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Medal of Honor
Medalsofhonor2.jpg
From left to right,
the Army, Navy/Marine Corps, and Air Force medals
Awarded by the United States of America
Type Single-grade neck order
Eligibility Military personnel only
Awarded for "[Conspicuous] gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his or her life above and beyond the call of duty while engaged in an action against any enemy of the United States; while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force; or while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party."[1][2]
Status Currently awarded
Statistics
Established July 12, 1862
First awarded American Civil War
Last awarded September 17, 2009
Total awarded 3,448[3]
Posthumous
awards
618
Distinct
recipients
3,446[3]
Precedence
Next (higher) None
Next (lower) Army: Distinguished Service Cross
Navy: Navy Cross
Marine Corps: Navy Cross
Air Force: Air Force Cross
Medal of Honor ribbon.svg Moh rosette.gif
ribbon bar and rosette

The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. It is bestowed on members of the United States armed forces who distinguish themselves "conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States."[1] Because of the nature of its criteria, the medal is often awarded posthumously.

Members of all branches of the U.S. military are eligible to receive the medal, and each service has a unique design with the exception of the Marine Corps and Coast Guard, which both use the Navy's medal. The Medal of Honor is often presented personally to the recipient or, in the case of posthumous awards, to next of kin, by the President of the United States. Due to its honored status, the medal is afforded special protection under U.S. law.[4]

The Medal of Honor is one of two military neck order awards issued by the United States, but is the sole neck order awarded to the US armed forces. The other is the Commander's Degree of the Legion of Merit, which is only authorized for issue to foreign dignitaries.[5]

As the award citation includes the phrase "in the name of Congress", it is sometimes erroneously called the Congressional Medal of Honor, however the official title is the Medal of Honor.[6][7]

Contents

Origin

The first formal system for rewarding acts of individual gallantry by American soldiers was established by George Washington on August 7, 1782, when he created the Badge of Military Merit, designed to recognize "any singularly meritorious action." This decoration is America's first combat award and the second oldest American military decoration of any type, after the Fidelity Medallion.[1][8]

Although the Badge of Military Merit fell into disuse after the American Revolutionary War, the concept of a military award for individual gallantry by members of the U.S. armed forces had been established. In 1847, after the outbreak of the Mexican-American War, a Certificate of Merit was established for soldiers who distinguished themselves in action. The certificate was later granted medal status as the Certificate of Merit Medal.[9]

Early in the Civil War, a medal for individual valor was proposed by Iowa Senator James W. Grimes to Winfield Scott, the Commanding General of the United States Army. Scott did not approve the proposal, but the medal did come into use in the Navy. Public Resolution 82, containing a provision for a Navy Medal of Valor, was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on December 21, 1861.[10] The medal was "to be bestowed upon such petty officers, seamen, landsmen, and Marines as shall most distinguish themselves by their gallantry and other seamanlike qualities during the present war."[11] Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles directed the Philadelphia Mint to design the new decoration.[12] Shortly afterward, a resolution of similar wording was introduced on behalf of the Army and was signed into law on July 12, 1862. This measure provided for awarding a Medal of Honor, as the Navy version also came to be called: "to such noncommissioned officers and privates as shall most distinguish themselves by their gallantry in action, and other soldier-like qualities, during the present insurrection."[10][11]

Appearance

The Medal of Honor has evolved in appearance since its creation in 1862. The present Army medal consists of a gold star surrounded by a wreath, topped by an eagle on a bar inscribed with the word "Valor." The medal is attached by a hook to a light blue moiré silk neckband that is 1316 inches (30 mm) in width and 21¾ inches (552 mm) in length.[1][13]

There is a version of the medal for each sub-cabinet component of the Department of Defense: the Department of the Army, Department of the Navy, and Department of the Air Force. Before 1965, when the U.S. Air Force design was adopted, members of the U.S. Army Air Corps, U.S. Army Air Forces, and Air Force received the Army version of the medal.[12]

The Coast Guard Medal of Honor, which was distinguished from the Navy medal in 1963, has never been awarded, partly because the U.S. Coast Guard is subsumed into the U.S. Navy in time of declared war. No design yet exists for it. Only one member of the Coast Guard has received a Medal of Honor, Signalman 1st Class Douglas Munro, who was awarded the Navy version for action during the Battle of Guadalcanal.[14][15]

