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Measles
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 B05.
ICD-9 055
DiseasesDB 7890
MedlinePlus 001569
eMedicine derm/259 emerg/389 ped/1388
MeSH D008457
Measles virus
Measles virus
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Paramyxoviridae
Genus: Morbillivirus
Type species
Measles virus
.Measles is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus.^ Measles is caused by an RNA virus.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It was not until Goldenberger and Anderson ( 30 ) successfully passaged measles virus in macaque monkeys that any sort of laboratory system for the examination of measles existed.
  • Virus-induced Immunosuppression -- Polymicrobial Diseases -- NCBI Bookshelf 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ McChesney M. B., Oldstone M. B. A. Virus-induced immunosuppression: infections with measles virus and human immunodeficiency virus.
  • Virus-induced Immunosuppression -- Polymicrobial Diseases -- NCBI Bookshelf 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Morbilliviruses, like other paramyxoviruses, are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses.^ It is a single-stranded RNA virus (ssRNA).

^ Description: Measles virus is an enveloped, negative, nonsegmented strand RNA virus.

^ The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus, from the family Paramyxovirus , of the genus Morbillivirus .

.Symptoms include fever, cough, runny nose, red eyes and a generalized, maculopapular, erythematous rash.^ Measles is a viral infection that causes a rash accompanied by a fever, cough and runny nose.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Coryza : Description: At least 3 of the classical signs and symptoms of measles (rash, cough and coryza) were found in 92.3% of the cases ( Perry and Halsey, 2004 ).

^ Measles, best known for a red skin rash, is a potentially deadly, highly infectious virus that spreads through contact with a sneezing, coughing, infected person.
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.Measles is spread through respiration (contact with fluids from an infected person's nose and mouth, either directly or through aerosol transmission), and is highly contagious—90% of people without immunity sharing a house with an infected person will catch it.^ Measles, best known for a red skin rash, is a potentially deadly, highly infectious virus that spreads through contact with a sneezing, coughing, infected person.
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Complications-Diarrhea : Description: GASTROINTESTINAL COMPLICATIONS. Measles probably infects the intestinal tracts of most persons with measles.

^ This study provides evidence that measles virus can spread through axonal pathways in the brain.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

The infection has an average incubation period of 14 days (range 6–19 days) and infectivity lasts from 2–4 days prior, until 2–5 days following the onset of the rash (i.e. 4–9 days infectivity in total).[1]
.An alternative name for measles in English-speaking countries is rubeola, which is sometimes confused with rubella (German measles); the diseases are unrelated.^ Another name for German measles is rubella.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ German measles , also called 3-day measles , are caused by the rubella virus, a form of togavirus that infects its host's respiratory tract.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ German measles is a viral disease, and it's transmitted the same way many viruses pass from one person to another: through close physical contact.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[2][3] .In some other European languages, rubella and rubeola are synonyms, and rubeola is not an alternative name for measles.^ Another name for German measles is rubella.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Rubella, measles, mumps viruses and HIV were sensitive to all of the antiseptics, and rotavirus was inactivated by BAC and BEC, while adeno-, polio- and rhinoviruses did not respond to the other antiseptics.

^ Measles epidemics have exploded in Israel, Switzerland and some other countries.
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]

Contents

Signs and symptoms

This patient presented on the third pre-eruptive day with “Koplik spots” indicative of the beginning onset of measles.
.The classical symptoms of measles include four day fevers, the three Cs—cough, coryza (runny nose) and conjunctivitis (red eyes).^ Measles is a viral infection that causes a rash accompanied by a fever, cough and runny nose.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ According to the Mayo Clinic, symptoms of measles include fever, runny nose, dry coug...
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Bloodshot eyes Cough Fever Light sensitivity ( photophobia ) Muscle pain Rash Usually appears 3 - 5 days after the first signs of being sick May last 4 - 7 days Usually starts on the head and spreads to other areas, moving down the body Rash may appear as flat, discolored areas ( macules ) and solid, red, raised areas ( papules ) that later join together Itchy Redness and irritation of the eyes ( conjunctivitis ) Runny nose Sore throat Tiny white spots inside the mouth (Koplik's spots) Measles has been added to your Health Portfolio.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

The fever may reach up to 40 °C (104 °F). .Koplik's spots seen inside the mouth are pathognomonic (diagnostic) for measles but are not often seen, even in real cases of measles, because they are transient and may disappear within a day of arising.^ Official literature confirms this approximate figure and even states that in industrial countries "the measles fatality rate is 1 per 10,000 cases..."
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Koplik's spots have been reported in 60%-70% of persons with measles but are probably present in most persons who develop measles ( Perry and Halsey, 2004 ).

^ Additionally, they don't even realize that the CDC even admitted in 1999 that they only test vaccines singly, not in combo.
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.The characteristic measles rash is classically described as a generalized, maculopapular, erythematous rash that begins several days after the fever starts.^ Measles infection without rash has also been described (7).
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with measles are usually infectious for one to two days before the rash appears but the total period during which an individual is infectious is not known ( Bedford, 2004 ).

^ Several cases of appendicitis have developed before and during measles rash, and characteristic giant cells typical for measles have been found in appendix tissue.

.It starts on the head before spreading to cover most of the body, often causing itching.^ Before 1970, mumps was the most common cause of encephalitis and meningoencephalitis in the United States.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The review of scientific literature was structured to address the question: Could MMR immunization be a cause of ASD? Identification of causal relationships often starts with personal observations.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Left unvaccinated, the bodies of most children will remove any naturally occurring toxic compounds and thus any cellular imbalances are removed that are the true cause of susceptibility which is but a need to detoxify.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rash is said to "stain", changing colour from red to dark brown, before disappearing.^ The rash is said to "stain", changing colour from red to dark brown, before disappearing.

^ The measles rash also classically stains by changing colour to dark brown from red before disappearing later.
  • Measles - Rash Symptoms, Treatment, Measles Vaccine Advice.... 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.askbaby.com [Source type: General]

^ Red spots with a bluish-white center (known as Koplik's spots) appear on the inside of the mouth about twelve hours before the red rash first appears.
  • Integrative Medicine: Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.healthy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Complications

.Complications with measles are relatively common, ranging from relatively mild and less serious diarrhea, to pneumonia and encephalitis (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis), corneal ulceration leading to corneal scarring.^ Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is caused by atypical measles infection.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Most people recover within a couple of weeks, but up to 20% develop complications that may include an ear infection, bronchitis, pneumonia, diarrhea, encephalitis , or blindness.
  • Measles and Mumps: Test Sample 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC labtestsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sep; 52(5): 471-80 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER: 0022-3069 LANGUAGE OF ARTICLE: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Paramyxoviruses such as measles virus or canine distemper virus are etiological agents for acute and chronic encephalitis (measles inclusion body encephalitis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and chronic distemper encephalitis or old dog encephalitis).
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

[5] .Complications are usually more severe amongst adults who catch the virus.^ Initially, it occurred in children who were exposed to wild measles virus several years after they were immunized with killed measles vaccine.

^ No increased rates of complications were recognized in children who had more than one of these infections at the same time or during the same season.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult respiratory distress syndrome and air leaks were the most severe complications in these patients.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The fatality rate from measles for otherwise healthy people in developed countries is 3 deaths per thousand cases, or 0.3%.^ The Mortality/Case rate was 1 or 2 deaths per thousand cases.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rates of diarrhea among children who received standard-titer attenuated or further attenuated measles vaccines were similar to rates in unvaccinated children in large, well-designed, controlled trials in developed countries.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There were 450,00 measles "cases" per year in the pre-vaccine era.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] In underdeveloped nations with high rates of malnutrition and poor healthcare, fatality rates have been as high as 28%.[6] In immunocompromised patients (e.g. people with .AIDS) the fatality rate is approximately 30%.^ Official literature confirms this approximate figure and even states that in industrial countries "the measles fatality rate is 1 per 10,000 cases..."
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]

Cause

Patients with the measles should be placed on respiratory precautions.[8]
.Humans are the only known natural host of measles, although the virus can infect some non-human primate species.^ Three Fabs immunoprecipitated a 72 kDa protein from infected cell cultures corresponding to the measles virus phosphoprotein.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast, cells obtained from measles virus-infected susceptible C3H mice recognize measles virus proteins only weakly and secrete little IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The nested primer sets used in this study successfully amplify the cDNA target sequences of the measles virus RNA in some clinical specimens.

Diagnosis

.Clinical diagnosis of measles requires a history of fever of at least three days together with at least one of the three C's (cough, coryza, conjunctivitis).^ However, if MMR vaccine is given on the previous day or earlier, the PPD should be delayed for at least one month.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with measles are usually infectious for one to two days before the rash appears but the total period during which an individual is infectious is not known ( Bedford, 2004 ).

^ Coryza : Description: At least 3 of the classical signs and symptoms of measles (rash, cough and coryza) were found in 92.3% of the cases ( Perry and Halsey, 2004 ).

.Observation of Koplik's spots is also diagnostic of measles.^ Koplik's spots have been reported in 60%-70% of persons with measles but are probably present in most persons who develop measles ( Perry and Halsey, 2004 ).

.Alternatively, laboratory diagnosis of measles can be done with confirmation of positive measles IgM antibodies or isolation of measles virus RNA from respiratory specimens.^ Measles is caused by an RNA virus.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CSF was positive for measles antibody titre.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The nested primer sets used in this study successfully amplify the cDNA target sequences of the measles virus RNA in some clinical specimens.

