The Full Wiki

More info on Medicine

Medicine: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Medicine

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Statue of Asclepius, the Greek God of medicine, holding the symbolic Rod of Asclepius with its coiled serpent
Medicine is the art and science of healing. It encompasses a range of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness.
.Contemporary medicine applies health science, biomedical research, and medical technology to diagnose and treat injury and disease, typically through medication, surgery, or some other form of therapy.^ Is a medication for treating Parkinson’s disease and restless leg syndrome.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

The word medicine is derived from the Latin ars medicina, meaning the art of healing.[1][2]
Though medical technology and clinical expertise are pivotal to contemporary medicine, successful face-to-face relief of actual suffering continues to require the application of ordinary human feeling and compassion, known in English as bedside manner.[3]

Contents

History

The ancient Sumerian god Ningishzida, the patron of medicine, accompanied by two gryphons
Prehistoric medicine incorporated plants (herbalism), animal parts and minerals. In many cases these materials were used ritually as magical substances by priests, shamans, or medicine men. Well-known spiritual systems include animism (the notion of inanimate objects having spirits), spiritualism (an appeal to gods or communion with ancestor spirits); shamanism (the vesting of an individual with mystic powers); and divination (magically obtaining the truth). The field of medical anthropology examines the ways in which culture and society are organized around or impacted by issues of health, health care and related issues.
.Early records on medicine have been discovered from ancient Egyptian medicine, Babylonian medicine, Ayurvedic medicine (in the Indian subcontinent), classical Chinese medicine (predecessor to the modern traditional Chinese Medicine), and ancient Greek medicine and Roman medicine.^ The active agent in a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat chronic myelocytic leukemia.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bis-coclaurine alkaloid used for centuries in Chinese traditional medicine for cardiovascular diseases.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A naturally occuring furanocoumarin used to treat septic shock in traditional Chinese medicine.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.Earliest records of dedicated hospitals come from Mihintale in Sri Lanka where evidence of dedicated medicinal treatment facilities for patients are found.^ Bellinghieri G, Savica V, De Gregorio C, De Gregorio G, Consolo F. Evidence for Raynaud's syndrome among haemodialyzed patients: influence of flunarizine treatment.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[4][5]
The Greek physician Hippocrates (ca. 460 BC – ca. 370 BC), generally referred to as the Father of Modern Medicine.[6][7]
The Greek physician Hippocrates, known as the Father of Medicine,[8][9] laid the foundation for a rational approach to medicine (although some historians consider Imhotep, the noted Egyptian physician, to hold that honor
Statuette of ancient Egyptian physician Imhotep in the Louvre
[10][11][12]). .Hippocrates invented the Hippocratic Oath for physicians, which is still relevant and in use today and was the first to categorize illnesses as acute, chronic, endemic and epidemic, and use terms such as, "exacerbation, relapse, resolution, crisis, paroxysm, peak, and convalescence"[13][14].^ Olden RW, van Meyel JJ, Gerlag PG. Acute and long-term effects of therapy with high-dose furosemide in chronic hemodialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The Greek physician Galen was one of the greatest surgeons of the ancient world and performed many audacious operations —including brain and eye surgeries— that were not tried again for almost two millennia. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the onset of the Dark Ages, the Greek tradition of medicine went into decline in Western Europe, although it continued uninterrupted in the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
After 750, the Muslim Arab world had Hippocrates' and Galen's works translated into Arabic, and Islamic physicians engaged in some significant medical research. Notable Islamic medical pioneers include polymath Avicenna, who, along with Hippocrates, has also been called the Father of Medicine,[15][16] Abulcasis, the father of surgery, Avenzoar, the father of experimental surgery, Ibn al-Nafis, the father of circulatory physiology, and Averroes.[17] Rhazes, who is called the father of pediatrics, was one of first to question the Greek theory of humorism, which nevertheless remained influential in both medieval Western and medieval Islamic medicine.[18] However, overall mortality and morbidity levels in the medieval Middle East and medieval Europe did not significantly differ one from the other, which indicates that there was no major medical "breakthrough" to modern medicine in either region in this period. .The fourteenth and fifteenth century Black Death was just as devastating to the Middle East as to Europe, and it has even been argued that Western Europe was generally more effective in recovering from the pandemic than the Middle East.^ Approximately 100 times more effective than 2,4-dinitrophenol.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cellular data have indicated that the compound is more effective towards Raf-1and A-Raf than B-Raf.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tool useful for increasing intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations.More effective than A23187 and non-fluorescent.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

[19] In the early modern period, important early figures in medicine and anatomy emerged in Europe, including Gabriele Falloppio and William Harvey.
An ancient Greek patient gets medical treatment: this aryballos (circa 480-470 BCE, now in Paris's Louvre Museum) probably contained healing oil
The major shift in medical thinking was the gradual rejection, especially during the Black Death in the 14th and 15th centuries, of what may be called the 'traditional authority' approach to science and medicine. This was the notion that because some prominent person in the past said something must be so, then that was the way it was, and anything one observed to the contrary was an anomaly (which was paralleled by a similar shift in European society in general - see Copernicus's rejection of Ptolemy's theories on astronomy). Physicians like Ibn al-Nafis and Vesalius improved upon or disproved some of the theories from the past.
Modern scientific biomedical research (where results are testable and reproducible) began to replace early Western traditions based on herbalism, the Greek "four humours" and other such pre-modern notions. The modern era really began with Edward Jenner's discovery of the smallpox vaccine at the end of the 18th century (inspired by the method of inoculation earlier practiced in Asia), Robert Koch's discoveries around 1880 of the transmission of disease by bacteria, and then the discovery of antibiotics around 1900. The post-18th century modernity period brought more groundbreaking researchers from Europe. From Germany and Austrian doctors such as Rudolf Virchow, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, Karl Landsteiner, and Otto Loewi) made contributions. In the United Kingdom Alexander Fleming, Joseph Lister, Francis Crick, and Florence Nightingale are considered important. From New Zealand and Australia came Maurice Wilkins, Howard Florey, and Frank Macfarlane Burnet). In the United States William Williams Keen, Harvey Cushing, William Coley, James D. Watson, Italy (Salvador Luria), Switzerland (Alexandre Yersin), Japan (Kitasato Shibasaburo), and France (Jean-Martin Charcot, Claude Bernard, Paul Broca and others did significant work. Russian (Nikolai Korotkov also did significant work, as did Sir William Osler and Harvey Cushing.
As science and technology developed, medicine became more reliant upon medications. .Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century not only animal and plant products were used as medicine, but also human body parts and fluids.^ Hart PH, Jones CA, Finlay-Jones JJ. Inflammatory fluids regulate TNF-alpha, but not IL-1 beta, production by human peritoneal macrophages.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[20] Pharmacology developed from herbalism and many drugs are still derived from plants (atropine, ephedrine, warfarin, aspirin, digoxin, vinca alkaloids, taxol, hyoscine, etc). .The first of these was arsphenamine / Salvarsan discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1908 after he observed that bacteria took up toxic dyes that human cells did not.^ Non-toxic cell permeable fluorescent dye that reacts with amine compounds.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Vaccines were discovered by Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur. The first major class of antibiotics was the sulfa drugs, derived by French chemists originally from azo dyes. This has become increasingly sophisticated; modern biotechnology allows drugs targeted towards specific physiological processes to be developed, sometimes designed for compatibility with the body to reduce side-effects. .Genomics and knowledge of human genetics is having some influence on medicine, as the causative genes of most monogenic genetic disorders have now been identified, and the development of techniques in molecular biology and genetics are influencing medical technology, practice and decision-making.^ Targets genetic disorders caused by nonsense mutations.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nissenson AR, Nimer SD, Wolcott DL. Recombinant human erythropoietin and renal anemia: molecular biology, clinical efficacy, and nervous system effects.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Evidence-based medicine is a contemporary movement to establish the most effective algorithms of practice (ways of doing things) through the use of systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The movement is facilitated by modern global information science, which allows as much of the available evidence as possible to be collected and analyzed according to standard protocols which are then disseminated to healthcare providers. One problem with this 'best practice' approach is that it could be seen to stifle novel approaches to treatment[citation needed]. The Cochrane Collaboration leads this movement. .A 2001 review of 160 Cochrane systematic reviews revealed that, according to two readers, 21.3% of the reviews concluded insufficient evidence, 20% concluded evidence of no effect, and 22.5% concluded positive effect.^ Inhibits the GTPase activities of dynamin1/2 and Drp1, while exhibiting no significant effect against two other small GTPases, MxA and Cdc42.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

