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Varieties of meat

Meat is animal flesh that is used as food.[1] Most often, this means the skeletal muscle and associated fat, but it may also describe other edible tissues such as organs, livers, skin, brains, bone marrow, kidneys, or lungs.[1] The word meat is also used by the meat packing industry in a more restrictive sense—the flesh of mammalian species (pigs, cattle, lambs, etc.) raised and prepared for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish and poultry.[citation needed]

Contents

Etymology

The word meat comes from the Old English word mete, which referred to food in general. The term is related to mad in Danish, mat in Swedish and Norwegian, and matur in Icelandic, which also mean 'food'. The word "mete" also exists in Old Frisian (and to a lesser extent, modern West Frisian) to denote important food, differentiating it from "swiets" (sweets) and "dierfied" (animal feed).

One definition that refers to meat as not including fish developed over the past few hundred years and has religious influences. The distinction between fish and "meat" is codified by the Jewish dietary law of kashrut, regarding the mixing of milk and meat, which does not forbid the mixing of milk and fish. Modern Jewish legal practice (halakha) on kashrut classifies the flesh of both mammals and birds as "meat"; fish are considered to be parve, neither meat nor a dairy food. The Catholic dietary restriction on "meat" on Fridays also does not apply to the cooking and eating of fish.

The Latin word carō "meat" (also the root of 'carnal', referring to the 'pleasures of the flesh') is often a euphemism for sexual pleasure, effected from the function performed by fleshy organs. Thus 'meat' may refer to the human body in a sensual, or sexual, connotation. A meat market, in addition to simply denoting a market where meat is sold, also refers to a place or situation where humans are treated or viewed as commodities, especially a place known as one where a sexual partner may be found.

"Meat" may also be used to refer to humans humorously or indifferently. In military slang, "meat shield" refers to soldiers sent towards an enemy to draw fire away from another unit.

History

Meat constituted a substantial proportion of even the earliest humans' diet, paleontological evidence suggests.[2] Early hunter-gatherers depended on the organized hunting of large animals such as bison and deer.[2]

The domestication of animals, of which we have evidence dating back to the end of the last glacial period (c. 10,000 years BP),[2] allowed the systematic production of meat and the breeding of animals with a view to improving meat production.[2] The animals which are now the principal sources of meat were domesticated in conjunction with the development of early civilizations:

  • Sheep, originating from western Asia, were domesticated with the help of dogs prior to the establishment of settled agriculture, likely as early as the eighth millennium BC.[3] Several breeds of sheep were established in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt by 3500–3000 BC.[3] Presently, more than 200 sheep breeds exist.
  • Cattle were domesticated in Mesopotamia after settled agriculture was established about 5000 BC,[4] and several breeds were established by 2500 BC.[5] Modern domesticated cattle fall into the groups Bos taurus (European cattle) and Bos indicus (zebu), both descended from the now-extinct Aurochs.[4] The breeding of beef cattle, cattle optimized for meat production as opposed to animals best suited for draught or dairy purposes, began in the middle of the 18th century.[6]
  • Domestic pigs, which are descended from wild boars, are known to have existed about 2500 BC in modern-day Hungary and in Troy; earlier pottery from Jericho and Egypt depicts wild pigs.[7] Pork sausages and hams were of great commercial importance in Greco-Roman times.[7] Pigs continue to be bred intensively as they are being optimized to produce meat best suited for specific meat products.[8]

Modern agriculture employs a number of techniques, such as progeny testing, to make animals evolve rapidly towards having the qualities desired by meat producers.[9] For instance, in the wake of well-publicised health concerns associated with saturated fats in the 1980s, the fat content of UK beef, pork and lamb fell from 20–26 percent to 4–8 percent within a few decades, both due to selective breeding for leanness and changed methods of butchery.[9] Methods of genetic engineering aimed at improving the meat production qualities of animals are now also becoming available.[10]

Even though it is a very old industry, meat production continues to be shaped strongly by the rapidly evolving demands of customers. The trend towards selling meat in pre-packaged cuts has increased the demand for larger breeds of cattle, which are better suited to producing such cuts.[11] Ever more animals not previously exploited for their meat are now being farmed, especially the more agile and mobile species, whose muscles tend to be developed better than those of cattle, sheep or pigs.[11] Examples include the various antelope species, the zebra, water buffalo and camel,[12] as well as non-mammals such as the crocodile, emu and ostrich.[13] Another important trend in contemporary meat production is organic farming which, while providing no organoleptic benefit to meat so produced,[14] meets an increasing demand for numerous reasons.

Growth and development of meat animals

Agricultural science has identified several factors bearing on the growth and development of meat in animals.

Genetics

Trait Heritability[15]
Reproductive efficiency 2–10%
Meat quality 15–30%
Growth 20–40%
Muscle/fat ratio 40–60%

Several economically important traits in meat animals are heritable to some degree (see the table to the right) and can thus be selected for by breeding. In cattle, certain growth features are controlled by recessive genes which have not so far been controlled, complicating breeding.[16] One such trait is dwarfism; another is the doppelender or "double muscling" condition, which causes muscle hypertrophy and thereby increases the animal's commercial value.[16] Genetic analysis continues to reveal the genetic mechanisms that control numerous aspects of the endocrine system and, through it, meat growth and quality.[17]

Genetic engineering techniques can shorten breeding programmes significantly because they allow for the identification and isolation of genes coding for desired traits, and for the reincorporation of these genes into the animal genome.[18] To enable such manipulation, research is ongoing (as of 2006) to map the entire genome of sheep, cattle and pigs.[18] Some research has already seen commercial application. For instance, a recombinant bacterium has been developed which improves the digestion of grass in the rumen of cattle, and some specific features of muscle fibres have been genetically altered.[19]

Experimental reproductive cloning of commercially important meat animals such as sheep, pig or cattle has been successful. The multiple asexual reproduction of animals bearing desirable traits can thus be anticipated,[19] although this is not yet practical on a commercial scale.