.In children, where phlebotomy is inappropriate, saliva can be collected for salivary measles specific IgA test.^ Antibody testing Measles and mumps antibodies are virus-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection by the measles or mumps virus, or in response to vaccination.
  • Measles and Mumps: The Test 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC labtestsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Published evidence regarding the possible presence of residual measles virus in the intestinal wall of children with IBD or ASD suggests that this finding may not be specific.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.Positive contact with other patients known to have measles adds strong epidemiological evidence to the diagnosis.^ Positive contact with other patients known to have measles adds strong epidemiological evidence to the diagnosis.
  • Measles Clinical Trials 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Measles - Rash Symptoms, Treatment, Measles Vaccine Advice.... 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.askbaby.com [Source type: General]
  • Measles - Health Web 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC health.moonlightchest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Protection of susceptible contacts of a measles patient with: .
  • Measles (rubeola)- Blue Book: IDEAS - Victorian Government 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.health.vic.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Persons with possible measles should call their health care provider before coming in to be seen to avoid exposing other vulnerable patients, and should wear a mask covering the nose and mouth, avoid public places, and minimize contact with others.
  • Woman may have spread measles in King County | KING 5 TV | Seattle News, Local News, Breaking News, Weather | News 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.king5.com [Source type: General]
  • Woman may have spread measles in King County | KING 5 TV | Seattle News, Local News, Breaking News, Weather | HealthLink 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.king5.com [Source type: General]

.The contact with any infected person in any way, including semen through sex, saliva, or mucus can cause infection.^ Measles, best known for a red skin rash, is a potentially deadly, highly infectious virus that spreads through contact with a sneezing, coughing, infected person.
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Mumps is a viral infection that is transmitted through respiratory secretions or saliva.
  • Measles and Mumps: Test Sample 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC labtestsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The infection is spread by contact with droplets from the nose, mouth, or throat of an infected person.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

Prevention

Rates of measles vaccination worldwide
.In developed countries, most children are immunized against measles by the age of 18 months, generally as part of a three-part MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, and rubella).^ Adverse events following measles, mumps and rubella vaccines.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Measles and mumps vaccine.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the CNS and gastrointestinal complications of measles, mumps, and rubella infections and vaccines?
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.The vaccination is generally not given earlier than this because children younger than 18 months usually retain anti-measles immunoglobulins (antibodies) transmitted from the mother during pregnancy.^ Although 30% of children of the low-income group kept extremely high levels of immunoglobulin, no significant correlation was observed between IgG levels and anti-measles virus antibody levels.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ ATLANTA — Measles cases in the U.S. are at the highest level in more than a decade, with nearly half of those involving children whose parents rejected vaccination, health officials reported Thu...
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Those with available history of measles exposure tend to have it either earlier (younger than 3 years old) or later (after 9 years) than the usual childhood measles infection.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A second dose is usually given to children between the ages of four and five, in order to increase rates of immunity.^ A "booster" vaccine is then given between the ages of four and five.

^ Minimum Ages and Minimum Intervals Between Vaccine Doses Red Book 2006: 25-33.

^ Case fatality rates are increased in children younger than 5 years of age and immunocompromised children, including children with leukemia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and severe malnutrition.

.Vaccination rates have been high enough to make measles relatively uncommon.^ Vaccination rates have been high enough to make measles relatively uncommon.

^ A history of high titer measles vaccination.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The authors explain the dropping SSPE incidence in Poland with a drop in measales incidence, which is a consequence of growing measles vaccine coverage rates.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Even a single case in a college dormitory or similar setting is often met with a local vaccination program, in case any of the people exposed are not already immune.^ Even a single case in a college dormitory or similar setting is often met with a local vaccination program, in case any of the people exposed are not already immune.

^ People who are unvaccinated, pregnant women, infants younger than 6 months and persons with weakened immune systems are at higher risk if exposed to measles.
  • Local News | Public-health officials issue measles alert | Seattle Times Newspaper 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC seattletimes.nwsource.com [Source type: News]

^ If you have been exposed to measles and you have not had the vaccine, you may be able to prevent the infection by getting a shot of immune globulin (IG) right away.
  • Measles (Rubeola) - Topic Overview - Yahoo! Health 18 September 2009 7:35 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • CIGNA - Measles (Rubeola) 23 September 2009 1:42 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In developing countries where measles is highly endemic, the WHO recommend that two doses of vaccine be given at six months and at nine months of age.^ The World Health Organisation (WHO) has recommended that babies be given the MMR vaccine at the age of 12 months.

^ In developing countries, measles remains common.

^ Aged nine months, she is just recovering from a dose of measles that has left her drained of energy.

.The vaccine should be given whether the child is HIV-infected or not.^ When should my child be vaccinated for measles?

^ If MMR vaccines are given to women of child-bearing age, pregnancy should be avoided for 28 days30 (see Chapter 3.19, Rubella ).
  • Immunise - 3.11 Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.health.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

^ I was told that everything was ok, that I should do the American duty and vaccinate my child for the good of everyone.
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

[9] .The vaccine is less effective in HIV-infected infants, but the risk of adverse reactions is low.^ Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP): update—vaccine side effects, adverse reactions, contraindications, and precautions.
  • Measles Virus Vaccine Live Drug Information, Professional 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Less rigorous approaches such as voluntary appeals for vaccination have not been effective in terminating outbreaks.
  • ACIP: Measles Prevention 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC wonder.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everyone I know with an autistic child saw their infants have severe reactions to a vaccination.
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.Unvaccinated populations are at risk for the disease.^ Unvaccinated populations are at risk for the disease.

^ Vaccinated people would be at zero risk of contracting disease no matter what percentage of the population was vaccinated, and the unvaccinated would take their chances as a matter of choice.
  • For the Good of the Herd : Inside Vaccines 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC insidevaccines.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unvaccinated people traveling to developing countries, where measles is more common, are at higher risk of catching the disease.

.After vaccination rates dropped in northern Nigeria in the early 2000s due to religious and political objections, the number of cases rose significantly, and hundreds of children died.^ After vaccination rates dropped in northern Nigeria in the early 2000s due to religious and political objections, the number of cases rose significantly, and hundreds of children died.

^ In fact, this is the most cases in such a short time span since 1996 and is due to "viral transmission after importation," according to the CDC. It remains unclear whether vaccination levels overall are dropping or not, but at least 95 percent of children must be vaccinated to prevent measles from returning.
  • News Blog: Measles is back, and it's because your kids aren't vaccinated 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: News]

^ Measles cases dropped over the last several decades to virtually none in the U.S. and Canada because of widespread immunization, but rates have crept up again recently.
  • AllRefer Health - Measles (Rubeola) 23 September 2009 1:42 UTC health.allrefer.com [Source type: Academic]

[10]
.In 1998 the MMR vaccine controversy in the United Kingdom regarding a potential link between the combined MMR vaccine (vaccinating children from mumps, measles and rubella) and autism prompted a reemergence of the "measles party", where parents deliberately expose their child to measles in the hope of building up the child's immunity without an injection.^ Measles and mumps vaccine.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the CNS and gastrointestinal complications of measles, mumps, and rubella infections and vaccines?
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Is the onset of autism temporally related to receipt of measles or MMR vaccines?
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.This practice poses many health risks to the child, and has been discouraged by the public health authorities.^ This practice poses many health risks to the child, and has been discouraged by the public health authorities.

^ This practice poses many health risks to the child, and has been discouraged by the National Health Service.

^ A panel was recruited to include experts in the areas of general pediatrics, developmental pediatrics, child neurology, pediatric infectious diseases, virology, pathology, public health, epidemiology, and psychiatry.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[11] .Scientific evidence provides no support for the hypothesis that MMR plays a role in causing autism.^ Scientific evidence provides no support for the hypothesis that MMR plays a role in causing autism.

^ There is no experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that MMR vaccine causes autism or that there is any benefit from administering the 3 vaccines separately.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Does the MMR vaccine cause autism?
  • DPH: Measles - Fact Sheet 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .In 2009, The Sunday Times reported that Wakefield had manipulated patient data and misreported results in his 1998 paper, creating the appearance of a link with autism.^ Data on 904 patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were analyzed.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, parental histories were obtained 4 to 10 years after reported infections occurred, and estimation of approximate ages at the time of infections could have resulted in artificial clustering by age.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.[13] The Lancet fully retracted the 1998 paper on 2 February 2010. [14] In January 2010, another study of Polish children found that vaccination with the measles,mumps,and rubella vaccine was not a risk factor for development of autistic disorder, in fact the vaccinated patients had a slightly reduced risk of autistic disorder, although the mechanism of action behind that is unknown,and this result may have been coincidental.^ Measles and mumps vaccine.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the CNS and gastrointestinal complications of measles, mumps, and rubella infections and vaccines?
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adverse events following measles, mumps and rubella vaccines.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[15]
.The autism related MMR study in Britain caused use of the vaccine to plunge, and measles cases came back: 2007 saw 971 cases in England and Wales, the biggest rise in occurrence in measles cases since records began in 1995.[16] A 2005 measles outbreak in Indiana was attributed to children whose parents refused vaccination.^ None of the cases followed measles vaccination.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ No cases of SSPE have been shown to be caused by measles vaccine.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Is the onset of autism temporally related to receipt of measles or MMR vaccines?
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[17]
.The joint press release by members of the Measles Initiative brings to light another benefit of the fight against measles: "Measles vaccination campaigns are contributing to the reduction of child deaths from other causes.^ Vaccination has drastically reduced the number of people affected by measles in the United States and in many parts of the world, but the World Health Organization (WHO) still lists measles as a leading cause of death in young children.
  • Measles and Mumps: Test Sample 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC labtestsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Blindness from measles was so common that people wouldn’t take the chance that light might cause it, as the old tale has it.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So not only are they not vaccinating to avoid measles and chickenpox, they will deliberately seek it out to make their child sick with measles and invite other parents to do the same.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They have become a channel for the delivery of other life-saving interventions, such as bed nets to protect against malaria, de-worming medicine and vitamin A supplements.^ They have become a channel for the delivery of other life-saving interventions, such as bed nets to protect against malaria , de-worming medicine and vitamin A supplements.

^ They have become a channel for the delivery of other life-saving interventions, such as bed nets to protect against malaria, de-worming medicine and vitamin A supplements.

^ MMR Vaccine The most effective way of preventing measles is the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, which also provides protection against two other potentially fatal childhood conditions - mumps and rubella.

Combining measles immunization with other health interventions is a contribution to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal Number 4: a two-thirds reduction in child deaths between 1990 and 2015."[18]

Treatment

.There is no cure for measles.^ As measles is a virus, there is no specific treatment to cure the infection.

^ There have been no reports of late-onset ASD associated with the receipt of extra doses of measles or MMR vaccines.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There was no history of measles exposure in the year preceding the biopsy.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.Most patients with uncomplicated measles will recover with rest and supportive treatment.^ Most patients with uncomplicated measles will recover with rest and supportive treatment.