In the rare cases (19 thus far) where a service member has been awarded more than one Medal of Honor, current regulations specify that an appropriate award device be centered on the Medal of Honor ribbon and neck medal. To indicate multiple presentations of the Medal of Honor, the U.S. Army and Air Force bestow oak leaf clusters, while the Navy Medal of Honor is worn with gold award stars.[16]

A ribbon bar that is the same shade of light blue as the neckband, and includes cole rox five white stars, pointed upwards, in the shape of an "M" is worn for situations other than full dress uniform. When the ribbon is worn, it is placed alone, ¼ inch (6 mm) above the center of the other ribbons. For wear with civilian clothing, a rosette is issued instead of a miniature lapel pin (which usually shows the ribbon bar). The rosette is the same shade of blue as the neck ribbon and includes white stars. The ribbon and rosette are presented at the same time as the medal.[12]

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Flag

Medal of Honor Flag

On October 23, 2003, Pub.L. 107-248 was enacted, modifying 36 U.S.C. § 903, authorizing a Medal of Honor flag to be presented to recipients of the decoration.[17]

The flag was based on a concept by retired Army Special Forces 1SG Bill Kendall of Jefferson, Iowa,[18] who designed a flag to honor Medal of Honor recipient Captain Darrell Lindsey, a B-26 pilot killed in World War II who was also from Jefferson. Kendall's design of a light blue field emblazoned with thirteen white five pointed stars was nearly identical to that of Sarah LeClerc's of the Institute of Heraldry. LeClerc's design, ultimately accepted as the official flag, does not include the words "Medal of Honor" and is fringed in gold. The color of the field and the 13 white stars, arranged in the form of a three bar chevron, consisting of two chevrons of 5 stars and one chevron of 3 stars,[1] replicate the Medal of Honor ribbon. The flag has no set proportions.[19]

The first Medal of Honor recipient to receive the official flag was Paul R. Smith. The flag was cased and presented to his family along with his medal.[20] A special ceremony presenting this flag to 60 Medal of Honor recipients was held onboard USS Constitution on September 30, 2006.[21]

Awarding

President Calvin Coolidge bestowing the Medal of Honor upon Henry Breault, March 8, 1924.

There are two distinct protocols for awarding the Medal of Honor. The first and most common is nomination by a service member in the chain of command, followed by approval at each level of command. The other method is nomination by a member of Congress (generally at the request of a constituent) and approval by a special act of Congress. In either case, the Medal of Honor is presented by the President on behalf of the Congress.

Evolution of criteria

Several months after President Abraham Lincoln signed Public Resolution 82 into law on December 21, 1861, a similar resolution for the Army was passed. Six Union soldiers who hijacked the General, a Confederate locomotive were the first recipients. Raid leader James J. Andrews, a civilian hanged as a Union spy, did not receive the medal. Many Medals of Honor awarded in the 19th century were associated with saving the flag, not just for patriotic reasons, but because the flag was a primary means of battlefield communication. During the time of the Civil War, no other military award was authorized, and to many this explains why some seemingly less notable actions were recognized by the Medal of Honor during that war. The criteria for the award tightened after World War I. In the post-World War II era, many eligible recipients might instead have been awarded a Silver Star, Navy Cross or similar award.

Early in the 20th century, the Navy awarded many Medals of Honor for peacetime bravery. For instance, seven sailors aboard the USS Iowa received the medal when a boiler exploded on January 25, 1904. Aboard the USS Chicago in 1901, John Henry Helms received the medal for saving Ishi Tomizi, the ship's cook, from drowning. Even after World War I, Richard Byrd and Floyd Bennett received the medal for exploration of the North Pole.[22] Thomas J. Ryan received it for saving a woman from the burning Grand Hotel in Yokohama, Japan following the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake.[23]

Between 1919 and 1942, the Navy issued two separate versions of the Medal of Honor, one for non-combat bravery and the other for combat related acts. Official accounts vary, but generally the non-combat Medal of Honor was known as the Tiffany Cross, after the company that manufactured the medal. The Tiffany Cross was first issued in 1919, but was rare and unpopular, partly because it was presented only for combat,[24] while noncombat awards remained the previous version.[25] As a result, in 1942, the United States Navy reverted to a single Medal of Honor, awarded only for heroism.[26]

Since the beginning of World War II, the medal has been awarded for extreme bravery beyond the call of duty while engaged in action against an enemy. Arising from these criteria, approximately 60% of the medals earned during and after World War II have been awarded posthumously.[27] Capt. William McGonagle is an exception to the enemy action rule, earning his medal during the USS Liberty incident.[28][29]

Authority and privileges

The U.S. Army Medal of Honor was first authorized by a joint resolution of Congress on July 12, 1862. The specific authorizing statute was 10 U.S.C. § 3741, which states:

The President may award, and present in the name of Congress, a medal of honor of appropriate design, with ribbons and appurtenances, to a person who while a member of the Army, distinguished himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty.[30]
The grave of a recipient at the Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial
Grave of a recipient at the Memphis National Cemetery

Later authorizations created similar medals for other branches of the service.

