions can be elementary, like the electron, or composite, like the proton and the neutron. .In the Standard Model there are two types of elementary fermions: quarks and leptons, which are discussed next.^ Dualists allow that there are two different types of entities, mental and material.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Quarks

Quarks are a particles of spin-12, implying that they are fermions. .They carry an electric charge of −13 e (down-type quarks) or +23 e (up-type quarks).^ Sometimes, it is said, while laboring up the mountain-side, they suddenly burst, and pour down their moisture in a cataract, sweeping all before it.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

For comparison, an electron has a charge of −1 e. They also carry colour charge, which is the equivalent of the electric charge for the strong interaction. .Quarks also undergo radioactive decay, meaning that they are subject to the weak interaction.^ They are trees of Paradise, and therefore not naturally subject to decay; but have lost their birthright by being transplanted hither.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

Quarks are massive particles, and therefore are also subject to gravity.
Quark properties[73]
name symbol spin electric charge
(e)
mass
(MeV/c2)
mass comparable to antiparticle antiparticle
symbol
up-type quarks
up u 12 +23 1.5 to 3.3 ~ 5 electrons antiup u
charm c 12 +23 1160 to 1340 ~ 1 proton anticharm c
top t 12 +23 169,100 to 173,300 ~ 180 protons or
~ 1 tungsten atom
antitop t
down-type quarks
down d 12 13 3.5 to 6.0 ~ 10 electrons antidown d
strange s 12 13 70 to 130 ~ 200 electrons antistrange s
bottom b 12 13 4130 to 4370 ~ 5 protons antibottom b
Quark structure of a proton: 2 up quarks and 1 down quark.

Baryonic matter

Baryons are strongly interacting fermions, and so are subject to Fermi-Dirac statistics. .Amongst the baryons are the protons and neutrons, which occur in atomic nuclei, but many other unstable baryons exist as well.^ That there are many names in use amongst speculative men which do not always suggest to others determinate, particular ideas, or in truth anything at all, is what nobody will deny.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The classical exposition of this theory occurs in the philosophy of Hobbes, although Hobbes, like many other materialists as we shall see, has trouble being completely consistent.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many other advantages there are, as well with regard to religion as the sciences, which it is easy for any one to deduce from what has been premised; but this will appear more plainly in the sequel.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.The term baryon is usually used to refer to triquarks — particles made of three quarks.^ In each case he shows either that the analysans is not synonymous with the belief sentence, or that it has been made synonymous only by using some technical term that is not needed to describe merely bodily phenomena.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

."Exotic" baryons made of four quarks and one antiquark are known as the pentaquarks, but their existence is not generally accepted.^ But it seems that a word becomes general by being made the sign, not of an abstract general idea, but of several particular ideas, any one of which it indifferently suggests to the mind.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.Baryonic matter is the part of the universe that is made of baryons (including all atoms).^ Nor are they empty or incomplete, otherwise than upon your supposition—that Matter is an essential part of all corporeal things.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ This is because by 'physical' we shall mean 'part of the subject matter of the physical sciences,' and it may well be that not all physical objects are material objects.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.This part of the universe does not include dark energy, dark matter, black holes or various forms of degenerate matter, such as compose white dwarf stars and neutron stars.^ Often the rocks are broken, square and angular, so as to form a kind of staircase; though, for the most part, such as would require a giant stride to ascend them.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence, it does not really matter whether a mental event, such as a decision or the occurrence of a thought, is itself the immediate cause of some bodily behavior.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The existence of Matter, or bodies unperceived, has not only been the main support of Atheists and Fatalists, but on the same principle doth Idolatry likewise in all its various forms depend.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.Microwave light seen by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), suggests that only about 4.6% of that part of the universe within range of the best telescopes (that is, matter that may be visible because light could reach us from it), is made of baryionic matter.^ Then we could hear them within the hut, gabbling merrily, and could see them moving about briskly in the candlelight, through the window and open door.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe I did not have any fantasies about the ghostly kitchen-maid; but I trust Mary left the flat-irons within her reach, so that she may do all her ironing while we are away, and never disturb us more at midnight.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PHIL. Now, is it not plain that if we suppose a man born blind was on a sudden made to see, he could at first have no experience of what may be SUGGESTED by sight?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

About 23% is dark matter, and about 72% is dark energy.[74]
A comparison between the white dwarf IK Pegasi B (center), its A-class companion IK Pegasi A (left) and the Sun (right). This white dwarf has a surface temperature of 35,500 K.

Degenerate matter

.In physics, degenerate matter refers to the ground state of a gas of fermions at a temperature near absolute zero.^ And, if Matter, in such a sense, be proved impossible, may it not be thought with good grounds absolutely impossible?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[75] .The Pauli exclusion principle requires that only two fermions can occupy a quantum state, one spin-up and the other spin-down.^ No one hesitates to hold that draughts and colds in the head are causally connected, although the two are extremely unlike each other.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As he walked down the gravel-path to-day, after dinner, he took up a scythe, which one of the mowers had left on the sward, and began to mow, with quite a scientific swing.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, the knowledge claim is only one among many other factors that we must weigh in our evaluation of the various mind-body positions.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hence, at zero temperature, the fermions fill up sufficient levels to accommodate all the available fermions, and for the case of many fermions the maximum kinetic energy called the Fermi energy and the pressure of the gas becomes very large and dependent upon the number of fermions rather than the temperature, unlike normal states of matter.^ The string makes no difference to the total energy of the weight; but it makes all the difference in the world to the particular way in which the energy is distributed between the potential and the kinetic forms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This may be what happens but it is highly unlikely that the many, many gains and losses of energy that supposedly result from millions of mind-body interactions all balance out evenly.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is apparent when he says that "sense, in all cases, is nothing else but original fancy, caused, as I have said, by the pressure, that is by the motion, of external things upon our eyes, ears, and other organs there unto ordained."
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Degenerate matter is thought to occur during the evolution of heavy stars.[76] The demonstration by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar that white dwarf stars have a maximum allowed mass because of the exclusion principle caused a revolution in the theory of star evolution.[77]
.Degenerate matter includes the part of the universe that is made up of neutron stars and white dwarfs.^ You are then of opinion it is made up of unknown parts, that it hath unknown motions, and an unknown shape?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

Strange matter

.Strange matter is a particular form of quark matter, usually thought of as a 'liquid' of up, down, and strange quarks.^ Looking down a streamlet, I saw a trunk of a tree, which has been overthrown by the wind, so as to form a bridge, yet sticking up all its branches, as if it were unwilling to assist anybody over.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is to be contrasted with nuclear matter, which is a liquid of neutrons and protons (which themselves are built out of up and down quarks), and with non-strange quark matter, which is a quark liquid containing only up and down quarks.^ HYL. I lay it down for a principle, that the moments or quantities of motion in bodies are in a direct compounded reason of the velocities and quantities of Matter contained in them.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ HYL. I must acknowledge the difficulties you are concerned to clear are such only as arise from the non-existence of Matter, and are peculiar to that notion.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

At high enough density, strange matter is expected to be color superconducting. Strange matter is hypothesized to occur in the core of neutron stars, or, more speculatively, as isolated droplets that may vary in size from femtometers (strangelets) to kilometers (quark stars).
Two meanings of the term "strange matter"
.In particle physics and astrophysics, the term is used in two ways, one broader and the other more specific.^ But is one more reasonable than the other?
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But Spinoza disagrees with materialists when he goes on to claim that what is conceived in these two different ways is neither mental nor material because it has both physical properties and mental properties.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course, we can no more explain this case of proximate causation than we can any other case of proximate causation, whether between two material events or between a mental and a material event.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.
  1. The broader meaning is just quark matter that contains three flavors of quarks: up, down, and strange.^ He had rings on his fingers of great weight of metal, and one of them had a seal for letters; brooches at the bosom, three in a row, up and down; also a gold watch-guard, with a seal appended.
    • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ HYL. I lay it down for a principle, that the moments or quantities of motion in bodies are in a direct compounded reason of the velocities and quantities of Matter contained in them.
    • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    .In this definition, there is a critical pressure and an associated critical density, and when nuclear matter (made of protons and neutrons) is compressed beyond this density, the protons and neutrons dissociate into quarks, yielding quark matter (probably strange matter).
  2. The narrower meaning is quark matter that is more stable than nuclear matter.^ Can there be anything more extravagant than this?
    • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The verdure of the country is much more perfect than is usual at this season of the year, when the autumnal hue has generally made considerable progress over trees and grass.
    • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ HYL. But, after all, can anything be more absurd than to say, THERE IS NO HEAT IN THE FIRE? .
    • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    .The idea that this could happen is the "strange matter hypothesis" of Bodmer [78] and Witten.^ The strangeness, if they could be foreseen and forethought, of events which do not seem so strange after they have happened.
    • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

    [79] In this definition, the critical pressure is zero: the true ground state of matter is always quark matter. The nuclei that we see in the matter around us, which are droplets of nuclear matter, are actually metastable, and given enough time (or the right external stimulus) would decay into droplets of strange matter, i.e. strangelets.

Leptons

Leptons are a particles of spin-12, meaning that they are fermions. They carry an electric charge of −1 e (charged leptons) or 0 e (neutrinos). .Unlike quarks, leptons do not carry colour charge, meaning that they do not experience the strong interaction.^ Thus, we must find out by observation and experiment whether minds and bodies interact rather than proclaim that they cannot or do not because they are so different.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Leptons also undergo radioactive decay, meaning that they are subject to the weak interaction.^ They are trees of Paradise, and therefore not naturally subject to decay; but have lost their birthright by being transplanted hither.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

Leptons are massive particles, therefore are subject to gravity.
Lepton properties
name symbol spin electric charge
(e)
mass
(MeV/c2)
mass comparable to antiparticle antiparticle
symbol
charged leptons[80]
electron e 12 −1 0.5110 1 electron antielectron e+
muon μ 12 −1 105.7 ~ 200 electrons antimuon μ+
tauon τ 12 −1 1,777 ~ 2 protons antitauon τ+
neutrinos[81]
electron neutrino νe 12 0 < 0.000460 < 11000 electron electron antineutrino νe
muon neutrino νμ 12 0 < 0.19 < 12 electron muon antineutrino νμ
tauon neutrino ντ 12 0 < 18.2 < 40 electrons tauon antineutrino ντ

Antimatter

Unsolved problems in physics
Baryon asymmetry. Why is there far more matter than antimatter in the observable universe? Question mark2.svg
In particle physics and quantum chemistry, antimatter is matter that is composed of the antiparticles of those that constitute ordinary matter. .If a particle and its antiparticle come into contact with each other, the two annihilate; that is, they may both be converted into other particles with equal energy in accordance with Einstein's equation E = mc2.^ According to this principle, objects that may seem to be different from each other are really identical if "both" have all the same properties, and if they are identical, then both have all the same properties.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Revolutionary pensioners come out into the sunshine to make oath that they are still above ground.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And as several of these are observed to accompany each other, they come to be marked by one name, and so to be reputed as one thing.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.These new particles may be high-energy photons (gamma rays) or other particle–antiparticle pairs.^ But since it is impossible to conceive of material particles or of species or immaterial qualities which can pass from one of these substances into the other, this view must be rejected.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The resulting particles are endowed with an amount of kinetic energy equal to the difference between the rest mass of the products of the annihilation and the rest mass of the original particle-antiparticle pair, which is often quite large.^ The string makes no difference to the total energy of the weight; but it makes all the difference in the world to the particular way in which the energy is distributed between the potential and the kinetic forms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But if sense is appearance, then it would seem that there are not only material objects in motion or at rest, but also appearances that are quite different.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There would, consequently, be different results in the brain, which would in turn have different bodily results, so that the body would be affected in many different ways given the same input of energy.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Antimatter is not found naturally on Earth, except very briefly and in vanishingly small quantities (as the result of radioactive decay or cosmic rays). .This is because antimatter which came to exist on Earth outside the confines of a suitable physics laboratory would almost instantly meet the ordinary matter that Earth is made of, and be annihilated.^ Because of Aristotles great influence, Democrituss theory would have to wait almost 2,000 years before being rediscovered.

^ Empedocles held that all matter is made up of four "elements" earth, air, fire, and water.
  • Matter - Facts from the Encyclopedia - Yahoo! Education 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is because the idea of God contains perfection, and I would be contradicting myself to say that God is perfect and does not exist, since non-existence is perfection.
  • wlmatlsub 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.arasite.org [Source type: Original source]

.Antiparticles and some stable antimatter (such as antihydrogen) can be made in tiny amounts, but not in enough quantity to do more than test a few of its theoretical properties.^ The verdure of the country is much more perfect than is usual at this season of the year, when the autumnal hue has generally made considerable progress over trees and grass.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ E---- H---- , who is much more at home among spirits than among fleshly bodies, came hither a few times merely to welcome us to the ethereal world; but latterly she has vanished into some other region of infinite space.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And, consequently, for such his denial is no more to be esteemed a sceptic than the other.
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There is considerable speculation both in science and science fiction as to why the observable universe is apparently almost entirely matter, and whether other places are almost entirely antimatter instead.^ That there are many names in use amongst speculative men which do not always suggest to others determinate, particular ideas, or in truth anything at all, is what nobody will deny.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ But still I cannot help supposing that there is MATTER in some sense or other.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ I answer, first, if what you mean by the word Matter be only the unknown support of unknown qualities, it is no matter whether there is such a thing or no, since it no way concerns us; and I do not see the advantage there is in disputing about what we know not what, and we know not why.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.In the early universe, it is thought that matter and antimatter were equally represented, and the disappearance of antimatter requires an asymmetry in physical laws called the charge parity (or CP symmetry) violation.^ In the eighth place, the universal concurrent assent of mankind may be thought by some an invincible argument in behalf of Matter, or the existence of external things.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.CP symmetry violation can be obtained from the Standard Model,[82] but at this time the apparent asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the visible universe is one of the great unsolved problems in physics.^ When she was sent to the king, every one contributing something to adorn her in the richest manner, her father gave her a perfumed handkerchief, at that time a universal decoration, richly wrought.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But, as we approach to or recede from an object, the visible extension varies, being at one distance ten or a hundred times greater than another.
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PHIL. But, as we approach to or recede from an object, the visible extension varies, being at one distance ten or a hundred times greater than another.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Possible processes by which it came about are explored in more detail under baryogenesis.^ We must, therefore examine in more detail the way in which, according the Broad, mental events affect brain processes.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Other types of matter

Pie chart showing the fractions of energy in the universe contributed by different sources. .Ordinary matter is divided into luminous matter (the stars and luminous gases and 0.005% radiation) and nonluminous matter (intergalactic gas and about 0.1% neutrinos and 0.04% supermassive black holes).^ He sees what she is about, and contrives matters so that she throws herself completely into his power, and is ruined,--all in jest.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

Ordinary matter is uncommon. Modeled after Ostriker and Steinhardt.[83] For more information, see NASA.
Ordinary matter, in the quarks and leptons definition, constitutes about 4% of the energy of the observable universe. The remaining energy is theorized to be due to exotic forms, of which 23% is dark matter[84][85] and 73% is dark energy.[86][87]
Galaxy rotation curve for the Milky Way. Vertical axis is speed of rotation about the galactic center. Horizontal axis is distance from the galactic center. The sun is marked with a yellow ball. The observed curve of speed of rotation is blue. .The predicted curve based upon stellar mass and gas in the Milky Way is red.^ Consequently, it does not seem to be a generalization based upon empirical observation of the actual ways in which people use and respond to sentences.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

The difference is due to dark matter or perhaps a modification of the law of gravity.[88][89][90] Scatter in observations is indicated roughly by gray bars.