[21]

Clinical practice

The Doctor, by Sir Luke Fildes (1891)
.In clinical practice doctors personally assess patients in order to diagnose, treat, and prevent disease using clinical judgment.^ Laupacis A, Muirhead N, Keown P, Wong C. A disease-specific questionnaire for assessing quality of life in patients on hemodialysis.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Makoff R. Water-soluble vitamin status in patients with renal disease treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ McCarthy JT, Hodgson SF, Fairbanks VF, Moyer TP. Clinical and histologic features of iron-related bone disease in dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The doctor-patient relationship typically begins an interaction with an examination of the patient's medical history and medical record, followed a medical interview[22] and a physical examination.^ Brunier G, Graydon J. The relationship of anemia, nonspecific uremic symptoms, and physical activity to fatigue in patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Basic diagnostic medical devices (e.g. stethoscope, tongue depressor) are typically used. After examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests (e.g. blood tests), take a biopsy, or prescribe pharmaceutical drugs or other therapies. Differential diagnosis methods help to rule out conditions based on the information provided. During the encounter, properly informing the patient of all relevant facts is an important part of the relationship and the development of trust. The medical encounter is then documented in the medical record, which is a legal document in many jurisdictions.[23] Followups may be shorter but follow the same general procedure.
The components of the medical interview[22] and encounter are:
  • Chief complaint (cc): the reason for the current medical visit. These are the 'symptoms.' They are in the patient's own words and are recorded along with the duration of each one. .Also called 'presenting complaint.'
  • History of present illness / complaint (HPI): the chronological order of events of symptoms and further clarification of each symptom.
  • Current activity: occupation, hobbies, what the patient actually does.
  • Medications (Rx): what drugs the patient takes including prescribed, over-the-counter, and home remedies, as well as alternative and herbal medicines/herbal remedies.^ Brunier G, Graydon J. The relationship of anemia, nonspecific uremic symptoms, and physical activity to fatigue in patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Allergies are also recorded.
  • Past medical history (PMH/PMHx): concurrent medical problems, past hospitalizations and operations, injuries, past infectious diseases and/or vaccinations, history of known allergies.
  • Social history (SH): birthplace, residences, marital history, social and economic status, habits (including diet, medications, tobacco, alcohol).
  • Family history (FH): listing of diseases in the family that may impact the patient.^ Parfrey PS, Harnett JD, Barre PE. The natural history of myocardial disease in dialysis patients.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Saxenhofer H, Scheidegger J, Descoeudres C, Jaeger P, Horber FF. Impact of dialysis modality on body composition in patients with end-stage renal disease.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Sheingold S, Churchill D, Muirhead N, Laupacis A, Labelle R, Goeree R. The impact of recombinant human erythropoietin on medical care costs for hemodialysis patients in Canada.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .A family tree is sometimes used.
  • Review of systems (ROS) or systems inquiry: a set of additional questions to ask which may be missed on HPI: a general enquiry (have you noticed any weight loss, change in sleep quality, fevers, lumps and bumps?^ Bailie GR, Rasmussen R, Eisele G, Luscombe DK. Peritonitis rates in CAPD patients using the UVXD and O-set systems.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    etc), followed by questions on the body's main organ systems (heart, lungs, digestive tract, urinary tract, etc).
.The physical examination is the examination of the patient looking for signs of disease ('Symptoms' are what the patient volunteers, 'Signs' are what the healthcare provider detects by examination).^ Brunier G, Graydon J. The relationship of anemia, nonspecific uremic symptoms, and physical activity to fatigue in patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The healthcare provider uses the senses of sight, hearing, touch, and sometimes smell (e.g. in infection, uremia, diabetic ketoacidosis). Taste has been made redundant by the availability of modern lab tests. Four actions are taught as the basis of physical examination: inspection, palpation (feel), percussion (tap to determine resonance characteristics), and auscultation (listen). This order may be modified depending on the main focus of the examination (e.g. a joint may be examined by simply ."look, feel, move". Having this set order is an educational tool that encourages the practitioner to be systematic in their approach and refrain from using tools such as the stethoscope before they have fully evaluated the other modalities.^ Bednar B. Hemodialysis monitoring and evaluation of therapy: review of clinical indicators and use of data collection tools.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This process is often used in labeling saccharides with fluorescent molecules or other tags such as biotin.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

The clinical examination involves study of:
It is likely to be focussed on areas of interest highlighted in the medical history and may not include everything listed above.
Laboratory and imaging studies results may be obtained, if necessary.
.The medical decision-making (MDM) process involves analysis and synthesis of all the above data to come up with a list of possible diagnoses (the differential diagnoses), along with an idea of what needs to be done to obtain a definitive diagnosis that would explain the patient's problem.^ Because not all infants had a computerized tomography (number not provided) or an autopsy (n =1), it is possible that some cases of intraventricular hemorrhage may not have been diagnosed; for the calculations we only used demonstrated cases of intraventricular hemorrhage (in contrast with the authors who assumed that one patient had a hemorrhage).
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Prototypes to Mill runs, off the shelf or custom made, our diverse process capabilities make All Metal Sales, Inc.