The Medal of Honor confers special privileges on its recipients. By law, recipients have several benefits:[31][32][33]

  • Each Medal of Honor recipient may have his or her name entered on the Medal of Honor Roll (38 U.S.C. § 1560). Each person whose name is placed on the Medal of Honor Roll is certified to the United States Department of Veterans Affairs as being entitled to receive the special pension of US$1,027 per month above and beyond any military pensions or other benefits for which they may be eligible. As of December 1, 2004, the pension is subject to cost-of-living increases.
  • Enlisted recipients of the Medal of Honor are entitled to a supplemental uniform allowance.
  • Recipients receive special entitlements to air transportation under the provisions of DOD Regulation 4515.13-R.
  • Special identification cards and commissary and exchange privileges are provided for Medal of Honor recipients and their eligible dependents.
  • Eligibility for interment at Arlington National Cemetery if not otherwise eligible[34].
  • Fully qualified children of recipients are eligible for admission to the United States military academies without regard to the nomination and quota requirements.[35]
  • Recipients receive a 10% increase in retired pay under 10 U.S.C. § 3991.
  • Those awarded the medal after October 23, 2002 receive a Medal of Honor Flag. The law also specified that all 103 living prior recipients as of that date would also receive a flag. (14 U.S.C. § 505).
  • As with all medals, retired personnel may wear the Medal of Honor on "appropriate" civilian clothing. Regulations also specify that recipients of the Medal of Honor are allowed to wear the uniform "at their pleasure" with standard restrictions on political, commercial, or extremist purposes; other former members of the armed forces may do so only at certain ceremonial occasions.[36][37]

Saluting

  • Although not required by law or military regulation, members of the uniformed services are encouraged to render salutes to recipients of the Medal of Honor as a matter of respect and courtesy regardless of rank or status.[citation needed]

The custom goes back at least as far as World War II. For example, in Beirne Lay's and Sy Bartlett's novel Twelve O'Clock High which recounts the exploits and problems of a B-17 heavy bomber group, includes this passage following an awards parade at which Lt. Jesse Bishop received the Medal of Honor. The 'Savage' referred to is Brigadier General Frank Savage, Commanding Officer of the 918th Heavy Bomb Group:

"Driving toward the mess for lunch, Savage passed a cyclist whom he recognized through his rear window as Jesse Bishop. Savage asked Private McIlhenny to stop. Then he alighted and stood in the middle of the road, at rigid attention, with his hand raised in the salute appropriate even from a five-star general to the lowest-ranking private, if the latter wore a pale blue ribbon with white stars on it."

Privileges and courtesies

  • Many states offer distinctive Medal of Honor vehicle license plates to recipients without additional charges or fees.
  • Living Medal of Honor recipients are often invited to Presidential Inaugurations and accompanying festivities.

Legal protection

Until late 2006, the Medal of Honor was the only service decoration afforded special protection under federal law to prevent it from being imitated or privately sold. The Stolen Valor Act of 2005, enacted December 20, 2006, extended federal protection to include false verbal, written, or physical claims to other military decorations, service medals, or military badges to which a person is not entitled.[38][39]

The Medal of Honor on display

All Medals of Honor are issued in the original only, by the Department of Defense, to a recipient. Misuse of the medal, including unauthorized manufacture or wear, is punishable by a fine up to $100,000 and imprisonment up to one year pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 704(b). After the Army redesigned its medal in 1903, a patent was issued (USD37,236 (PDF version) (1904-11-22) United States Army, United States Medal of Honor. ) to legally prevent others from making the medal. When the patent expired, the Federal government enacted a law making it illegal to produce, wear, or distribute the Medal of Honor without proper authority. A number of veterans' organizations and private companies devote themselves to exposing those who falsely claim to have received the Medal of Honor.[40]