Environment

Heat regulation in livestock is of great economic significance, because mammals attempt to maintain a constant optimal body temperature. Low temperatures tend to prolong animal development and high temperatures tend to retard it.[19] Depending on their size, body shape and insulation through tissue and fur, some animals have a relatively narrow zone of temperature tolerance and others (e.g. cattle) a broad one.[20] Static magnetic fields, for reasons still unknown, also retard animal development.[20]

Nutrition

The quality and quantity of usable meat depends on the animal's plane of nutrition, i.e., whether it is over- or underfed. Scientists disagree, however, about how exactly the plane of nutrition influences carcass composition.[21]

The composition of the diet, especially the amount of protein provided, is also an important factor regulating animal growth.[22] Ruminants, who may digest cellulose, are better adapted to poor-quality diets, but their ruminal microorganisms degrade high-quality protein if supplied in excess.[23] Because producing high-quality protein animal feed is expensive (see also Environmental impact below), several techniques are employed or experimented with to ensure maximum utilization of protein. These include the treatment of feed with formalin to protect amino acids during their passage through the rumen, the recycling of manure by feeding it back to cattle mixed with feed concentrates, or the partial conversion of petroleum hydrocarbons to protein through microbial action.[24]

In plant feed, environmental factors influence the availability of crucial nutrients or micronutrients, a lack or excess of which can cause a great many ailments.[25] In Australia, for instance, where the soil contains limited phosphate, cattle are being fed additional phosphate to increase the efficiency of beef production.[26] Also in Australia, cattle and sheep in certain areas were often found losing their appetite and dying in the midst of rich pasture; this was at length found to be a result of cobalt deficiency in the soil.[25] Plant toxins are also a risk to grazing animals; for instance, fluoracetate, found in some African and Australian plants, kills by disrupting the cellular metabolism.[25] Certain man-made pollutants such as methylmercury and some pesticide residues present a particular hazard due to their tendency to bioaccumulate in meat, potentially poisoning consumers.[24]

Human intervention

Meat producers may seek to improve the fertility of female animals through the administration of gonadotrophic or ovulation-inducing hormones.[27] In pig production, sow infertility is a common problem, possibly due to excessive fatness.[28] No methods currently exist to augment the fertility of male animals.[28] Artificial insemination is now routinely used to produce animals of the best possible genetic quality, and the efficiency of this method is improved through the administration of hormones that synchronize the ovulation cycles within groups of females.[29]

Growth hormones, particularly anabolic agents such as steroids, are used in some countries to accelerate muscle growth in animals.[29] This practice has given rise to the beef hormone controversy, an international trade dispute. It may also decrease the tenderness of meat, although research on this is inconclusive,[30] and have other effects on the composition of the muscle flesh.[31] Where castration is used to improve control over male animals, its side effects are also counteracted by the administration of hormones.[29]

Sedatives may be administered to animals to counteract stress factors and increase weight gain.[32] The feeding of antibiotics to certain animals has been shown to improve growth rates also.[32] This practice is particularly prevalent in the USA, but has been banned in the EU, partly because it causes antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microorganisms.[32]

Biochemical composition

Numerous aspects of the biochemical composition of meat vary in complex ways depending on the species, breed, sex, age, plane of nutrition, training and exercise of the animal, as well as on the anatomical location of the musculature involved.[33] Even between animals of the same litter and sex there are considerable differences in such parameters as the percentage of intramuscular fat.[34]

Main constituents

Adult mammalian muscle flesh consists of roughly 75 percent of water, 19 percent of protein, 2.5 percent of intramuscular fat, 1.2 percent of carbohydrates and 2.3 percent of other soluble non-protein substances. These include nitrogenous compounds, such as amino acids, and inorganic substances such as minerals.[35]

Muscle proteins are either soluble in water (sarcoplasmic proteins, about 11.5 percent of total muscle mass) or in concentrated salt solutions (myofibrillar proteins, about 5.5 percent of mass).[36] There are several hundred sarcoplasmic proteins.[37] Most of them – the glycolytic enzymes – are involved in the glycolytic pathway, i.e., the conversion of stored energy into muscle power.[38] The two most abundant myofibrillar proteins, myosin and actin,[39] are responsible for the muscle's overall structure. The remaining protein mass consists of connective tissue (collagen and elastin) as well as organelle tissue.[35]

Fat in meat can be either adipose tissue, used by the animal to store energy and consisting of "true fats" (esters of glycerol with fatty acids),[40] or intramuscular fat, which contains considerable quantities of phospholipids and of unsaponifiable constituents such as cholesterol.[40]

Red and white meat

Meat can be broadly classified as "red" or "white" depending on the concentration of myoglobin in muscle fiber. When myoglobin is exposed to oxygen, reddish oxymyoglobin develops, making myoglobin-rich meat appear red. The redness of meat depends on species, animal age, and fiber type: Red meat contains more narrow muscle fibers that tend to operate over long periods without rest,[41] while white meat contains more broad fibers that tend to work in short fast bursts.[41]

The meat of adult mammals such as cows, sheep, goats, and horses is generally considered red, while domestic chicken and turkey breast meat is generally considered white.

Production

Meat is produced by killing the animal in question and cutting the desired flesh out of it. These procedures are called slaughter and butchery, respectively.

Attesting to the long history of meat consumption in human civilizations, ritual slaughter has become part of the practice of several religions. These rituals, as well as other pre-industrial meat production methods such as these used by indigenous peoples, are not detailed here. This section will instead provide an overview of contemporary industrialized meat production in dedicated slaughterhouses from cattle, sheep and pigs.

Transport

Upon reaching a predetermined age or weight, livestock are transported en masse from the farm to the slaughterhouse, a process called "live export". Depending on its length and circumstances, this exerts stress and injuries on the animals, and some may die en route. Apart from being arguably inhumane, unnecessary stress in transport may adversely affect the quality of the meat.[42] In particular, the muscles of stressed animals are low in water and glycogen, and their pH fails to attain acidic values, all of which results in poor meat quality.[43] Consequently, and also due to campaigning by animal welfare groups, laws and industry practices in several countries tend to become more restrictive with respect to the duration and other circumstances of livestock transports.

Slaughter

Animals are slaughtered by being first stunned and then exsanguinated (bled out). Death results from the one or the other procedure, depending on the methods employed. Stunning can be effected through asphyxiating the animals with carbon dioxide, shooting them with a gun or a captive bolt pistol, or shocking them with electric current.[44] In most forms of ritual slaughter, stunning is not allowed.