^ It cannot be cured, but well-nourished people with uncomplicated cases recover with rest and supportive treatment.
  • Measles deaths plummet this decade, but resurgence looms: UN 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vancouversun.com [Source type: News]
  • Measles deaths plummet this decade, but resurgence looms: UN 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.theprovince.com [Source type: News]
  • Measles deaths plummet this decade, but resurgence looms: UN 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.thestarphoenix.com [Source type: News]
  • Measles deaths plummet this decade, but resurgence looms: UN 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.timescolonist.com [Source type: News]
  • Measles deaths plummet this decade, but resurgence looms: UN 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vancouversun.com [Source type: News]
  • Measles deaths plummet this decade, but resurgence looms: UN 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.edmontonjournal.com [Source type: News]
  • Measles deaths plummet this decade, but resurgence looms: UN 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.windsorstar.com [Source type: News]

^ There is no specific antiviral therapy for measles, and the basic treatment consists of providing necessary supportive therapy such as hydration and antipyretics and treating complications such as pneumonia.
  • Travel Guide - Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some patients will develop pneumonia as a sequel to the measles.^ One patient with an undefined immune disorder who developed this disorder at 21 months of age was found to have measles vaccine virus in brain tissue.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One patient with choreoathetosis died of measles pneumonia 4 months after onset of herpes simplex encephalitis and the surviving 3 were severely retarded.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the bacteria that can be involved in superinfections in measles patients are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Streptococcus pyogenes ( 7 , 56 , 94 ).
  • Virus-induced Immunosuppression -- Polymicrobial Diseases -- NCBI Bookshelf 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Other complications include ear infections, bronchitis, and encephalitis.^ It may also be ordered along with other tests to distinguish between different causes of complications, such as an investigation of meningitis or swelling of the salivary glands found below and in front of the ear (parotitis) that may also be caused by bacterial infections.
  • Measles and Mumps: The Test 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC labtestsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most people recover within a couple of weeks, but up to 20% develop complications that may include an ear infection, bronchitis, pneumonia, diarrhea, encephalitis , or blindness.
  • Measles and Mumps: Test Sample 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC labtestsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Complications of congenital rubella syndrome involving the CNS include encephalitis, microcephaly, mental retardation, ASD, central auditory deafness, and blindness.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.Acute measles encephalitis has a mortality rate of 15%, while there is no specific treatment for measles encephalitis, antibiotics are required for bacterial pneumonia, sinusitis, and bronchitis that can follow measles.^ Pneumonia may be caused by measles virus alone, secondary viral infection with adenovirus or HSV, or secondary bacterial infection.

^ For most forms of viral encephalitis no specific therapy is available.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There have been no reports of late-onset ASD associated with the receipt of extra doses of measles or MMR vaccines.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

All other treatment is symptomatic, with ibuprofen, or acetaminophen to reduce fever and pain, a fast acting bronchodialater for cough.

Prognosis

.While the vast majority of patients survive measles, complications occur fairly frequently and may include bronchitis, pneumonia, otitis media, hemorrhagic complications, acute dissemenated encephalomyelitis, acute measles encephalitis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (sspe), blindness, and death.^ Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is caused by atypical measles infection.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Brain tissue from a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was used as the positive control.
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  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ CONCLUSION: Acute measles encephalitis (AME), subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), and SME are the three CNS syndromes associated with measles infection.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Statistically out of 1000 measles cases, 2-3 patients die, and 5-105 suffer complications.^ I confess, I am not laughing at the thought that children with genetic health issues deserve to suffer and die from measles and other diseases!
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Measles was one case where the “10% reported” rectal statistic looks to be close to accurate [1].
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States, 8% of all reported measles cases during 1987-2000 were complicated by diarrhea.

.In patients who do not develop complications, the prognosis is generally excellent.^ Seizures Almost all infants and children who develop measles have moderate to high fever, which can precipitate febrile seizures, the most common neurologic complication of measles.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CONCLUSIONS: Patients with measles who require intensive care have a high risk for death or long-term complications, even when treated in a modern pediatric intensive care unit.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The prognosis was generally poor; one patient died, three patients were left with severe sequelae, and only one patient improved.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, although most patients survive, it is still important to get vaccinated, as up to 15 percent of measles patients experience complications, some fairly mild, others (such as subacute sclerosing panencephalitis) typically fatal.^ Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is caused by atypical measles infection.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ No patient had history of measles vaccination.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Apr; 55(4): 908-15 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER: 0047-1852 LANGUAGE OF ARTICLE: JAPANESE; NON-ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is one of the most important slow virus infection caused by measles virus in human.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Also,even if the patient is not concerned about death or sequela from the measles, the person may spread the disease to an immunocompromised patient, for whom the risk of death is much higher, due to complications such as giant cell pneumonia.^ Of these children 17 died from measles giant cell pneumonia.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In individuals with congenital agammaglobulinemia, lack of humoral immunity, measles follows its normal course, whereas in individuals with cortisone-treated acute leukemia, lack of cell-mediated immunity, measles results in fatal giant cell pneumonia without a rash ( 14 ).
  • Virus-induced Immunosuppression -- Polymicrobial Diseases -- NCBI Bookshelf 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Complications-Measles encephalitis in immunocompromised patients : Description: NEUROLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS. A progressive central nervous system measles virus infection, termed "measles inclusion body encephalitis," occurs in immunocompromised persons with disorders such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or leukemia.

.Acute measles encephalitis is another serious risk of measles virus infection.^ McChesney M. B., Oldstone M. B. A. Virus-induced immunosuppression: infections with measles virus and human immunodeficiency virus.
  • Virus-induced Immunosuppression -- Polymicrobial Diseases -- NCBI Bookshelf 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sep; 38(1): 55-8 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER: 0165-2478 LANGUAGE OF ARTICLE: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) patients carry persistent measles virus infection in the brain.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "In children with autistic enterocolitis, persistent measles virus infection of the ileal lymphoid tissue causes chronic immune mediated pathology in the intestines."
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.It typically occurs 2 days to one week after the breakout of the measles exthanam, and begins with very high fever, severe headache, convulsions, and altered mentation.^ After a 2 to 3 week incubation period, an infected person typically develops flu-like symptoms such as a headache, muscle aches, and fever that are followed by characteristic parotitis – swelling of the salivary (parotid) glands below one or both ears.
  • Measles and Mumps: Test Sample 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC labtestsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Incubation Period: The first symptoms of measles occur after a 10- to 12-day incubation period that usually follows airborne or droplet exposure ( Berggren et al., 2005 ).

^ People with measles are usually infectious for one to two days before the rash appears but the total period during which an individual is infectious is not known ( Bedford, 2004 ).

.Patient may become comatose, and death or brain injury may occur.^ Very rarely, a progressive rubella panencephalitis has occurred that simulates SSPE. Rubella viruses have been detected in brain tissue specimens from such patients.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[19]

Epidemiology

Disability-adjusted life year for measles per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.
     no data      ≤ 10      10-25      25-50      50-75      75-100      100-250      250-500      500-750      750-1000      1000-1500      1500-2000      ≥ 2000
.According to the World Health Organization (WHO), measles is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable childhood mortality.^ Vaccination has drastically reduced the number of people affected by measles in the United States and in many parts of the world, but the World Health Organization (WHO) still lists measles as a leading cause of death in young children.
  • Measles and Mumps: Test Sample 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC labtestsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In recent years, the majority of new cases in the U.S. have occurred in occasional epidemics , primarily in people who have not been vaccinated - especially those who have traveled to areas of the world where measles or mumps are more prevalent.
  • Measles and Mumps: Test Sample 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC labtestsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the joint Strategic Plan for Measles Mortality Reduction, 2001-2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) targeted 45 priority countries with high measles burden for implementation of a comprehensive strategy for accelerated and sustained measles mortality reduction.

.Worldwide, the fatality rate has been significantly reduced by a vaccination campaign led by partners in the Measles Initiative: the American Red Cross, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the United Nations Foundation, UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO).^ Within the United States, the current national MMR vaccine coverage rate is adequate to prevent the sustained spread of measles.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Narrative 2000; 6:16-17 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vaccination has drastically reduced the number of people affected by measles in the United States and in many parts of the world, but the World Health Organization (WHO) still lists measles as a leading cause of death in young children.
  • Measles and Mumps: Test Sample 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC labtestsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.Globally, measles fell 60% from an estimated 873,000 deaths in 1999 to 345,000 in 2005.[18] Estimates for 2008 indicate deaths fell further to 164,000 globally, with 77% of the remaining measles deaths in 2008 occurring within the South-East Asian region.^ According to their estimates, measles affects more than 20 million people a year and in 2007 was responsible for nearly 200,000 deaths, primarily in children under the age of five.
  • Measles and Mumps: Test Sample 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC labtestsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Incubation Period: The first symptoms of measles occur after a 10- to 12-day incubation period that usually follows airborne or droplet exposure ( Berggren et al., 2005 ).

^ In May 2003, the World Health Assembly endorsed a resolution urging member countries to reduce deaths attributed to measles by half (compared with 1999 estimates) by the end of 2005.

[20]

History and culture

History

.The Antonine Plague, 165-180 AD, also known as the Plague of Galen, who described it, was probably smallpox or measles.^ Koplik's spots have been reported in 60%-70% of persons with measles but are probably present in most persons who develop measles ( Perry and Halsey, 2004 ).

^ Factors that allow for persistent infection are only partially understood, and whether or not measles virus persists in persons who do not develop SSPE is not known.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

Disease killed as much as one-third of the population in some areas, and decimated the Roman army.[21] .The first scientific description of measles and its distinction from smallpox and chickenpox is credited to the Persian physician, Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi (860-932), known to the West as "Rhazes", who published a book entitled The Book of Smallpox and Measles (in Arabic: Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah).^ Passively acquired maternal antibody can mask signs of measles in children who were exposed during the first 10 months of life.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Factors that allow for persistent infection are only partially understood, and whether or not measles virus persists in persons who do not develop SSPE is not known.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bloch et al., 1985: Bloch AB, Orenstein WA, Ewing WM, Spain WH, Mallison GF, Herrmann KL, Hinman AR. Measles outbreak in a pediatric practice: airborne transmission in an office setting.

[22]
.Measles is an endemic disease, meaning that it has been continually present in a community, and many people develop resistance.^ We found no evidence of an association between the development of Crohn's disease and exposure to a measles epidemic.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ An HIV-infected intravenous drug user developed progressive measles retinitis and subsequent progressive CNS disease diagnosed as SSPE at 30 years of age.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Immune suppression can continue for many weeks after the apparent recovery from measles ( 47 ).
  • Virus-induced Immunosuppression -- Polymicrobial Diseases -- NCBI Bookshelf 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In populations that have not been exposed to measles, exposure to a new disease can be devastating.^ We found no evidence of an association between the development of Crohn's disease and exposure to a measles epidemic.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because serious complications of measles are rare, I did not see them as a child (before the vaccine) and I did not realize how devastating the disease can be.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, measles is a relatively new disease of humans, most likely evolving from an animal morbillivirus such as rinderpest virus of cattle ( 64 ).
  • Virus-induced Immunosuppression -- Polymicrobial Diseases -- NCBI Bookshelf 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of the natives who had previously survived smallpox.^ Initially, it occurred in children who were exposed to wild measles virus several years after they were immunized with killed measles vaccine.

^ Does this mean that due to their health conditions that the two boys who recently died in the UK from measles are less deserving of life?!
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Survival Information: The outbreak supports the fact that measles virus when it becomes airborne can survive at least one hour ( Bloch et al., 1985 ).

.Two years later measles was responsible for the deaths of half the population of Honduras, and had ravaged Mexico, Central America, and the Inca civilization.^ Those with available history of measles exposure tend to have it either earlier (younger than 3 years old) or later (after 9 years) than the usual childhood measles infection.
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  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Prior to the introduction of the measles vaccine, over 130 million cases and 7 to 8 million deaths occurred worldwide each year.