Dark matter

In astrophysics and cosmology, dark matter is matter of unknown composition that does not emit or reflect enough electromagnetic radiation to be observed directly, but whose presence can be inferred from gravitational effects on visible matter.[11][91] Observational evidence of the early universe and the big bang theory require that this matter have energy and mass, but is not composed of either elementary fermions (as above) OR gauge bosons. .The commonly accepted view is that most of the dark-matter is non-baryonic in nature.^ She is very vivacious and smart, laughing and singing and talking all the time,--talking sensibly; but still, taking the view of matters that a city girl naturally would.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The primary philosophical problem is to find out whether dualistic interactionism or some other position is the most plausible view about the nature of a person.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

[11] As such, it is composed of particles as yet unobserved in the laboratory. .Perhaps they are supersymmetric particles,[92] which are not Standard Model particles, but relics formed at very high energies in the early phase of the universe and still floating about.^ They do not appear to be very communicative, however,--or perhaps it may be merely an external reserve, like my own, to shield their delicacy.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On these high mountain-waves rested the white summer clouds, or they rested as still in the air above; and they were formed into such fantastic shapes that they gave the strongest possible impression of being confounded or intermixed with the sky.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The woods present a very diversified appearance just now, with perhaps more varieties of tint than they are destined to wear at a somewhat later period.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

[11]

Dark energy

In cosmology, dark energy is the name given to the antigravitating influence that is accelerating the rate of expansion of the universe. .It is known not to be composed of known particles like protons, neutrons or electrons, nor of the particles of dark matter, because these all gravitate.^ This is all that I can understand by these and the like expressions.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ I cannot believe all these stories about ----, because such a rascal never could be sustained and countenanced by respectable men.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second form of the objection states that because humans have evolved from the same primitive particles as all material objects that do not have minds, humans themselves have no minds.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

[93][94]
Fully 70% of the matter density in the universe appears to be in the form of dark energy. Twenty-six percent is dark matter. Only 4% is ordinary matter. .So less than 1 part in 20 is made out of matter we have observed experimentally or described in the standard model of particle physics.^ Nor are they empty or incomplete, otherwise than upon your supposition—that Matter is an essential part of all corporeal things.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ And if it hath, is it not evident they must see particles less than their own bodies; which will present them with a far different view in each object from that which strikes our senses?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To change the direction of motion without a physical cause is no less a violation of scientific principles than to violate the conservation principle.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Of the other 96%, apart from the properties just mentioned, we know absolutely nothing.^ And, as just noted, the only options available to a materialist at this point, are either to reject mental properties outright, or to maintain that mental properties are nothing more than material properties.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whatever other qualities, therefore, you speak of as distinct from these, I know nothing of them, neither do they at all belong to the point in dispute.
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

Lee Smolin: The Trouble with Physics, p. 16

Exotic matter

Exotic matter is a hypothetical concept of particle physics. .It covers any material which violates one or more classical conditions or is not made of known baryonic particles.^ And, as there is no more meaning in SPIRITUAL SUBSTANCE than in MATERIAL SUBSTANCE, the one is to be exploded as well as the other.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ But since it is impossible to conceive of material particles or of species or immaterial qualities which can pass from one of these substances into the other, this view must be rejected.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MATERIAL SUBSTANCE was no more than an hypothesis; and a false and groundless one too.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Such materials would possess qualities like negative mass or being repelled rather than attracted by gravity.^ Do you imagine He would have induced the whole world to believe the being of Matter, if there was no such thing?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ George Bradford will probably be here to-day, so that there will be no danger of my being under the necessity of laboring more than I like hereafter.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not that there would not be much evil discovered there; but, as he was conscious of being in a state of mental and moral improvement, working out his progress onward, he would not shrink from such a scrutiny.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