^ Burkart J, Haigler S, Caruana R, Hylander B. Usefulness of peritoneal fluid amylase levels in the differential diagnosis of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The treatment plan may include ordering additional laboratory tests and studies, starting therapy, referral to a specialist, or watchful observation.^ It may cause some types of cells to die and is being studied in cancer treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A conditioning regimen may include chemotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy, and radiation to the entire body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These studies test new methods of screening, prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Follow-up may be advised.
This process is used by primary care providers as well as specialists. It may take only a few minutes if the problem is simple and straightforward. .On the other hand, it may take weeks in a patient who has been hospitalized with bizarre symptoms or multi-system problems, with involvement by several specialists.^ Patients who died before four weeks (n=48) were excluded from all other outcomes.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ When a person is sick, their body may need extra calories to fight fever or other problems.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A health professional who takes care of patients.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

On subsequent visits, the process may be repeated in an abbreviated manner to obtain any new history, symptoms, physical findings, and lab or imaging results or specialist consultations.

Institutions

Contemporary medicine is in general conducted within health care systems. Legal, credentialing and financing frameworks are established by individual governments, augmented on occasion by international organizations. .The characteristics of any given health care system have significant impact on the way medical care is provided.^ Sheingold S, Churchill D, Muirhead N, Laupacis A, Labelle R, Goeree R. The impact of recombinant human erythropoietin on medical care costs for hemodialysis patients in Canada.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Advanced industrial countries (with the exception of the United States) [24][25] and many developing countries provide medical services though a system of universal health care which aims to guarantee care for all through a single-payer health care system, or compulsory private or co-operative health insurance. This is intended to ensure that the entire population has access to medical care on the basis of need rather than ability to pay. .Delivery may be via private medical practices or by state-owned hospitals and clinics, or by charities; most commonly by a combination of all three.^ Besarab A, McCrea JB. Evolution of recombinant human erythropoietin usage in clinical practice in the United States.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Most tribal societies, but also some communist countries (e.g. China) and the United States,[24][25] provide no guarantee of health care for the population as a whole. .In such societies, health care is available to those that can afford to pay for it or have self insured it (either directly or as part of an employment contract) or who may be covered by care financed by the government or tribe directly.^ A health professional who takes care of patients.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They may give care at home or in a hospital or other health care setting.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical researchers may also do research on how health care practices affect health and disease.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Modern drug ampoules
Transparency of information is another factor defining a delivery system. .Access to information on conditions, treatments, quality and pricing greatly affects the choice by patients / consumers and therefore the incentives of medical professionals.^ A symptom or medical condition that makes a particular treatment or procedure inadvisable because a person is likely to have a bad reaction.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Guidelines developed to help health care professionals and patients make decisions about screening, prevention, or treatment of a specific health condition.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also being studied in the treatment of other medical conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

While the US health care system has come under fire for lack of openness,[26] new legislation may encourage greater openness. .There is a perceived tension between the need for transparency on the one hand and such issues as patient confidentiality and the possible exploitation of information for commercial gain on the other.^ For a specific issue, a panel of experts (such as doctors and scientists) reviews reports and papers on the subject, listens to information presented by other experts in the field, and hears comments from the general public.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Currently, there are a handful of marijuana producers licensed to grow marijuana and give the product away to about 500 licensed medical marijuana patients.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rick had a conversation with one of the doctors who prescribes marijuana to patients with PTSD. It is possible that we will become involved in a marijuana/PTSD study in Israel, which will complement and clarify our other MDMA/PTSD Studies.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Delivery

Provision of medical care is classified into primary, secondary and tertiary care categories.
.Primary care medical services are provided by physicians, physician assistants,Nurse Practitioners, or other health professionals who have first contact with a patient seeking medical treatment or care.^ Adair C, Lappin TR, Cotes PM. Changes in concentrations of ATP and other nucleotides in erythrocytes during erythropoietin treatment in haemodialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Holley JL, Nespor SL. Nephrologist-directed primary health care in chronic dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sheingold S, Churchill D, Muirhead N, Laupacis A, Labelle R, Goeree R. The impact of recombinant human erythropoietin on medical care costs for hemodialysis patients in Canada.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

These occur in physician offices, clinics, nursing homes, schools, home visits and other places close to patients. .About 90% of medical visits can be treated by the primary care provider.^ Read about the struggle to begin medical marijuana research in the 90’s.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.These include treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes.^ Holley JL, Nespor SL. Nephrologist-directed primary health care in chronic dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Secondary care medical services are provided by medical specialists in their offices or clinics or at local community hospitals for a patient referred by a primary care provider who first diagnosed or treated the patient.^ Holley JL, Nespor SL. Nephrologist-directed primary health care in chronic dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sheingold S, Churchill D, Muirhead N, Laupacis A, Labelle R, Goeree R. The impact of recombinant human erythropoietin on medical care costs for hemodialysis patients in Canada.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Referrals are made for those patients who required the expertise or procedures performed by specialists. These include both ambulatory care and inpatient services, emergency rooms, intensive care medicine, surgery services, physical therapy, labor and delivery, endoscopy units, diagnostic laboratory and medical imaging services, hospice centers, etc. .Some primary care providers may also take care of hospitalized patients and deliver babies in a secondary care setting.^ Because not all infants had a computerized tomography (number not provided) or an autopsy (n =1), it is possible that some cases of intraventricular hemorrhage may not have been diagnosed; for the calculations we only used demonstrated cases of intraventricular hemorrhage (in contrast with the authors who assumed that one patient had a hemorrhage).
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Giving extra vitamin E to preterm babies can provide some benefits, but it increases the risk of life-threatening infections.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Malberti F, Surian M, Cosci P. Effect of chronic intravenous calcitriol on parathyroid function and set point of calcium in dialysis patients with refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Tertiary care medical services are provided by specialist hospitals or regional centers equipped with diagnostic and treatment facilities not generally available at local hospitals.^ The facility will be directed by an Israeli medical marijuana advocate, and has been authorized by the Israeli Ministry of Health to provide marijuana only to medical marijuana patients formally approved by the Ministry.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Meanwhile, some useful data is being gathered from the patients provided medicine by the facility and more doctors and patients are becoming comfortable with medical marijuana use.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A way to provide an investigational therapy to a patient who is not eligible to receive that therapy in a clinical trial, but who has a serious or life-threatening illness for which other treatments are not available.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These include trauma centers, burn treatment centers, advanced neonatology unit services, organ transplants, high-risk pregnancy, radiation oncology, etc.^ Dumler F, Schmidt RJ, Cruz C, Faber M, Zasuwa G. Single center success with a high risk peritoneal dialysis population.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Modern medical care also depends on information - still delivered in many health care settings on paper records, but increasingly nowadays by electronic means.^ They may give care at home or in a hospital or other health care setting.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Branches

