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Departmental Collectivity of Mayotte
Collectivité départementale de Mayotte
Flag of Mayotte Coat of arms
MottoLiberté, Égalité, Fraternité
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
AnthemLa Marseillaise
Capital
(and largest city)
Mamoudzou (prefecture)
Official languages French
Vernacular languages Shimaore (Swahili), Malagasy
Ethnic groups  92.3% Comorian (Bantu, Arab, and Malagasy), 3.2% other Swahili, 1.8% other French, 1% Makua, 1.7% other[1]
Demonym Mahoran
Government overseas collectivity of France
 -  President of France Nicolas Sarkozy
 -  President of the General Council Ahmed Attoumani Douchina
 -  Prefect Abdoulatifou Aly (acting)
Independence overseas collectivity of France 
 -  Voted to remain a territory of France 1974 
Area
 -  Total 374 km2 (~185th)
144 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.4
Population
 -  2009 estimate 194,000[2] 
 -  2007 census 186,452[3] (179th)
 -  Density 518.7/km2 (~11th)
1,347.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2003 estimate
 -  Total $466.8 million (208th)
 -  Per capita $2,600 (2003 est.) (129th)
HDI (2003) n/a (unranked) (unranked)
Currency Euro (EUR)
Time zone (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .yt
Calling code 262

Mayotte (French: Mayotte, pronounced: [majɔt]; Shimaore (Swahili dialect): Maore, [maˈore]; Malagasy: Mahori), officially the Departmental Collectivity of Mayotte (French: Collectivité départementale de Mayotte), is an overseas collectivity of France consisting of a main island, Grande-Terre (or Mahoré), a smaller island, Petite-Terre (or Pamanzi), and several islets around these two.

Mayotte is very densely populated. It is in the northern Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean, between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique. The territory is geographically part of the Comoro Islands, but has been politically separate since the 1970s. The territory is also known as Mahoré, the native name of its main island, especially by advocates of its inclusion in the Union of Comoros.

Contents

Geography

Map of the Comoros with Mayotte
Beach scenery in Mayotte.

The main island, Grande-Terre (or Mahoré), geologically the oldest of the Comoros, is 39 kilometres (24 mi) long and 22 kilometres (13½ mi) wide, and its highest point is Mount Benara (French: Mont Bénara; Shimaore: Mlima Bénara) at 660 metres (2,165 ft) above sea level. Because of the volcanic rock, the soil is relatively rich in some areas. A coral reef encircling much of the island ensures protection for ships and a habitat for fish.

Dzaoudzi was the capital of Mayotte until 1977. It is situated on Petite-Terre (or Pamanzi), which at 10 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) is the largest of several islets adjacent to Mahoré. Mayotte is a member of the Indian Ocean Commission, with a separate membership rather than as part of the Comoros.

History

For the history of Mayotte before 1974 see also History of the Comoros.

In 1500 the Maore or Mawuti (contraction of the Arabic جزيرة الموت Jazīrat al-Mawt (meaning island of the dead / of death and corrupted to Mayotte in French) sultanate was established on the island.

In 1503, Mayotte was observed by Portuguese explorers, but not colonized.

In 1832, it was conquered by Andriantsoly, former king of Iboina on Madagascar; in 1833 conquered by the neighbouring sultanate of Mwali (Mohéli island in French); on 19 November 1835 again conquered by the Ndzuwani Sultanate (Anjouan sultanate in French; a governor was installed with the unusual Islamic style of Qadi (from the Arabic قاض which means judge), sort of a 'Resident Magistrate' in British terms), but in 1836 regained its independence under a last local Sultan.

Mayotte was ceded to France along with the other Comoros in 1843. It was the only island in the archipelago that voted in referendums in 1974 and 1976 to retain its link with France and forgo independence (with 63.8% and 99.4% of votes respectively). The Comoros continue to claim the island, and a draft 1976 United Nations Security Council resolution supported by 11 of the 15 members of the Council would have recognized Comororian sovereignty over Mayotte, but France vetoed the resolution (the last time, as of 2009, that France cast a lone veto in the Council). The United Nations General Assembly has adopted a series of resolutions on the issues, whose tenor can be gauged from their title: "Question of the Comorian Island of Mayotte" up to 1995. Since 1995, the subject of Mayotte has not been discussed by the General Assembly.