References

  1. ^ R. Penrose (1991). "The mass of the classical vacuum". in S. Saunders, H.R. Brown. The Philosophy of Vacuum. Oxford University Press. p. 21. ISBN 0198244495. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZU1LL4IbDKcC&pg=PA21. 
  2. ^ "Matter (physics)". McGraw-Hill's Access Science: Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Online. http://www.accessscience.com/abstract.aspx?id=410600&referURL=http%3a%2f%2fwww.accessscience.com%2fcontent.aspx%3fid%3d410600. Retrieved 2009-05-24. 
  3. ^ J. Mongillo (2007). Nanotechnology 101. Greenwood Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 0313338809. http://books.google.com/books?id=j69lwrrQ4nsC&pg=PA30. 
  4. ^ P. Davies (1992). The New Physics: A Synthesis. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0521438314. http://books.google.com/books?id=akb2FpZSGnMC&pg=PA1. 
  5. ^ G. 't Hooft (1997). In search of the ultimate building blocks. Cambridge University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0521578833. http://books.google.com/books?id=e-7eAp-bVbEC&pg=PA6. 
  6. ^ The particulate theory of matter dates back to Leucippus (~490 BC) and Democritus (~470–380 BC). See J. Olmsted, G.M. Williams (1996). Chemistry: The Molecular Science (2nd ed.). Jones & Bartlett. p. 40. ISBN 0815184506. http://books.google.com/books?id=1vnk6J8knKkC&pg=PA40. 
  7. ^ a b Brookhaven National Laboratory (18 April 2005). "RHIC Scientists Serve Up "Perfect" Liquid". Press release. http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/pr_display.asp?prid=05-38. Retrieved 2009-09-15. 
  8. ^ a b P.C.W. Davies (1979). The Forces of Nature. Cambridge University Press. p. 116. ISBN 052122523X. http://books.google.com/books?id=Av08AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA116&dq=%22matter+field%22&lr=&as_brr=0. 
  9. ^ a b S. Weinberg (1998). The Quantum Theory of Fields. Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0521550025. http://books.google.com/books?id=2oPZJJerMLsC&pg=PA5&dq=Weinberg+%22matter+field%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA5,M1. 
  10. ^ M. Masujima (2008). Path Integral Quantization and Stochastic Quantization. Springer. p. 103. ISBN 3540878505. http://books.google.com/books?id=OM15pk3ZHf0C&pg=PA103. 
  11. ^ a b c d D. Majumdar (2007). "Dark matter — possible candidates and direct detection". arΧiv:hep-ph/0703310 [hep-ph]. 
  12. ^ Stephen Toulmin and June Goodfield, The Architecture of Matter (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962), 48-54.
  13. ^ Discussed by Aristotle in Physics, esp. book I, but also later; as well as Metaphysics I-II.
  14. ^ See Richard J. Connell, Matter and Becoming (Chicago: The Priory Press, 1966) for a good explanation and elaboration.
  15. ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, James Morris Whiton, A lexicon abridged from Liddell & Scott's Greek-English lexicon (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1891), 725.
  16. ^ René Descartes Principles of Philosophy I (1644) “The Principles of Human Knowledge,” 53.
  17. ^ Ibid, 8, 54, 63.
  18. ^ David L. Schindler, "The Problem of Mechanism," Beyond Mechanism, ed. David L. Schindler (University Press of America, 1986).
  19. ^ a b Newton's 31st query, as quoted by D.R. Oldroyd (1986). The Arch of Knowledge: An Introductory Study of the History of the Philosophy and Methodology of Science. Routledge. p. 83. ISBN 0416013414. http://books.google.com/books?id=X78OAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA83. 
  20. ^ M. Wenham (2005). Understanding Primary Science: Ideas, Concepts and Explanations (2nd ed.). Paul Chapman Educational Publishing. p. 115. ISBN 1412901634. http://books.google.com/books?id=9vWrbr42VA0C&pg=PA115. 
  21. ^ The history of the concept of matter is a history of the fundamental length scales used to define matter. Different building blocks apply depending upon whether one defines matter on an atomic or elementary particle level. One may use a definition that matter is atoms, or that matter is hadrons, or that matter is leptons and quarks depending upon the scale at which one wishes to define matter. B. Povh, K. Rith, C. Scholz, F. Zetsche, M. Lavelle (2004). "Fundamental constituents of matter". Particles and Nuclei: An Introduction to the Physical Concepts (4th ed.). Springer. ISBN 3540201688. http://books.google.com/books?id=rJe4k8tkq7sC&pg=PA9&dq=povh+%22building+blocks+of+matter%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA1,M1. 
  22. ^ J. Allday (2001). Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang. CRC Press. p. 12. ISBN 0750308060. http://books.google.com/books?id=kgsBbv3-9xwC&pg=PA12. 
  23. ^ B.A. Schumm (2004). Deep Down Things: The Breathtaking Beauty of Particle Physics. John Hopkins University Press. p. 57. ISBN 080187971X. http://books.google.com/books?id=htJbAf7xA_oC&pg=PA57. 
  24. ^ See for example, M. Jibu, K. Yasue (1995). Quantum Brain Dynamics and Consciousness. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 62. ISBN 1556191839. http://books.google.com/books?id=iNUvcniwvg0C&pg=PA62. , B. Martin (2009). Nuclear and Particle Physics (2nd ed.). Wiley. p. 125. ISBN 0470742755. http://books.google.com/books?id=ws8QZ2M5OR8C&pg=PT143.  and K.W. Plaxco, M. Gross (2006). Astrobiology: A Brief Introduction. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0801883679. http://books.google.com/books?id=2JuGDL144BEC&pg=PA23. .
  25. ^ P.A. Tipler, R.A. Llewellyn (2002). Modern Physics. Macmillan. pp. 89–91, 94–95. ISBN 0716743450. http://books.google.com/books?id=tpU18JqcSNkC&pg=PA94. 
  26. ^ P. Schmüser, H. Spitzer (2002). "Particles". in L. Bergmann et al.. Constituents of Matter: Atoms, Molecules, Nuclei. CRC Press. pp. 773 ff. ISBN 0849312027. http://books.google.com/books?id=mGj1y1WYflMC&printsec=frontcover#PPA773,M1. 
  27. ^ S.M. Walker, A. King (2005). What is Matter?. Lerner Publications. p. 7. ISBN 0822551314. http://books.google.com/books?id=o7EquxOl4MAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=matter&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA7,M1. 
  28. ^ J.Kenkel, P.B. Kelter, D.S. Hage (2000). Chemistry: An Industry-based Introduction with CD-ROM. CRC Press. p. 2. ISBN 1566703034. http://books.google.com/books?id=ADSjPRl_tgoC&pg=PA1&dq=matter+chemistry+properties&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA2,M1. "All basic science textbooks define matter as simply the collective aggregate of all material substances that occupy space and have mass or weight." 
  29. ^ K.A. Peacock (2008). The Quantum Revolution: A Historical Perspective. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 47. ISBN 031333448X. http://books.google.com/books?id=ITqnf5jdE5QC&pg=PA47&dq=%22prevents+matter+from+collapsing%22&lr=&as_brr=0. 
  30. ^ M.H. Krieger (1998). Constitutions of Matter: Mathematically Modeling the Most Everyday of Physical Phenomena. University of Chicago Press. p. 22. ISBN 0226453057. http://books.google.com/books?id=VduHhkzl-aQC&pg=PA22&dq=%22does+not+collapse+into+itself%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA22,M1. 
  31. ^ "SI brochure, Section 2.1.1.6 – Mole". BIPM. http://www.bipm.org/en/si/base_units/mole.html. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  32. ^ M. de Podesta (2002). Understanding the Properties of Matter (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 8. ISBN 0415257883. http://books.google.com/books?id=h8BNvnR050cC&pg=PA8. 
  33. ^ B. Povh, K. Rith, C. Scholz, F. Zetsche, M. Lavelle (2004). "Part I: Analysis: The building blocks of matter". Particles and Nuclei: An Introduction to the Physical Concepts (4th ed.). Springer. ISBN 3540201688. http://books.google.com/books?id=rJe4k8tkq7sC&pg=PA9&dq=povh+%22building+blocks+of+matter%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA2,M1. 
  34. ^ B. Carithers, P. Grannis (1995). "Discovery of the Top Quark". Beam Line (SLAC) 25 (3): 4–16. http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/pdf/95iii.pdf. 
  35. ^ See p.7 in B. Carithers, P. Grannis (1995). "Discovery of the Top Quark". Beam Line (SLAC) 25 (3): 4–16. http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/pdf/95iii.pdf. 
  36. ^ a b D. Green (2005). High PT physics at hadron colliders. Cambridge University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0521835097. http://books.google.com/books?id=6-7TE5N0vbIC&pg=PA23. 
  37. ^ L. Smolin (2007). The Trouble with Physics: The Rise of String Theory, the Fall of a Science, and What Comes Next. Mariner Books. p. 67. ISBN 061891868X. http://books.google.com/books?id=z5rxrnlcp3sC&pg=PA67&dq=%22all+the+particles+that+make+up+matter%22&lr=&as_brr=0. 
  38. ^ The W boson mass is 80.398 GeV; see Figure 1 in C. Amsler et al. (Particle Data Group) (2008). "The mass and width of the W boson". Physics Letters B 667: 1. http://pdg.lbl.gov/2008/reviews/wmass_s043202.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  39. ^ I.J.R. Aitchison, A.J.G. Hey (2004). Gauge Theories in Particle Physics. CRC Press. p. 48. ISBN 0750308648. http://books.google.com/books?id=vLP7XN2pWlEC&pg=PA48&dq=%22source+particles+of+the+gluon+fields%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA48,M1. 
  40. ^ B. Povh, K. Rith, C. Scholz, F. Zetsche, M. Lavelle (2004). Particles and Nuclei: An Introduction to the Physical Concepts. Springer. p. 103. ISBN 3540201688=. http://books.google.com/books?id=rJe4k8tkq7sC&pg=PA103&dq=%22interquark+interaction+energy%22&lr=&as_brr=0. 
  41. ^ T. Hatsuda (2008). "Quark-gluon plasma and QCD". in H. Akai. Condensed matter theories. 21. Nova Publishers. p. 296. ISBN 1600215017. http://books.google.com/books?id=PZdFi145170C&pg=PA296. 
  42. ^ a b Y. Ne'eman, Y. Kirsh (1996). The particle hunters (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 276. ISBN 0521476860. http://books.google.com/books?id=K4jcfCguj8YC&pg=PA276. 
  43. ^ K.W Staley (2004). "Origins of the third generation of matter". The evidence for the top quark. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0521827108. http://books.google.com/books?id=DLt_fcBYynAC&pg=PA8. 
  44. ^ J.C. Maxwell (1876). Matter and Motion. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. p. 18. http://books.google.com/books?id=MWoOAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=matter&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA18,M1. 
  45. ^ T.H. Levere (1993). "Introduction". Affinity and Matter: Elements of Chemical Philosophy, 1800–1865. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 2881245838. http://books.google.com/books?id=gKSDWsE8fZMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=matter&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA11,M1. 
  46. ^ G.F. Barker (1870). "Introduction". A Text Book of Elementary Chemistry: Theoretical and Inorganic. John P. Morton and Company. p. 2. http://books.google.com/books?id=B6Yz6eW-5joC. 
  47. ^ J.J. Thomson (1909). "Preface". Electricity and Matter. A. Constable. http://books.google.com/books?id=2AaToepvKoEC&printsec=titlepage#PPP13,M1. 
  48. ^ O.W. Richardson (1914). "Chapter 1". The Electron Theory of Matter. The University Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=RpdDAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=matter&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA1,M1. 
  49. ^ M. Jacob (1992). The Quark Structure of Matter. World Scientific. ISBN 9810236875. http://books.google.com/books?id=iQ1e2a9bPikC&printsec=frontcover&dq=matter&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA1,M1. 
  50. ^ V. de Sabbata, M. Gasperini (1985). Introduction to Gravitation. World Scientific. p. 293. ISBN 9971500493. http://books.google.com/books?id=7sJ6m8s0_ccC&pg=PA293&dq=Weinberg+%22matter+field%22&lr=&as_brr=0. 
  51. ^ P.M. Chaikin, T.C. Lubensky (2000). Principles of Condensed Matter Physics. Cambridge University Press. p. xvii. ISBN 0521794501. http://books.google.com/books?id=P9YjNjzr9OIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=matter&lr=&as_brr=0#PPR17,M1. 
  52. ^ W. Greiner (2003). W. Greiner, M.G. Itkis, G. Reinhardt, M.C. Güçlü. ed. Structure and Dynamics of Elementary Matter. Springer. p. xii. ISBN 1402024452. http://books.google.com/books?id=ORyJzhAzpUgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=matter&lr=&a_brr=0#PPR12,M1. 
  53. ^ P. Sukys (1999). Lifting the Scientific Veil: Science Appreciation for the Nonscientist. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 87. ISBN 0847696006. http://books.google.com/books?id=WEM4hqxJ-xYC&pg=PR23&dq=isbn=0847696006#PPA87,M1. 
  54. ^ S.R. Logan (1998). Physical Chemistry for the Biomedical Sciences. CRC Press. pp. 110–111. ISBN 0748407103. http://books.google.com/books?id=LA_8QzoCNMsC&pg=PA110&dq=water+%22phase++diagram%22&lr=&as_brr=0. 
  55. ^ P.J. Collings (2002). "Chapter 1: States of Matter". Liquid Crystals: Nature's Delicate Phase of Matter. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691086729. http://books.google.com/books?id=NE1RWiGXtdUC&printsec=frontcover#PPA1,M1. 
  56. ^ D.H. Trevena (1975). "Chapter 1.2: Changes of phase". The Liquid Phase. Taylor & Francis. http://books.google.com/books?id=oOkOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1&dq=phase+of+matter&lr=&as_brr=0&as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA1,M1. 
  57. ^ T. Makabe, Z. Petrović (2006). Plasma Electronics: Applications in Microelectronic Device Fabrication. CRC Press. p. 1. ISBN 0750309768. http://books.google.com/books?id=BpRhkONZEdQC&pg=PA1. 
  58. ^ C.K. Birdsall, A.B. Langdon (2005). Plasma Physics via Computer Simulation. CRC Press. p. xvii. ISBN 0750310251. http://books.google.com/books?id=S2lqgDTm6a4C&pg=PAxvii#PPR17,M1. 
  59. ^ J.A. Bittencourt (2004). Fundamentals of Plasma Physics. Springer. p. 2. ISBN 0387209751. http://books.google.com/books?id=qCA64ys-5bUC&pg=PA1. 
  60. ^ G. Fraser (2006). The New Physics for the Twenty-first Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 238. ISBN 0521816009. http://books.google.com/books?id=0idvEIXwfxsC&pg=PA238&dq=%22Bose-Einstein+condensate%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA238,M1. 
  61. ^ a b C. Pethick, H. Smith (2002). "Introduction". Bose–Einstein Condensation in Dilute Gases. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521665809. http://books.google.com/books?id=K_KPhpTTmkEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22Bose-Einstein+condensate%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA1,M1. 
  62. ^ M. Greiner, C.A. Regal, S. Jin (2003). "A molecular Bose–Einstein condensate emerges from a Fermi sea". arΧiv:cond-mat/0311172 [cond-mat.stat-mech]. 
  63. ^ M.W. Zwierlein, C.H. Schunck, A. Schirotzek, W. Ketterle (2006). "Direct Observation of the Superfluid Phase Transition in Ultracold Fermi Gases". arΧiv:cond-mat/0605258 [cond-mat.supr-con]. 
  64. ^ E.V. Shuryak (2004). The QCD Vacuum, Hadrons and Superdense Matter. World Scientific. p. 159. ISBN 9812385746. http://books.google.com/books?id=rbcQMK6a6ekC&pg=PA182&dq=%22chiral+condensate%22&lr=&as_brr=0&as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA159,M1. 
  65. ^ P. Haensel, A.Y. Potekhin, A.Û. Potehin, D.G. Yakovlev (2007). Neutron Stars. Springer. p. 11. ISBN 0387335439. http://books.google.com/books?id=iIrj9nfHnesC&pg=PA52&dq=neutron+star+crystalline+mantle&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA11,M1. 
  66. ^ J.-P. Luminet, A. Bullough, A. King (1992). Black Holes. Cambridge University Press. p. 111, Fig. 25. ISBN 0521409063. http://books.google.com/books?id=WRexJODPq5AC&pg=PA55&dq=isbn=0521409063&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA111,M1. 
  67. ^ D.R. Danielson (2001). The Book of the Cosmos. Da Capo Press. p. 455. ISBN 0738204986. http://books.google.com/books?id=zwIN_-rqrL4C&pg=PA453&dq=exclusion+principle+%22neutron+star%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA455,M1. 
  68. ^ M.A. Strain (2004). Cosmic Entity. iUniverse (self-published). p. 50. ISBN 0595301258. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ic7YLrm0xvAC&pg=PA50&dq=matter+%22exclusion+principle%22&lr=&as_brr=0. 
  69. ^ P.J. Siemens, A.S. Jensen (1994). Elements Of Nuclei: Many-body Physics With The Strong Interaction. Westview Press. p. 347. ISBN 0201627310. http://books.google.com/books?id=z-8vuyAqT9MC&pg=PA347. 
  70. ^ J. Letessier, J. Rafelski (2002). Hadrons and Quark–Gluon Plasma. Cambridge University Press. p. xi. ISBN 0521385369. http://books.google.com/books?id=vSnFPyQaSTsC&printsec=frontcover#PPR11,M1. 
  71. ^ W.A. Zajc (2008). "The fluid nature of quark–gluon plasma". Nuclear Physics A 805: 283c–294c. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.02.285. arΧiv:0802.3552. 
  72. ^ "Transparent Aluminum Is 'New State Of Matter'". Science Daily. 27 July 2009. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090727130814.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  73. ^ C. Amsler et al. (Particle Data Group) (2008). Physics Letters B 667: 1. 
  74. ^ "Five Year Results on the Oldest Light in the Universe". NASA. 2008. http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_mm.html. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  75. ^ H.S. Goldberg, M.D. Scadron (1987). Physics of Stellar Evolution and Cosmology. Taylor & Francis. p. 202. ISBN 0677055404. http://books.google.com/books?id=NowVde8kzIoC&pg=PA207&dq=matter+%22exclusion+principle%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA202,M1. 
  76. ^ H.S. Goldberg, M.D. Scadron (1987). Physics of Stellar Evolution and Cosmology. Taylor & Francis. p. 233. ISBN 0677055404. http://books.google.com/books?id=NowVde8kzIoC&pg=PA207&dq=matter+%22exclusion+principle%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA233,M1. 
  77. ^ J.-P. Luminet, A. Bullough, A. King (1992). Black Holes. Cambridge University Press. p. 75. ISBN 0521409063. http://books.google.com/books?id=WRexJODPq5AC&pg=PA72&dq=matter+%22exclusion+principle%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA75,M1. 
  78. ^ A. Bodmer (1971). "Collapsed Nuclei". Physical Review D 4 (6): 1601. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.4.1601. 
  79. ^ E. Witten (1984). "Cosmic Separation of Phases". Physical Review D 30 (2): 272. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.30.272. 
  80. ^ C. Amsler et al. (Particle Data Group) (2008). Physics Letters B 667: 1. 
  81. ^ C. Amsler et al. (Particle Data Group) (2008). Physics Letters B 667: 1. 
  82. ^ National Research Council (US) (2006). Revealing the hidden nature of space and time. National Academies Press. p. 46. ISBN 0309101948. http://books.google.com/books?id=oTedc3rTDr4C&pg=PA46. 
  83. ^ J.P. Ostriker, P.J. Steinhardt (2003). "New Light on Dark Matter". arΧiv:astro-ph/0306402 [astro-ph]. 
  84. ^ K. Pretzl (2004). "Dark Matter, Massive Neutrinos and Susy Particles". Structure and Dynamics of Elementary Matter. Walter Greiner. p. 289. ISBN 1402024460. http://books.google.com/books?id=lokz2n-9gX0C&pg=PA289&dq=matter+%22massive+particles%22&lr=&as_brr=0. 
  85. ^ K. Freeman, G. McNamara (2006). "What can the matter be?". In Search of Dark Matter. Birkhäuser. p. 105. ISBN 0387276165. http://books.google.com/books?id=C2OS1kmQ8JIC&pg=PA45&dq=isbn=0387276165#PPA105,M1. 
  86. ^ J.C. Wheeler (2007). Cosmic Catastrophes: Exploding Stars, Black Holes, and Mapping the Universe. Cambridge University Press. p. 282. ISBN 0521857147. http://books.google.com/books?id=j1ej8d0F8jAC&pg=PA282&dq=%22dark+energy%22+date:2002-2009&lr=&as_brr=0. 
  87. ^ J. Gribbin (2007). The Origins of the Future: Ten Questions for the Next Ten Years. Yale University Press. p. 151. ISBN 0300125968. http://books.google.com/books?id=f6AYrZYGig8C&pg=PA151&dq=%22dark+energy%22+date:2002-2009&lr=&as_brr=0. 
  88. ^ P. Schneider (2006). Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology. Springer. p. 4, Fig. 1.4. ISBN 3540331743. http://books.google.com/books?id=uP1Hz-6sHaMC&pg=PA100&dq=rotation+Milky+way&lr=&as_brr=0&as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA5,M1. 
  89. ^ T. Koupelis, K.F. Kuhn (2007). In Quest of the Universe. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 492; Fig. 16.13. ISBN 0763743879. http://books.google.com/books?id=6rTttN4ZdyoC&pg=PA491&dq=Milky+Way+%22rotation+curve%22&lr=&as_brr=0&as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA492,M1. 
  90. ^ M.H. Jones, R.J. Lambourne, D.J. Adams (2004). An Introduction to Galaxies and Cosmology. Cambridge University Press. p. 21; Fig. 1.13. ISBN 0521546230. http://books.google.com/books?id=36K1PfetZegC&pg=PA20&dq=Milky+Way+%22rotation+curve%22&lr=&as_brr=0&as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA21,M1. 
  91. ^ K.A. Olive (2003). "Theoretical Advanced Study Institute lectures on dark matter". arΧiv:astro-ph/0301505 [astro-ph]. 
  92. ^ K.A. Olive (2009). "Colliders and Cosmology". European Physical Journal C 59: 269–295. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-008-0738-8. arΧiv:0806.1208. 
  93. ^ J.C. Wheeler (2007). Cosmic Catastrophes. Cambridge University Press. p. 282. ISBN 0521857147. http://books.google.com/books?id=j1ej8d0F8jAC&pg=PA282&dq=%22dark+energy%22&lr=&as_brr=0. 
  94. ^ L. Smolin (2007). The Trouble with Physics. Mariner Books. p. 16. ISBN 061891868X. http://books.google.com/books?id=z5rxrnlcp3sC&pg=PA67&dq=%22all+the+particles+that+make+up+matter%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA16,M1. 