Draining as much blood as possible from the carcase is necessary because blood causes the meat to have an unappealing appearance and is a very good breeding ground for microorganisms.[45] The exsanguination is accomplished by severing the carotid artery and the jugular vein in cattle and sheep, and the anterior vena cava in pigs.[46]

Dressing and cutting

After exsanguination, the carcass is dressed, that is, the head, feet, hide (except hogs and some veal), excess fat, viscera and offal are removed, leaving only bones and edible muscle.[47] Cattle and pig carcases, but not those of sheep, are then split in half along the mid ventral axis, and the carcase is cut into wholesale pieces.[47] The dressing and cutting sequence, long a province of manual labor, is progressively being fully automated.[47]

Conditioning

Under hygienic conditions and without other treatment, meat can be stored at above its freezing point (–1.5 °C) for about six weeks without spoilage, during which time it undergoes an aging process that increases its tenderness and flavor.[48]

During the first day after death, glycolysis continues until the accumulation of lactic acid causes the pH to reach about 5.5. The remaining glycogen, about 18 g per kg, is believed to increase the water-holding capacity and tenderness of the flesh when cooked.[49] Rigor mortis sets in a few hours after death as ATP is used up, causing actin and myosin to combine into rigid actomyosin and lowering the meat's water-holding capacity,[50] causing it to lose water ("weep").[51] In muscles that enter rigor in a contracted position, actin and myosin filaments overlap and cross-bond, resulting in meat that is tough on cooking[52] – hence again the need to prevent pre-slaughter stress in the animal.

Over time, the muscle proteins denature in varying degree, with the exception of the collagen and elastin of connective tissue,[53] and rigor mortis resolves. Because of these changes, the meat is tender and pliable when cooked just after death or after the resolution of rigor, but tough when cooked during rigor.[53] As the muscle pigment myoglobin denatures, its iron oxidates, which may cause a brown discoloration near the surface of the meat.[51] Ongoing proteolysis also contributes to conditioning. Hypoxanthine, a breakdown product of ATP, contributes to the meat's flavor and odor, as do other products of the discomposition of muscle fat and protein.[54]

Spoilage and preservation

The spoilage of meat occurs, if untreated, in a matter of hours or days and results in the meat becoming unappetizing, poisonous or infectious. Spoilage is caused by the practically unavoidable infection and subsequent decomposition of meat by bacteria and fungi, which are borne by the animal itself, by the people handling the meat, and by their implements. Meat can be kept edible for a much longer time – though not indefinitely – if proper hygiene is observed during production and processing, and if appropriate food safety, food preservation and food storage procedures are applied.

Methods of preparation

A spit barbecue at a street fair in New York City's East Village.

Meat is prepared in many ways, as steaks, in stews, fondue, or as dried meat like beef jerky. It may be ground then formed into patties (as hamburgers or croquettes), loaves, or sausages, or used in loose form (as in "sloppy joe" or Bolognese sauce). Some meat is cured, by smoking, pickling, preserving in salt or brine (see salted meat and curing). Other kinds of meat are marinated and barbecued, or simply boiled, roasted, or fried. Meat is generally eaten cooked, but there are many traditional recipes that call for raw beef, veal or fish (tartare). Meat is often spiced or seasoned, as in most sausages. Meat dishes are usually described by their source (animal and part of body) and method of preparation.

Meat is a typical base for making sandwiches. Popular varieties of sandwich meat include ham, pork, salami and other sausages, and beef, such as steak, roast beef, corned beef, and pastrami. Meat can also be molded or pressed (common for products that include offal, such as haggis and scrapple) and canned.

Nutritional benefits and concerns

Typical Meat Nutritional Content
from 110 grams (4 oz or .25 lb)
Source calories protein carbs fat
fish 110–140 20–25 g 0 g 1–5 g
chicken breast 160 28 g 0 g 7 g
lamb 250 30 g 0 g 14 g
steak (beef top round) 210 36 g 0 g 7 g
steak (beef T-bone) 450 25 g 0 g 35 g
Further information: Nutrition, Foodborne illness, Health concerns associated with red meat

All muscle tissue is very high in protein, containing all of the essential amino acids, and in most cases is a good source of zinc, vitamin B12, selenium, phosphorus, niacin, vitamin B6, iron and riboflavin.[55] Several forms of meat are high in vitamin K2[56], which is only otherwise known to be found in fermented foods[citation needed], with natto having the highest concentration[56]. Muscle tissue is very low in carbohydrates and does not contain dietary fiber.[57] The fat content of meat can vary widely depending on the species and breed of animal, the way in which the animal was raised, including what it was fed, the anatomical part of the body, and the methods of butchering and cooking. Wild animals such as deer are typically leaner than farm animals, leading those concerned about fat content to choose game such as venison. Decades of breeding meat animals for fatness is being reversed by consumer demand for meat with less fat.

Red meat, such as beef, pork, and lamb, contains many essential nutrients necessary for healthy growth and development in children. Nutrients in red meat include iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and protein.[55] Most meats contain a full complement of the amino acids required for the human diet. Fruits and vegetables, by contrast, are usually lacking several essential amino acids contained in meat. It is for this reason that people who abstain from eating all meat need to plan their diet carefully to include sources of all the necessary amino acids.[58]

The table in this section compares the nutritional content of several types of meat. While each kind of meat has about the same content of protein and carbohydrates, there is a very wide range of fat content. It is the additional fat that contributes most to the calorie content of meat, and to concerns about dietary health.

In recent years, health concerns have been raised about the consumption of meat. In a large-scale study, the consumption of red meat over a lifetime was found to raise the risk of cancer by 20 to 60 percent[citation needed], while causing adverse mutations in DNA.[59] In particular, red meat and processed meat were found to be associated with higher risk of cancers of the lung, esophagus, liver, and colon, among others.[59] Another study found an increase risk of pancreatic cancer for red meat and pork [60]. That study also suggests that fat and saturated fat are not likely contributors to pancreatic cancer. Animal fat, particularly from ruminants, tends to have a higher percentage of saturated fat vs. monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat when compared to vegetable fats, with the exception of some tropical plant fats;[61] consumption of which has been correlated with various health problems. The saturated fat found in meat has been associated with significantly raised risks of colon cancer,[62][63], although evidence suggests that risks of prostate cancer are unrelated to animal fat consumption.[64]

Meat has been correlated to increased risk of heart disease. The risks of heart disease are three times greater for 45-64 year old men who eat meat daily, versus those who did not eat meat, according to one survey.[65]

A 2009 study by the National Cancer Institute revealed a correlation between the consumption of red meat and increased mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases.[66] This study has been criticized for using an improperly validated food frequency questionnaire [67], which has been shown to have low levels of accuracy [68][69]

In response to changing prices as well as health concerns about saturated fat and cholesterol, consumers have altered their consumption of various meats. A USDA report points out that consumption of beef in the United States between 1970–1974 and 1990–1994 dropped by 21%, while consumption of chicken increased by 90%. During the same period of time, the price of chicken dropped by 14% relative to the price of beef. In 1995 and 1996, beef consumption increased due to higher supplies and lower prices.