^ Since the measles vaccine was introduced we went from 440 deaths a year to zero.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.In roughly the last 150 years, measles has been estimated to have killed about 200 million people worldwide.^ More than one million people die from measles each year.
  • AboutKidsHealth: Health A-Z: Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.aboutkidshealth.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are one million deaths worldwide from measles every year.
  • Patient information leaflet - Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, around the world, an estimated 43 million people are infected with measles each year.
  • AboutKidsHealth: Health A-Z: Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.aboutkidshealth.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .During the 1850s, measles killed a fifth of Hawaii's people.^ People with measles are usually infectious for one to two days before the rash appears but the total period during which an individual is infectious is not known ( Bedford, 2004 ).

[25] .In 1875, measles killed over 40,000 Fijians, approximately one-third of the population.^ Evidence from multiple centers indicates that regression does occur in approximately one third of children with autism.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Approximately one third (29%-39%) of children with autism are reported to lose language or social skills during the second year of life.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Approximately 20% to 40% of survivors of measles encephalitis have lifelong neurologic sequelae, which are often severe.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[26] In the 19th century, the disease decimated the Andamanese population.[27] .In 1954, the virus causing the disease was isolated from an 11-year old boy from the United States, David Edmonston, and adapted and propagated on chick embryo tissue culture.^ In 1954, the measles virus was isolated from an 11-year old boy from the US, David Edmonston, and adapted and propagated on chick embryo tissue culture (CE).

^ "In children with autistic enterocolitis, persistent measles virus infection of the ileal lymphoid tissue causes chronic immune mediated pathology in the intestines."
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Before 1970, mumps was the most common cause of encephalitis and meningoencephalitis in the United States.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[28] .To date, 21 strains of the measles virus have been identified.^ To date, 21 strains of the measles virus have been identified.

^ To find whether the M genes of these SSPE viruses were mutated randomly or in a pattern, we sequenced this gene from three strains of defective measles virus isolated in Osaka, Japan.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ By the time the case of measles is identified and notified, the case may already have transmitted the virus to other susceptible people.
  • MEASLES Control Guideline - NSW Department of Health 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.health.nsw.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] Licensed vaccines to prevent the disease became available in 1963.

Recent outbreaks

.Since the beginning of September, 2009, Johannesburg, a city in Gauteng, South Africa reported about 48 cases of measles.^ A. Outbreak Locations: During 1989 and 1990 reported measles cases in the United States increased 6- to 9-fold over the annual mean of 3000 between 1985 and 1988.

^ Measles was one case where the “10% reported” rectal statistic looks to be close to accurate [1].
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During 2001-2003, of the total 216 measles cases reported, 96 (44%) were imported, and 120 were indigenous.

.Soon after the outbreak, the Government ordered that all children be vaccinated.^ In Washington state, an outbreak was traced to a religious conference, including 16 school-aged children who were not vaccinated because of parents’ beliefs.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the availability of vaccines, measles, mumps, and rubella occurred in almost all children, and all 3 infections occurred during the same seasons late winter and spring.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In some sense, I know of several parents who were leaning toward not vaccinating their children at all until they read that book- and will now only selectively vaccinate.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vaccination programs were then initiated in all schools and parents of young children were advised to have them vaccinated.^ In Washington state, an outbreak was traced to a religious conference, including 16 school-aged children who were not vaccinated because of parents’ beliefs.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CDC’s review found that a number of cases involved home-schooled children not required to have the vaccines.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dismal prognosis of SSPE further emphasizes the need for measles vaccination and revaccination of all children who are initially immunized at an age of less than 15 months.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

[30] Many people were not willing to have the vaccination done, as it is believed to be unsafe and ineffective. .The Health Department assured the public that their program was indeed safe.^ Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh .
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ New York State Department of Health, Early Intervention Program.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

Speculation arose as to whether or not new needles were being used.[31] .By mid-October there were at least 940 recorded cases, and 4 deaths.^ The way I figure it, so far there are at least 68 measles cases on her tally sheet, and the number is growing.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States, measles caused 450 reported deaths and 4,000 cases of encephalitis annually before measles vaccine became available in the mid-1960s (1).
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2002, there were 3040 million cases of measles, resulting in 777 000 deaths ( Dhimanet al., 2004 ).

[32]
.On February 19, 2009, 505 measles cases were reported in twelve provinces in the North of Vietnam, with Hanoi accounting for 160 cases[33].^ The remaining 178 (33%) "unknown-source" cases were analyzed as potential evidence of endemic measles transmission.

^ A. Outbreak Locations: During 1989 and 1990 reported measles cases in the United States increased 6- to 9-fold over the annual mean of 3000 between 1985 and 1988.

^ Measles was one case where the “10% reported” rectal statistic looks to be close to accurate [1].
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A high rate of complications including meningitis & encephalitis has worried health workers[34] and the U.S. CDC recommended that all travelers be immune to measles[35].^ History of childhood illnesses, including measles, mumps, pertussis, chickenpox, meningitis, and other febrile illnesses, was obtained from parents when the children were 10 years of age.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Seizures Almost all infants and children who develop measles have moderate to high fever, which can precipitate febrile seizures, the most common neurologic complication of measles.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Complication: Immune globulin and measles vaccine should not be given at the same time.

On The 1st of April 2009, an outbreak has happened in two schools in North Wales. .Ysgol John Bright and Ysgol Ffordd Dyffryn in Wales have had the outbreak and are making sure every pupil has had the MMR vaccine.^ However, in the “N = 1″ case such temporal proximity can sure make it appear as though vaccination caused the adverse event.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In my experience it is more than just Jenny McCarthy making parents worried about vaccines (I’m sure all on this site would agree).
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 2007, a large measles outbreak in Japan caused a number of universities and other institutions to close in an attempt to contain the disease.^ A measles outbreak caused several schools to be closed in Japan: Uirusu.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japan has suffered a record number of cases, and a number of universities and other institutions in the country have closed in an attempt to contain the outbreak.

^ Measles is a disease that is caused by a virus.
  • MMR: Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine | The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.chop.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36][37]
.Approximately 1000 cases of the disease were reported in Israel between August 2007 and May 2008 (in sharp contrast to just some dozen cases the year before)[citation needed].^ A. Outbreak Locations: During 1989 and 1990 reported measles cases in the United States increased 6- to 9-fold over the annual mean of 3000 between 1985 and 1988.

^ Prior to 1963, before use of the earliest vaccines, there were over 500,000 reported cases per year.

^ A significant relationship between MRI findings and clinical stage was observed in the 1st year of the disease.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Many children in ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities were affected due to low vaccination coverage.^ Many local children were affected.

^ After vaccination rates dropped in northern Nigeria in the early 2000s due to religious and political objections, the number of cases rose significantly, and hundreds of children died.

^ The report said: “Due to almost 10 years of sub-optimal MMR vaccination coverage across the U.K., the number of children susceptible to measles is now sufficient to support the continuous spread of measles.
  • Infection Protection & Control » Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.care-mates.com [Source type: News]

[38][39] .As of 2008 the disease is endemic in the United Kingdom with 1,217 cases diagnosed in 2008 [40] and epidemics have been reported in Austria, Italy and Switzerland.^ A. Outbreak Locations: During 1989 and 1990 reported measles cases in the United States increased 6- to 9-fold over the annual mean of 3000 between 1985 and 1988.

^ In June 2008, the United Kingdom’s Health Protection Agency declared that, because of a drop in vaccination coverage levels (to 80%–85% among children aged 2 years), measles was again endemic in the United Kingdom (3,8), 14 years after it had been eliminated.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A detailed study in the United Kingdom using the case-series method revealed no temporal relationship between MMR immunization and development of autism.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.Low vaccination rates are responsible.^ There are now pockets of low vaccination rates in communities where McCarthy’s scare tactics have had an effect.
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Measles Outbreak – Thanks, Jenny 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This group was large and yet had no cases for 17 years while mainstream medicine was crediting low measles rates to vaccination.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Overall rates remain high, but there are pockets of low vaccination rates in communities where vaccine fears have spread.
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Measles Outbreak – Thanks, Jenny 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41]
.In March 2010, Philippines declared an endemic about the continiously rising cases of measles[citation needed].^ The remaining 178 (33%) "unknown-source" cases were analyzed as potential evidence of endemic measles transmission.

^ The influence of a big measles epidemic which occurred in 1989-1990 on a potential rise in number of SSPE cases has not been noted, but further observations are needed.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Doctors maintain that the (MMR) inoculation is necessary to prevent measles encephalitis, which they say occurs about once in 1,000 cases.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Americas

.Indigenous measles were declared to have been eliminated in North, Central, and South America; the last endemic case in the region was reported on November 12, 2002, with only Northern Argentina and rural Canada, particularly in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, and Alberta having minor endemic status.^ A. Outbreak Locations: During 1989 and 1990 reported measles cases in the United States increased 6- to 9-fold over the annual mean of 3000 between 1985 and 1988.

^ In June 2008, the United Kingdom’s Health Protection Agency declared that, because of a drop in vaccination coverage levels (to 80%–85% among children aged 2 years), measles was again endemic in the United Kingdom (3,8), 14 years after it had been eliminated.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Measles was one case where the “10% reported” rectal statistic looks to be close to accurate [1].
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .Outbreaks are still occurring, however, following importations of measles viruses from other world regions.^ For the foreseeable future, measles importations into the United States will continue to occur because measles is still common in Europe and other regions of the world.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because infants--the group at highest risk to develop SSPE--were most severely affected by this measles outbreak, other cases of SSPE stemming from this epidemic may occur.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We transferred the coding regions of F tails from SSPE viruses in an MV genomic cDNA. Similarly, we constructed and transferred mutated tail-encoding regions of the other viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin (H) gene.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In June 2006, an outbreak in Boston resulted after a resident became infected in India,[43] and in October 2007, a Michigan girl who had been vaccinated contracted the disease in Sweden.^ In Washington state, an outbreak was traced to a religious conference, including 16 school-aged children who were not vaccinated because of parents’ beliefs.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CLINICAL CASES: We describe four girls aged between 10 and 11 years old who were vaccinated on the same day.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Between 15% and 60% of children immunized with the formalin-inactivated vaccine who contracted measles developed a severe form of disease, called atypical measles.

[44]
.Between January 1 and April 25, 2008, a total of 64 confirmed measles cases were preliminarily reported in the United States to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,[45][46] the most reported by this date for any year since 2001. Of the 64 cases, 54 were associated with importation of measles from other countries into the United States, and 63 of the 64 patients were unvaccinated or had unknown or undocumented vaccination status.^ None of the cases followed measles vaccination.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Epidemiology of measles--United States, 2001-2003.