Further reading

See also

Antimatter
Cosmology
Dark matter
Philosophy
Other

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.MATTER. Our conceptions of the nature and structure of matter have been profoundly influenced in recent years by investigations on the Conduction of Electricity through Gases (see Electric conduction) and on Radio-activity (q.v.^ In heaven we shall see God clearly, but not fully, for he is infinite; he will communicate himself to us, according to the bigness of our vessel, but not the immenseness of his nature.
  • Bible Presbyterian Church WSC Project: Watson's "Body of Divinity" 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.shortercatechism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If then you would infer anything against me, your difficulty must not be drawn from the inadequateness of our conceptions of the Divine nature, which is unavoidable on any scheme; but from the denial of Matter, of which there is not one word, directly or indirectly, in what you have now objected.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ We unwittingly project onto the world some of the idiosyncrasies of our own makeup, seeing the world in the colors of the in-built glass through which we view it.
  • Time's Arrow & Archimedes' Point: Chapter 1 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

). .These researches and the ideas which they have suggested have already thrown much light on some of the most fundamental questions connected with matter; they have, too, furnished us with far more powerful methods for investigating many problems connected with the structure of matter than those hitherto available.^ More than that, most of us weren’t always online.
  • SmartBlog On Social Media » Why the mobile Web matters for marketing 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC smartblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ This mutual attraction allows for the bonding of atoms to occur forming structures of matter that are larger than just one atom.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ They are also caused to exist, for example, by light waves or sound waves stimulating his eyes or ears, and are affected by the condition of these, and of the whole nervous system attendant upon them.
  • Hyponoetics - Glossary - [S] 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.hyponoesis.org [Source type: Original source]

.There is thus every reason to believe that our knowledge of the structure of matter will soon become far more precise and complete than it is at present, for now we have the means of settling by testing directly many points which are still doubtful, but which formerly seemed far beyond the reach of experiment.^ Can there be anything more extravagant than this?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ But is one more reasonable than the other?
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it possible there should be any doubt on the point?
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Molecular Theory of Matter - the only theory ever seriously advocated - supposes that all visible forms of matter are collocations of simpler and smaller portions.^ Firstly, because it comes to the same that a form can be produced in another matter, or that it can cease to be in its proper matter; wherefore all things that can be generated are corruptible, and conversely.

^ Thus can all three of these causes be united into one principle -- form -- leaving only matter to be dealt with.
  • substance@Everything2.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This deepens a mystery about where all of the universe's visible matter has gone.
  • Newsvine - matter 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.newsvine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There has been a continuous tendency as science has advanced to reduce further and further the number of the different kinds of things of which all matter is supposed to be built up.^ In a word, may there not for all that be MATTER? .
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ "This work lays down the true means of solving all the difficulties in the science of mathematics, and demonstrates that the human intellect can achieve nothing further on these questions.
  • The Individual As Scientist: Descartes' Method in Reason and Science 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.humanistsofutah.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We have been online since May 2000, and aim to be the best place to find and share science-related content of all kinds.
  • Dark matter/baryonic matter - Science Forums 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.First came the molecular theory teaching us to regard matter as made up of an enormous number of small particles, each kind of matter having its characteristic particle, thus the particles of water were supposed to be different from those of air and indeed from those of any other substance.^ The other qualities of matter, then, are less important and he tells us 'though substance is indeed known by some attribute, yet for each substance there is pre-eminently one property which constitutes its nature and essence and to which all the rest are referred'.
  • Descartes' Definition of Matter 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ul.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Solid substances are those whose parts firmly cohere and resist impression, as wood or stone; liquids have free motion among their parts, and easily yield to impression, as water and wine.
  • Browse 1828 => Word MATTER :: Search the 1828 Noah Webster's Dictionary of the English Language (FREE) :: 1828.mshaffer.com 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC 1828.mshaffer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reason why melancholy has a greater concordance with earth than with any other complexion is that the imagination considers measures, lines, figures and colors which can best be imprinted on water and earth whose matter is denser and thicker than the matter of fire and air.
  • Seven Planets 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC lullianarts.net [Source type: Original source]

.Then came Dalton's Atomic Theory which taught that these molecules, in spite of their almost infinite variety were all built up of still smaller bodies, the atoms of the chemical elements, and that the number of different types of these smaller bodies was limited to the sixty or seventy types which represent the atoms of the substance regarded by chemists as elements.^ Each atom retains all of the chemical and physical properties of its parent element.

^ All atoms of a given element are identical; atoms of different elements have different properties.

^ All atoms of a specific element have the same number of protons in their nuclei.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

.In 1815 Prout suggested that the atoms of the heavier chemical elem&its were themselves composite and that they were all built up of atoms of the lightest element, hydrogen, so that all the different forms of matter are edifices built of the same material - the atom of hydrogen.^ Atoms of different elements joined together form compounds (Figure 1).
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ All atoms of a specific element have the same number of protons in their nuclei.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each atom retains all of the chemical and physical properties of its parent element.

.If the atoms of hydrogen do not alter in weight when they combine to form atoms of other elements the atomic weights of all elements would be multiples of that of hydrogen; though the number of elements whose atomic weights are multiples or very nearly so of hydrogen is very striking, there are several which are universally admitted to have atomic weights differing largely from whole numbers.^ And would not all the difference consist in a sound?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Atoms of different elements joined together form compounds (Figure 1).
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ All atoms of a specific element have the same number of protons in their nuclei.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

.We do not know enough about gravity to say whether this is clue to the change of weight of the hydrogen atoms when they combine to form other atoms, or whether the primordial form from which all matter is built up is something other than the hydrogen atom.^ Why a Will Is Not Enough I know, I know - you hate thinking about all this.
  • Baby-Proofing Your Finances: Money Matters - Yahoo! Finance 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC biz.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This mutual attraction allows for the bonding of atoms to occur forming structures of matter that are larger than just one atom.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Or, in case they see, can it be imagined their sight hath not the same use in preserving their bodies from injuries, which appears in that of all other animals?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Whatever may be the nature of this primordial form, the tendency of all recent discoveries has been to emphasize the truth of the conception of a common basis of matter of all kinds.^ In a word, may there not for all that be MATTER? .
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ For, after all, the controversy about MATTER in the strict acceptation of it, lies altogether between you and the philosophers: whose principles, I acknowledge, are not near so natural, or so agreeable to the common sense of mankind, and Holy Scripture, as yours.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Firstly, because it comes to the same that a form can be produced in another matter, or that it can cease to be in its proper matter; wherefore all things that can be generated are corruptible, and conversely.

.That the atoms of the different elements have a common basis, that they behave as if they consisted of different numbers of small particles of the same kind, is proved to most minds by the Periodic Law of Mendeleeff and Newlands (see Element).^ All atoms of a specific element have the same number of protons in their nuclei.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Quarks combine into protons and neutrons and, along with electrons, form atoms of the elements of the periodic table , such as hydrogen , oxygen , and iron .
  • matter (physics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Or, in case they see, can it be imagined their sight hath not the same use in preserving their bodies from injuries, which appears in that of all other animals?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

.This law shows that the physical and chemical properties of the different elements are determined by their atomic weights, or to use the language of mathematics, the properties of an element are functions of its atomic weight.^ Each atom retains all of the chemical and physical properties of its parent element.

^ This attempt utilizes what is called the "double-language theory," because it claims that there are two quite different sorts of ways to refer to certain physical entities.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But Spinoza disagrees with materialists when he goes on to claim that what is conceived in these two different ways is neither mental nor material because it has both physical properties and mental properties.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Now if we constructed models of the atoms out of different materials, the atomic weight would be but one factor out of many which would influence the physical and chemical properties of the model, we should require to know more than the atomic weight to fix its behaviour.^ I liked it more than I thought I would.
  • Does mo matter? - 2nd & Short - Mark McGuire on Capital Region sports - timesunion.com - Albany NY 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC blog.timesunion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each atom retains all of the chemical and physical properties of its parent element.

^ But is one more reasonable than the other?
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.If we were to plot a curve representing the variation of some property of the substance with the atomic weight we should not expect the curve to be a smooth one, for instance two atoms might have the same atomic weight and yet if they were made of different materials have no other property in common.^ Yet they are not corporeal substances.

^ The other qualities of matter, then, are less important and he tells us 'though substance is indeed known by some attribute, yet for each substance there is pre-eminently one property which constitutes its nature and essence and to which all the rest are referred'.
  • Descartes' Definition of Matter 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ul.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ This interpretive problem --the existence of two sets of texts, and sometimes two sets of passages within the same text, coming from the same author that seem to commit him to two different and conflicting fundamental ontologies-- is known as the ‘corporeal substance problem’, and has produced by now a great deal of not only secondary, but even some tertiary literature.
  • Justin E. H. Smith: Divine Machines: Rationale and Contents 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.jehsmith.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The influence of the atomic weight on the properties of the elements is nowhere more strikingly shown than in the recent developments of physics connected with the discharge of electricity through gases and with radio-activity.^ If a molecule contains more than one atom of an element, a number is subscripted after the symbol to show the number of atoms of that element in the molecule.

^ This sudden development would be scarcely more wonderful than the gleam of verdure which often brightens, in a moment, as it were, along the slope of a bank or roadside.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than half of the donations have been through online contributions, with strong support from corporations and record-setting activity in mobile giving.

.The transparency of bodies to Röntgen rays, to cathode rays, to the rays emitted by radioactive substances, the quality of the secondary radiation emitted by the different elements are all determined by the atomic weight of the element.^ The string makes no difference to the total energy of the weight; but it makes all the difference in the world to the particular way in which the energy is distributed between the potential and the kinetic forms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whoever discovers it has reached the autumn of his Magistery, as Nature will then (when the pure body has been put into it) perform all the other processes, and carry the substance onward to perfection through all the different regimens.
  • Philalethes - Fount of Chemical Truth 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.levity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PHIL. These qualities, therefore, stripped of all sensible properties, are without all specific and numerical differences, as the schools call them.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.So much is this the case that the behaviour of the element with respect to these rays has been used to determine its atomic weight, when as in the case of Indium, uncertainty as to the valency of the element makes the result of ordinary chemical methods ambiguous.^ Each of these elements have distinct chemical characteristics.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ayer's point here is that the skeptic is demanding that we use canons of evidence so restrictive that it is logically impossible to meet their requirements in these cases.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The difficulties indeed, which have occurred with respect to these ordinances, should make us tender of casting reproach upon others, who should differ from ourselves concerning them.

.The radio-active elements indeed furnish us with direct evidence of this unity of composition of matter, for not only does one element uranium, produce another, radium, but all the radio-active substances give rise to helium, so that the substance of the atoms of this gas must be contained in the atoms of the radio-active elements.^ METH /p - "Pertaining to an atom grouping that contains only one carbon atom."
  • M/N 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This mutual attraction allows for the bonding of atoms to occur forming structures of matter that are larger than just one atom.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ That is, the matter underlying the form must necessarily precede it; for it is not possible to modify (in number or in features) that which does not yet exist.
  • substance@Everything2.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is not radio-active atoms alone that contain a common constituent, for it has been found that all bodies can by suitable treatment, such as raising them to incandescence or exposing them to ultra-violet light, be made to emit negatively electrified particles, and that these particles are the same from whatever source they may be derived.^ Or, in case they see, can it be imagined their sight hath not the same use in preserving their bodies from injuries, which appears in that of all other animals?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to this principle, objects that may seem to be different from each other are really identical if "both" have all the same properties, and if they are identical, then both have all the same properties.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It may be, however, that these sentences simply seem or sound odd or unusual to us now, but that they are not meaningless.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.These particles all carry the same charge of negative electricity and all have the same mass, this mass is exceedingly small even when compared with the mass of an atom of hydrogen, which until the discovery of these particles was the smallest mass known to science.^ Each electron also has a negative electrical charge.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Is not that opposition to all science whatsoever, that frenzy of the ancient and modern Sceptics, built on the same foundation?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The living all stand on the same level, in regard to their right  to use these now common tools, for the production of wealth.

.These particles are called corpuscles or electrons; their mass according to the most recent determinations is only about - 1 -, T 1 0 - 0 - of that of an atom of hydrogen, and their radius is only about one hundred-thousandth part of the radius of the hydrogen atom.^ In the second place, the other nerves scattered over the tongue and the parts in its vicinity are diversely moved by the particles of the same bodies, separated from each other and floating in the saliva in the mouth, and thus cause sensations of diverse tastes according to the diversity of figure in these particles.
  • The Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2) 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus can all three of these causes be united into one principle -- form -- leaving only matter to be dealt with.
  • substance@Everything2.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most characteristic part of the scene was where the pedlars, gingerbread-sellers, etc., were collected, a few hundred yards from the meeting-house.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.As corpuscles of this kind can be obtained from all substances, we infer that they form a constituent of the atoms of all bodies.^ In this way, substance is doubly the first kind of being -- not only chronologically or as the ultimate substratum as detailed above, but also as the ultimate source for all of the movement that defines nature as such .
  • substance@Everything2.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Or, in case they see, can it be imagined their sight hath not the same use in preserving their bodies from injuries, which appears in that of all other animals?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HYL. That is not all; I would say they have a real existence without the mind, in some unthinking substance.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.The atoms of the different elements do not all contain the same number of corpuscles - there are more corpuscles in the atoms of the heavier elements than in the atoms of the lighter ones; in fact, many different considerations point to the conclusion that the number of corpuscles in the atom of any element is proportional to the atomic weight of the element.^ If a molecule contains more than one atom of an element, a number is subscripted after the symbol to show the number of atoms of that element in the molecule.

^ Can there be anything more extravagant than this?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ But there are infinitely many numbers.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Different methods of estimating the exact number of corpuscles in the atom have all led to the conclusion that this number is of the same order as the atomic weight; that, for instance, the number of corpuscles in the atom of oxygen is not a large multiple of 16. Some methods indicate that the number of corpuscles in the atom is equal to the atomic weight, while the maximum value obtained by any method is only about four times the atomic weight.^ The difference is only about a name.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Proust performed a number of experiments and observed that no matter how he caused different elements to react with oxygen, they always reacted in defined proportions.

^ This is rather misleading, however, as it suggests that there is a time frame in which the four-dimensional block universe stays the same.
  • Time's Arrow & Archimedes' Point: Chapter 1 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.This is one of the points on which further experiments will enable us to speak with greater precision.^ Consumers selected responses along a five-point scale – ranging from a very negative experience (1) to a very positive one (5).

.Thus one of the constituents of all atoms is the negatively charged corpuscle; since the atoms are electrically neutral, this negative charge must be accompanied by an equal positive one, so that on this view the atoms must contain a charge of positive electricity proportional to the atomic weight; the way in which this positive electricity is arranged is a matter of great importance in the consideration of the constitution of matter.^ Consumers selected responses along a five-point scale – ranging from a very negative experience (1) to a very positive one (5).