Working together as an interdisciplinary team, many highly-trained health professionals besides medical practitioners are involved in the delivery of modern health care. Examples include: nurses, emergency medical technicians and paramedics, laboratory scientists, (pharmacy, pharmacists), (physiotherapy,physiotherapists), respiratory therapists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, radiographers, dietitians and bioengineers.
.The scope and sciences underpinning human medicine overlap many other fields.^ A redox-silent analog of vitamin E. Induces apoptosis in a number of cell lines including mesothelioma, PC3 human prostate cancer cells and many others.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Doblin said there are potentially many other medicinal uses of marijuana, including the treatment of multiple sclerosis and AIDS-related neuropathy.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Dentistry, while a separate discipline from medicine, is considered a medical field.
.A patient admitted to hospital is usually under the care of a specific team based on their main presenting problem, e.g.^ Guidelines developed to help health care professionals and patients make decisions about screening, prevention, or treatment of a specific health condition.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

the Cardiology team, who then may interact with other specialties, e.g. surgical, radiology, to help diagnose or treat the main problem or any subsequent complications / developments.
.Physicians have many specializations and subspecializations into certain branches of medicine, which are listed below.^ Voth's main point was that marijuana has so many ingredients that it can't possibly be made into a medicine.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

There are variations from country to country regarding which specialties certain subspecialties are in.
The main branches of medicine used in Wikipedia are:

Basic sciences

  • Anatomy is the study of the physical structure of organisms. .In contrast to macroscopic or gross anatomy, cytology and histology are concerned with microscopic structures.
  • Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry taking place in living organisms, especially the structure and function of their chemical components.
  • Biostatistics is the application of statistics to biological fields in the broadest sense.^ Useful for comparative structure and function studies.
    • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Most chemical reactions in a cell take place in the cytoplasm.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The sum of all chemical changes that take place in a cell through which energy and basic components are provided for essential processes, including the synthesis of new molecules and the breakdown and removal of others.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    A knowledge of biostatistics is essential in the planning, evaluation, and interpretation of medical research. .It is also fundamental to epidemiology and evidence-based medicine.
  • Cytology is the microscopic study of individual cells.
  • Embryology is the study of the early development of organisms.
  • Epidemiology is the study of the demographics of disease processes, and includes, but is not limited to, the study of epidemics.
  • Genetics is the study of genes, and their role in biological inheritance.
  • Histology is the study of the structures of biological tissues by light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry.
  • Immunology is the study of the immune system, which includes the innate and adaptive immune system in humans, for example.
  • Medical physics is the study of the applications of physics principles in medicine.
  • Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, including protozoa, bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
  • Neuroscience includes those disciplines of science that are related to the study of the nervous system.^ Unusual aminoquinone with activity against bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and tumor cells.
    • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Neopterin levels are related to the activity of the cellular immune system.
    • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Singh AB, Singh M, Palekar S, Levy S, Nunn C, Mann RA. The effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on the cell mediated immune response of renal failure patients.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    A main focus of neuroscience is the biology and physiology of the human brain and spinal cord.
  • Nutrition science (theoretical focus) and dietetics (practical focus) is the study of the relationship of food and drink to health and disease, especially in determining an optimal diet. Medical nutrition therapy is done by dietitians and is prescribed for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, weight and eating disorders, allergies, malnutrition, and neoplastic diseases.
  • Pathology as a science is the study of disease—the causes, course, progression and resolution thereof.
  • Pharmacology is the study of drugs and their actions.
  • Physiology is the study of the normal functioning of the body and the underlying regulatory mechanisms.
  • Toxicology is the study of hazardous effects of drugs and poisons.

Specialties

.In the broadest meaning of "medicine", there are many different specialties.^ There are many different types and causes of cataracts.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

In the UK most specialities will have their own body or college (collectively known as the Royal Colleges, although currently not all use the term "Royal") which have their own entrance exam. The development of a speciality is often driven by new technology (such as the development of effective anaesthetics) or ways of working (e.g. emergency departments) which leads to the desire to form a unifying body of doctors and thence the prestige of administering their own exam.
Within medical circles, specialities usually fit into one of two broad categories: "Medicine" and "Surgery." "Medicine" refers to the practice of non-operative medicine, and most subspecialties in this area require preliminary training in "Internal Medicine". In the UK this would traditionally have been evidenced by obtaining the MRCP (An exam allowing Membership of the Royal College of Physicians or the equivalent college in Scotland or Ireland). "Surgery" refers to the practice of operative medicine, and most subspecialties in this area require preliminary training in "General Surgery." (In the UK: Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (MRCS).)There are some specialties of medicine that at the present time do not fit easily into either of these categories, such as radiology, pathology, or anesthesia. Most of these have branched from one or other of the two camps above - for example anaesthesia developed first as a faculty of the Royal College of Surgeons (for which MRCS/FRCS would have been required) before becoming the Royal College of Anaesthetists and membership of the college is by sitting the FRCA (Fellowship of the Royal College of Anesthetists).

Surgery

Surgical specialties employ operative treatment. In addition, surgeons must decide when an operation is necessary, and also treat many non-surgical issues, particularly in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU), where a variety of critical issues arise. Surgery has many subspecialties, e.g. .general surgery, cardiovascular surgery, colorectal surgery, neurosurgery, maxillofacial surgery, orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, oncologic surgery, transplant surgery, trauma surgery, urology, vascular surgery, and pediatric surgery. In some centers, anesthesiology is part of the division of surgery (for historical and logistical reasons), although it is not a surgical discipline.^ Didlake R, Curry E, Rigdon EE, Raju S, Bower J. Outpatient vascular access surgery: impact of a dialysis unit-based surgical facility.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Surgical training in the U.S. requires a minimum of five years of residency after medical school. Sub-specialties of surgery often require seven or more years. In addition, fellowships can last an additional one to three years. Because post-residency fellowships can be competitive, many trainees devote two additional years to research. .Thus in some cases surgical training will not finish until more than a decade after medical school.^ Thus, when a monopoly supplier denies supplies to legitimate demanders, there is a very significant impairment of competition -- more significant than if the supplier merely levied a monopoly price.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Associated Press article, " Federal Appeals Court OKs Medical Marijuana in Some Cases" November 26, 2003.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Meanwhile, some useful data is being gathered from the patients provided medicine by the facility and more doctors and patients are becoming comfortable with medical marijuana use.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Furthermore, surgical training can be very difficult and time consuming.