A referendum on becoming an overseas department of France in 2011 was held on 29 March 2009.[4] The outcome was a 95.5 per cent vote in favour of changing the island's status from a French "overseas community" to become France's 101st département.[5] It will then get the same healthcare and welfare system as France but will also pay more taxes. The non official traditional Islamic law that is still applied in some aspects of the day to day life of some people will be progressively abolished and be completely replaced by the already existing uniform French civil code.[6]

Sea near Mamoudzou

Politics

Mayotte

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Mayotte



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Politics of Mayotte takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic French overseas community, whereby the President of the General Council is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government.

Mayotte also sends one deputy to the French National Assembly and two senators to the French Senate.

The situation of Mayotte proved to be unwieldy for France: while the local population very largely did not want to be independent from France and join the Comoros, some international criticism from post-colonial leftist regimes was heard about Mayotte's ongoing ties to France. Furthermore, the peculiar local administration of Mayotte, largely ruled by customary Muslim law, would be difficult to integrate into the legal structures of France, not to mention the costs of bringing the standards of living to levels close to those of metropolitan France. For these reasons, the laws passed by the national parliament had to state specifically that they applied to Mayotte for them to be applicable on Mayotte.

The status of Mayotte was changed in 2001 towards one very close to the status of the departments of mainland France, with the particular designation of departmental collectivity, although the island is still claimed by the Comoros. This change was approved by 73% of voters in a referendum. After the constitutional reform of 2003 it became an overseas collectivity while retaining the title "departmental collectivity" of Mayotte.

After the local Mahoran status referendum that occurred in March 2009 and which overwhelmingly approved a constitutional reform with about 95% of voters, Mayotte will become a new overseas department (or DOM, département d'outre-mer), further increasing its links with the legal and social system used in La Réunion and in the métropole. This will require abandoning some customary laws, adopting the standard French civil code, and reforming the judiciary, educational, social and fiscal systems, over a period of about 20 years. In addition, the department will become fully eligible to fundings from the European Union (to which it will be fully integrated) like the four other French DOMs.

Administrative divisions

Mayotte is divided into 17 communes. There are also 19 cantons (not shown here) each of which corresponds to one of the communes, except for the commune of Mamoudzou which is divided into three cantons. There are no arrondissements.

Communes of Mayotte
  1. Dzaoudzi
  2. Pamandzi
  3. Mamoudzou
  4. Dembeni
  5. Bandrele
  6. Kani-Kéli
  7. Bouéni
  8. Chirongui
  9. Sada
  10. Ouangani
  11. Chiconi
  12. Tsingoni
  13. M'Tsangamouji
  14. Acoua
  15. Mtsamboro
  16. Bandraboua
  17. Koungou

Transport

Economy

The official currency of Mayotte is the euro.[7]

INSEE estimated that the total GDP of Mayotte amounted to 610 million euros in 2001 (US$547 million at 2001 exchanges rates; US$903 million at Jan. 2008 exchange rates).[8] In that same year the GDP per capita of Mayotte was 3,960 euros (US$3,550 at 2001 exchanges rates; US$5,859 at Jan. 2008 exchange rates),[8] which was 9 times higher than the GDP per capita of the Comoros that year, but only a third of the GDP per capita of Réunion and 16% of the GDP per capita of Metropolitan France.[8]

Demographics

As of the July 2007 census there were 186,452 people living in Mayotte.[3] According to the 2002 census, 64.7% of the people living in Mayotte were born in Mayotte, 3.9% were born in the rest of the French Republic (either metropolitan France or overseas France except Mayotte), 28.1% were immigrants from the Comoros, 2.8% were immigrants from Madagascar, and the remaining 0.5% came from other countries.[9]

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Population history

1958 1966 1978 1985 1991 1997 2002 2007
23,364 32,607 47,246 67,205 94,410 131,320 160,265 186,452
Official figures from past censuses.