^ All known interactions in the universe occur between matter and energy, or any combination of the two, and thus an understanding of both would basically constitute a theory of everything .
  • matter@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • matter@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC everything2.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The other qualities of matter, then, are less important and he tells us 'though substance is indeed known by some attribute, yet for each substance there is pre-eminently one property which constitutes its nature and essence and to which all the rest are referred'.
  • Descartes' Definition of Matter 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ul.ie [Source type: Original source]

.The question naturally arises, is the positive electricity done up into definite units like the negative, or does it merely indicate a property acquired by an atom when one or more corpuscles leave it?^ The more spiritual any one is, the more like God.
  • Bible Presbyterian Church WSC Project: Watson's "Body of Divinity" 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.shortercatechism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a molecule contains more than one atom of an element, a number is subscripted after the symbol to show the number of atoms of that element in the molecule.

^ Monstra - "Definitions: A name for one of four types of omens: those that demonstrate or show, like dreams and visions."
  • M/N 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC mirrorh.com [Source type: Reference]

.It is very remarkable that we have up to the present (1910), in spite of many investigations on this point, no direct evidence of the existence of positively charged particles with a mass comparable with that of a corpuscle; the smallest positive particle of which we have any direct indication has a mass equal to the mass of an atom of hydrogen, and it is a most remarkable fact that we get positively charged particles having this mass when we send the electric discharge through gases at low pressures, whatever be the kind of gas.^ Neutrons also have significant mass but no electrical charge.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A proton is a subatomic particle that has significant mass and contributes a single positive electrical charge to an atom.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There is as yet no experimental evidence that the Higgs boson exists, however, and physicists are eager to search for it, using the most powerful particle accelerators available.
  • matter (physics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is no doubt exceedingly difficult to get rid of traces of hydrogen in vessels containing gases at low pressures through which an electric discharge is passing, but the circumstances under which the positively electrified particles just alluded to appear, and the way in which they remain unaltered in spite of all efforts to clear out any traces of hydrogen, all seem to indicate that these positively electrified particles, whose mass is equal to that of an atom of hydrogen, do not come from minute traces of hydrogen present as an impurity but from the oxygen, nitrogen, or helium, or whatever may be the gas through which the discharge passes.^ Thus they are said to have no psychological properties, in spite of the way it may seem.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They almost all had a history, no doubt, if they could but have told it.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At ordinary temperatures, for instance, gold is a solid, water is a liquid, and nitrogen is a gas, as defined by certain characteristics: solids hold their shape, liquids take on the shape of the container that holds them, and gases fill an entire container.
  • matter (physics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.If this is so, then the most natural conclusion we can come to is that these positively electrified particles with the mass of the atom of hydrogen are the natural units of positive electricity, just as the corpuscles are those of negative, and that these positive particles form a part of all atoms.^ Quarks combine into protons and neutrons and, along with electrons, form atoms of the elements of the periodic table , such as hydrogen , oxygen , and iron .
  • matter (physics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All the properties we distinctly perceive to belong to it are reducible to its capacity of being divided and moved according to its parts; and accordingly it is capable of all those affections which we perceive can arise from the motion of its parts.
  • The Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2) 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Firstly, because it comes to the same that a form can be produced in another matter, or that it can cease to be in its proper matter; wherefore all things that can be generated are corruptible, and conversely.

Thus in this way we are led to an electrical view of the constitution of the atom. .We regard the atom as built up of units of negative electricity and of an equal number of units of positive electricity; these two units are of very different mass, the mass of the negative unit being only 1 -77 1 0 -- of that of the positive.^ The distinction between these two is important because only the latter is relevant to analytical behaviorism, as some examples will show.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We say one book, one page, one line, etc.; all these are equally units, though some contain several of the others.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ These examples suggest that anthropocentrism infects science by at least two different routes.
  • Time's Arrow & Archimedes' Point: Chapter 1 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.The number of units of either kind is proportional to the atomic weight of the element and of the same order as this quantity.^ Proust performed a number of experiments and observed that no matter how he caused different elements to react with oxygen, they always reacted in defined proportions.

^ Dalton characterized elements according to their atomic weight ; however, when isotopes of elements were discovered in the late 1800s this concept changed.

^ An element's atomic weight refers to the total weight of neutrons, protons, and electrons.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

.Whether this is anything besides the positive and negative electricity in the atom we do not know.^ (Source: PhysicalGeography.net ) Positive and negative ions are electrically attracted to each other.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A proton is a subatomic particle that has significant mass and contributes a single positive electrical charge to an atom.
  • Matter - Encyclopedia of Earth 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Reference]

.In the present state of our knowledge of the properties of matter it is unnecessary to postulate the existence of anything besides these positive and negative units.^ Self-Knowledge ...distinction between the act of observing or attending to one's present states [of consciousness] for the purpose of acquiring knowledge of them and the actual achieving of or coming to possess such knowledge.
  • Hyponoetics - Glossary - [S] 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.hyponoesis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Descartes, the existence of matter including our own bodies is not self-evident.
  • Descartes' Definition of Matter 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ul.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, the knowledge claim is only one among many other factors that we must weigh in our evaluation of the various mind-body positions.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The atom of a chemical element on this view of the constitution of matter is a system formed by n corpuscles and n units of positive electricity which is in equilibrium or in a state of steady motion under the electrical forces which the charged 2n constituents exert upon each other.^ They would then define 'matter' as the indeterminate substratum which was mere potentiality or indeterminacy until united to a form in an actual thing.
  • Descartes' Definition of Matter 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ul.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Material bodies and events are causally affected by something exerting physical force upon them in some way.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But how can physical force be exerted upon that which has no mass, no size, no spatial r location?
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Sir J. J. Thomson (Phil. .Mag., March 1904, "Corpuscular Theory of Matter") has investigated the systems in steady motion which can be formed by various numbers of negatively electrified particles immersed in a sphere of uniform positive electrification, a case, which in consequence of the enormous volume of the units of positive electricity in comparison with that of the negative has much in common with the problem under consideration, and has shown that some of the properties of n systems of corpuscles vary in a periodic way suggestive of the Periodic Law in Chemistry as n is continually increased.^ The student will investigate the characteristic properties of matter.

^ That is, the matter underlying the form must necessarily precede it; for it is not possible to modify (in number or in features) that which does not yet exist.
  • substance@Everything2.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gravity, for example, was for him reducible to motion and he tried to explain the various phenomena in terms of vortices of particles of varying sizes and velocities.
  • Descartes' Definition of Matter 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ul.ie [Source type: Original source]

Mass on the Electrical Theory of Matter

.One of the most characteristic things about matter is the possession of mass.^ Surely it is possible that things which are extremely dissimilar causally interact, but when they are so dissimilar that the only characteristic they have in common is temporal position, then it seems most unreasonable to claim that they do interact.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But privation does not only refer to this kind of black-and-white duality , where some characteristic is either possessed or not possessed by a given thing -- it can also refer to a partial having of that characteristic.
  • substance@Everything2.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Being referred to the blacksmith, who owned one of these mills, the stranger said that he had come from Vermont to learn about the matter.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.When we take the electrical theory of matter the idea of mass takes new and interesting forms.^ Definition and form are the characteristics that the matter takes on when it is subject to cause s (about which more presently); and privation is a sort of negative characteristic, a not-having of some attribute.
  • substance@Everything2.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Descartes' system, knowledge takes the form of ideas, and philosophical investigation is the contemplation of these ideas.
  • René_descartes encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Re: The new Aether My dense Aether theory is not in contradiction with dark matter concept.
  • Technology Review: Blogs: arXiv blog: Dark Matter May Explain the Puzzling Change in Earth-Sun Distance 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

.This point may be illustrated by the case of a single electrified particle; when this moves it produces in the region around it a magnetic field, the magnetic force being proportional to the velocity of the electrified particle.'^ Although it is true that all else being equal, we should accept the nonskeptical position, it may be that, as is usually the case, all else is not equal.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What doubts, what hypotheses, what labyrinths of amusement, what fields of disputation, what an ocean of false learning, may be avoided by that single notion of IMMATERIALISM! .
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ PHIL. Pray, Hylas, do you in other cases, when a point is once evidently proved, withhold your consent on account of objections or difficulties it may be liable to?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

In a magnetic field, however,. there is energy, and the amount of energy per unit volume at any place is proportional to the square of the magnetic force at that place. .Thus there will be energy distributed through the space around the moving particle, and when the velocity of the particle is small compared with that of light we can easily show that the energy in the z region around the charged particle is µ ,when v is the velocity 3a of the particle, e its charge, a its radius, and µ the magnetic permeability of the region round the particle.^ In this respect, as compared with natural daylight, there is the same difference as between truth and falsehood, but if the reader have ever travelled through the dark Valley, he will have learned to be thankful for any light that he could get if not from the sky above, then from the blasted soil beneath.
  • The Celestial Railroad by Nathaniel Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus no energy is transferred from bodily causes to mental effects and thus there is, accordingly, no reason to think that bodily causes of mental events should behave like a ball stopping.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Through the whole of this space, ward-room and all, there is barely room to stand upright, without the hat on.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.If m is the ordinary mass of the particle, the part of the kinetic energy due to the motion of this mass is 2 mv z , thus the total kinetic energy is z (in + a - e . Thus the electric charge on the particle a makes it behave as if its mass were increased by 3 a . S i nce this increase in mass is due to the energy in the region outside the charged particle, it is natural to look to that region for this additional mass.^ The string makes no difference to the total energy of the weight; but it makes all the difference in the world to the particular way in which the energy is distributed between the potential and the kinetic forms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But at every moment the direction and velocity of the weight's motion are different, and the proportion between its kinetic and its potential energy is constantly changing.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In lieu of all former achievements, nature enables him to look the part of Lear far better than in the meridian of his genius.
  • P.'s Correspondence, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1845, 1846 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.eldritchpress.org [Source type: Original source]

.This region is traversed by the tubes of force which start from the electrified body and move with it, and a very simple calculation shows that we should get the increase in the mass which is due to the electrification if we suppose that these tubes of force as they move carry with them a certain amount of the ether, and that this ether had mass.^ They are thought to only interact very weakly - through gravity and/or the weak force (plus maybe some Yukawa interactions with the scalar Higgs particles if they exist).
  • Dark matter/baryonic matter - Science Forums 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Psychological terms and certain physicalistic terms refer to, or denote, or name the very same entities, namely, certain physical processes in human bodies.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reply to Objection 1: The spiritual substances, that move the heavenly bodies, do indeed act on corporeal things by means of the heavenly bodies; but they act immediately on the human intellect by enlightening it.

.The mass of ether thus carried along must be such that the amount of it in unit volume at any part of the field is such that if this were to move with the velocity of light its kinetic energy would be equal to the potential energy of the electric field in the unit volume under consideration.^ The string makes no difference to the total energy of the weight; but it makes all the difference in the world to the particular way in which the energy is distributed between the potential and the kinetic forms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They would then define 'matter' as the indeterminate substratum which was mere potentiality or indeterminacy until united to a form in an actual thing.
  • Descartes' Definition of Matter 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ul.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Stopping a billiard ball by an act of will would cause the ball to lose kinetic energy, which (because it was not turned into heat or potential energy, nor transferred to anything else) would constitute an overall loss of energy.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.When a tube moves this mass of ether only participates in the motion at right angles to the tube, it is not set in motion by a movement of the tube along its length.^ And that because neither the right angle, nor the equality, nor determinate length of the sides are at all concerned in the demonstration.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, Participant 1A commented that revisiting the fire scene on the virtual video is great for going over scenes and it was helpful to move the picture for different angles.
  • AJET 25(1) Davies and Dalgarno (2009) - Learning fire investigation the clean way: The virtual experience 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ascilite.org.au [Source type: Academic]

^ It is not said the three angles are equal to two right ones, because one of them is a right angle, or because the sides comprehending it are of the same length.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

.We may compare the mass which a charged body acquires in virtue of its charge with the additional mass which a ball apparently acquires when it is placed in water; a ball placed in water behaves as if its mass were greater than its mass when moving in vacuo; we can easily understand why this should be the case, because when the ball in the water moves the water around it must move as well; so that when a force acting on the ball sets it in motion it has to move some of the water as well as the ball, and thus the ball behaves as if its mass were increased.^ Why should not the mind act on the body in this way?
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For although when air or water is rarefied we do not see any of the pores that are rendered large, or the new body that is added to occupy them, it is yet less agreeable to reason to suppose something that is unintelligible for the purpose of giving a verbal and merely apparent explanation of the rarefaction of bodies, than to conclude, because of their rarefaction, that there are pores or distances between the parts which are increased in size, and filled with some new body.
  • The Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2) 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For, however some may define relative motion, so as to term that body moved which changes its distance from some other body, whether the force or action causing that change were impressed on it or no, yet as relative motion is that which is perceived by sense, and regarded in the ordinary affairs of life, it should seem that every man of common sense knows what it is as well as the best philosopher.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.Similarly in the case of the electrified particle, which when it moves carries with it its lines of force, which grip the ether and carry some of it along with them.^ At some point in our discussion I said something along the lines of "The American people need to get rid of this government and elect one that will do what they want them to do."
  • Letters: Oligarchical decay - Salon 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC letters.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To move or change a material body or to begin or change some bodily process it seems that some physical force must be exerted upon some material object.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For, to denominate a body moved it is requisite, first, that it change its distance or situation with regard to some other body; and secondly, that the force occasioning that change be applied to it.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