'Medicine' as a specialty

Internal medicine is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, management and nonsurgical treatment of unusual or serious diseases, either of one particular organ system or of the body as a whole. According to some sources, an emphasis on internal structures is implied.[27] In North America, specialists in internal medicine are commonly called "internists". Elsewhere, especially in Commonwealth nations, such specialists are often called physicians.[28] These terms, internist or physician (in the narrow sense, common outside North America), generally exclude practitioners of gynecology and obstetrics, pathology, psychiatry, and especially surgery and its subspecialities.
Because their patients are often seriously ill or require complex investigations, internists do much of their work in hospitals. Formerly, many internists were not subspecialized; such general physicians would see any complex nonsurgical problem; this style of practice has become much less common. In modern urban practice, most internists are subspecialists: that is, they generally limit their medical practice to problems of one organ system or to one particular area of medical knowledge. For example, gastroenterologists and nephrologists specialize respectively in diseases of the gut and the kidneys.[29]
In Commonwealth and some other countries, specialist pediatricians and geriatricians are also described as specialist physicians (or internists) who have subspecialized by age of patient rather than by organ system. Elsewhere, especially in North America, general pediatrics is often a form of Primary care.
There are many subspecialities (or subdisciplines) of internal medicine:
Training in internal medicine (as opposed to surgical training), varies considerably across the world: see the articles on Medical education and Physician for more details. In North America, it requires at least three years of residency training after medical school, which can then be followed by a one to three year fellowship in the subspecialties listed above. In general, resident work hours in medicine are less than those in surgery, averaging about 60 hours per week in the USA. This difference does not apply in the UK where all doctors are now required by law to work less than 48 hours per week on average.

Diagnostic specialties

.
  • Clinical laboratory sciences are the clinical diagnostic services which apply laboratory techniques to diagnosis and management of patients.^ La Russa A, Bufano G, Cauzzi L, Pecchini P. Non-A, non-B hepatitis: clinical laboratory course in patients on hemodialysis and its correlation with the presence of anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Vasile A, Allegra V, Canciani D, Forchi G, Mengozzi G. Prospective and retrospective assessment of clinical and laboratory parameters in maintenance hemodialysis patients with and without HCV antibodies.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    In the United States these services are supervised by a pathologist. The personnel that work in these medical laboratory departments are technically trained staff who do not hold medical degrees, but who usually hold an undergraduate medical technology degree, who actually perform the tests, assays, and procedures needed for providing the specific services. Subspecialties include Transfusion medicine, Cellular pathology, Clinical chemistry, Hematology, Clinical microbiology and Clinical immunology.
  • Pathology as a medical specialty is the branch of medicine that deals with the study of diseases and the morphologic, physiologic changes produced by them. .As a diagnostic specialty, pathology can be considered the basis of modern scientific medical knowledge and plays a large role in evidence-based medicine.^ The strength of this inference appears strong, based on a large number of randomized patients and no evidence of heterogeneity.
    • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The strength of this inference appears strong, based on a large number of randomized patients (> 1000) and no evidence of heterogeneity.
    • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ On April 28, 2006, a letter to FDA was sent by 24 Members of Congress asking for the scientific basis of the recent statement by FDA on the medicinal potential of marijuana.
    • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Many modern molecular tests such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, gene rearrangements studies and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) fall within the territory of pathology.
  • Radiology is concerned with imaging of the human body, e.g.^ Dueymes JM, Bodenes-Dueymes M, Mahe JL, Herman B. Detection of hepatitis B viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction in dialysis patients.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    by .x-rays, x-ray computed tomography, ultrasonography, and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography.
  • Nuclear medicine is concerned with studying human organ systems by administering radiolabelled substances (radiopharmaceuticals) to the body, which can then be imaged outside the body by a gamma camera or a PET scanner.^ Chan PC, Liu P, Cronin C, Heathcote J, Uldall R. The use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in monitoring total body iron in hemodialysis patients with hemosiderosis treated with erythropoietin and phlebotomy.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ De Marchi S, Cecchin E. Hepatic computed tomography for monitoring the iron status of haemodialysis patients with haemosiderosis treated with recombinant human erythropoietin.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Park JS, Kim SB, Park SK, Lim TH, Lee DK, Hong CD. Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on muscle energy metabolism in patients with end-stage renal disease: a 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Each radiopharmaceutical consists of two parts: a tracer which is specific for the function under study (e.g., neurotransmitter pathway, metabolic pathway, blood flow, or other), and a radionuclide (usually either a gamma-emitter, or a positron emitter). .There is a degree of overlap between nuclear medicine and radiology, as evidenced by the emergence of combined devices such as the PET/CT scanner.
  • Clinical neurophysiology is concerned with testing the physiology or function of the central and peripheral aspects of the nervous system.^ The major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian central nervous system.
    • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Nissenson AR, Nimer SD, Wolcott DL. Recombinant human erythropoietin and renal anemia: molecular biology, clinical efficacy, and nervous system effects.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A competitive antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic synapses in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
    • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

    These kinds of tests can be divided into recordings of: (1) spontaneous or continuously running electrical activity, or (2) stimulus evoked responses. Subspecialties include Electroencephalography, Electromyography, Evoked potential, Nerve conduction study and Polysomnography. Sometimes these tests are performed by techs without a medical degree, but the interpretation of these tests is done by a medical professional.

Other major specialties

The followings are some major medical specialties that do not directly fit into any of the above mentioned groups.
  • Dermatology is concerned with the skin and its diseases. .In the UK, dermatology is a subspecialty of general medicine.
  • Emergency medicine is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of acute or life-threatening conditions, including trauma, surgical, medical, pediatric, and psychiatric emergencies.
  • Family medicine, family practice, general practice or primary care is, in many countries, the first port-of-call for patients with non-emergency medical problems.
  • Obstetrics and gynecology (often abbreviated as OB/GYN (American English) or Obs & Gynae (British English)) are concerned respectively with childbirth and the female reproductive and associated organs.^ Allegra V, Mengozzi G, Vasile A. Iron deficiency in maintenance hemodialysis patients: assessment of diagnosis criteria and of three different iron treatments.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Pannekeet MM, Krediet RT, Boeschoten EW, Arisz L. Acute pancreatitis in patients on CAPD treatment.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A novel non-thiol-based NO donor which releases NO under physiological conditions with a half-life of 1.7 minutes.
    • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

