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The media of Russia refers to print, broadcast and online media in Russia. A selection of different medias is wide and diverse. According to the Russian Ministry of Press, the country has almost 37 thousand media outlets, including over 22 thousand newspapers and 12 thousand magazines. In audiovisual media, there are over three thousand television channels and two thousand radio channels registed.[1]

However, in recent years the freedom of the press in Russia has been declined. International organizations are criticizing Russian laws, politically motivated criminal investigations and government control.[2][3][4][5] According to Freedom House, the Russian government owns two of the 14 national newspapers, 60 percent of newspapers, and in whole or in part, all six national television stations.[6]

Contents

The press

Russia has very wide range of newspapers, over 400 daily, for every field. However, the consumption of serious newspapers is declining. Ownership of newspapers was dominated by oligarchs in the 1990s. In recent years companies close the Russian government, such as Gazprom, have acquired newspapers.[7]

Television

Russian television broadcasting is owned by the state directly or by companies with close link to the Russian government.[8][9] Television is, for most Russians, the main source of news.[10]

  • Russia - national network
  • Channel One - national network
  • NTV - national network
  • TV Center - owned by Moscow city government
  • Ren TV - Moscow-based commercial station with strong regional network
  • Russia Today - state-funded, international English-language news channel, via satellite

Radio

News agencies

See also

References

  1. ^ European Journalism Centre: Media Landscape - Russia
  2. ^ Index of Reporters without Borders, 2009
  3. ^ Amnesty International: Freedom curtailed in the Russian Federation
  4. ^ Reporters Without Borders: Europe no longer so exemplary, Russian tragedy deepens
  5. ^ Reporters Without Borders: Indeks svabody pressy 2009 god (in Russian)
  6. ^ Freedom House: Freedom of Press 2009
  7. ^ BBC: The press in Russia (16 May 2008)
  8. ^ Guardian: Dissenting voices to be silenced as liberal Russian TV channels come under state control (16 October 2009)
  9. ^ Reporters Without Borders: Russia, Heroes and Henchmen, The Work of Journalist and the Media in Russian Regions (September 2009)
  10. ^ BBC: Country profile: Russia - Media (14 October 2009)
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