Enforcement

HLI Lordship Industries Inc., a former Medal of Honor contractor, was fined in 1996 for selling 300 fake medals for US$75 each.[41]

Also that year, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, resident Jackie Stern was convicted of wearing a medal to which he was not entitled; instead of six months in jail, a federal judge sentenced him to serve one year's probation and to write a letter of apology to each of the then living 171 recipients of the medal; the letter was also published in the local newspaper.[42]

In 2003, Edward Fedora and Gisela Fedora were charged with violating 18 U.S.C. § 704(b), Unlawful Sale of a Medal of Honor, for selling medals awarded to U.S. Navy Seaman Robert Blume (for action in the Spanish-American War) and to U.S. Army First Sergeant George Washington Roosevelt (for action in the Civil War) to an FBI agent.[43] Edward Fedora, a Canadian businessman,[44] pleaded guilty and was sentenced to prison.[45]

Recipients

By conflict
Civil War 1,522 Indian Wars 426
Korean Expedition 15 Spanish-American War 110
Samoan Civil War 4 Philippine-American War 86
Boxer Rebellion 59 Mexican Expedition 56
Haiti (1915–1934) 8 Dominican Republic Occupation 3
World War I 124 Occupation of Nicaragua 2
World War II 464 Korean War 133
Vietnam War 246 Battle of Mogadishu 2
Iraq War (2003-present) 4 Afghanistan War 2
Peacetime 193 Unknowns 9

In total, 3,467 medals have been awarded to 3,448 different people.[46][47] Nineteen men received a second award: 14 of these received two separate medals for two separate actions, and five received both the Navy and the Army Medals of Honor for the same action. Since the beginning of World War II, 855 Medals of Honor have been awarded, 529 posthumously. In total, 621 had their medals presented posthumously.[27]

By branch of service
Service Awards
Army 2405
Navy 746
Marines 297
Air Force 17
Coast Guard 1

The first Army Medal of Honor was awarded to Private Jacob Parrott during the American Civil War for his role in the Andrews Raid. The only female Medal of Honor recipient is Mary Edwards Walker, a Civil War surgeon. Her medal was rescinded in 1917 along with many other non-combat awards, but it was restored by President Jimmy Carter in 1977 (see Evolution of Criteria, above).[48]

While current regulations, (10 U.S.C. § 6241), beginning in 1918, explicitly state that recipients must be serving in the U.S. Armed Forces at the time of performing a valorous act that warrants the award, exceptions have been made. For example, Charles Lindbergh, while a reserve member of the U.S. Army Air Corps, received his Medal of Honor as a civilian pilot. In addition, the Medal of Honor was presented to the British Unknown Warrior by General Pershing on October 17, 1921; later the U.S. Unknown Soldier was reciprocally awarded the Victoria Cross, Britain's highest award for gallantry, on November 11, 1921. Apart from these few exceptions, Medals of Honor can only be awarded to members of the U.S. armed forces - although being a U.S. citizen is not a prerequisite. Sixty-one Canadians who were serving in the United States armed forces have been awarded the Medal of Honor, with a majority awarded for actions in the American Civil War. Since 1900, only four have been awarded to Canadians.[49] In the Vietnam War, Peter C. Lemon was the only Canadian recipient of the Medal of Honor.[50]

Double recipients

Nineteen men have been awarded the Medal of Honor twice. Five of these men were awarded both the Army and Navy Medal of Honor for the same action. Since February 1919, no single individual can be awarded more than one Medal of Honor for the same action although a member of one branch of the armed forces can receive the Medal of Honor from another branch, if the actions for which awarded were under the authority of the said branch. The maximum number of Medals of Honor earned by any service member has been two. There has never been a recorded case of a service member receiving three or more Medals of Honor.

§ Rank refers to rank held at time of Medal of Honor action.