    Reproductive medicine and fertility medicine are generally practiced by gynecological specialists.
  • Medical Genetics is concerned with the diagnosis and management of hereditary disorders.
  • Neurology is concerned with diseases of the nervous system. .In the UK, neurology is a subspecialty of general medicine.
  • Ophthalmology exclusively concerned with the eye and ocular adnexa, combining conservative and surgical therapy.
  • Pediatrics (AE) or paediatrics (BE) is devoted to the care of infants, children, and adolescents.^ Campos A, Garin EH. Therapy of renal anemia in children and adolescents with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO).
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Goren A, Stankiewicz H, Goldstein R, Drukker A. Fish oil treatment of hyperlipidemia in children and adolescents receiving renal replacement therapy.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Like internal medicine, there are many pediatric subspecialties for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease classes, and sites of care delivery.
  • Physical medicine and rehabilitation (or physiatry) is concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or congenital disorders.
  • Psychiatry is the branch of medicine concerned with the bio-psycho-social study of the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cognitive, perceptual, emotional and behavioral disorders.^ Schneider MS, Friend R, Whitaker P, Wadhwa NK. Fluid noncompliance and symptomatology in end-stage renal disease: cognitive and emotional variables.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A review of its pharmacology and clinical applications in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Related non-medical fields include psychotherapy and clinical psychology.
  • Preventive medicine is the branch of medicine concerned with preventing disease.

Interdisciplinary fields

Some interdisciplinary sub-specialties of medicine include:
.
  • Addiction medicine deals with the treatment of addiction.
  • Bioethics is a field of study which concerns the relationship between biology, science, medicine and ethics, philosophy and theology.
  • Biomedical Engineering is a field dealing with the application of engineering principles to medical practice.
  • Clinical pharmacology is concerned with how systems of therapeutics interact with patients.
  • Conservation medicine studies the relationship between human and animal health, and environmental conditions.^ A review of its pharmacology and clinical applications in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Besarab A, McCrea JB. Evolution of recombinant human erythropoietin usage in clinical practice in the United States.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Qureshi GA, Baig SM. Application of high performance liquid chromatography in study of sulphur amino acid metabolism in uremic patients.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Also known as ecological medicine, environmental medicine, or medical geology.
  • Disaster medicine deals with medical aspects of emergency preparedness, disaster mitigation and management.
  • Diving medicine (or hyperbaric medicine) is the prevention and treatment of diving-related problems.
  • Evolutionary medicine is a perspective on medicine derived through applying evolutionary theory.
  • Forensic medicine deals with medical questions in legal context, such as determination of the time and cause of death.
  • Gender-based medicine studies the biological and physiological differences between the human sexes and how that affects differences in disease.
  • Hospital medicine is the general medical care of hospitalized patients.^ Mailloux LU, Bellucci AG, Wilkes BM, Napolitano B, Mossey RT, Lesser M, Bluestone PA. Mortality in dialysis patients: analysis of the causes of death.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ McMahon LP, Dawborn JK. Subjective quality of life assessment in hemodialysis patients at different levels of hemoglobin following use of recombinant human erythropoietin.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Besarab A, Golper TA. Response of continuous peritoneal dialysis patients to subcutaneous recombinant human erythropoietin differs from that of hemodialysis patients.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Physicians whose primary professional focus is hospital medicine are called hospitalists in the USA.
  • Laser medicine involves the use of lasers in the diagnostics and/or treatment of various conditions.
  • Medical humanities includes the humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history and religion), social science (anthropology, cultural studies, psychology, sociology), and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts) and their application to medical education and practice.
  • Medical informatics, medical computer science, medical information and eHealth are relatively recent fields that deal with the application of computers and information technology to medicine.
  • Nosology is the classification of diseases for various purposes.
  • Nosokinetics is the science/subject of measuring and modelling the process of care in health and social care systems.
  • Pain management (also called pain medicine, or algiatry) is the medical discipline concerned with the relief of pain.
  • Palliative care is a relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure.
  • Pharmacogenomics is a form of individualized medicine.
  • Sexual medicine is concerned with diagnosing, assessing and treating all disorders related to sexuality.
  • Sports medicine deals with the treatment and preventive care of athletes, amateur and professional.^ Vaso- and cardioprotective agent used clinically to treat venous disorders.
    • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A review of its pharmacology and clinical applications in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Clinically used for treatment of depression and anxiety.
    • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The team includes specialty physicians and surgeons, athletic trainers, physical therapists, coaches, other personnel, and, of course, the athlete.
  • Therapeutics is the field, more commonly referenced in earlier periods of history, of the various remedies that can be used to treat disease and promote health [2].
  • Travel medicine or emporiatrics deals with health problems of international travelers or travelers across highly different environments.
  • Urgent care focuses on delivery of unscheduled, walk-in care outside of the hospital emergency department for injuries and illnesses that are not severe enough to require care in an emergency department.^ Used with L-DOPA as a Parkinson's disease therapeutic.
    • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The active agent in a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat chronic myelocytic leukemia.
    • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bis-coclaurine alkaloid used for centuries in Chinese traditional medicine for cardiovascular diseases.
    • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

    In some jurisdictions this function is combined with the emergency room.
  • Veterinary medicine; veterinarians apply similar techniques as physicians to the care of animals.
  • Wilderness medicine entails the practice of medicine in the wild, where conventional medical facilities may not be available.
  • Many other health science fields, e.g. dietetics

Education

Painted by Toulouse-Lautrec in the year of his own death: an examination in the Paris faculty of medicine, 1901
Medical education and training varies around the world. It typically involves entry level education at a university medical school, followed by a period of supervised practice or internship, and/or residency. This can be followed by postgraduate vocational training. A variety of teaching methods have been employed in medical education, still itself a focus of active research.
Many regulatory authorities require continuing medical education, since knowledge, techniques and medical technology continue to evolve at a rapid rate.