When the electrified particle is moved a mass of ether has to be moved too, and thus the apparent mass of the particle is increased. .The mass of the electrified particle is thus resident in every part of space reached by its lines of force; in this sense an electrified body may be said to extend to an infinite distance; the amount of the mass of the ether attached to the particle diminishes so rapidly as we recede from it that the contributions of regions remote from the particle 1 We may measure this velocity with reference to any axes, provided we refer the motion of all the bodies which come into consideration to the same axes.^ The quick motion of every part of the body shows there is a God.
  • Bible Presbyterian Church WSC Project: Watson's "Body of Divinity" 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.shortercatechism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gravity, for example, was for him reducible to motion and he tried to explain the various phenomena in terms of vortices of particles of varying sizes and velocities.
  • Descartes' Definition of Matter 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ul.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus literature is etherealized by assuming for its medium the human voice; and knowledge, depositing all its heavier particles, except, doubtless, its gold becomes exhaled into a sound, which forthwith steals into the ever-open ear of the community.
  • The Celestial Railroad by Nathaniel Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

are quite insignificant, and in the case of a particle as small as a corpuscle not one millionth part of its mass will be farther away from it than the radius of an atom.
.The increase in the mass of a particle due to given charges varies as we have seen inversely as the radius of the particle; thus the smaller the particle the greater the increase in the mass.^ Being a dimension, time, or at least our perception of time, is thus relative to the system one finds oneself in, due to variants in gravity and velocity.
  • HOW OLD IS OUR UNIVERSE? 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But no one ever doubted that bodies are moved, and that they are of various sizes and figures, according to the diversity of which their motions also vary, and that from mutual collision those somewhat greater than others are divided into many smaller, and thus change figure.
  • The Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2) 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.For bodies of appreciable size or even for those as small as ordinary atoms the effect of any realizable electric charge is quite insignificant, on the other hand for the smallest bodies known, the corpuscle, there is evidence that the whole of the mass is due to the electric charge.^ But although we have seen that mind-body interaction may be quite mysterious and even unlikely, we have found no reason to think it impossible.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But motion (viz., local, for I can conceive no other kind of motion, and therefore I do not think we ought to suppose there is any other in nature), in the ordinary sense of the term, is nothing more than the action by which a body passes from one place to another.
  • The Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2) 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to this theory, a person consists of two quite radically different parts, a mind and a body, each of which can causally act upon the other.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.This result has been deduced by the help of an extremely interesting property of the mass due to a charge of electricity, which is that this mass is not constant but varies with the velocity.^ Being a dimension, time, or at least our perception of time, is thus relative to the system one finds oneself in, due to variants in gravity and velocity.
  • HOW OLD IS OUR UNIVERSE? 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include such properties as mass, weight, spatial location, specific electrical charge, and the like.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a consequence of this theory that things such as pain have both sorts of properties: mental properties such as achiness, as well as material properties such as a specific electrical charge.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.This comes about in the following way.^ Then their agreement or sympathy will also come about in one of these three ways.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.When the charged particle, which for simplicity we shall suppose to be spherical, is at rest or moving very slowly the lines of electric force are distributed uniformly around it in all directions; when the sphere moves, however, magnetic forces are produced in the region around it, while these, in consequence of electro-magnetic induction in a moving magnetic field, give rise to electric forces which displace the tubes of electric force in such a way as to make them set themselves so as to be more at right angles to the direction in which they are moving than they were before.^ They do however solicit money for themselves.
  • O'Reilly ignores Haiti to cover whaling, wild horses and Jon Stewart | Media Matters for America 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wife makes more than me.
  • Does it matter if she makes more than you? 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC forums.ccmmagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ They are thought to only interact very weakly - through gravity and/or the weak force (plus maybe some Yukawa interactions with the scalar Higgs particles if they exist).
  • Dark matter/baryonic matter - Science Forums 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus if the charged sphere were moving along the line AB, the tubes of force would, when the sphere was in motion, tend to leave the region near AB and crowd towards a plane through the centre of the sphere and at right angles to AB, where they would be moving more nearly at right angles to themselves.^ Whilst they remain with mortals, as during the last few years, good mortals become more angelic toward one another.
  • Glossary 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a moral picturesqueness in the contrasts of the scene,--a man moved as deeply as his nature would admit, in the midst of hardened, gibing spectators, heartless towards him.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That bodies should tend towards the centre of the earth is not thought strange, because it is what we perceive every moment of our lives.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.This crowding of the lines of force increases, however, the potential energy of the electric field, and since the mass of the ether carried along by the lines of force is proportional to the potential energy, the mass of the charged particle will also be increased.^ I am forced, however, to carry on a continual warfare with the squash-bugs, who, were I to let them alone for a day, would perhaps quite destroy the prospects of the whole summer.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But at every moment the direction and velocity of the weight's motion are different, and the proportion between its kinetic and its potential energy is constantly changing.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These include such properties as mass, weight, spatial location, specific electrical charge, and the like.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The amount of variation of the mass with the velocity depends to some extent on the assumptions we make as to the shape of the corpuscle and the way in which it is electrified.^ For the partition of matter in thought makes no change in it; but all variation of it, or diversity of form, depends on motion.
  • The Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2) 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

The simplest expression connecting the mass with the velocity is that when the velocity is v the mass is equal to ?` 2 where c is the velocity of light. .We see from 3 a The amount of this change can be calculated by the rule that if a mass equal to the change in mass were to move with the velocity of light its kinetic energy would equal the change in the potential energy.^ Take the stunning example of the bullet cluster: Bullet Cluster - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This very strongly implies that there is some mass there that we cant 'see' with light.
  • Dark matter/baryonic matter - Science Forums 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The string makes no difference to the total energy of the weight; but it makes all the difference in the world to the particular way in which the energy is distributed between the potential and the kinetic forms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stopping a billiard ball by an act of will would cause the ball to lose kinetic energy, which (because it was not turned into heat or potential energy, nor transferred to anything else) would constitute an overall loss of energy.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.If we apply this result to the case of the combination of hydrogen and oxygen, where the evolution of heat, about 1 6 X 10 ' ergs per gramme of water, is greater than in any other known case of chemical combination, we see that the change in mass would only amount to one part in 3000 million, which is far beyond the reach of experiment.^ Recognize that oxygen, in combination with another substance, results in a chemical change.

^ But is one more reasonable than the other?
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Or, in case they see, can it be imagined their sight hath not the same use in preserving their bodies from injuries, which appears in that of all other animals?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The evolution of energy by radio-active substances is enormously larger than in ordinary chemical transformations; thus one gramme of radium emits per day about as much energy as is evolved in the formation of one gramme of water, and goes on doing this for thousands of years.^ Bodies and aggregates thus seem to be more phenomenal than real, and therefore corporeal substances (or the union of body and soul) seem to be phenomenal rather than real.
  • d:/steve/2004 abstracts.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC philosophy.tamu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ MATERIAL SUBSTANCE was no more than an hypothesis; and a false and groundless one too.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Your whine about "one sided view" is much less valid.
  • O'Reilly ignores Haiti to cover whaling, wild horses and Jon Stewart | Media Matters for America 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.We see, however, that even in this case it would require hundreds of years before the changes in mass became appreciable.^ Although a hundred and fifty years before, and though their roots were propagated all over the country, they were still flourishing in the original garden.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Descartes still has to face the general argument, which suggests that an omniperfect God would not even allow error through a misuse of freedom.
  • d:/steve/2004 abstracts.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC philosophy.tamu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The job supervisor's name was Peter and he called the evening before work was to begin to remind us that they would be at our home at 8AM the next morning.
  • Oklahoma City - Reliable, Professional Handyman Services. Handyman Matters. Because Quality Matters 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC okcity.handymanmatters.com [Source type: General]

.The evolution of energy from the gaseous emanation given off by radium is more rapid than that from radium itself, since according to the experiments of Rutherford (Rutherford, Radioactivity, p.^ Sense, then, is fancy, and fancy is, according to Hobbes, the appearance of motion rather than motion itself, contrary to Hobbes' previous characterization of sense as motion.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What more easy than to conceive a tree or house existing by itself, independent of, and unperceived by, any mind whatsoever?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Saturday, August 13th.--My life, at this time, is more like that of a boy, externally, than it has been since I was really a boy.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.432) a gramme of the emanation would evolve about 10 ergs in four days; this by the rule given above would diminish the mass by about one part in 20,000; but since only very small quantities of the emanation could be used the detection of the change of mass does not seem feasible even in this case.^ There is no return of equilibrium - the summaries and diagnostic inferences about the cases by the medical author seem deeply unsatisfying - and no happy or sad ending as we seem to be minor points in an elaborate narrative of which the tales represent only a fragment.

^ Among the philosophers at least, those who hold that quantity is indefinitely divisible, ought to admit that in the division the parts may become so small as to be wholly imperceptible.
  • The Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2) 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would be better to call them embodied minds, for he claims to have found that I am not only lodged in my body as a pilot in a ship, but that I am very closely united to it, and so to speak so intermingled with it that I seem to compose with it one whole.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the view we have been discussing the existence of potential energy due to an electric field is always associated with mass; wherever there is potential energy there is mass.^ Not surprisingly, then, supporters of this view deny that there is any ontological difference---any difference concerning simply existence ---between the past, the present, and the future.
  • Time's Arrow & Archimedes' Point: Chapter 1 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.On the electro-magnetic theory of light, however, a wave of light is accompanied by electric forces, and therefore by potential energy; thus waves of light must behave as if they possessed mass.^ They are also caused to exist, for example, by light waves or sound waves stimulating his eyes or ears, and are affected by the condition of these, and of the whole nervous system attendant upon them.
  • Hyponoetics - Glossary - [S] 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.hyponoesis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We must therefore say that a body acts forasmuch as it is in act, on a body forasmuch as it is in potentiality.

^ Thus must it be understood on the part of “light”, that “light” can be said in abstraction , and thus it names the form of a luminous body, through which that body has (its ability) to shine and act; and thus (St.
  • COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -- Lib. II, d. 13, a. 2, q.1: S. BONAVENTURAE 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.franciscan-archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.It may be shown that it follows from the same principles that they must also possess momentum, the direction of the momentum being the direction along which the light is travelling; when the light is absorbed by an opaque substance the momentum in the light is communicated to the substance, which therefore behaves as if the light pressed upon it.^ And have they not then the same appearance of being distant?
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They are also caused to exist, for example, by light waves or sound waves stimulating his eyes or ears, and are affected by the condition of these, and of the whole nervous system attendant upon them.
  • Hyponoetics - Glossary - [S] 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.hyponoesis.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to this principle, objects that may seem to be different from each other are really identical if "both" have all the same properties, and if they are identical, then both have all the same properties.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

The pressure exerted by light was shown by Maxwell (Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed., p. 440) to be a consequence of his electro-magnetic theory, its existence has been established by the experiment of Lebedew, of Nichols and Hull, and of Poynting.
.We have hitherto been considering mass from the point of view that the constitution of matter is electrical; we shall proceed to consider the question of weight from the same Weight point of view.^ From POCM's point of view, it doesn't matter.
  • POCM Christian Jesus virgin birth miracle copy of pagan myth 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.pocm.info [Source type: Original source]

^ From the scholastic point of view Descartes' approach to matter is open to other objections.
  • Descartes' Definition of Matter 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ul.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ These include such properties as mass, weight, spatial location, specific electrical charge, and the like.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The relation between mass and weight is, while the simplest in expression, perhaps the most fundamental and mysterious property possessed by matter.^ Fundamental Properties of Matter Harcourt School Publishers: The Mixtures Lab http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/mixture/mixture.html .

^ Manifestly this incorporeal right of property, or dominion, is, of itself, independently of possession [*41]  of the commodity to which it relates, a subject of property, of ownership.

^ Yet this incorporeal right of dominion or control over a thing, is itself a subject of property- of ownership; one that is continually bought and sold in the market, independently of possession of the thing to which it relates.

.The weight of a body is proportional to its mass, that is if the weights of a number of substances are equal the masses will be equal, whatever the substances may be.^ But, though it were possible that solid, figured, movable substances may exist without the mind, corresponding to the ideas we have of bodies, yet how is it possible for us to know this?
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.This result was verified to a considerable degree of approximation by Newton by means of experiments with pendulums; later, in 1830 Bessel by a very extensive and accurate series of experiments, also made on pendulums, showed that the ratio of mass to weight was certainly to one part in 60,000 the same for all the substances examined by him, these included brass, silver, iron, lead, copper, ivory, water.^ PHIL. That there is no such thing as what PHILOSOPHERS CALL MATERIAL SUBSTANCE, I am seriously persuaded: but, if I were made to see anything absurd or sceptical in this, I should then have the same reason to renounce this that I imagine I have now to reject the contrary opinion.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ What you won't see from O'Reilly is an honest confrontation of the substance of the criticisms made about him and his appalling network.
  • O'Reilly ignores Haiti to cover whaling, wild horses and Jon Stewart | Media Matters for America 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And I certainly don’t claim to have the answer to that, but one of my thoughts is that I don’t believe based on my experience and my research that it’s so much death that people fear oftentimes, it’s the dying.

.The constancy of this ratio acquires new interest when looked at from the point of view of the electrical constitution of matter.^ From POCM's point of view, it doesn't matter.
  • POCM Christian Jesus virgin birth miracle copy of pagan myth 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.pocm.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Meantime I shall see these people and their enterprise under a new point of view, and perhaps be able to determine whether we have any call to cast in our lot among them.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.We have seen that the atoms of all bodies contain corpuscles, that the mass of a corpuscle is only of the mass of an atom of hydrogen, that it carries a constant charge of negative electricity, and that its mass is entirely due to this charge, and can be regarded as arising from ether gripped by the lines of force starting from the electrical charge.^ We say one book, one page, one line, etc.; all these are equally units, though some contain several of the others.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ Dualistic interactionism, by construing minds as radically different from bodies, has forced us to a conclusion contrary to what we all believe.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When we do our utmost to conceive the existence of external bodies, we are all the while only contemplating our own ideas.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

The question at once suggests itself, Is this kind of mass ponderable? does it add to the weight of the body? and, if so, is the proportion between mass and weight the same as for ordinary bodies? Let us suppose for a moment that this mass is not ponderable, so that the corpuscles increase the mass but not the weight of an atom. .Then, since the mass of a corpuscle is of that of an atom of hydrogen, the addition or removal of one corpuscle would in the case of an atom of atomic weight x alter the mass by one part in 1700 x, without altering the weight, this would produce an effect of the v2 2 c this that the variation of mass with velocity is very small unless the velocity of the body approaches that of light, but when, as in the case of the (3 particles emitted by radium, the velocity is only a few per cent.^ Take the stunning example of the bullet cluster: Bullet Cluster - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This very strongly implies that there is some mass there that we cant 'see' with light.
  • Dark matter/baryonic matter - Science Forums 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC hypography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In our age physicists have undertaken many investigations concerning light, to the extent that it is a sensible phenomenon , and very many of them teach, that the phenomenon of light is effected by certain wave-like movements produced in the ether .
  • COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -- Lib. II, d. 13, a. 2, q.1: S. BONAVENTURAE 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.franciscan-archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gravity, for example, was for him reducible to motion and he tried to explain the various phenomena in terms of vortices of particles of varying sizes and velocities.
  • Descartes' Definition of Matter 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ul.ie [Source type: Original source]

less than that of light, the effect of velocity on the mass becomes very considerable; the formula indicates that if the particles were moving with a velocity equal to that of light they would behave as if their mass were infinite. .By observing the variation in the mass of a corpuscle as its velocity changes we can determine how much of the mass depends upon the electric charge and how much is independent of it.^ Determine how various types of matter change state.