^ Of this year’s total, 122 were unvaccinated or had unknown vaccination status.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]
.By July 9, 2008, a total of 127 cases were reported in 15 states (including 22 in Arizona[48]), making it the largest U.S. outbreak since 1997 (when 138 cases were reported).^ In Washington state, an outbreak was traced to a religious conference, including 16 school-aged children who were not vaccinated because of parents’ beliefs.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Michael X on 24 Aug 2008 at 10:51 pm I have to thank AntiVax for making the case for vaccination so much stronger though his inept attempt to oppose it.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ongoing outbreaks are occurring in European countries where rates of vaccination coverage are lower than those in the United States, including Austria, Italy, and Switzerland (3,4).
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] .Most of the cases were acquired outside of the United States and afflicted individuals who had not been vaccinated.^ Before the mumps vaccine, mumps was the most common cause of acquired deafness in the United States.
  • MMR: Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine | The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.chop.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since vaccine licensure in 1963, measles elimination efforts in the United States have resulted in record low numbers of reported measles cases.
  • Measles (Rubeola) | DoItYourself.com 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.doityourself.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Michigan in the fall of 2007, a confirmed case of measles occurred in a girl who had been vaccinated and who apparently contracted it overseas.

.By July 30, 2008, the number of cases had grown to 131. Of these, about half involved children whose parents rejected vaccination.^ It's unclear why the parents rejected the vaccine.
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus, when Wakefield's research was first publicized, concerned parents quickly rejected the MMR vaccine and demanded instead the individual shots.
  • MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) Vaccines: Adverse Reactions. Thinktwice! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC thinktwice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since vaccine licensure in 1963, measles elimination efforts in the United States have resulted in record low numbers of reported measles cases.
  • Measles (Rubeola) | DoItYourself.com 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.doityourself.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 131 cases occurred in 7 different outbreaks.^ Concern is often expressed because of observations during outbreaks that cases occur in persons with a history of proper vaccination.
  • ACIP: Measles Prevention 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC wonder.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most outbreaks were small (median,12 cases), but very large outbreaks occurred (maximum size, 10,670).

^ In 2005, only 66 cases of measles were reported to the CDC; however, an outbreak occurred in 2007 following an international youth sporting event.
  • MMR: Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine | The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.chop.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were no deaths, and 15 hospitalizations.^ Of these cases 15 were hospitalized and no deaths were reported.
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Measles Outbreak – Thanks, Jenny 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In symptomatic meningitis, which occurs in about 15% of patients, there is stiff neck and headache which usually resolves in up to 10 days with no further problems.

^ There were no reported differences between deaths in males and females in Boukoki (male-to-female ratio [M:F ratio] 1.3:1 [17:13, p = 0.79]) or in Moursal (M:F ratio 1.5:1 [12:8, p = 0.75]).
  • PLoS Medicine: Unacceptably High Mortality Related to Measles Epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.11 of the cases had received at least one dose of the measles vaccine.^ None of the cases followed measles vaccination.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Measles cases caused by the vaccine are not reported.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anyone else who has not had at least one vaccination for measles is at risk.
  • AboutKidsHealth: Health A-Z: Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.aboutkidshealth.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.122 of the cases involved children who were unvaccinated or whose vaccination status was unknown.^ Of this year’s total, 122 were unvaccinated or had unknown vaccination status.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of this year's total, 122 were unvaccinated or had unknown vaccination status.
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Most importantly, 91% of the cases were in those who were unvaccinated or had unknown vaccination status.
  • NeuroLogica Blog » Measles Outbreak – Thanks, Jenny 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.theness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of these were under the age of one year old and below the age when vaccination is recommended, but in 63 cases the vaccinations had been refused for religious or philosophical reasons.^ We prevent 500,000 cases of needless pain and suffering a year with the vaccine.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Washington state, an outbreak was traced to a religious conference, including 16 school-aged children who were not vaccinated because of parents’ beliefs.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All but four patients below 3 years of age gave a past history of measles.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

Additional images

See also

References

  1. ^ "Measles". http://www.patient.co.uk/showdoc/40000391/. 
  2. ^ Merriam-webster:Rubeola Accessed 2009-09-20.
  3. ^ T. E. C. Jr. Letters to the editor Pediatrics Vol. 49 No. 1 January 1972, pp. 150-151.
  4. ^ Webster's Online Dictionary: German measles Accessed 2009-09-20
  5. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20080227154121/http://www.iceh.org.uk/files/tsno4/resources/no04.doc
  6. ^ a b Perry, Robert T.; Halsey, Neal A. (May 1, 2004). "The Clinical Significance of Measles: A Review". The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Infectious Diseases Society of America) 189 (S1): 1547–1783. doi:10.1086/377712. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/377712. Retrieved January 14, 2009. 
  7. ^ Sension, MG; Quinn TC, Markowitz LE, Linnan MJ, Jones TS, Francis HL, Nzilambi N, Duma MN, Ryder RW (December 1988). "Measles in hospitalized African children with human immunodeficiency virus". American Journal of Diseases of Children 142 (12): 1271–1272. http://www.popline.org/docs/0832/055280.html. Retrieved January 14, 2009. 
  8. ^ Bekhor, D. Prevention and treatment of measles. in: UpToDate, Baslow, DS (ed.), Waltham, MA, 2009
  9. ^ Helfand RF, Witte D, Fowlkes A, et al. (2008). "Evaluation of the immune response to a 2-dose measles vaccination schedule administered at 6 and 9 months of age to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in Malawi". J Infect Dis 198: 1457–1465. doi:10.1086/592756. 
  10. ^ "Measles kills more than 500 children so far in 2005". IRIN. 2005-03-21. http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=53506. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 
  11. ^ Dillner L (2001-07-26). "The return of the measles party". Guardian. http://lifeandhealth.guardian.co.uk/health/story/0,,1610704,00.html. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 
  12. ^ Rutter M (2005). "Incidence of autism spectrum disorders: changes over time and their meaning". Acta Paediatr 94 (1): 2–15. doi:10.1080/08035250410023124. PMID 15858952. 
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  17. ^ Parker A, Staggs W, Dayan G et al. (2006). "Implications of a 2005 measles outbreak in Indiana for sustained elimination of measles in the United States". N Engl J Med 355 (5): 447–55. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa060775. PMID 16885548. 
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  23. ^ http://www.mariner.org/exploration/index.php?page=faq. Retrieved October 15, 2006.
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  25. ^ Migration and Disease. Digital History.
  26. ^ Fiji School of Medicine
  27. ^ Measles hits rare Andaman tribe. BBC News. May 16, 2006.
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  29. ^ Rima BK, Earle JA, Yeo RP, et al. (1995). "Temporal and geographical distribution of measles virus genotypes". J. Gen. Virol. 76 (5): 1173–80. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-76-5-1173. PMID 7730801. http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=7730801. 
  30. ^ "Measles Outbreak In Joburg". http://www.news24.com/Content/SouthAfrica/News/1059/42cd42bfbe5545f8bccdfce63c0db184/29-09-2009-11-01/Measles_outbreak_in_Joburg. 
  31. ^ "Childhood Vaccinations Peak In 2009, But Uneven Distribution Persists". http://www.theinternationalonline.com/articles/98-childhood-vaccinations-peak-in-2009-but. 
  32. ^ [//www.news24.com/Content/SouthAfrica/News/1059/54adfc32c0904c0ba92f92b021d68b3a/21-10-2009-11-27/Measles_vaccinations_safe "Measles Vaccination 'safe'"]. //www.news24.com/Content/SouthAfrica/News/1059/54adfc32c0904c0ba92f92b021d68b3a/21-10-2009-11-27/Measles_vaccinations_safe. 
  33. ^ "Measles spreads to 12 provinces". Look At Vietnam. 20 February 2009. http://www.lookatvietnam.com/2009/02/measles-spreads-to-12-provinces.html. 
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  35. ^ AmCham Vietnam | Public Notice: Measles immunization recommendation
  36. ^ "The Public Health Agency of Canada Travel Advisory". http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/tmp-pmv/2007/measjap070601_e.html. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  37. ^ Norrie, Justin (May 27, 2007). "Japanese measles epidemic brings campuses to standstill". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/japanese-measles-epidemic-brings-campuses-to-standstill/2007/05/27/1180205052602.html. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  38. ^ Stein-Zamir, C.; G. Zentner, N. Abramson, H. Shoob, Y. Aboudy, L. Shulman and E. Mendelson (February 2008). "Measles outbreaks affecting children in Jewish ultra-orthodox communities in Jerusalem". Epidemiology and Infection 136 (2): 207–214. doi:10.1017/S095026880700845X. PMID 17433131. 
  39. ^ Rotem, Tamar (August 11, 2007). "Current measles outbreak hit ultra-Orthodox the hardest". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/921836.html. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  40. ^ Batty, David (Friday 9 January 2009 15.38 GMT). "Record number of measles cases sparks fear of epidemic". guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2009/jan/09/measles-record-numbers. Retrieved January 15th, 2009. 
  41. ^ Eurosurveillance - View Article
  42. ^ NORTH YORK: Measles outbreak may bring new strategy, May 2008
  43. ^ "Measles outbreak shows a global threat - The Boston Globe". http://www.boston.com/yourlife/health/diseases/articles/2006/06/10/measles_outbreak_shows_a_global_threat/. Retrieved 2007-12-05. 
  44. ^ Jesse, David (October 4, 2007). "Measles outbreak may have spread". The Ann Arbor News. http://blog.mlive.com/study_hall/2007/10/measles_outbreak_may_have_spre.html. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  45. ^ "cdc.gov". http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm57e501a1.htm?s_cid=mm57e501a1_e. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  46. ^ JS Online: Measles outbreak brewing, city health officials say
  47. ^ "cdc.gov MeaslesUpdate". http://www.cdc.gov/Features/MeaslesUpdate/. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  48. ^ Rotstein, Arthur (July 9, 2008). "Response curtailed measles outbreak". The Associated Press. http://www.tucsoncitizen.com/daily/local/90471.php. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  49. ^ Dunham, Will (July 9, 2008). "Measles outbreak hits 127 people in 15 states". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN0943743120080709. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

Medical warning!
This article is from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica. Medical science has made many leaps forward since it has been written. .This is not a site for medical advice, when you need information on a medical condition, consult a professional instead.^ Do you need expert advice?
  • Health24 - Diseases A to Z 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.health24.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ It should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.MEASLES, (Morbilli, Rubeola; the M. E. word is maseles, properly a diminutive of a word meaning " spot," O.H.G. mdsa, cf.^ MEASLES (RUBEOLA) The word measles is derived from the German word for blister.