Cooking meat

Meat, like any food, can also transmit certain diseases, but complete cooking and avoiding recontamination reduces this possibility.

Several studies published since 1990 indicate that cooking muscle meat creates heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which are thought to increase cancer risk in humans. Researchers at the National Cancer Institute published results of a study which found that human subjects who ate beef rare or medium-rare had less than one third the risk of stomach cancer than those who ate beef medium-well or well-done.[70] While eating muscle meat raw may be the only way to avoid HCAs fully, the National Cancer Institute states that cooking meat below 212 °F (100 °C) creates "negligible amounts" of HCAs. Also, microwaving meat before cooking may reduce HCAs by 90%.[71]

Nitrosamines, present in processed and cooked foods, have been noted as being carcinogenic, being linked to colon cancer. Also, toxic compounds called PAHs, or Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, present in processed, smoked and cooked foods, are known to be carcinogenic.[72]

Ethics of eating meat

Processed meat in an American supermarket

Ethical issues regarding the consumption of meat can include objections to the act of killing animals or the agricultural practices surrounding the production of meat. Reasons for objecting to the practice of killing animals for consumption may include animal rights, environmental ethics, religious doctrine, or an aversion to inflicting pain or harm on other living creatures. The religion of Jainism has always opposed eating meat, and there are also many schools of Buddhism and Hinduism that condemn the eating of meat. Some people, while not vegetarians, refuse to eat the flesh of certain animals, such as cats, dogs, horses, or rabbits, due to cultural or religious taboo. In some cases, specific meats (especially from pigs and cows) are forbidden within religious traditions. Some people eat only the flesh of animals which they believe have not been mistreated, and abstain from the meat of animals reared in factory farms or from particular products such as foie gras and veal.

In vitro and imitation

Main articles: Imitation meat, In vitro meat

Various forms of imitation meat have been created to satisfy people wishing to reduce or eliminate their meat consumption and still taste the flavor and texture of meat. They are typically some form of processed soybean, (tofu, tempeh), but they can also be based on wheat gluten or even fungus (quorn).

in vitro meat also known as cultured meat, is animal flesh that has never been part of a complete, living animal. Several research projects are currently experimentally growing in vitro meat, but no meat has yet been produced for public consumption.[73] In vitro meat consists of natural meat cells and should be seen as a possible way of producing normal meat in a much healthier, safer and environmental way. The goal is to grow fully developed muscle organs, but the first generation will most likely be minced meat products.

Environmental impact

The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has estimated that direct emissions from meat production account for about 18% of the world's total greenhouse gas emissions. The FAO figure accounts for the entire meat production cycle - clearing forested land, making and transporting fertiliser, burning fossil fuels in agricultural machinery, and the front and rear end emissions of cattle and sheep.[74]

Animals fed on grain need more water than grain crops.[citation needed] In tracking food animal production from the feed through to the dinner table, the inefficiencies of grain fed meat, milk and egg production range from a 4:1 energy input to protein output ratio up to 54:1.[75] The result is that producing grain fed animal-based food is typically much less efficient than the harvesting of grains, vegetables, legumes, seeds, and fruits. Environmental impact of grass grazing meat compared to agronomy would be a much more difficult comparison. The two modes of food production are not always in direct competition because non-arable land may be suitable for grazing and difficult to make arable.[citation needed]

See also

References

  • Lawrie, R. A.; Ledward, D. A. (2006). Lawrie’s meat science (7th ed.). Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-84569-159-2. 