Religion

The main religion in Mayotte is Islam.[10]

Languages

A survey was conducted by the French Ministry of National Education in 2006 among pupils registered in CM2 (equivalent to fifth grade in the US and Year 6 in England and Wales). Questions were asked regarding the languages spoken by the pupils as well as the languages spoken by their parents. According to the survey, the ranking of mother tongues is the following (ranked by number of first language speakers in the total population; note that percentages add up to more than 100% because some people are natively bilingual):[11]

  • Shimaore: 55.1%
  • Shindzwani: 22.3%
  • Kibushi: 13.6%
  • Shingazidja: 7.9%
  • French: 1.4%
  • Shimwali: 0.8%
  • Arabic: 0.4%
  • Kiantalaotsi: 0.2%
  • Other: 0.4%

However, when also counting second language speakers (e.g. someone whose mother tongue is Shimaore but who also speaks French as a second language) then the ranking becomes:

  • Shimaore: 88.3%
  • French: 56.9%
  • Shindzwani: 35.2%
  • Kibushi: 28.8%
  • Shingazidja: 13.9%
  • Arabic: 10.8%
  • Shimwali: 2.6%
  • Kiantalaotsi: 0.9%
  • Other: 1.2%

Indigenous

The native languages of Mayotte are:

Kibushi is spoken in the south and north-west of Mayotte, while Shimaore is spoken elsewhere.

Non-indigenous

French

French is the only official language of Mayotte. It is the language used by the administrations and the school system. It is the language most used on television and radio as well as in commercial announcements and billboards. In spite of this, Mayotte is one of the French overseas territories where the knowledge of French is the least developed, as shown by the figures above. At the 2002 census, only 55% of people older than 15 y/o declared they could read and write French, although this figure is higher than those who can read and write Shimaore (41%) or Arabic (33%).

With the mandatory schooling of children and the economic development both implemented by the French central state, the French language has progressed significantly on Mayotte in recent years. The survey conducted by the Ministry of National Education showed that while first and second language speakers of French represented 56.9% of the population in general, this figure was only 37.7% for the parents of CM2 pupils, but reached 97.0% for the CM2 pupils themselves (whose age is between 10 and 14 in general).

Already there are instances of families speaking only French to their children in the hope of helping their social advancement. With French schooling and French language television, many young people turn to French or use many French words when speaking Shimaore and Kibushi, leading some to fear that these native languages of Mayotte could either disappear or become some sort of French-based creole.[12]

Other

Various dialects of the Comorian language essentially imported by immigrants who have arrived in Mayotte since 1974: Shindzwani (the dialect of Anjouan, or Nzwani), Shingazidja (the dialect of Grande Comore, or Ngazidja), and Shimwali (the dialect of Mohéli, or Mwali).

Shingazidja and Shimwali on the one hand and Shimaore on the other hand are hardly mutually intelligible. Shindzwani and Shimaore are perfectly mutually intelligible.

Music

See also

References

  1. ^ Information on Mayotte
  2. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12.  
  3. ^ a b (French) INSEE, Government of France. "INSEE Infos No 32" (PDF). http://www.insee.fr/fr/insee_regions/reunion/zoom/mayotte/publications/inseeinfos/pdf/insee%20infos%20n32.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-02.  
  4. ^ (French) "ENQUETE SUR LE FUTUR 101e DEPARTEMENT". http://www.lefigaro.fr/lefigaromagazine/2009/03/14/01006-20090314ARTFIG00183--enquete-sur-le-futur-101-e-departement-.php.  
  5. ^ Mayotte votes to become France's 101st department
  6. ^ (French) Mayotte vote en faveur de la départementalisation, Le Monde, March 29, 2009
  7. ^ (French) Minister of the Economy, Industry and Employment (France). "L'évolution du régime monétaire outre-mer". http://www.finances.gouv.fr/notes_bleues/nbb/nbb208/outre.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-30.  
  8. ^ a b c (French) INSEE. "Résultats économiques" (PDF). http://www.insee.fr/fr/insee_regions/reunion/zoom/mayotte/publications/tem/tem2007/TEM2007_14.3.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-16.  
  9. ^ (French) INSEE, Government of France. "MIG 1 DET - POPULATION SELON LE LIEU DE NAISSANCE" (XLS). http://www.insee.fr/fr/insee_regions/reunion/zoom/mayotte/recensements/Tableau02/mig1det.xls. Retrieved 2007-05-17.  
  10. ^ BBC News
  11. ^ (French) Daniel Barreteau. "Premiers résultats d'une enquête sociolinguistique auprès des élèves de CM2 de Mayotte" (PDF). http://www.ac-mayotte.fr/IMG/pdf/Interv_BARRETEAU_CM2.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-17.  
  12. ^ (French) Mayotte Hebdo (June 18, 2004). "Le shimaoré fout le camp!". http://www.malango-mayotte.com/traditions-le_shimaore_fout_le_camp.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-17.  