^ In fact, the term "measles" probably comes from a Latin word meaning "miserable."
  • Serum Institute Of India Ltd. - Health FAQ's 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.seruminstitute.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

" mazer "; the equivalent is Ger. Masern; Fr. .Rougeole), an acute infectious disease occurring mostly in children.^ This means that vaccinated children are more susceptible to further cases of measles and other infectious diseases.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER: 0300-5526 LANGUAGE OF ARTICLE: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Acute measles is a classic infectious disease of childhood with worldwide distribution.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It is mentioned in the writings of Rhazes and others of the Arabian physicians in the 10th century.^ The 10th Century Persian physician, Rhazes considered measles "to be dreaded more than smallpox."
  • Serum Institute Of India Ltd. - Health FAQ's 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.seruminstitute.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For long, however, it was held to be a variety of small-pox. .After the non-identity of these two diseases had been established, measles and scarlet-fever continued to be confounded with each other; and in the account given by Thomas Sydenham of epidemics of measles in London in 1670. and 1674 it is evident that even that accurate observer had not as yet clearly perceived their pathological distinction, although it would seem to have been made a century earlier by Giovanni Filippo Ingrassias (151 o-1 580), a physician of Palermo.^ Nonimmunized people, including infants, may be given the measles vaccination within 72 hours of exposure to the measles virus, to provide protection against the disease.
  • OhioHealth - Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Measles - Valley Health System 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We found no evidence of an association between the development of Crohn's disease and exposure to a measles epidemic.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Replacements of U with C in the plus strand accounted for 76% of all mutations in two of the strains, but in the other strain, replacements of A with G accounted for 52% of the mutations, and the U residues were unchanged.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The specific micro-organism responsible for measles has not been definitely isolated.^ Upon neutralization of IFN-gamma in vivo, the phenotype of measles virus-specific T-helper cells isolatable from BALB/c mice is reversed from subtype 1 to subtype 2-like.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibody testing Measles and mumps antibodies are virus-specific proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection by the measles or mumps virus, or in response to vaccination.
  • Measles and Mumps: The Test 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC labtestsonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.Its progress is marked by several stages more or less sharply defined.^ Measles tends to be more severe in adults and the very young (under 5 years of age) and is less severe in older children and teenagers.

.After the reception of the contagion into the system, there follows a period of incubation or latency during which scarcely any disturbance of the health is perceptible.^ We also examined the CFRs for all measles-related deaths that occurred during the recall period, expressed as measles deaths occurring during the recall period per 100 cases, with a follow-up of at least 30 d.
  • PLoS Medicine: Unacceptably High Mortality Related to Measles Epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During the incubation period, the virus replicates in the respiratory tract and then spreads to local lymphoid tissue.

^ During 1987-1992, there were 165 measles-associated deaths in the multiple-cause mortality database at the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and 184 reported to the measles surveillance system at the National Immunization Program (NIP).

.This period generally lasts for from ten to fourteen days, when it is followed by the invasion of the symptoms specially characteristic of measles.^ Symptoms of German measles can include any of the following: .

^ The period from exposure to rubella to actual onset of rubella symptoms, called the incubation period, varies from 12-23 days, with an average of 16- 18 days.
  • Rubella (German Measles) 18 September 2009 7:35 UTC www.deafblind.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Incubation Period: The first symptoms of measles occur after a 10- to 12-day incubation period that usually follows airborne or droplet exposure ( Berggren et al., 2005 ).

These consist in the somewhat sudden onset of acute catarrh of the mucous membranes. .At this stage minute white spots in the buccal mucous membrane frequently occur; when they do, they are diagnostic of the disease.^ Seriously, antivaxers want NO vaccines, but they are pretty sure when the diseases return to pre-vaccine stages that everyone will become more and more healthy.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These diseases neither led to bad or frequent complications nor did they occur that often.

^ Koplik's spots on mucosal membranes (table 2) - small (1 - 3mm), irregular, bright red spots, with bluish-white speck at center.

.Sneezing, accompanied with a watery discharge, sometimes bleeding, from the nose, redness and watering of the eyes, cough of a short, frequent, and noisy character, with little or no expectoration, hoarseness of the voice, and occasionally sickness and diarrhoea, are the chief local phenomena of this stage.^ These signs include feverishness, chill, dry cough, and watery eyes.
  • Measles Home Remedies - Measles Treatment - Natural Remedies & Cure for Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.natural-homeremedies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Signs and symptoms of measles include cough, runny nose, inflamed eyes, sore throat, fever and a red, blotchy skin rash.
  • OhioHealth - Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Measles - Valley Health System 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While measles is probably best known for the full-body rash it causes, the first symptoms of the infection are usually a hacking cough, runny nose, high fever, and red eyes.
  • Measles 2008-10-01 00:00:00.0 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With these there is well-marked febrile disturbance, the temperature being elevated (102°-104° F.), and the pulse rapid, while headache, thirst, and restlessness are usually present.^ In well-nourished persons, these lesions usually heal without residual damage.

.In some instances, these initial symptoms are slight, and the child is allowed to associate with others at a time when, as will be afterwards seen, the contagion of the disease is most active.^ So what does nearly the same or slight decline in reports in these two time periods really mean?
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aug 2008 at 3:07 pm The thing about some of these childhood diseases is that the loons think that getting the disease is a great thing.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many other potential causes of these disorders, so the temporal association does not establish a causal association.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.In rare cases, especially in young children, convulsions usher in, or occur in the course of, this stage of invasion, which lasts as a rule for four or five days, the febrile symptoms, however, showing some tendency to undergo abatement after the second day.^ A large number of measles cases occurred each year in the study period yet most children had measles only once before age 15.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the pre-vaccine era, most measles cases affected preschool and young school-age children.
  • ACIP: Measles Prevention 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC wonder.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, in rare cases there are some chances of mild reactions, usually low/mild fever and slight rash.
  • Serum Institute Of India Ltd. - Health FAQ's 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.seruminstitute.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the fourth or fifth day after the invasion, sometimes later, rarely earlier, the characteristic eruption appears on the skin, being first noticed on the brow, cheeks, chin, also behind the ears, and on the neck.^ Both common measles and German measles (also known as 3-day measles ) have a characteristic skin rash, which u...
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ The rash lasts for 3-7 days and then fades in the same manner as it appeared, sometimes ending with a fine desquamation that may go unnoticed in children who are bathed daily.

^ If there is a need for tuberculin skin testing, it can be done on the day of vaccination and read 48 to 72 hours later.
  • ACIP: Measles Prevention 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC wonder.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It consists of small spots of a dusky red or crimson colour, just like flea-bites, slightly elevated above the surface, at first isolated, but tending to become grouped into patches of irregular, occasionally crescentic, outline, with portions of skin free from the eruption intervening.^ The rash, which is sighted as having red skin with round spots commonly, starts on the face, neck.
  • Measles Home Remedies - Measles Treatment - Natural Remedies & Cure for Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.natural-homeremedies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amino acids involved in measles virus binding define a large, glycan-free surface that extends from the top of the first to the bottom of the second repeat.
  • PDBsum entry: 1ckl 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.ebi.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Cell nuclei become pyknotic, and by 5 hours, small syncytia fuse into giant ones which show beginning evidence of vacuolation.

.The face acquires a swollen and bloated appearance, which, taken with the catarrh of the nostrils and eyes, is almost characteristic, and renders the diagnosis at this stage a matter of no difficulty.^ In the most advanced stage, when the patient was in a neurovegetative state, an almost total loss of white matter had usually taken place.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As the rash progresses the individual spots characteristically tend to merge into one another; in severe cases the whole face may be swollen and disfigured.
  • Health24 - Diseases A to Z 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.health24.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The eruption spreads downwards over the body and limbs, which are soon thickly studded with the red spots or patches.^ The measles rash typically has a red or reddish brown blotchy appearance, and first usually shows up on the forehead, then spreads downward over the face, neck, and body, then down to the arms and feet.
  • Measles 2008-10-01 00:00:00.0 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Measles causes a red, blotchy rash that usually appears first on the face and behind the ears, then spreads downward to the chest and back and finally to the feet.
  • Measles - Valley Health System 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sometimes these become confluent over a considerable surface. .The rash continues to come out for two or three days, and then begins to fade in the order in which it first showed itself, namely from above downwards.^ Rash appears behind the ears and spreads rapidly over the face and the neck extending downwards reaching the hands and feet over the next three days.
  • Serum Institute Of India Ltd. - Health FAQ's 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.seruminstitute.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with measles are usually infectious for one to two days before the rash appears but the total period during which an individual is infectious is not known ( Bedford, 2004 ).

^ Within a few days the rash spreads to the body, arms and legs, by which time the rash will begin to fade from the face.

.By the end of about a week after its first appearance scarcely any trace of the eruption remains beyond a faint staining of the skin.^ Most children recover from measles encephalitis in two to three days, but about 1/3 remain comatose for days to weeks.
  • Health24 - Diseases A to Z 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.health24.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Usually during convalescence slight peeling of the epidermis takes place, but much less distinctly than is the case in scarlet fever.^ However, in rare cases there are some chances of mild reactions, usually low/mild fever and slight rash.
  • Serum Institute Of India Ltd. - Health FAQ's 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.seruminstitute.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These facts are discussed below Measles cases in all developed countries became much milder than in developing countries mainly due to improved diet.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Out of 300 million Americans, you have less than 200 cases and 0 deaths.
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.At the commencement of the eruptive stage the fever, catarrh, and other constitutional disturbance, which were present from the beginning, become aggravated, the temperature often rising to 105° or more, and there is headache, thirst, furred tongue, and soreness of the throat, upon which red patches similar to those on the surface of the body may be observed.^ The first symptoms are normally similar to those of a bad cold: fever, runny nose, sore throat and a cough.

^ Simultaneous Administration of Vaccines The simultaneous administration of MMR and OPV has resulted in seroconversion rates and rates of side effects that are similar to those observed when the vaccines are administered separately.
  • ACIP: Measles Prevention 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC wonder.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mild Problems (Common) · Fever · Redness or swelling · Soreness or tenderness at the site of injection.
  • Serum Institute Of India Ltd. - Health FAQ's 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.seruminstitute.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These symptoms usually decline as soon as the rash has attained its maximum, and often there occurs a sudden and extensive fall of temperature, indicating that the crisis of the disease has been reached.^ Incubation Period: The first symptoms of measles occur after a 10- to 12-day incubation period that usually follows airborne or droplet exposure ( Berggren et al., 2005 ).

^ In symptomatic meningitis, which occurs in about 15% of patients, there is stiff neck and headache which usually resolves in up to 10 days with no further problems.

^ There have been reports that Jett was autistic, though Travolta has denied it, saying he suffers from Kawasaki Syndrome, a condition which often leads to heart disease.
  • AGE OF AUTISM: Olmsted on Autism: Travolta, Kawasaki, Acrodynia 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.ageofautism.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In favourable cases convalescence proceeds rapidly, the patient feeling perfectly well even before the rash has faded from the skin.^ Several cases of appendicitis have developed before and during measles rash, and characteristic giant cells typical for measles have been found in appendix tissue.

^ If the immune system is suppressed as is typically the case with vaccinations, a full detox is impossible and the child is left as susceptible or even more susceptible than before the vaccination.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patient had an erythematous rash several weeks before the neurologic symptoms; however, skin biopsy was consistent with graft-versus-host disease, and immunohistochemistry studies for measles nucleoprotein were negative.