Legal controls

In most countries, it is a legal requirement for a medical doctor to be licensed or registered. .In general, this entails a medical degree from a university and accreditation by a medical board or an equivalent national organization, which may ask the applicant to pass exams.^ The University of Massachusetts-Amherst is one of the nation's distinguished research universities, and it is highly qualified to manufacture marijuana for legitimate medical and research purposes with effective controls against diversion.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.This restricts the considerable legal authority of the medical profession to physicians that are trained and qualified by national standards.^ The University of Massachusetts-Amherst is one of the nation's distinguished research universities, and it is highly qualified to manufacture marijuana for legitimate medical and research purposes with effective controls against diversion.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

It is also intended as an assurance to patients and as a safeguard against charlatans that practice inadequate medicine for personal gain. While the laws generally require medical doctors to be trained in "evidence based", Western, or Hippocratic Medicine, they are not intended to discourage different paradigms of health.
.Doctors who are negligent or intentionally harmful in their care of patients can face charges of medical malpractice and be subject to civil, criminal, or professional sanctions.^ Sheingold S, Churchill D, Muirhead N, Laupacis A, Labelle R, Goeree R. The impact of recombinant human erythropoietin on medical care costs for hemodialysis patients in Canada.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Controversy

.The Catholic social theorist Ivan Illich subjected contemporary western medicine to detailed attack in his Medical Nemesis, first published in 1975. He argued that the medicalization in recent decades of so many of life's vicissitudes — birth and death, for example — frequently caused more harm than good and rendered many people in effect lifelong patients.^ Published information on reveromycin D suggests that it is more active than its straight chain analogue, reveromycin C. .
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Data suggests the presence of the epoxide renders this metabolite more active than cytochalasin D in inhibition of tumor cell growth in vitro.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mailloux LU, Bellucci AG, Wilkes BM, Napolitano B, Mossey RT, Lesser M, Bluestone PA. Mortality in dialysis patients: analysis of the causes of death.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.He marshalled a body of statistics to show what he considered the shocking extent of post-operative side-effects and drug-induced illness in advanced industrial society.^ Shows multiple effects on vascular smooth muscle cells, myocardial cells, endothelial cells and white blood cells after shock.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Potent antagonist of L-AP4-induced effects in rat spinal cord, thalamic and hippocampal neurons, showing selectivity over (1S,3S)-ACPD-induced effects.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

He was the first to introduce to a wider public the notion of iatrogenesis.[30] Others have since voiced similar views, but none so trenchantly, perhaps, as Illich.[31]
.Through the course of the twentieth century, healthcare providers focused increasingly on the technology that was enabling them to make dramatic improvements in patients' health.^ These investors are gambling that they can make money providing marijuana extracts to the pharmaceutical industry, since they can grow marijuana for this purpose as well as for free distribution to patients.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These facilities have permits from the Israeli Ministry of Health to provide marijuana for free to Ministry-approved patients.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The facility will be directed by an Israeli medical marijuana advocate, and has been authorized by the Israeli Ministry of Health to provide marijuana only to medical marijuana patients formally approved by the Ministry.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.The ensuing development of a more mechanistic, detached practice, with the perception of an attendant loss of patient-focused care, known as the medical model of health, led to criticisms that medicine was neglecting a holistic model.^ A validation study is more appropriate for developing the Volcano vaporizer as a medical device, a task best left to the manufacturer of that vaporizer.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Under the direction of the Knesset (Israels legislative body), the Israeli Ministry of Health is considering allowing medical marijuana producers to sell marijuana to Ministry of Health approved patients.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A health professional who takes care of patients.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed] The inability of modern medicine to properly address some common complaints continues to prompt many people to seek support from alternative medicine. Although most alternative approaches lack scientific validation, some, notably acupuncture for some conditions and certain herbs, are backed by evidence.[32]
Medical errors and overmedication are also the focus of complaints and negative coverage. .Practitioners of human factors engineering believe that there is much that medicine may usefully gain by emulating concepts in aviation safety, where it is recognized that it is dangerous to place too much responsibility on one "superhuman" individual and expect him or her not to make errors.^ Besarab A, Besarab FM, Miller D. Effects of dialysis factors and route of administration on response of hemodialysis patients to recombinant human erythropoietin.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Reporting systems and checking mechanisms are becoming more common in identifying sources of error and improving practice. Clinical versus statistical, algorithmic diagnostic methods were famously examined in psychiatric practice in a 1954 book by Paul E. Meehl, which controversially found statistical methods superior.[33] A 2000 meta-analysis comparing these methods in both psychology and medicine found that statistical or "mechanical" diagnostic methods were generally, although not always, superior.[33]
Disparities in quality of care given are often an additional cause of controversy.[34] .For example, elderly mentally ill patients received poorer care during hospitalization in a 2008 study.^ Davenport A, Will EJ, Davidson AM. Improved cardiovascular stability during continuous modes of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute hepatic and renal failure.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Asai K, Miura S, Kawahara H, Toriyama T, Kuzuya F. A comparative study of atherosclerosis and osteopenia in elderly and young hemodialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Brown JM. Nursing care of predialysis patients receiving epoetin alfa.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[35] Rural poor African-American men were used in a study of syphilis that denied them basic medical care.