^ How much depends on these little books!
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But how can physical force be exerted upon that which has no mass, no size, no spatial r location?
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.For since the latter part of the mass is independent of the velocity, if it predominates the variation with velocity of the mass of a corpuscle will be small; if on the other hand it is negligible the variation in mass with velocity will be that indicated by theory given above.^ It is recognized, though, that it is not quite the same as the one other monistic theory we have considered, materialism, since the latter excludes neutral entities.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We shall examine how the neutral theory fares with these three objections, but let us first briefly indicate how easily it avoids the other three.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, someone might choose to claim that the neutral identity theory is a kind of dualistic theory.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

The experiment of Kaufmann (Gottingen Nach., Nov. 8, Igor), Bucherer (Ann. der Physik., xxviii. 513, 1909) on the masses of the f3 particles shot out by radium, as well as those by Hupka (Berichte der deutsch. physik. .Gesell., 1 9 9, 249) on the masses of the corpuscle in cathode rays are in agreement with the view that the whole of the mass of these particles is due to their electric charge.^ But since it is impossible to conceive of material particles or of species or immaterial qualities which can pass from one of these substances into the other, this view must be rejected.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These include such properties as mass, weight, spatial location, specific electrical charge, and the like.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The alteration in the mass of a moving charge with its velocity is primarily due to the increase in the potential energy which accompanies the increase in velocity.^ But at every moment the direction and velocity of the weight's motion are different, and the proportion between its kinetic and its potential energy is constantly changing.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The connexion between potential energy and mass is general and holds for any arrangement of electrified particles; thus if we assume the electrical constitution of matter, there will be a part of the mass of any system dependent upon the potential energy and in fact proportional to it.^ The string makes no difference to the total energy of the weight; but it makes all the difference in the world to the particular way in which the energy is distributed between the potential and the kinetic forms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor are they empty or incomplete, otherwise than upon your supposition—that Matter is an essential part of all corporeal things.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ There is therefore upon the whole no parity of case between Spirit and Matter.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Thus every change in potential energy, such for example as occurs when two elements combine with evolution or absorption of heat, must be attended by a change in mass.^ Observe and describe changes that can occur when two materials interact.

^ Thus if we assume for purposes of discussion that in each brain only one process occurs at one time and that it is started and stopped by other bodily events, then such a brain process is like a string pendulum which is started and stopped by the expenditure of physical energy.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only exception to these principles, that is of sufficient importance to be noticed here, is where the keeping of another's property is attended with expense, as a horse, for example, which must be fed.

same magnitude on the ratio of mass to weight and would in the case of the atoms of the lighter elements be easily measurable in experiments of the same order of accuracy as those made by Bessel. .If the number of corpuscles in the atom were proportional to the atomic weight, then the ratio of mass to weight would be constant whether the corpuscles were ponderable or not.^ They thus would have no size, shape, weight, mass, or spatial location.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.If the number were not proportional there would be greater discrepancies in the ratio of mass to weight than is consistent with Bessel's experiments if the corpuscles had no weight.^ Objection 1: It would seem that there are no seminal virtues in corporeal matter.

^ What if it should prove that you, who hold there is, are, by virtue of that opinion, a greater sceptic, and maintain more paradoxes and repugnances to Common Sense, than I who believe no such thing?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you imagine He would have induced the whole world to believe the being of Matter, if there was no such thing?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.We have seen there are other grounds for concluding that the number of corpuscles in an atom is proportional to the atom weight, so that the constancy of the ratio of mass to weight for a large number of substances does not enable us to determine whether or not mass due to charges of electricity is ponderable or not.^ That there are many names in use amongst speculative men which do not always suggest to others determinate, particular ideas, or in truth anything at all, is what nobody will deny.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Have we not therefore reason to conclude they are both in the wrong, and that there is in effect no such thing as parts infinitely small, or an infinite number of parts contained in any finite quantity?
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ On this ground we may conclude that our mind is of such a nature that the motions alone of certain bodies can also easily excite in it all the other sensations, as the motion of a sword excites in it the sensation of pain.
  • The Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2) 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.There seems some hope that the determination of this ratio for radio-active substances may throw some light on this point.^ There seems to be some difficulty in the point.
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It must therefore be a substance; but it has been shewn that there is no corporeal or material substance: it remains therefore that the cause of ideas is an incorporeal active substance or Spirit.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]

^ We cannot identify this average family with some ordinary family, for that would seem to imply that somewhere there really is a family with 1.3 cars.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The enormous amount of heat evolved by these bodies may indicate that they possess much greater stores of potential energy than other substances.^ And yet these are veritable fables, which have led to the invention of such stories concerning a man whom they regarded as possessing greater wisdom and power than the multitude , and as having received the beginning of his corporeal substance from better and diviner elements than others , because they thought that this was appropriate to persons who were too great to be human beings.
  • POCM Christian Jesus virgin birth miracle copy of pagan myth 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.pocm.info [Source type: Original source]

^ And yet these are veritable fables, which have led to the invention of such stories concerning a man whom they regarded as possessing greater wisdom and power than the multitude, and as having received the beginning of his corporeal substance from better and diviner elements than others, because they thought that this was appropriate to persons who were too great to be human beings .
  • POCM Christian Jesus virgin birth miracle copy of pagan myth 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.pocm.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Or, in case they see, can it be imagined their sight hath not the same use in preserving their bodies from injuries, which appears in that of all other animals?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

.If we suppose that the heat developed by one gramme of a radio-active substance in the transformations which it undergoes before it reaches the nonradio-active stage is a measure of the excess of the potential energy in a gramme of this substance above that in a gramme of non-radio-active substance, it would follow that a larger part of the mass was due to electric charges in radio-active than in non-radio-active substances; in the case of uranium this difference would amount to at least one part in 20,000 of the total mass.^ The string makes no difference to the total energy of the weight; but it makes all the difference in the world to the particular way in which the energy is distributed between the potential and the kinetic forms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus a body that describes a mile in an hour moves three times faster than it would in case it described only a mile in three hours.
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There would, consequently, be different results in the brain, which would in turn have different bodily results, so that the body would be affected in many different ways given the same input of energy.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.If this extra mass had no weight the ratio of mass to weight for uranium would differ from the normal amount by more than one part in 20,000, a quantity quite within the range of pendulum experiments.^ But is one more reasonable than the other?
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Consumers selected responses along a five-point scale – ranging from a very negative experience (1) to a very positive one (5).

^ I know no man who seems more like a man, more indescribably human, than this sturdy blacksmith.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.It thus appears very desirable to make experiments on the ratio of mass to weight for radio-active substances.^ They do not appear to be active, and it makes one rather melancholy to look at them.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s very easy for executives to say “customer experience is important.” But it’s much more difficult for them to dedicate the time and energy required to make it a real priority.

^ This making and unmaking of ideas doth very properly denominate the mind active.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.Sir J. J. Thomson, by swinging a small pendulum whose bob was made of radium bromide, has shown that this ratio for radium does not differ from the normal by one part in 2000. The small quantity of radium available prevented the attainment of greater accuracy.^ Among the philosophers at least, those who hold that quantity is indefinitely divisible, ought to admit that in the division the parts may become so small as to be wholly imperceptible.
  • The Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2) 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Have we not therefore reason to conclude they are both in the wrong, and that there is in effect no such thing as parts infinitely small, or an infinite number of parts contained in any finite quantity?
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ When you have climbed it on one side, and gaze from the summit at the other, you feel as if you had made a discovery,--the landscape being quite different on the two sides.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.Experiments just completed (1910) by Southerns at the Cavendish Laboratory on this ratio for uranium show that it is normal to an accuracy of one part in 20o,000; indicating that in non-radio-active, as in radio-active, substances the electrical mass is proportional to the atomic weight.^ These include such properties as mass, weight, spatial location, specific electrical charge, and the like.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So Peter and another worker came out on time and would have completed the project in one day, if we had purchased the correct part for our new bath faucet.
  • Oklahoma City - Reliable, Professional Handyman Services. Handyman Matters. Because Quality Matters 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC okcity.handymanmatters.com [Source type: General]

.Though but few experiments have been made in recent years on the value of the ratio of mass to weight, many important investigations have been made on the effect of alterations in the chemical and physical conditions on the weight of bodies.^ We have done many remodeling jobs over the last 20 years and we have never had an experience as good as this - not even close.
  • Oklahoma City - Reliable, Professional Handyman Services. Handyman Matters. Because Quality Matters 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC okcity.handymanmatters.com [Source type: General]

^ That a few original ideas may be made to signify a great number of effects and actions, it is necessary they be variously combined together.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ His condition, I am sorry to say, remains the same as for ten years past; it is that of a hopeless paralytic, palsied not more in body than in those nobler attributes of which the body is the instrument.
  • P.'s Correspondence, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1845, 1846 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.eldritchpress.org [Source type: Original source]

.These have all led to the conclusion that no change which can be detected by our present means of investigation occurs in the weight of a body in consequence of any physical or chemical changes yet investigated.^ Distinguish between physical and chemical changes.

^ The string makes no difference to the total energy of the weight; but it makes all the difference in the world to the particular way in which the energy is distributed between the potential and the kinetic forms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It changes as physics changes, and some of these changes themselves involve the recognition that some ingredient of the previously excepted physical world view is anthropocentric.
  • Time's Arrow & Archimedes' Point: Chapter 1 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Thus Landolt, who devoted a great number of years to the question whether any change in weight occurs during chemical combination, came finally to the conclusion that in no case out of the many he investigated did any measurable change of weight occur during chemical combination.^ And thus he vegetates from day to day, and from year to year, at that splendid fantasy of Abbotsford, which grew out of his brain, and became a symbol of the great romancer's tastes, feelings, studies, prejudices, and modes of intellect.
  • P.'s Correspondence, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1845, 1846 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.eldritchpress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The question for the Baroque protagonist is not whether the hallucination as symptom can be cured, but to what extent the otherworld will be welcomed and thus entire perspective altered?

^ Of course, we can no more explain this case of proximate causation than we can any other case of proximate causation, whether between two material events or between a mental and a material event.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

Poynting and Phillips (Proc. Roy. Soc., 76, p. .445), as well as Southerns (78, p.3 9 2), have shown that change in temperature produces no change in the weight of a body; and Poynting has also shown that neither the weight of a crystal nor the attraction between two crystals depends at all upon the direction in which the axis of the crystal points.^ The string makes no difference to the total energy of the weight; but it makes all the difference in the world to the particular way in which the energy is distributed between the potential and the kinetic forms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course, we can no more explain this case of proximate causation than we can any other case of proximate causation, whether between two material events or between a mental and a material event.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same way, it may be shown that weight, colour, and all the other qualities of this sort, which are perceived in corporeal matter, may be taken from it, itself meanwhile remaining entire: it thus follows that the nature of body depends on none of these.
  • The Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2) 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The result of these laborious and very carefully made experiments has been to strengthen the conviction that the weight of a given portion of matter is absolutely independent of its physical condition or state of chemical combinations.^ But these you know are universal intellectual notions, and consequently independent of Matter.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • The First Dialogue. Berkeley, George. 1909-14. Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous in Opposition to Sceptics and Atheists. The Harvard Classics 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Recognize that oxygen, in combination with another substance, results in a chemical change.

^ Of Matter and Physical , Chemical Change   Physical Changes Science Clips http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/scienceclips/ages/8_9/science_8_9.shtml .

.It should, however, be noticed that we have as yet no accurate investigation as to whether or not any changes of weight occur during radio-active transformations, such for example as the emanation from radium undergoes when the atoms themselves of the substance are disrupted.^ Whether he has proved it, however, is yet to be decided.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Einstein's theory tells us that there is no such thing as objective simultaneity between spatially separated events.
  • Time's Arrow & Archimedes' Point: Chapter 1 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ My point, however, is that it is no longer a source of advantage at the firm level - it doesn't enable individual companies to distinguish themselves in a meaningful way from their competitors.
  • Nicholas G. Carr: IT Doesn't Matter 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC www.nicholasgcarr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a matter of some interest in connexion with a discussion of any views of the constitution of matter to consider the theories of gravitation which have been put forward to explain that apparently invariable property of matter - its weight.^ As discussed in the main body of this article, Henry Corbin (1903-1978) puts forward the idea of a mesocosm.

^ These ingenious methods constitute a sort of machinery, by which thought and study are done to every person's hand without his putting himself to the slightest inconvenience in the matter.
  • The Celestial Railroad by Nathaniel Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If we bear these differences in mind, we can find some other interesting observations in Corbin’s view of the mesocosm.