.Measles may, however, occur in a very malignant form, in which the symptoms throughout are of urgent character, the rash but feebly developed, and of dark purple hue, while there is great prostration, accompanied with intense catarrh of the respiratory or gastro-intestinal mucous membrane.^ Altered immunity: Replication of the measles vaccine virus may be potentiated in patients with immune deficiency diseases and by the suppressed immune responses that occur with leukemia, lymphoma, or generalized malignancy, or with therapy with corticosteroids, alkylating drugs, antimetabolites, or radiation.
  • ACIP: Measles Prevention 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC wonder.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the biggest danger is if a pregnant woman develops German measles, as there is a strong possibility that the child will be born with birth defects (e.g.

^ Asymptomatic measles reinfection can occur in persons who have previously developed antibodies, whether from vaccination or from natural disease.
  • ACIP: Measles Prevention 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC wonder.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such cases are rare, occurring mostly in circumstances of bad hygiene, both as regards the individual and his surroundings.^ Very rarely, a progressive rubella panencephalitis has occurred that simulates SSPE. Rubella viruses have been detected in brain tissue specimens from such patients.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is claimed that the relatively rare cases of Subacute Sclerosing PanEncephalitis (SSPE) and Encephalitis that occurred following natural measles has all but disappeared following vaccination.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, cases of measles are often of so mild a form throughout that the patient can scarcely be persuaded to submit to treatment.^ On the other hand, the antibodies might significantly reduce the clinical benefit of MV-based treatment.
  • Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Recombinant Measles Virus Induces Cytolysis of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma In Vitro and In Vivo 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reported Measles Cases in Niamey, Niger (2003–2004) (10,880 Patients) .
  • PLoS Medicine: Unacceptably High Mortality Related to Measles Epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vaccine induced measles cases are severe rather than mild.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Measles as a disease derives its chief importance from the risk, by no means slight, of certain complications which are apt to arise during its course, more especially inflammatory affections of the respiratory organs.^ We found no evidence of an association between the development of Crohn's disease and exposure to a measles epidemic.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It had been hypothesised that the measles component of the MMR vaccine may be causally linked with autism, autistic spectrum disorder and inflammatory bowel disease.36 There has been no credible scientific evidence to support this claim.
  • Immunise - 3.11 Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.health.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

^ Infants 6–9 months of age who have direct contact with a person with measles are at risk of developing complications from the disease, and should be offered NHIG within 7 days of contact.
  • Immunise - 3.11 Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.health.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

.These are most liable to occur in the colder seasons of the year and in very young and delicate children.^ A large number of measles cases occurred each year in the study period yet most children had measles only once before age 15.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the pre-vaccine era, most measles cases affected preschool and young school-age children.
  • ACIP: Measles Prevention 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC wonder.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the availability of vaccines, measles, mumps, and rubella occurred in almost all children, and all 3 infections occurred during the same seasons late winter and spring.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.It has been already stated that irritation of the respiratory passages is one of the symptoms characteristic of measles, but that this subsides with the decline of the eruption.^ Complications-Otitis media : Description: RESPIRATORY COMPLICATIONS. Otitis media is the most common complication of measles reported in the United States and occurs in 14% of children less than 5 years old.

^ Conclusion: Measles incidence in the pre-vaccine era had declined from the pre-sanitation era by at least 50% (as a percentage of children over age one) and as much as 90% before measles vaccination began.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seven (78%) of nine patients had symptoms preceded by fever or upper respiratory tract infections; one (11%) was preceded by trivalent mumps, measles, rubella vaccination and no definite predisposing factor was found in another.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

Not unfrequently, however, these symptoms, instead of abating, become aggravated, and bronchitis of the capillary form (see Bronchitis), or pneumonia, generally of the diffuse or lobular variety (see Pneumonia), supervene. .By far the greater proportion of the mortality in measles is due to its complications, of which those just mentioned are the most common, but which also include inflammatory affections of the larynx, with attacks resembling croup, and also diarrhoea assuming a dysenteric character.^ One of the most common complications of measles is a bacterial ear infection.
  • Measles - Valley Health System 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Complications of measles infection may include: .
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Pneumonia is a common complication of measles.
  • Measles - Valley Health System 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.valleyhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Or there may remain as direct results of the disease chronic ophthalmia, or discharge from the ears with deafness, and occasionally a form of gangrene affecting the tissues of the mouth or cheeks and other parts of the body, leading to disfigurement and gravely endangering life.^ Occasionally, measles can lead to many different complications, including pneumonia and ear infections .

^ Acrodynia, or Pink Disease, according to Donald Cheek, Australia, 1953: "The physician is consulted because of a sudden change of well-being on the part of the infant.
  • AGE OF AUTISM: Olmsted on Autism: Travolta, Kawasaki, Acrodynia 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.ageofautism.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disease is a viral respiratory infection and affected children may suffer lifelong disabilities, including brain damage and blindness; fatalities result from complications including diarrhoea and pneumonia.
  • PLoS Medicine: Unacceptably High Mortality Related to Measles Epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.Apart from those immediate risks there appears to be a tendency in many cases for the disease to leave behind a weakened and vulnerable condition of the general health, which may render children, previously robust, delicate and liable to chest complaints, and is in not a few instances the precursor of some of those tubercular affections to which the period of childhood and youth is liable.^ ATLANTA — Measles cases in the U.S. are at the highest level in more than a decade, with nearly half of those involving children whose parents rejected vaccination, health officials reported Thu...
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ A panel was recruited to include experts in the areas of general pediatrics, developmental pediatrics, child neurology, pediatric infectious diseases, virology, pathology, public health, epidemiology, and psychiatry.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Your health and safety and "herd immunity" were bought at the expense of my son and many children like my son.
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.These various effects or sequelae of measles indicate that although in itself a comparatively mild ailment, it should not be regarded with indifference.^ These individuals had no known gastrointestinal or neurologic disorders reported, indicating that measles virus may persist in unaffected tissue.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The data indicate that the interaction of antibodies with the measles virus H protein plays an important role in the selection of neurovirulent variants.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These results indicate that IFN-gamma plays a significant role in the control of measles virus infection of the central nervous system.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Indeed it is doubtful whether any other disease of early life demands more careful watching as to its influence on the health.^ And once they get measels they are innoculated from alot of other health problems that could arise latter in life.
  • US Measles Cases Highest In A Decade Due To Vaccination Fears 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Pediatricians need to work with families to ensure that children are protected early in the second year of life from these preventable diseases.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I confess, I am not laughing at the thought that children with genetic health issues deserve to suffer and die from measles and other diseases!
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Happily many of those attending evils may by proper management be averted.
.Measles is a disease of the earlier years of childhood.^ History of childhood illnesses, including measles, mumps, pertussis, chickenpox, meningitis, and other febrile illnesses, was obtained from parents when the children were 10 years of age.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An HIV-infected intravenous drug user developed progressive measles retinitis and subsequent progressive CNS disease diagnosed as SSPE at 30 years of age.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More than half the population had measles by the time they were 6 years old,(CDC history) [10] and 90 % had the disease by the time they were 15.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like other infectious maladies, it is admittedly rare, though not unknown, in nurslings or infants under six months old.^ Two months later I took my six month old son in to get his second DPT shot and the same thing happened.
  • AGE OF AUTISM: Olmsted on Autism: Travolta, Kawasaki, Acrodynia 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.ageofautism.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, considering the benefits and risks, the Committee recommends that infants as young as 6 months of age may be vaccinated as pre-exposure prophylaxis when exposure to natural measles is considered likely.
  • ACIP: Measles Prevention 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC wonder.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was four years old when he came with to my daughter’s six month appointment.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is comparatively seldom met with in adults, but this is due to the fact that most persons have undergone an attack in early life.^ A 90% or greater reduction in attack rates has been demonstrated consistently in appropriately vaccinated persons when compared with others.
  • ACIP: Measles Prevention 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC wonder.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Where this has not been the case, the old suffer equally with the young.^ In 1980, more than 60% of cases in which the age was known occurred among persons greater than or equal to 10 years old.
  • ACIP: Measles Prevention 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC wonder.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All races of men appear liable to this disease, provided that which constitutes the essential factor in its origin and spread exists, namely, contagion.^ For example, if removing exposure to the factor is followed by a reduction in disease, this provides supportive evidence that the factor may have caused the disease.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some countries enjoy long immunity from outbreaks of measles, but it has frequently been found in such cases that when the contagion has once been introduced the disease extends with great rapidity and virulence.^ Diarhoea and pneumonia are other complications of measles which can cause death · Measles can also cause permanent brain damage · In some countries measles causes blindness · Measles can also lead to degenerative disease of nervous system named as SSPE (Subacute Sclerosing Pan Encephalitis).
  • Serum Institute Of India Ltd. - Health FAQ's 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.seruminstitute.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feachem and Koblinsky found that 15%-63% of measles cases from community-based studies from developing countries in the prevaccine era were complicated by diarrhea and that 9%-77% of all diarrheal deaths were measles-associated.

^ Doctors maintain that the (MMR) inoculation is necessary to prevent measles encephalitis, which they say occurs about once in 1,000 cases.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was shown by the epidemic in the Faroe Islands in 1846, where, within six months after the arrival of a single case of measles, more than three-fourths of the entire population were attacked and many perished; and the similarly produced and still more destructive outbreak in Fiji in 1875, in which it was estimated that about one-fourth of the inhabitants died from the disease in about three months.^ Each of the three epidemics lasted for more than 6 mo.
  • PLoS Medicine: Unacceptably High Mortality Related to Measles Epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ About three times as many males than females get this .

^ One early case-control study suggested that children with SSPE were more likely to have had varicella within 6 months of measles than were controls.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.In both these cases the great mortality was due to the complications of the malady, specially induced by overcrowding, insanitary surroundings, the absence of proper nourishment and nursing for the sick, and the utter prostration and terror of the people, and to the disease being specially malignant, occurring on what might be termed virgin soil.^ Children in these countries still face unacceptably high mortality from a completely preventable disease.
  • PLoS Medicine: Unacceptably High Mortality Related to Measles Epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Both of these encephalitis diseases are basically an irritation or inflammation of the nervous system and brain.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liver disease due to Hepatitis B infection is considered to be the fourth or fifth important cause of mortality in the most productive years of life.
  • Serum Institute Of India Ltd. - Health FAQ's 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.seruminstitute.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.1 It may be regarded as an invariable rule that the first epidemic of any disease in a community is specially virulent, each successive attack conferring a certain immunity.^ Abstract presented at the 10th National Immunisation/2nd PHAA Asia Pacific Vaccine Preventable Diseases Conference - Successes in Immunisation; Jul 2006; Sydney.
  • Immunise - 3.11 Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.health.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

^ The acute progressive form of brain disease, also referred to as inclusion body encephalitis, reflects a direct attack by the virus under conditions of yielding cellmediated immunity.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In many lands, such as the United Kingdom, measles is rarely absent, especially from large centres of population, where sporadic cases are found at all seasons.^ Above: Measles cases reported as a percentage of the theoretical susceptible population.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several cases of appendicitis have developed before and during measles rash, and characteristic giant cells typical for measles have been found in appendix tissue.