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Lawrie, 1.
  2. ^ a b c d Lawrie, 2.
  3. ^ a b Lawrie, 3.
  4. ^ a b Lawrie, 5.
  5. ^ Lawrie, 6.
  6. ^ Lawrie, 7.
  7. ^ a b Lawrie, 8.
  8. ^ Lawrie, 9.
  9. ^ a b Lawrie, 10.
  10. ^ Lawrie, 14.
  11. ^ a b Lawrie, 11.
  12. ^ Lawrie, 11 et seq.
  13. ^ Lawrie, 13.
  14. ^ Lawrie, 11, citing Ollson, V., Andersson, I., Ranson, K., Lundström, K. (2003) Meat Sci. 64, 287 and noting also that organically reared pigs "compare unfavourably" with conventionally reared ones "in some respects."
  15. ^ Table adapted from Lawrie, 17.
  16. ^ a b Lawrie, 18.
  17. ^ Lawrie, 19.
  18. ^ a b Lawrie, 21.
  19. ^ a b c Lawrie, 22.
  20. ^ a b Lawrie, 23.
  21. ^ Lawrie, 25.
  22. ^ Lawrie, 26.
  23. ^ Lawrie, 27.
  24. ^ a b Lawrie, 30.
  25. ^ a b c Lawrie, 29.
  26. ^ Lawrie, 28.
  27. ^ Lawrie, 31.
  28. ^ a b Lawrie, 32.
  29. ^ a b c Lawrie, 33.
  30. ^ Lawrie, 35.
  31. ^ Lawrie, 36 et seq.
  32. ^ a b c Lawrie, 39.
  33. ^ Lawrie, 94–126.
  34. ^ Lawrie, 126.
  35. ^ a b Lawrie, 76.
  36. ^ Lawrie, 75.
  37. ^ Lawrie, 77.
  38. ^ Lawrie, 78.
  39. ^ Lawrie, 79.
  40. ^ a b Lawrie, 82.
  41. ^ a b Lawrie, 93.
  42. ^ Lawrie, 129.
  43. ^ Lawrie, 130.
  44. ^ Lawrie, 134 et seq.
  45. ^ Lawrie, 134.
  46. ^ Lawrie, 137.
  47. ^ a b c Lawrie, 138.
  48. ^ Lawrie, 141.
  49. ^ Lawrie, 87.
  50. ^ Lawrie, 90.
  51. ^ a b Lawrie, 146.
  52. ^ Lawrie, 144.
  53. ^ a b Lawrie, 142.
  54. ^ Lawrie, 155.
  55. ^ a b http://www.beef.org/uDocs/whatyoumisswithoutmeat638.pdf
  56. ^ a b Template:Cite pubmed
  57. ^ Dietary Fiber
  58. ^ [1]
  59. ^ a b Cross, Amanda (2007). "A Prospective Study of Red and Processed Meat Intake in Relation to Cancer Risk". PLoS Medicine (the Public Library of Science) 4 (12): e325. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040325. 
  60. ^ http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/97/19/1458?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=pancreatic+red+meat&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT
  61. ^ Nutrients, Vitamins, Minerals and Dietary Information
  62. ^ "What You Eat May Influence Colon Cancer Relapse". American Cancer Society. 2007-08-21. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/NWS/content/NWS_1_1x_What_You_Eat_May_Influence_Colon_Cancer_Relapse.asp. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  63. ^ Meat consumption and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study
  64. ^ Fat and meat intake and prostate cancer risk: The multiethnic cohort study
  65. ^ Meat consumption and fatal ischemic heart disease. [Prev Med. 1984] - PubMed Result
  66. ^ Sinha, R.; Cross, A. J.; Graubard, B. I.; Leitzmann, M. F.; Schatzkin, A. (Mar 2009). "Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people". Archives of internal medicine 169 (6): 562–571. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.6. ISSN 0003-9926. PMID 19307518.  edit
  67. ^ De Abreu Silva, E.; Marcadenti, A. (2009). "Higher red meat intake may be a marker of risk, not a risk factor itself". Archives of internal medicine 169 (16): 1538–1539; author 1539 1539. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.278. PMID 19752416.  edit
  68. ^ Salvini, S; Hunter, Dj; Sampson, L; Stampfer, Mj; Colditz, Ga; Rosner, B; Willett, Wc (Dec 1989). "Food-based validation of a dietary questionnaire: the effects of week-to-week variation in food consumption". International journal of epidemiology 18 (4): 858–67. doi:10.1093/ije/18.4.858. ISSN 0300-5771. PMID 2621022.  edit
  69. ^ Rosner, B; Gore, R (Nov 2001). "Measurement error correction in nutritional epidemiology based on individual foods, with application to the relation of diet to breast cancer" (Free full text). American journal of epidemiology 154 (9): 827–35. doi:10.1093/aje/154.9.827. ISSN 0002-9262. PMID 11682365. http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11682365.  edit
  70. ^ http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/heterocyclic-amines National Cancer Institute - Heterocyclic Amines in Cooked Meats
  71. ^ Heterocyclic Amines in Cooked Meats - National Cancer Institute
  72. ^ PAH - Occurrence in foods, dietary exposure and health effects
  73. ^ "In Search of a Test-Tube Hamburger". TIME. 2008-04-23. http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1734630,00.html?imw=Y. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  74. ^ Black, Richard (2008--09-03). "Shun meat, says UN climate chief". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7600005.stm. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 
  75. ^ U.S. could feed 800 million people with grain that livestock eat

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

God sends meat, and the Devil sends cooks.

Meat is the flesh of an animal which is eaten. Often the use of the term is limited to the flesh of mammals.

Sourced

  • God sendeth and giveth both mouth and the meat.
  • God sends meat, and the Devil sends cooks.
  • I didn't squawk about the steak, dear. I merely said I didn't see that old horse that used to be tethered outside here.
    • W. C. Fields, to a waitress, in Never Give a Sucker an Even Break (1941).
Where's the beef?
  • O! beware, my lord, of jealousy;
    It is the green-ey'd monster which doth mock
    The meat it feeds on.
  • Some hae meat and canna eat,
    And some would eat that want it;
    But we hae meat, and we can eat,
    Sae let the Lord be thankit.
If we're not supposed to eat animals, how come they're made out of meat?
  • Outdid the meat, outdid the frolic wine.
  • A tale without love is like beef without mustard: insipid.
    • Anatole France, La Révolte des Anges (The Revolt of the Angels), ch. 8 (1914).
  • If you don't eat your meat, you can't have any pudding! How can you have any pudding if you don't eat your meat!
  • Not eating meat is a decision, eating meat is an instinct.
  • We used to have a lot of fun. We never had any problems. We always ate. The fact that we didn't have steak? Who had steak?
    • Jesse Owens in Tony Gentry, Jesse Owens, Champion Athlete (1990).
  • Who lives longer? the man who takes heroin for two years and dies, or a man who lives on roast beef, water and potatoes 'till 95? One passes his 24 months in eternity. All the years of the beefeater are lived only in time.
    • Aldous Huxley in Kevin A. Fabiano, ed., The Shortcut: 20 Stories To Get You From Here To There (2006), p. 179.
  • This dish of meat is too good for any but anglers, or very honest men.
  • A king is a thing men have made for their own sakes, for quietness' sake. Just as in a family one man is appointed to buy the meat.
  • I wouldn't touch a hot dog unless you put a condom on it! You realize that the job of a hot dog is to use parts of the animal that the Chinese can't figure out how to make into a belt?
    • Bill Maher, Bill Maher: I'm Swiss (2005), timecode 1:11:10
  • Meat is murder.
    • Original author unknown; slogan used by certain animal rights groups, reported in Maureen Duffy, Men and Beasts: An Animal Rights Handbook‎ (1984), p. 142, as having been painted on the wall of a Surrey, England butcher shop by ALF activists on April 4, 1983.

Unsourced

  • A hot dog at the ball park is better than steak at the Ritz.
    • Humphrey Bogart, from a unidentified film.
    • Captured in an unidentified track, Baseball's Greatest Hits CD (1989).
  • Red meat is not bad for you. Now blue-green meat, that's bad for you!
  • If we're not supposed to eat animals, how come they're made out of meat?
    • Tom Snyder (possible paraphrasing of John Cleese).

See also

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MEAT, a word originally applied to food in general, and so still used in such phrases as "meat and drink"; but now, except as an archaism, generally used of the flesh of certain domestic animals, slaughtered for human food by butchers, "butcher's meat," as opposed to "game," that of wild animals, "fish" or "poultry." Cognate forms of the O. Eng. mete are found in certain Teutonic languages, e.g. Swed. mat, Dan. mad and O. H. Ger. Maz. The ultimate origin has been disputed; the New English Dictionary considers probable a connexion with the root med-, " to be fat," seen in Sansk. meda, Lat. madere, " to be wet," and Eng. "mast," the fruit of the beech as food for pigs.