Post-Vietnam

For actions occurring since the withdrawal of US forces from Vietnam in 1973, the Medal of Honor has been awarded eight times, all of them posthumously. The first two were earned by Delta Force snipers Sergeant First Class Randy Shughart and Master Sergeant Gary Gordon, who defended downed Black Hawk helicopter pilot Chief Warrant Officer Michael Durant and his crew during the Battle of Mogadishu in 1993. Both men lost their lives in doing so.[51] Four soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor for actions in Iraq; to Army Sergeant First Class Paul Ray Smith, Army Private First Class Ross A. McGinnis, Marine Corps Corporal Jason Dunham and Navy MA2 Michael A. Monsoor. In 2005, a posthumous Medal of Honor was awarded to Sergeant First Class Smith for actions in Operation Iraqi Freedom; his medal was presented to his survivors. In April 2003, Smith organized the defense of a prisoner of war holding area that was attacked by a company-sized Iraqi force, personally manning a machine gun under enemy fire.[52] In 2007, President George W. Bush awarded Marine Corporal Dunham, of Scio, New York, the Medal of Honor posthumously for his bravery in Iraq during a combat mission during which he threw himself on a grenade to save his fellow Marines during an action near the Syrian border in April 2004.[53] Two medals have been awarded for action in Afghanistan, both posthumously; Navy SEAL Lieutenant Michael P. Murphy and Army Sergeant First Class Jared C. Monti. Monti's award was announced in July 2009; his family received the award from President Obama in a ceremony at the White House on September 17, 2009 in a televised ceremony.[54]

On March 3, 2008, President Bush presented the Medal of Honor posthumously to Master Sergeant Woodrow W. Keeble for his actions during the Korean War. His family had waged a long campaign for the medal after the recommendation was twice lost during the conflict. Master Sergeant Keeble, who died in 1982, was the first member of the Sioux tribe to be awarded the medal.[55] This was the 49th belated Medal of Honor award since 1979.[56]

Awarding controversies

Civil War awardings

During the Civil War, Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton promised a Medal of Honor to every man in the 27th Regiment, Maine Infantry who extended his enlistment beyond the agreed upon date. The Battle of Gettysburg was imminent and 311 men of the regiment volunteered to serve until the battle was resolved. The remaining men returned to Maine but with the Union victory at Gettysburg the 311 volunteers soon followed. The volunteers arrived back in Maine in time to be discharged with the men who had earlier returned. Since there seemed to be no official list of the 311 volunteers, the War Department exacerbated the situation by forwarding 864 medals to the commanding officer of the regiment. The commanding officer only issued medals to the volunteers who stayed behind and retained the others on the grounds if he returned the remainder to the War Department, the War Department would try and reissue the medals.[57][58]

In 1916, a board of five generals on the retired list convened by law to review every Army Medal of Honor awarded. The board was to report on any Medals of Honor awarded or issued for any cause other than distinguished service. The commission, led by Nelson Miles, identified 911 awards for causes other than distinguished service. This included the 864 medals awarded to members of the 27th Maine, 29 who served as Abraham Lincoln's funeral guard, six civilians (including Dr. Mary Edwards Walker, the only woman to have been awarded the medal, and Buffalo Bill Cody), as well as 12 others. Dr. Walker's medal was restored by President Jimmy Carter in 1977.[58] Cody and four other civilian scouts who rendered distinguished service action and who were considered by the board to have fully earned their medals had theirs restored in 1989.[59] The report was endorsed by the Judge Advocate General who advised that the War Department should not seek the return the medals from the recipients identified by the board. In the case of recipients who continued to wear the medal the War Department was advised to take no action to enforce the statute.[60]

Past racial discrimination

A 1993 study commissioned by the Army investigated racial discrimination in the awarding of medals.[61] At the time, no Medals of Honor had been awarded to black soldiers who served in World War II. After an exhaustive review of files, the study recommended that several black Distinguished Service Cross recipients be upgraded to the Medal of Honor. On January 13, 1997, President Bill Clinton awarded the medal to seven African American World War II veterans. Of these, only Vernon Baker was still alive.[61] A similar study of Asian Americans in 1998 resulted in President Bill Clinton awarding 21 new Medals of Honor in 2000, including 20 to Japanese American members of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, among them Senator Daniel Inouye.[62] In 2005, President George W. Bush awarded the Medal of Honor to Jewish veteran and Holocaust survivor Tibor Rubin, who many believed to have been overlooked because of his religion.[62][63]

Iraq and Afghanistan wars controversy

The Medal of Honor has not been awarded to any living persons in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, only posthumously. The Army Times published an article analyzing the awards in its March 30, 2009 issue.[64] It was suggested that because of the intense partisan politics in Washington, D.C. over these wars, the Bush Administration subjected potential Medal of Honor recipients to intense background checks so as to avoid scrutiny, from political opponents, of both the administration and the recipient. An Army Times editorial suggested, "Our heroes deserve to be recognized."[64]

Wounded Knee controversy

Besides the Mary Walker controversy, the 20 medals awarded at Wounded Knee are called into question. Some American Indians had called for "the immediate rescindment of the twenty Medals of Honor awarded for actions contributing to the Massacre at Wounded Knee on December 29, 1890."[65]

Similar decorations within the United States

The following United States decorations bear similar names to the Medal of Honor, but are separate awards with different criteria for issuance.