.It would be impossible to consider in detail the numerous theories which have been put forward to account for gravitation; a concise summary of many of these has been given by Drude (Wied.^ There would, consequently, be different results in the brain, which would in turn have different bodily results, so that the body would be affected in many different ways given the same input of energy.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The relationship between these two events, however, is not that of proximate causation because there would be many neural and muscular events intermediate between them.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many would-be philosophers were trying to develop inexplicable statements of seeming fact, however, this laid rumors of such a proposition impossible.
  • René_descartes encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ann. 62, p. i): .1 there is no dearth of theories as to the cause of gravitation, what is lacking is the means of putting any of them to a decisive test.^ However, Einstein's theory tells us that there is no such thing as objective simultaneity between spatially separated events.
  • Time's Arrow & Archimedes' Point: Chapter 1 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ But because many causes are radically different from their effects, there is no reason to think mental events and brain events cannot causally interact merely because they are so different.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HYL. And, in consequence of this, must we not think there are no such things as physical or corporeal causes; but that a Spirit is the immediate cause of all the phenomena in nature?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.There are, however, two theories of gravitation, both old, which seem to be especially closely connected with the idea of the electrical constitution of matter.^ There were two old carts, both of which had lost a wheel.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, there are two things about this objection that we should note before we move on.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Einstein's theory tells us that there is no such thing as objective simultaneity between spatially separated events.
  • Time's Arrow & Archimedes' Point: Chapter 1 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.The first of these is the theory, associated with the two fluid theory of electricity, that gravity is a kind of residual electrical effect, due to the attraction between the units of positive and negative electricity being a little greater than the repulsion between the units of electricity of the same kind.^ The distinction between these two is important because only the latter is relevant to analytical behaviorism, as some examples will show.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We now are in a position to see that the distinction between eliminative and reductive materialism has surfaced in two ways.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first is the prevalent opinion, that most bodies admit of being so rarefied and condensed that, when rarefied, they have greater extension than when condensed; and some even have subtilized to such a degree as to make a distinction between the substance of body and its quantity, and between quantity itself and extension.
  • The Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2) 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus on this view two charges of equal magnitude, but of opposite sign, would exert an attraction varying inversely as the square of the distance on a charge of electricity of either sign, and therefore an attraction on a system consisting of two charges equal in magnitude but opposite in sign forming an electrically neutral system.^ Your difficulty, therefore, that no two see the same thing, makes equally against the Materialists and me.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ At the distance of more than two miles, we had a view of white Augusta, with its steeples, and the State-House, at the farther end of the town.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Here they seem contiguous and minute, but to a nearer view immense orbs of fight at various distances, far sunk in the abyss of space.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Thus if we had two neutral systems, A and B, A consisting of m positive units of electricity and an equal number of negative, while B has n units of each kind, then the gravitational attraction between A and B would be inversely proportional to the square of the distance and proportional to n in. The connexion between this view of gravity and that of the electrical constitution of matter is evidently very close, for if gravity arose in this way the weight of a body would only depend upon the number of units of electricity in the body.^ After we have thus remarked that the nature of corporeal substance consists only in its being an extended thing, and that its extension is not different from that which we attribute to space, however empty, it is easy to discover the impossibility of any one of its parts in any way whatsoever occupying more space at one time than at another, and thus of being otherwise rarefied than in the way explained above; and it is easy to perceive also that there cannot be more matter or body in a vessel when it is filled with lead or gold, or any other body however heavy and hard, than when it but contains air and is supposed to be empty: for the quantity of the parts of which a body is composed does not depend on their weight or hardness, but only on the extension, which is always equal in the same vase.
  • The Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2) 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The string makes no difference to the total energy of the weight; but it makes all the difference in the world to the particular way in which the energy is distributed between the potential and the kinetic forms.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We cannot detect any analogous connexion between cause and effect in causal transactions which we view wholly from the outside, such as the movement of a billiard-ball by a cue.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the view that the constitution of matter is electrical, the fundamental units which build up matter are the units of electric charge, and as the magnitude of these charges does not change, whatever chemical or physical vicissitudes matter, the weight of matter ought not to be affected by such changes.^ Distinguish between physical and chemical changes.

^ Compare the effect of physical and chemical changes on matter.

^ And these primitive forms of life in turn resulted from physical and chemical reactions among nonliving things.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

There is one result of this theory which might possibly afford a means of testing it: since the charge on a corpuscle is equal to that on a positive unit, the weights of the two are equal; but the mass of the corpuscle is only r--- of that of the positive unit, so that the acceleration of the corpuscle under gravity will be 1700 times that of the positive unit, which we should expect to be the same as that for ponderable matter or 981.
.The acceleration of the corpuscle under gravity on this view would be 1.6 X 10 6. It does not seem altogether impossible that with methods slightly more powerful than those we now possess we might measure the effect of gravity on a corpuscle if the acceleration were as large as this.^ Consequently, although he thinks that epiphenomenalism is preferable to interactionism, which requires nonobservable causes , he also thinks that a theory that also does not require nonobservable effects would, in turn, be preferred to epiphenomenalism.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know no man who seems more like a man, more indescribably human, than this sturdy blacksmith.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CCVI. That we possess even more than a moral certainty of it.
  • The Principles of Philosophy by Rene Descartes - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/2) 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

.The other theory of gravitation to which we call attention is that due to Le Sage of Geneva and published in 1818. Le Sage supposed that the universe was thronged with exceedingly small particles moving with very great velocities.^ Two lovers, or other persons, on the most private business, to appoint a meeting in what they supposed to be a place of the utmost solitude, and to find it thronged with people.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A chickadee was calling in the woods yesterday,--the only small bird I have taken note of yet; but crows have been cawing in the woods for a week past, though not in very great numbers.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.These particles he called ultra-mundane corpuscles, because they came to us from regions far beyond the solar system.^ It may be, however, that these sentences simply seem or sound odd or unusual to us now, but that they are not meaningless.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Arithmetic, therefore, we regard not the things, but the signs, which nevertheless are not regarded for their own sake, but because they direct us how to act with relation to things, and dispose rightly of them.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

^ He should also stick with what he is good at which is calling out these white wing politihacks for the lying scum bags that they are.
  • O'Reilly ignores Haiti to cover whaling, wild horses and Jon Stewart | Media Matters for America 16 January 2010 19:15 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He assumed that these were so penetrating that they could pass through masses as large as the sun or the earth without being absorbed to more than a very small extent.^ As usual when I have anything to sell, apples are very low indeed in price, and will not fetch me more than a dollar a barrel.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I arose this morning feeling more elastic than I have throughout the winter; for the breathing of the ocean air has wrought a very beneficial effect, .
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He says that they sell and exchange these small houses among themselves continually.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.There is, however, some absorption, and if bodies are made up of the same kind of atoms, whose dimensions are small compared with the distances between them, the absorption will be proportional to the mass of the body.^ There is also some kind of a bird flying.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus interactionism is not committed to what there is reason to think is false, namely, that there is a gap between some neural events and others, a gap no neural event fills.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Einstein's theory tells us that there is no such thing as objective simultaneity between spatially separated events.
  • Time's Arrow & Archimedes' Point: Chapter 1 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.usyd.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

So that as the ultra-mundane corpuscles stream through the body a small fraction, proportional to the mass of the body, of their momentum is communicated to it. .If the direction of the ultra-mundane corpuscles passing through the body were uniformly distributed, the momentum communicated by them to the body would not tend to move it in one direction rather than in another, so that a body, A, alone in the universe and exposed to bombardment by the ultra-mundane corpuscles would remain at rest.^ Thus a body that describes a mile in an hour moves three times faster than it would in case it described only a mile in three hours.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ At a little distance, I think, one would take him to be not much over thirty; but nearer at hand one finds him to look rather venerable,--perhaps fifty or more.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless one body is inferior to another, forasmuch as it is in potentiality to that which the other has in act.

If, however, there were a second body, B, in the neighbourhood of A, B will shield A from some of the corpuscles moving in the direction BA; thus A will not receive as much momentum in this direction as when it was alone; but in this case it only received just enough to 1 A theory published after Drude's paper in that of Professor Osborne Reynolds, given in his Rede lecture "On an Inversion of Ideas as to the Structure of the Universe." keep it in equilibrium, so that when B is present the momentum in the opposite direction will get the upper hand and A will move in the direction AB, and will thus be attracted by B. Similarly, we see that B will be attracted by A. Le Sage proved that the rate at which momentum was being communicated to A or B by the passage through them of his corpuscles was proportional to the product of the masses of A and B, and if the distance between A and B was large compared with their dimensions, inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them; in fact, that the forces acting on them would obey the same laws as the gravitational attraction between them. Clerk Maxwell (article "Atom," Ency. Brit., 9th ed.) pointed out that this transference of momentum from the ultra-mundane corpuscles to the body through which they passed involved the loss of kinetic energy by the corpuscles, and if the loss of momentum were large enough to account for the gravitational attraction, the loss of kinetic energy would be so large that if converted into heat it would be sufficient to keep the body white hot. .We need not, however, suppose that this energy is converted into heat; it might, as in the case where Röntgen rays are produced by the passage of electrified corpuscles through matter, be transformed into the energy of a still more penetrating form of radiation, which might escape from the gravitating body without heating it.^ And this fact is supposed to show that, however closely correlated certain pairs of events in mind and body respectively may be, they cannot by causally connected.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reply to Objection 3: Quantity does not entirely hinder the corporeal form from action, as stated above; but from being a universal agent, forasmuch as a form is individualized through being in matter subject to quantity.

^ Humans with immaterial minds as well as bodies might well have evolved in their own unique way from matter.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is a very interesting result of recent discoveries that the machinery which Le Sage introduced for the purpose of his theory has a very close analogy with things for which we have now direct experimental evidence.^ Is there any way to decide between the two theories on the basis of experimental evidence?
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.We know that small particles moving with very high speeds do exist, that they possess considerable powers of penetrating solids, though not, as far as we know at present, to an extent comparable with that postulated by Le Sage; and we know that the energy lost by them as they pass through a solid is to a large extent converted into a still more penetrating form of radiation, Röntgen rays.^ The Revolutionary pensioners come out into the sunshine to make oath that they are still above ground.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The little waterfalls with which we had impeded it in the summer and autumn could do no more than form a large ripple, so much greater was the volume of water.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are also less dependent on the spirit, or thinking substance which perceives them, in that they are excited by the will of another and more powerful spirit; yet still they are ideas, and certainly no idea, whether faint or strong, can exist otherwise than in a mind perceiving it.
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.gutenberg.us [Source type: Original source]
  • A Treatise Concerning the Principles of HumanKnowledge 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.mv.helsinki.fi [Source type: Original source]

.In Le Sage's theory the only function of the corpuscles is to act as carriers of momentum, any systems which possessed momentum, moved with a high velocity and had the power of penetrating solids, might be substituted for them; now waves of electric and magnetic force, such as light waves or Röntgen rays, possess momentum, move with a high velocity, and the latter at any rate possess considerable powers of penetration; so that we might formulate a theory in which penetrating Röntgen rays replaced Le Sage's corpuscles.^ There is no season when such pleasant and sunny spots may be lighted on, and produce so pleasant an effect on the feelings, as now in October.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And because the Creator is purely act, for that reason light in spiritual (things) can be found in an omnimodal actuality, such that it has nothing of the possibility of matter nor of the shadowiness of ignorance.
  • COMMENTARIA IN QUATUOR LIBROS SENTENTIARUM -- Lib. II, d. 13, a. 2, q.1: S. BONAVENTURAE 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.franciscan-archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We can, I think, quickly show that the first two reasons have little force, but the third is considerably more powerful.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.Röntgen rays, however, when absorbed do not, as far as we know, give rise to more penetrating Röntgen rays as they should to explain attraction, but either to less penetrating rays or to rays of the same kind.^ PHIL. And is it not possible ideas should succeed one another twice as fast in your mind as they do in mine, or in that of some spirit of another kind?
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ However, before the identity theorists claim victory, they should look more carefully at this way out of the problem of other minds.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And is it not possible ideas should succeed one another twice as fast in your mind as they do in mine, or in that of some spirit of another kind?
  • Berkeley - Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous I — Notre Dame OpenCourseWare 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ocw.nd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.We have confined our attention in this article to the view that the constitution of matter is electrical; we have done so because this view is more closely in touch with experiment than any other yet advanced.^ (But we are yet to have practical experience of our fruit.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But is one more reasonable than the other?
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On this view, then, it will be reasonable to eliminate sensations in the future if, as is likely, the somewhat primitive, explanatory function of sensation terms is replaced by the more advanced terms of physiology.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.The units of which matter is built up on this theory have been isolated and detected in the laboratory, and we may hope to discover more and more of their properties.^ The Matter, therefore, which you still insist on is something intelligible, I suppose; something that may be discovered by reason, and not by sense.
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous / GeorgeBerkeley 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ As the sunbeams united in a burning glass burn the hotter, so all our affections should be united, that our love to God may be more ardent.
  • Bible Presbyterian Church WSC Project: Watson's "Body of Divinity" 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.shortercatechism.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, it may well be that some other theory will be able to handle this problem more easily.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

.By seeing whether the properties of matter are or are not such as would arise from a collection of units having these properties, we can apply to this theory tests of a much more definite and rigorous character than we can apply to any other theory of matter.^ But is one more reasonable than the other?
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are in principle just like a machine such as a watch, although much more complicated.
  • corn4.html 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC www.ditext.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I do not quite see how he would make such a picture tell its own story;--but I find the idea suggestive to my own mind, and I think I could make something of it.
  • Passages From The American Note-Books by Wilkie Collins : Arthur's Classic Novels 22 September 2009 14:26 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

(J. J. T.)


Simple English

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:

Matter is the substance or material of which all things are made. Matter has mass, which can be measured in weight. Matter has volume. Most things we can touch, taste or smell are matter.

Contents

Examples of matter

  • metal is matter
  • air is matter
  • water is matter
  • paper is made up of matter
  • the Earth is made up of matter
  • the sun is made up of matter
  • plants are made up of matter
  • rocks are made up of matter
  • honey is made up of matter

Not matter

What is matter made of?

Matter is made of small particles, too small for the eye to see. Most common matter is made of particles called atoms. Atoms are made of even smaller particles called subatomic particles.

Forms of matter

Matter exists in several different forms:

  • solid
    • Solids keep their shape.
    • Solid surfaces do not move a lot when pushed.
    • Rocks, wood and ice are solids.
  • liquid
  • gas
    • Gases also take the shape of their containers.
    • Gases move very easily when pushed.
    • The air close to the earth is made of gases.
    • Steam is a gas.

Liquids and gases are both special types of fluids. The difference between liquids and gases is that liquids can have an edge. The edge of a liquid is called a surface.

Water is an unusual substance. Water can be found as liquid, solid and gas naturally on the earth. This is not true of any other natural material.

Properties of matter

Matter has a property called mass. Energy (sound, light, heat) does not have mass.

Matter attracts other matter with a force called gravity. Light is not matter, but its movement is changed by gravity as though it was matter. Sometimes light acts as a wave, but other times light acts as a particle.

In the twentieth century, people found that matter can be changed into energy. Some matter is changed into energy in an atomic bomb. However, mass can not be changed into energy.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Matter, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message