See Dietetics; Food Preservation; Public Health; Agriculture; and the sections dealing with agricultural statistics under the names of the various countries.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to meat article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also méat

Contents

English

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Etymology

Old English mete, cognate with Old High German maz 'food', Latin madere 'to be wet', Greek μαστός mastos 'wet, breast'

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
meat

Plural
countable and uncountable; plural meats

meat (countable and uncountable; plural meats)

  1. (now archaic, dialectal) Food, for animals or humans, especially solid food. See also meat and drink. [from 8th c.]
    • 1623, William Shakespeare, Timon of Athens:
      Your greatest want is, you want much of meat: / Why should you want? Behold, the Earth hath Rootes [...].
  2. (now rare) A type of food, a dish. [from 9th c.]
  3. (now archaic) A meal. [from 9th c.]
    • 1526, William Tyndale, trans. Bible, Matthew ch. 8:
      And hit cam to passe, thatt Jesus satt at meate in his housse.
  4. (uncountable) The flesh of an animal used as food. [from 14th c.]
  5. (uncountable) Any relatively thick, solid part of a fruit, nut etc. [from 15th c.]
    The apple looked fine on the outside, but the meat was not very firm.
  6. (slang) The penis. [from 16th c.]
  7. (countable) A type of meat, by anatomic position and provenance. [from 16th c.]
    The butchery's profit rate on various meats varies greatly
  8. (colloquial) The best or most substantial part of something. [from 19th c.]
    We recruited him right from the meat of our competitor.
  9. (sports) The sweet spot of a bat or club (in cricket, golf, baseball etc.). [from 20th c.]
    He hit it right on the meat of the bat.
  10. A meathead.
    Throw it in here, meat.
  11. (Australian Aboriginal) A totem; metonymy for its owner(s).
    • 1949, Oceania, Vol. XX
      When a stranger comes to an aboriginal camp or settlement in north-western NSW, he is asked by one of the older aborigines: "What meat (clan) are you?"
    • 1973, M. Fennel & A. Grey, Nucoorilma
      Granny Sullivan was ‘dead against’ the match at first because they did not know "what my meat was and because I was a bit on the fair side."
    • 1977, A. K. Eckermann, Group Organisation and Identity
      Some people maintained that she was "sung" because her family had killed or eaten the "meat" (totem) of another group.
    • 1992, P. Taylor Tell it Like it Is
      Our family […] usually married the red kangaroo "meat".
    • 1993, J. Janson, Gunjies
      That’s a beautiful goanna. […]. He’s my meat, can’t eat him.

Usage notes

The meaning "flesh of an animal used as food" is often understood to exclude fish and other seafood. For example, the rules for abstaining from meat in the Roman Catholic Church do not extend to fish; likewise, some people who consider themselves vegetarians also eat fish (though the more precise term for such a person is pescetarian).

Synonyms

Antonyms

Derived terms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Anagrams


Latin

Verb

meat

  1. third-person singular present active indicative of meō.

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Cookbook:Meat article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection



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Cookbook:Meat and poultry
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Contents

How meat was prepared in the 19th century

From the 1881 Household Cyclopedia -- Outdated, but some info may actually be useful. Any chefs out there?

To Boil Meats

The most simple of culinary processes is not often performed in perfection, though it does not require so much nicety and attendance as roasting; to skim the pot well, and to keep it moderately boiling, and to know how long the joint requires, comprehends the most useful point of this branch of cookery. The cook must take especial care that the water really boils all the while she is cooking, or she will be deceived in the time. An adept cook will manage with much less fire for boiling than she uses for roasting, and it will last all the time without much mending. When the water is coming to a boil there will always rise from the cleanest meat a scum to the top, this must be carefully taken off as soon as it appears, for on this depends the good appearance of a boiled dinner. When you have skimmed it well put in a little cold water, which will throw up the rest of it. If left alone it soon boils down and sticks to the meat which, instead of looking white and healthful, will have a coarse and uninviting appearance.

Many cooks put in milk to make what they boil look white but this does more harm than good; others wrap the meat in a cloth, but if it is well skimmed it will have a much more delicate appearance than when it is muffled up.

Put the meat into cold water in the proportion of about a quart to every pound of meat; it should remain covered during the whole process of boiling but only just so. Water beyond what is absolutely necessary renders the meat less savory and weakens the broth.

The water should be gradually heated according to the thickness, etc., of the article boiled; for instance a leg of mutton of ten pounds' weight should be placed over a moderate fire, which will gradually heat the water without causing it to boil, for about forty minutes. If the water boils much sooner, the meat will be hardened, and shrink up as if it were scorched. Reckon the time from its first coming to a boil, the slower it boils the tenderer, the plumper, and whiter it will be. For those who choose their food thoroughly cooked, twenty minutes to a pound will not be found too much for gentle simmering by the side of the fire. Fresh killed meat will take much longer time boiling than that which has been kept till what the butchers call ripe; if it be fresh killed it will be tough and hard if stewed ever so long, and ever so gently. The size of the boiling pots should be adapted to what they are to contain; in small families we recommend block-tin saucepans, etc., as lightest and safest, taking care that the covers fit close, otherwise the introduction of smoke may be the means of giving the meat a bad taste. Beef and mutton a little underdone is not a great fault, but lamb, pork, and veal are uneatable and truly unwholesome, if not thoroughly boiled. Take care of the liquor in which poultry or meat has been boiled, as an addition of peas, herbs, etc., will convert it into a nourishing soup.

To Bake Meats

This is one of the cheapest and most convenient ways of dressing a dinner in small families, and although the general superiority of roasting must be allowed, still certain joints and dishes, such as legs and loins of pork, legs and shoulders of mutton, and fillets of veal, will bake to great advantage if the meat be good. Besides those joints above-mentioned, we shall enumerate a few baked dishes which may be particularly recommended.

A pig when sent to the baker prepared for baking, should have its ears and tail covered with buttered paper, and a bit of butter tied up in a piece of linen to baste the back with, otherwise it will be apt to blister. If well baked it is considered equal to a roast one.

A goose prepared the same as for roasting, or a duck placed upon a stand and turned, as soon as one side is done upon the other, are equally good.