Several United States law enforcement decorations also bear the name "Medal of Honor". The Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor, established by Congress in 2001, "the highest national award for valor by a public safety officer", is also awarded by the President.[67]

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.
  1. ^ a b c d e Department of the Army (July 1, 2002). "Section 578.4 Medal of Honor". Code of Federal Regulations Title 32, Volume 2. Government Printing Office. http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_2002/julqtr/32cfr578.4.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  2. ^ As amended by Act of July 25, 1963
  3. ^ a b Congressional Medal of Honor Society. "MOH Stats". http://www.cmohs.org/medal-statistics.php. Retrieved 2009-09-17. 
  4. ^ Office of the Law Revision Counsel. "18USC704(b)". US Code Collection. Cornell Law School. http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode18/usc_sec_18_00000704----000-.html. Retrieved 2006-07-20. 
  5. ^ "Legion of Merit". Awards. Institute of Heraldry. http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Awards/LOM1.html. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  6. ^ Boatner, Military Customs and Traditions. and Johnson, The Oxford Companion to American History.
  7. ^ The Congressional Medal of Honor Society is so named because that is the name it was given in an act of Congress signed into law by President Eisenhower on August 5, 1958 as Title 36, Chapter 33 of the U.S. Code. (See "The Congressional Medal of Honor Society's History". Official Site. Congressional Medal of Honor Society. http://www.cmohs.org/society-history.php. Retrieved 2006-10-01. .) The law authorizing the society has since been transferred to Title 36, Chapter 405 of the U.S. Code.
  8. ^ U.S. Army Center of Military History. "The Badge Of Military Merit/The Purple Heart". http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/reference/PurHrt.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  9. ^ Foxfall Medals. "Certificate of Merit". http://www.foxfall.com/fmd-army-com.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  10. ^ a b "Two Chief Engineers Were Medal of Honor Recipients?". Did You Know?. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. http://www.hq.usace.army.mil/history/Vignettes/Vignette_78.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  11. ^ a b "History of the Medal". Public Broadcasting System. http://www.pbs.org/weta/americanvalor/history/. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  12. ^ a b c "Types of the Medal of Honor: 1862 To Present". Congressional Medal of Honor Society. http://www.cmohs.org/medal/medal_types.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  13. ^ "The Medal". Congressional Medal of Honor Society. http://www.cmohs.org/medal.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-21. 
  14. ^ "MOH FAQ". Congressional Medal of Honor Society. http://www.cmohs.org/medal/medal_faq.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  15. ^ "Douglas Albert Munro, USCG". US Coast Guard. http://www.uscg.mil/history/Munro%20Index.html. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  16. ^ "Double Recipients". Congressional Medal of Honor Society. http://www.cmohs.org/recipients/double.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  17. ^ "Designation of the Medal of Honor Flag". US Code.gov. 23 Oct 2002. http://uscode.house.gov/download/pls/36C9.txt. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  18. ^ "Special Forces veteran's idea leads to new Medal of Honor flag". Army News Service. http://www4.army.mil/news/article.php?story=7244. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  19. ^ "Medal of Honor Flag". The Institute of Heraldry. US Army. http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Flags_Guidons/MedalOfHonorFlag.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-21. 
  20. ^ Cramer, Eric W. (March 29, 2005). "First Medal of Honor flag to be presented". Army News Service. US Army. http://www4.army.mil/ocpa/read.php?story_id_key=7085. Retrieved 2006-07-21. 
  21. ^ ""Old Ironsides" Hosts Medal of Honor Recipients". Navy Newsstand. US Navy. 2006. http://www.news.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=25834. Retrieved 2006-10-01. 
  22. ^ "Floyd Bennett". Arlington National Cemetery. http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/bennettf.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  23. ^ "Medal of Honor Recipients, Interim Awards 1920–1940". Center for Military History. http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/mohint5.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  24. ^ Birnie, Michael (2003-04-27). ""Tiffany" Medal of Honor Comes to Navy Museum". U.S. Navy Museum. United States Navy. http://www.news.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=7048. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  25. ^ Tillman, Barrett (2003). Above and Beyond: The Aviation Medals of Honor. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 3. 
  26. ^ "Types of the Medal of Honor: 1862 To Present". Navy Medal of Honor (1913). Congressional Medal of Honor Society. http://www.cmohs.org/medal/medal_types.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  27. ^ a b "Medal of Honor Statistics". Center for Military History. US Army. May 2003. http://www.army.mil/cmh/mohstats.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  28. ^ "USS Liberty". National Security Agency, Central Security Service. July 2003. http://www.nsa.gov/liberty/. Retrieved July 23, 2006.  audio and transcripts
  29. ^ "USS Liberty". Naval Historical Center. http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-l/agtr5.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-23.  audio and transcripts
  30. ^ "Sec. 3741. Medal of honor: award". Washington Watchdog. January 26, 1998. http://www.washingtonwatchdog.org/documents/usc/ttl10/subttlB/ptII/ch357/sec3741.html. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  31. ^ "Medal of Honor Recipients". Tricare. http://www.tricare.osd.mil/medalofhonor/default.cfm. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  32. ^ "Navy & Marine Corps Awards and Decorations: Medal of Honor". usmilitary.about.com. http://usmilitary.about.com/library/milinfo/navawards/blmoh.htm. Retrieved July 24, 2006. 