External links

Coordinates: 12°50′35″S 45°08′18″E / 12.84306°S 45.13833°E / -12.84306; 45.13833


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Africa : East Africa : Mayotte
noframe
Flag
Image:mf-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Mamoudzou
Government territorial collectivity of France
Currency euro (EUR)
Area 374 sq km
Population 201,234 (July 2006 est.)
Language Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French (official language) spoken by 35% of the population
Religion Muslim 97%, Christian (mostly Roman Catholic)
Calling Code +262
Internet TLD .yt
Time Zone UTC +3

Mayotte is a French island in the Indian Ocean off East Africa between Madagascar and Mozambique. It was formerly part of France's Comoros Islands territory. When Comoros voted for independence in the 1970's, Mayotte decided to remain a French "collective". In March 2009, the islands voted overwhelmingly (95.2%) to become France's 101st 'departement' effective in 2011. The island is 95% Muslim and many Muslim customs such as polygamy, Islamic-inspired law, and male dominance are commonplace, although all will be reversed in accordance with French law by 2011. A large amount of the island's population is composed of illegal aliens from neighboring Comoros. Despite the island's French ownership, less than half of the population understands French and very few speak French fluently.

Understand

Mayotte was ceded to France along with the other islands of the Comoros group in 1843. It was the only island in the archipelago that voted in 1974 to retain its link with France and forego independence.

Climate

Tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November).

Landscape

Generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks.

Get in

By plane

Planes fly daily between Réunion and Dzaoudzi, the airport/military base in Mayotte. For a return flight from Paris to Mayotte, expect to cash out at least €800.

Kenya Airways announced flights from Nairobi to Mayotte (via Comoros) [1] in November 2006. This is an extension of their Paris-Nairobi flights.

By boat

The primary port is Dzaoudzi.

Get around

The easiest way to get around Mayotte is with bush taxis ("taxi brousse") who will take you around the island for a few euros.

Talk

French is the official language and is spoken by roughly 35% of the population. More commonly-spoken are Mahorian (a dialect of Swahili) and Malagasy.

Buy

Currency is the Euro (€). Local stuff (bananas, manioc, fish) is inexpensive, imported items (dairy products, manufactured products) are expensive.

  • A hike (almost a climb) to the summit of mont Choungui will offer a spectacular panorama of the island
  • Makis can be found in remote regions of the island.
  • Diving is mandatory. Expect spectacular sights in the world's largest lagoon.
  • Sea turtles come to roost on the southern beaches.
  • In August-September, humpback whales can be found with their calves in the lagoon.

Work

Voluntary service: Volontariat Civil à l'Aide Technique (VCAT). [2] Conditions: you must be French or from another EU-member state or a country belonging to the European Economic Area. You must be over 18 and under 28 years old (inclusive). You must not have had your civic rights revoked by a court or have been convicted of certain offences.

Stay safe

Cyclones can occur during rainy season.

Stay healthy

Mayotte is a malaria-infested zone. Consult your physician for anti-malaria medecine, and pile on mosquito repellent.

Respect

90% of the population is Muslim, following a very tolerant Islam. Say hello to people you will cross while hiking, always smile, and you will be respected.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MAYOTTE, one of the Comoro Islands, in the Mozambique Channel between Madagascar and the African mainland. It has belonged to France since 1843 (see Comoro Islands).


<< Richmond Mayo-Smith

John Mayow >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Proper noun

Singular
Mayotte

Plural
-

Mayotte

  1. An overseas territorial collectivity of France, placed between Africa's mainland and Madagascar. Official name: Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte.

Related terms

Translations

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Swedish

Proper noun

Mayotte

  1. Mayotte

Simple English

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Mayotte is an island in the Indian Ocean next to Madagascar. It is geographically part of the Comoros Islands, but politically, it is a French territory.

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