A buttock of beef, prepared as follows, is particularly fine: After it has been put in salt about a week, let it be well washed and put into a brown earthen pan with a pint of water cover the pan tight over with two or three thicknesses of cap paper, and give it four or five hours in a moderately heated oven.

A ham, if not too old, put in soak for an hour, taken out and baked in a moderately heated oven cuts fuller of graver, and of a fitter flavor, than a boiled one.

Codfish, haddock, and mackerel should have a dust of flour and some bits of butter spread over them. Eels, when large and stuffed, herrings and sprats are put in a brown pan, with vinegar and a little spice, and tied over with paper.

A hare, prepared the same as for roasting, with a few bits of butter and a little milk, put into the dish and basted several times, will be found nearly equal to roasting. In the same manner legs and shins of beef will be equally good with proper vegetable seasoning.

To Roast Meats, etc.

The first thing requisite for roasting is to have a strong, steady fire, or a clear brisk one, according to the size and weight of the joint that is put down to the spit. A cook, who does not attend to this, will prove herself totally incompetent to roast victuals properly. All roasting should be done open to the air, to ventilate the meat from its gross fumes; otherwise it becomes baked instead of roasted. The joint should be put down at such a distance from the fire as to imbibe the heat rather quickly; otherwise its plumpness and good quality will be gradually dried up, and it will turn shrivelly, and look meagre. When the meat is first put down, it is necessary to see that it lies level in the pan, otherwise the process of cooking will be very troublesome. When it is warm, begin to baste it well, which prevents the nutritive juices escaping; and, if required, additional dripping must be used for that purpose.

As to sprinkling with salt while roasting, most able cooks dispense with it, as the penetrating particles of the salt have a tendency to draw out the animal juices. However a little salt thrown on, when first laid down, is sometimes necessary with strong meats. When the smoke draws towards the fire, and the dropping of the clear gravy begins, it is a sure sign that the joint is nearly done. Then take off the paper, baste well, arid dredge it with flour, which brings on that beautiful brownness which makes roasted meats look so inviting.

With regard to the time necessary for roasting various meats, it will vary according to the different sorts, the time it has been kept, and the temperature of the weather. In summer twenty minutes may be reckoned equal to half an hour in winter. A good screen, to keep off the chilling currents of air, is essentially useful. The old housewife's rule is to allow rather more than a quarter of an hour to each pound, and in most instances it proves practically correct.

In roasting mutton or lamb, the loin, the chine, and the saddle, must have the skin raised, and skewered on, and, when nearly done, take off this skin, and baste and flour to froth it up.

Veal requires roasting brown, and, if a fillet or loin, be sure to paper the fat, that as little of it may be lost as possible. When nearly done baste it with butter and dredge with flour.

Pork should be well done. When roasting a loin, cut the skin across with a sharp knife, otherwise the crackling is very awkward to manage. Stuff the knuckle part with sage and onion, and skewer it up. Put a little drawn gravy in the dish, and serve it up with apple-sauce in a tureen. A sparerib should be basted with a little butter, little dust of flour, and some sage and onions shred small. Apple-sauce is the only one which suits this dish.

Wild fowls require a clear brisk fire, and should be roasted till they are of a light brown, but not too much; yet it is a common fault to roast them till the gravy runs out, thereby losing their fine savor.

Tame fowls require more roasting, as the heat is longer in penetrating. They should be often basted, in order to keep up a strong froth, and to improve their plumpness. The seasoning of the dressing or stuffing of a fowl is important to its flavor. The dressing should consist of bread crumbs, seasoned with black pepper, salt, and no herb but thyme.

Pigs and geese should be thoroughly roasted before a good fire, and turned quickly.

Hares and rabbits require time and care, especially to have the ends sufficiently done, and to remedy that raw discoloring at the neck, etc., which proves often so objectionable at table.

To regulate Time in Cookery.

Mutton.--A leg of 8 pounds will require two hours and a half. A chine or saddle of 10 or 11 pounds, two hours and a half. A shoulder of 7 pounds, one hour and a half. A loin of 7 pounds, one hour and three quarters. A neck and breast, about the same time as a loin

Beef.--The sirloin of 15 pounds, from three hours and three quarters to four hours. Ribs of beef, from 15 to 20 pounds, will take three hours to three hours and a half.

Veal.--A fillet, from 12 to 16 pounds, will take from four to five hours, at a good fire. A loin upon the average, will take three hours. A shoulder, from three hours to three hours and a half. A neck, two hours. A breast, from an hour and a half to two hours.

Lamb.--Hind quarter of 8 pounds will take from an hour and three-quarters to two hours. Fore quarter of 10 pounds, about two hours. Leg of 6 pounds, from an hour and a quarter to an hour and a half. Shoulder or breast, with a quick fire, an hour.

Pork.--A leg of 8 pounds will require about three hours. Griskin, an hour and a half. A spare-rib of 8 or 9 pounds will take from two hours and a half to three hours to roast it thoroughly. A bald spare-rib of 8 pounds, an hour and a quarter. A loin of 5 pounds, if very fat, from two hours to two hours and a half. A sucking pig, of three weeks old, about an hour and a half.

Poultry.--A very large turkey will require about three hours; one of 10 pounds two hours; a small one an hour and a half.

A full-grown fowl, an hour and a half; a moderato sized one an hour and a quarter.

A pullet, from half an hour to forty minutes.

A goose, full grown, two hours.

A green goose, forty minutes.

A duck, full size, from an hour and a quarter to one hour and three-quarters.

Venison.--A buck haunch which weighs from 20 to 25 pounds will take about four hours and a half roasting; one from 12 to 18 pounds will take three hours and a quarter.

To Broil

This culinary branch is very confined, but excellent as respects chops or steaks, to cook which in perfection the fire should be clear and brisk, and the grid-iron set on it slanting, to prevent the fat dropping in it. In addition, quick and frequent turning will ensure good flavor in the taste of the article cooked.

To Fry Meats, etc.

Be careful in keeping the frying-pan clean. See that it is properly tinned. When frying any sort of fish, first dry them in a cloth, and then flour them. Put into the pan plenty of dripping, or hog's lard, and let it be boiling hot before putting in the fish. Butter is not so good for the purpose, as it is apt to burn and blacken, and make them soft. When they are fried, put them in a dish or hair-sieve, to drain, before they are sent to table. Olive oil is the best article for frying, but it is very expensive, and bad oil spoils every thing that is dressed with it. Steaks and chops should be put in when the liquor is hot, and done quickly, of a light brown, and turned often. Sausages should be done gradually, which will prevent their bursting.