  33. ^ "Special Benefits and Allowances Table". Dept. of Veterans Affairs. http://www.vba.va.gov/bln/21/Rates/special1.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  34. ^ 32 CFR 553.15(d)(1)
  35. ^ Admissions section of 2007-2008 U.S. Naval Academy Catalog Retrieved 2009-09-28.
  36. ^ "Ribbon and Rosette". homeofheroes.com. http://www.homeofheroes.com/moh/history/history_images.html. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  37. ^ "Army Uniform Regulations AR 670-1 3 Feb 2005 Section 30-5 and 30-6" (PDF). Department of the Army. p. 339. http://www.army.mil/symbols/Downloads/r670_1.pdf. Retrieved 2006-07-24. 
  38. ^ "S. 1998: Stolen Valor Act of 2005". 109th U.S. Congress (2005–2006). GovTrak.us. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s109-1998. Retrieved 2007-03-08. 
  39. ^ 18 U.S.C. § 704
  40. ^ Chozick, Amy. "Veterans' Web Sites Expose Pseudo Heroes, Phony Honors". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB111533986173926430-K_XMqM2Fe4Gn2S_wmni1njavo2k_20060505.html?mod=blogs. Retrieved 2006-07-20. 
  41. ^ "Company fined for selling fake Medals of Honor". US News. CNN. December 4, 1996. http://www.cnn.com/US/9612/04/briefs/medal.html. Retrieved 2006-07-21. 
  42. ^ "Florida Man wears medal without Honor". US News. CNN. December 4, 1996. http://www.cnn.com/US/9612/04/medal.without.honor/. Retrieved 2006-09-30. 
  43. ^ "Defendants Charged With Conspiracy to Sell Several Congressional Medals of Honor". Federal Bureau of Investigation. July 9, 2003. http://www.fbi.gov/pressrel/pressrel03/metal070903.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  44. ^ Associated Press (2003-07-09). "Man Charged With Selling Medals of Honor". WHEC-TV 10 Rochester, NY. http://www.whec.com/news.asp?template=item&story_id=8204. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  45. ^ "Honoring Our Veterans". Federal Bureau of Investigation. May 28, 2004. http://www.fbi.gov/page2/may04/052804medal.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  46. ^ "The Congressional Medal of Honor Society's History". Official Site. Congressional Medal of Honor Society. http://www.cmohs.org/society/history.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-01. 
  47. ^ "Marines Awarded the Medal of Honor". US Marine Corps. http://www.usmc.mil/moh.nsf/. Retrieved 2006-07-20. 
  48. ^ "Mary Edwards Walker". Women in History. http://www.lkwdpl.org/wihohio/walk-mar.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  49. ^ "Canada honours winners of top U.S. medal". CBC News. July 1, 2005. http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2005/07/01/canadians-usmedal050701.html. Retrieved 2006-07-20. 
  50. ^ "Thousands of Canadians, including a Medal of Honor winner, served with the U.S. military in Vietnam". Veterans With a Mission. http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2005/07/01/canadians-usmedal050701.html. Retrieved 2006-07-20. 
  51. ^ "Medal of Honor Recipients: Somalia". Center for Military History. US Army. http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/mohsom.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  52. ^ "Medal of Honor Recipients: Iraq". Center for Military History. http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/mohiraq.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  53. ^ "Bush Awards Fallen Marine Medal of Honor". SFGate.com. 2007. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2007/01/11/national/w073800S72.DTL&type=politics. Retrieved 2007-01-11. 
  54. ^ Cavallaro, Gina (2009-07-23). "Fallen soldier to receive Medal of Honor". Armytimes. http://www.armytimes.com/news/2009/07/army_monti_MOH_072309w/. Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  55. ^ Korean War Hero Receives Posthumous Medal of Honor March 3, 2008
  56. ^ Medal of Honor recipients 1979-2007. Julissa Gomez-Granger, Congressional Research Service Report for Congress
  57. ^ This bizarre story has been documented by the late John Pullen in A Shower of Stars: The Medal of Honor and the 27th Maine see http://books.google.com.au/books?id=xGtImta-9QEC&dq=Pullen+A+Shower+of+stars&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=xAMm5ZiKCM&sig=YRITMTpm2vL_gssQ-eYptjjqPvs&hl=en&ei=PJEUS9CzM8yGkAWAvZCJBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=&f=falseMany stayed four days extra, and then were discharged.
  58. ^ a b Sterner, C. Douglas (2004). "The Purge of 1917". homeofheroes.com. http://www.homeofheroes.com/moh/corrections/purge_army.html. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 
  59. ^ "The Medal's History". Medal of Honor Society. http://www.cmohs.com/medal/medal_history.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-18. 
  60. ^ 66th Congress 1st Session, Document 58, General Staff and Medals of Honor, ordered to be printed 23 July 1919.
  61. ^ a b "WWII African American MOH recipients". Center for Military History. US Army. http://www.history.army.mil/html/moh/mohb.html. Retrieved 2006-07-20. 
  62. ^ a b Williams, Rdui (May 19, 2000). "21 Asian American World War II Vets to Get Medal of Honor". American Forces Press Service News Articles. Department of Defense. http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=45192. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  63. ^ "Tibor Rubin". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/tibor_rubin.html. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  64. ^ a b McGarry, Brendan (1 April 2009). "Death before this honor". Army Times. Army Times Publishing Company. http://www.armytimes.com/news/2009/03/military_medal_of_honor_032509w/. Retrieved 5 September 2009. 
  65. ^ Medals of Honor - Wounded Knee Massacre|title=www.nativeweb.org
  66. ^ Ancestry.com - The Southern Cross of Honor
  67. ^ "Office of Justice Programs: Medal of Valor". U.S. Department of Justice. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/medalofvalor/. Retrieved 2006-07-23. 