^ Of all households visited in Moursal, 0.5% (17/2,686) reported a measles death, and of the 533 households reporting measles cases, 3.2% reported at least one death (17/533).
  • PLoS Medicine: Unacceptably High Mortality Related to Measles Epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.Every now and then epidemics arise from the extension of the disease among those members of a community who have not been in some measure protected by a previous attack.^ In some sense, I know of several parents who were leaning toward not vaccinating their children at all until they read that book- and will now only selectively vaccinate.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a progressive, usually fatal disease and those who survive are severely impaired mentally and physically.

^ Recurrent large epidemics continue in those countries that have not fully implemented the WHO/UNICEF comprehensive strategy.
  • PLoS Medicine: Unacceptably High Mortality Related to Measles Epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

.There are few diseases so contagious as measles, and its rapid spread in epidemic outbreaks is no doubt due to the well-ascertained fact that contagion is most potent in the earlier stages, even before its real nature has been evinced by the characteristic appearances on the skin.^ Measles is a highly contagious disease, which spreads through air.
  • Serum Institute Of India Ltd. - Health FAQ's 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.seruminstitute.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asymptomatic measles reinfection can occur in persons who have previously developed antibodies, whether from vaccination or from natural disease.
  • ACIP: Measles Prevention 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC wonder.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not vaccinating children can lead to outbreaks of a measles, mumps, and rubella -- all of which are potentially serious diseases of childhood.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

Hence the difficulty of timely isolation, and the readiness with which the disease is spread in schools and families. The contagion is present in the skin and the various secretions. While the contagion is generally direct, it can also be conveyed by the particles from the nose and mouth which, after being expelled, become dry and are conveyed as dust on clothes, toys, &c. .Fortunately the germs of measles do not retain their virulence long under such conditions, comparing favourably with those of some other diseases.^ Diarhoea and pneumonia are other complications of measles which can cause death · Measles can also cause permanent brain damage · In some countries measles causes blindness · Measles can also lead to degenerative disease of nervous system named as SSPE (Subacute Sclerosing Pan Encephalitis).
  • Serum Institute Of India Ltd. - Health FAQ's 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.seruminstitute.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Measles deaths, unlike some other high-burden diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (tuberculosis, malaria, and HIV/AIDS), can be fully prevented by using an effective, safe, and cheap vaccine under proven vaccination strategies.
  • PLoS Medicine: Unacceptably High Mortality Related to Measles Epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rates of previous immunizations of individuals with the disease or adverse effect under study are compared with rates in appropriately matched nonaffected controls.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

Treatment

The treatment embraces the preventive measures to be adopted by the isolation of the sick at as early a period as possible. Epidemics have often, especially in limited localities, been curtailed by such a precaution. In families with little house accommodation this measure is frequently, for the reason given regarding the communicable period of the disease, ineffectual; nevertheless where practicable it ought to be tried. .The unaffected children should be kept from school for a time (probably about three weeks from the outbreak in the family would suffice if no other case occur in the interval), and all clothing in contact with the patient or nurses should be disinfected.^ All three cases exhibited varying degrees of apoptosis in all CNS areas studied.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Any older children, adolescents or adults who are considered susceptible to measles (see (i) above) during an outbreak should receive MMR (or MMRV if appropriate).
  • Immunise - 3.11 Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.health.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

^ In Washington state, an outbreak was traced to a religious conference, including 16 school-aged children who were not vaccinated because of parents’ beliefs.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In extensive epidemics it is often desirable to close the schools for a time. .As regards special treatment, in an ordinary case of measles little is required beyond what is necessary in febrile conditions generally.^ Children with German measles will not require any medical treatment, as it gets better on its own.

^ After free treatment was provided, measles case attendance increased, but it was observed that most cases continued to come from areas adjacent to health-care facilities.
  • PLoS Medicine: Unacceptably High Mortality Related to Measles Epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Doctors maintain that the (MMR) inoculation is necessary to prevent measles encephalitis, which they say occurs about once in 1,000 cases.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Confinement to bed in a somewhat darkened room, into which, however, air is freely {1 Transactions of the Epidemiological Society (London, 1877).} admitted; light, nourishing, liquid diet .(soups, milk), water almost ad lib. to drink, and mild diaphoretic remedies such as the acetate of ammonia or ipecacuanha, are all that is necessary in the febrile stage.^ Seizures Almost all infants and children who develop measles have moderate to high fever, which can precipitate febrile seizures, the most common neurologic complication of measles.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

When the fever is very severe, sponging the body generally or the chest and arms affords relief. .The serious chest complications of measles are to be dealt with by those measures applicable for the relief of the particular symptoms (see Bronchitis; Pneumonia).^ Occasionally, measles can lead to many different complications, including pneumonia and ear infections .

^ Because serious complications of measles are rare, I did not see them as a child (before the vaccine) and I did not realize how devastating the disease can be.
  • Science-Based Medicine » Thanks, Jenny McCarthy! Thanks for the measles! 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.sciencebasedmedicine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pneumonia was a complication among 67% of measles-related deaths in the NCHS data and 86% of deaths in the NIP data.

The preparations of ammonia are of special efficacy. .During convalescence the patient must be guarded from exposure to cold, and for a time after recovery the state of the health ought to be watched with a view of averting the evils, both local and constitutional, which too often follow this disease.^ The patient contracted measles as an infant during the 1989 to 1991 United States measles epidemic.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Follow-up data were obtained during control examinations of patients or from an inquiry answered by parents or doctors at the place of residence of the patients.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The appropriateness of using the case series method for detecting associations between vaccines and chronic diseases, which often have variable times of onset after exposure, was questioned by Roger.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.German measles (Rotheln, or Epidemic Roseola) is a term applied to a contagious eruptive disorder having certain points of resemblance to measles, and also to scarlet fever, but exhibiting its distinct individuality in the fact that it protects from neither of these diseases.^ How contagious is German measles?

^ We found no evidence of an association between the development of Crohn's disease and exposure to a measles epidemic.
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Yes, measles is hig hly contagious and before immunization was available it would cause epidemics in schools.

.It occurs most commonly in children, but frequently in adults also, and is occasionally seen in extensive epidemics.^ The most commonly identified genotypes were D7 and H1, which occurred in six and five chains of transmission, respectively.

^ An exaggerated desquamation is commonly seen in malnourished children ( Perry and Halsey, 2004 ).

^ Malaise, fever and/or a rash may occur after MMR vaccination, most commonly 7 to 10 days (range 5–12 days) after vaccination and lasting about 2 to 3 days.
  • Immunise - 3.11 Measles 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.health.gov.au [Source type: Academic]

Beyond confinement to the house in the eruptive stage, which, from the slight symptoms experienced, is often difficult of accomplishment, no special treatment is called for. .There is little doubt that the disease is often mistaken for true measles, and many of the alleged second attacks of the latter malady are probably cases of rotheln.^ It is often stated that the CDC's case number is actually 'reported cases' and it is believed the true number of yearly cases were higher.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The appropriateness of using the case series method for detecting associations between vaccines and chronic diseases, which often have variable times of onset after exposure, was questioned by Roger.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ German measles is a viral disease, and it's transmitted the same way many viruses pass from one person to another: through close physical contact.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.The chief points of difference are the following: (I) The absence of distinct premonitory symptoms, the stage of invasion, which in measles is usually of four days' duration, and accompanied with well-marked fever and catarrh, being in rotheln either wholly absent or exceedingly slight, enduring only for one day.^ People with measles are usually infectious for one to two days before the rash appears but the total period during which an individual is infectious is not known ( Bedford, 2004 ).

^ Measles is a viral infection that causes a rash accompanied by a fever, cough and runny nose.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Symptoms usually begin 8 - 12 days after you are exposed to the virus.
  • Measles | LIVESTRONG.COM 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.(2) The eruption of rotheln, which, although as regards its locality and manner of progress similar to measles, differs somewhat in its appearance, the spots being of smaller size, paler colour, and with less tendency to grouping in crescentic patches.^ Several laboratories have found no evidence of measles viruses in tissue specimens from patients with IBD, but 2 groups have found evidence of measles virus using different techniques.
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000 -- Halsey et al. 107 (5): e84 -- Pediatrics 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.The rash attains its maximum in about one day, and quickly disappears.^ This rash usually lasts for about 3 days.

^ People with measles are usually infectious for one to two days before the rash appears but the total period during which an individual is infectious is not known ( Bedford, 2004 ).

^ German measles is most contagious before the rash appears and then for about 5 days afterwards.

.There is not the same increase of temperature in this stage as in measles.^ An epidemic was defined as an increase in measles cases during a 3-wk period above the number normally expected for the same period during non-epidemic years [ 13 ].
  • PLoS Medicine: Unacceptably High Mortality Related to Measles Epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.plosmedicine.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Indeed, there is no proof that vaccinated children experience less measles outside the vaccine reaction period(s) than unvaccinated children living in the same society experience.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(3) The presence of white spots on the buccal mucous membrane, in the case of measles. .(4) The milder character of the symptoms of rotheln throughout its whole course, and the absence of complications and of liability to subsequent impairment of health such as have been seen to appertain to measles.^ Also, in Africa, it was found that children with more severe symptoms of measles had better survival rates than children with milder symptoms.
  • Vaccination Liberation Information 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.vaclib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MV CNS complication do, however, not large contribute to the high rate of mortality seen in association with acute measles worldwide.
  • brain-measles.html 6 January 2010 10:25 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • sspe.html 25 September 2009 6:10 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]


<< Mean
Meat >>

Simple English

Measles is an infectious disease, caused by a virus. People catch measles from other people. It is passed on in tiny drops of water when people breathe. People with measles have a sore throat, a fever, a cough, red eyes and a runny nose. They also have a bumpy red rash all over their body.

Measles is very infectious, which means it is easy to catch. If someone in a house has measles, it is very likely that other people in the house will also get it.In developed countries, lots of children have a vaccination (injection) to stop them getting measles. Often they are given the MMR vaccine, to stop them getting measles, mumps and rubella. The three vaccinations are all in one injection.

Measles is sometimes also called rubeola, but it is not the same as rubella (German measles).

There is no cure for measles. People with measles may rest and take medicines to make them feel better, to stop pain and make fevers go away. Most people that have measles recover, but some people die from it.

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Measles, which are similar to those in the above article.








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