Corned Beef

Fifty pounds of beef, three pounds of coarse salt, one ounce of saltpetre, three-quarters of a pound of sugar, two gallons of water. Mix the above ingredients together and pour over the meat. Cover the tub closely.

To Pot Beef

Cut it small, add to it some melted butter, two anchovies boned and washed, and a little of the best pepper, beat fine. Put them into a marble mortar, and beat them well together till the meat is yellow; put it into pots and cover with clarified butter.

To Pot Leg of Beef

Boil a leg of beef till the meat will come off the bone easily, then mix it with a cow heel, previously cut into thin pieces, and season the whole with salt and spice; add a little of the liquor in which the leg of beef was boiled, put it into a cheese-vat, or cullender, or some other vessel that will let the liquor run off, place a very heavy weight over it, and it will be ready for use in a day or two. It may be kept in souse made of bran boiled in water, with the addition of a little vinegar.

Dried Beef

Have the rounds divided, leaving a piece of the sinew to hang up by; lay the pieces in a tub of cold water for an hour, then rub each piece of beef that will weigh fifteen or twenty pounds, with a handful of brown sugar and a tablespoonful of saltpetre, pulverized, and a pint of fine salt; sprinkle fine salt in the bottom of a clean tight barrel, and lay the pieces in, strewing a little coarse salt between each piece; let it lie two days then make the brine in a clean tub, with cold water and ground alum salt--stir it well; it must be strong enough to bear an egg half up; put in half a pound of best brown sugar and a table spoonful of saltpetre to each gallon of the salt and water, pour it over the beef, put a clean large stone on the top of the meat to keep it under the pickle (which is very important!), put a cover on the barrel, examine it occasionally to see that the pickle does not leak, and if it should need more, add of the same strength. Let it stand six weeks then hang it up in the smoke-house, and after it has drained, smoke it moderately for ten days; it should then hang in a dry place. Before cooking let it soak for twenty-four hours; a piece that weighs fifteen or twenty pounds should boil two hours--one half the size, one hour, and a small piece should soak six or twelve hours, according to size.

Potted Lobster or Crab

This must be made with fine hen lobsters when full of spawn; boil them thoroughly. When cold pick out all the solid meat, and pound it in a mortar; it is usual to add, by degrees, (a very little) finely powdered mace, black or Cayenne pepper, salt, and, while pounding, a little butter. When the whole is well mixed, and beat to the consistence of paste, press it down hard in a preserving pot, pour clarified butter over it, and cover it with wetted bladder.

To Pot Shad

Clean the shad, take off the tail, head, and all the fins, then cut it in pieces, wash and wipe it dry. Season each piece well with salt and Cayenne pepper. Lay them in layers in a stone-jar, place between each two layers some allspice, cloves, and stick-cinnamon. Cover them with good cider vinegar, tie thick paper over the jar, place them in a moderate oven, and let them remain three or four hours.

To make Bologna Sausages

Take a pound of beef suet, a pound of pork, a pound of bacon fat and lean, and a pound of beef and veal. Cut them very small. Take a handful of sage leaves chopped fine, with a few sweet herbs. Season pretty high with pepper and salt, take a large well-cleaned gut and fill it. Set on a saucepan of water, and when it boils, put it in, first pricking it to prevent its bursting. Boil it one hour.

To make Bologna Sandwiches

Take sliced bread (two pieces) and apply margerine to one side of each slice. Take three slices of bologna and put on the margerine side of one piece of bread. Add mustard to taste. Place other piece of bread margeine side down ontop. Note. Cheese may also be added.

To make Oxford Sausages

Take 1 pound of young pork, fat and lean, without skin or gristle; 1 pound of beef suet, chopped fine together; put in 1/2 pound of grated bread, half the peel of a lemon, shred, a nutmeg grated, 6 sage leaves, chopped fine; a teaspoonful of pepper; and 2 of salt; some thyme, savory, and marjoram, shred fine. Mix well together and put it close down in a pan till used. Roll them out the size of common sausages, and fry them, in fresh butter, of a fine brown, or broil them over a clear fire, and send them to table hot.

To make Epping Sausages

Take 6 pounds of young pork, quite free from skin, gristle, or fat; cut it small, and beat it fine in a mortar. Chop 6 pounds of beef suet very fine, shred a handful of sage leaves fine, spread the meat on a clean dresser, and shake the sage over it. Shred the rind of a lemon very fine, and throw it with sweet herbs on the meat. Grate 2 nutmegs, to which put a teaspoonful of pepper, and a table spoonful of salt. Throw the suet over it, and mix all well together. Put it down close in the pot and when used, roll it up with as much egg as will make it smooth.


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Jewish dietary laws forbade the eating of specific types of meat, such as pork, as well as a number of other foods.

In Acts Chapter 10, Peter saw a vision of a net lowering from the sky with all kinds of forbidden foods on it, and he was told, "Rise, Peter; kill, and eat." (Acts 10:13).

See also:


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|250px|Types of meat include chicken, beef, lamb, pork and bacon.]]

Meat is animal tissue used as food. Most often is used to describe skeletal muscle and fat that is found with it. Types of meat include beef and veal from cattle, pork, ham and bacon from pigs, mutton from sheep, venison from deer and poultry from chickens, ducks and turkeys. The word meat is also used for sausages and for non-muscle organs which are used for food, for example liver, brain, and kidneys. Eggs may also be included.

In the meat processing industry, (in some countries) the word "meat" is to mean only the flesh of mammalian species such as pigs, cattle, etc. but does not include fish, poultry, and eggs.

Meat is an important part of the diet of many people because it contains protein. Protein helps the growth and healing of a body and gives energy. Meat is a "high-protein" food, but costs more than other foods like bread and vegetables. People who cannot afford meat, or who do not like to eat it need to find other ways to get enough protein in their diet. Beans and certain nuts are also high in protein. People that choose not to eat meat are called vegetarians, and those who do not eat any animal product are known as vegans.

Animals such as members of the cat family that mainly eat animals are called carnivores.

Red meat is darker-coloured meat, different from white meat, or lighter-coloured meat. Some raw meat can make humans sick.








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