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Medal of Honor

Plural
-

Medal of Honor

  1. The highest military award given in the United States.

Strategy wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

Medal of Honor
Box artwork for Medal of Honor.
Developer(s) DreamWorks Interactive
Publisher(s) Electronic Arts
Release date(s)
Genre(s) FPS
System(s) PlayStation
Mode(s) Single player, Multiplayer
Rating(s)
ESRB: Teen
Followed by Medal of Honor: Underground
Series Medal of Honor
This is the first game in the Medal of Honor series. For other games in the series see the Medal of Honor category.

Medal of Honor is the first title in the long-running Medal of Honor series of video games. It was released for the PlayStation in November 1999. A remake of it will be released for PlayStation 3 and PSP. The story was created by director/producer Steven Spielberg.

In Medal of Honor, the player takes the role of the fictional Lieutenant Jimmy Patterson, who was recruited to the OSS. The game takes place during the near end of World War II, (mid 1944- mid 1945). The goal of the game is to complete objectives, such as destroying enemy positions, and kill enemy German forces in the process.

Table of Contents

Medal of Honor/Table of Contents


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Medal Of Honor is a world war 2 shooter. it came out on November/11/1999, for the Playstation


This article uses material from the "Medal of Honor" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|300px|From left to right, the Army, Navy/Marine Corps and Air Force medals]] The Medal of Honor is the highest award given to members of the United States Military. It is given to people who show a lot of bravery in wartime. Because of this, many people who get the Medal of Honor die earning it. It was first given in 1862 during the American Civil War, and is still awarded. The most recent person to get it was Lieutenant Michael P. Murphy, a United States Navy SEAL. He died fighting the Taliban during the War in Afghanistan.

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