See also

References

  1. ^ Etymology: Latin: medicina, from ars medicina "the medical art," from medicus "physician."(Etym.Online) Cf. mederi "to heal," etym. "know the best course for," from PIE base *med- "to measure, limit. Cf. Greek medos "counsel, plan," Avestan vi-mad "physician")
  2. ^ "Medicine" Online Etymology Dictionary
  3. ^ Culliford Larry (December 2002). "Spirituality and clinical care (Editorial)". British Medical Journal 325 (7378): 1434–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7378.1434. PMID 12493652. 
  4. ^ Prof. Arjuna Aluvihare, "Rohal Kramaya Lovata Dhayadha Kale Sri Lankikayo" Vidhusara Science Magazine, Nov. 1993.
  5. ^ Resource Mobilization in Sri Lanka's Health Sector - Rannan-Eliya, Ravi P. & De Mel, Nishan, Harvard School of Public Health & Health Policy Programme, Institute of Policy Studies , February 1997, Page 19. Accessed 2008-02-22.
  6. ^ Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus., U.S. National Library of Medicine
  7. ^ The father of modern medicine: the first research of the physical factor of tetanus, European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  8. ^ Grammaticos P.C. & Diamantis A. (2008). "Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus". Hell J Nucl Med 11 (1): 2–4. PMID 18392218. 
  9. ^ The father of modern medicine: the first research of the physical factor of tetanus, European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  10. ^ Mostafa Shehata, MD (2004), "The Father of Medicine: A Historical Reconsideration", J Med Ethics 12, p. 171-176 [176].
  11. ^ How Imhotep gave us medicine, The Daily Telegraph, 10/05/2007.
  12. ^ Jimmy Dunn, Imhotep, Doctor, Architect, High Priest, Scribe and Vizier to King Djoser.[1]
  13. ^ Garrison 1966, p. 97
  14. ^ Martí-Ibáñez 1961, p. 90
  15. ^ Becka J (1980). "The father of medicine, Avicenna, in our science and culture: Abu Ali ibn Sina (980-1037) (Czech title: Otec lékarů Avicenna v nasí vĕdĕ a kulture)" (in Czech). Cas Lek Cesk 119 (1): 17–23. PMID 6989499. 
  16. ^ Medical Practitioners
  17. ^ Martín-Araguz A, Bustamante-Martínez C, Fernández-Armayor Ajo V, Moreno-Martínez JM (2002-05-01—15). "Neuroscience in al-Andalus and its influence on medieval scholastic medicine" (in Spanish). Revista de neurología 34 (9): 877–892. PMID 12134355. 
  18. ^ On the dominance of the Greek humoral theory, which was the basis for the practice of bloodletting, in medieval Islamic medicine see Peter E. Pormann and E. Savage Smith,Medieval Islamic medicine, Georgetown University, Washington DC, 2007 p. 10, 43-45.
  19. ^ Michael Dols has shown that the Black Death was much more commonly believed by European authorities than by Middle Eastern authorities to be contagious; as a result, flight was more commonly counseled, and in urban Italy quarantines were organized on a much wider level than in urban Egypt or Syria (The Black Death in the Middle East Princeton, 1977, p. 119; 285-290.
  20. ^ Peter Cooper, "Medicinal properties of body parts", The Pharmaceutical Journal, 18/25 December 2004, Vol. 273 / No 7330, pp. 900-902 http://www.pharmj.com/editorial/20041218/christmas/p900bodyparts.html
  21. ^ Ezzo J, Bausell B, Moerman DE, Berman B, Hadhazy V (2001). "Reviewing the reviews. How strong is the evidence? How clear are the conclusions?". Int J Technol Assess Health Care 17 (4): 457–466. PMID 11758290. 
  22. ^ a b Coulehan JL, Block MR (2005). The Medical Interview: Mastering Skills for Clinical Practice (5th ed.). F. A. Davis. ISBN 0-8036-1246-X. OCLC 232304023. 
  23. ^ Addison K, Braden JH, Cupp JE, Emmert D, et al. (AHIMA e-HIM Work Group on the Legal Health Record) (September 2005). "Update: Guidelines for Defining the Legal Health Record for Disclosure Purposes". Journal of AHIMA 78 (8): 64A–G. PMID 16245584. http://library.ahima.org/xpedio/groups/public/documents/ahima/bok1_027921.hcsp?dDocName=bok1_027921. 
  24. ^ a b Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations, Institute of Medicine at the National Academies of Science, 2004-01-14
  25. ^ a b "The Case For Single Payer, Universal Health Care For The United States". Cthealth.server101.com. http://cthealth.server101.com/the_case_for_universal_health_care_in_the_united_states.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  26. ^ Martin Sipkoff (January 2004). "Transparency called key to uniting cost control, quality improvement". Managed Care. http://www.managedcaremag.com/archives/0401/0401.forum.html. 
  27. ^ internal medicine at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  28. ^ H.W. Fowler. (1994). A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (Wordsworth Collection) (Wordsworth Collection). NTC/Contemporary Publishing Company. ISBN 1853263184. 
  29. ^ "The Royal Australasian College of Physicians: What are Physicians?". Royal Australasian College of Physicians. Archived from the original on 2008-03-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20080306053048/http://www.racp.edu.au/index.cfm?objectid=49EF1EB5-2A57-5487-D74DBAFBAE9143A3. Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  30. ^ Illich Ivan (1974). Medical Nemesis. London: Calder & Boyars. ISBN 0714510963. OCLC 224760852. 
  31. ^ [[Neil Postman |Postman Neil]] (1992). Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. New York: Knopf. OCLC 24694343. 
  32. ^ The HealthWatch Award 2005: Prof. Edzard Ernst, Complementary medicine: the good the bad and the ugly. Retrieved 5 August 2006.
  33. ^ a b Grove WH, Zald DH, Lebow BS, Snitz BE, Nelson C. (2000). "Clinical versus mechanical prediction: A meta-analysis" (w). Psychological Assessment 12 (1): 19–30. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.12.1.19. PMID 10752360. http://www.psych.umn.edu/faculty/grove/096clinicalversusmechanicalprediction.pdf. 
  34. ^ "Eliminating Health Disparities". American Medical Association. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/public-health/eliminating-health-disparities.shtml. 
  35. ^ "Mental Disorders, Quality of Care, and Outcomes Among Older Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure". http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/65/12/1402. 

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Wherever the art of medicine is loved, there also is love of humanity. ~ Hippocrates
Medicine is the art and science of healing.

Historical quotes

  • Tum medicinali tantum florebat in arte, posset ut hic nullus languor hobere locum
  • If you know neither the terminology nor the concepts, you're ignorant. If you know the terminology, but you don't know the concepts, you're dangerous. .
  • The unbiased opinion of most medical men of sound judgment and long experience...[holds that] the amount of death and disaster in the world would be less, if all disease were left to itself.^ Huting J, Alpert MA. Course of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in end- stage renal disease on long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    • Harvard professor Jacob Bigelow, 1835.
  • Cured yesterday of my disease, I died last night of my physician.
  • Our diseases are so old fashioned, they can't keep up with the new medicines.
    • Leonid S. Sukhorukov All About Everything
  • Modern medicine is a negation of health. .It isn’t organised to serve human health, but only itself, as an institution.^ Copyright , Privacy , Accessibility U.S. National Library of Medicine , 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 National Institutes of Health , Health & Human Services .
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH  AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service National Institutes of Health .
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    It makes more people sick than it heals.
  • The World's most powerful army is the Army of Medicine, as it is fighting against a real enemy, the most powerful one: The Death!
  • I firmly believe that if the whole material medica, as now used, could be sunk to the bottom of the sea, it would be better for mankind-and all the worse for the fishes.
  • The college-birs are three
    Law, Physic and Divinity
    And while these three remain combined,
    They keep the world oppressed and blind...
    Now is the time to be set free,
    From priests' and Doctors' slavery.
    • 19th century rhyme associated with the Thomsonian movement
  • The ignorance and general incompetency of the average graduate of the American medical Schools, at the time when he receives the degree which turns him loose upon the community, is something horrible to contemplate.
    • Charles Eliot, President of Harvard University, 1869
      • In response to this call for reform, Harvard Professor of Surgery Harold Bigelow replied "He actually proposes to have written examinations for the degree of doctor of medicine. I had to tell him that he knew nothing about the quality of Harvard medical students. More than half of them can barely write. Of course they can't pass written examinations...No medical school has thought it proper to risk large existing classes and larger receipts by introducing more rigorous standards."
  • We should not encourage the medical student to while away his time in the labyrinths of Chemistry and Physiology.
    • Harvard Medical School professor, 1871.
  • History is replete with examples of what happens when any group of authorities do not have to answer to empirical evidence but are free to define truth as they see fit. None of the examples has a happy ending. Why should it be otherwise with therapy? .
    • Robert Todd Carroll, The Skeptic's Dictionary, entry on "repressed memory therapy (RMT)"
  • The objective of medicine is not the knowledge of the Disease, but the relieve of the suffering due to it
    • Miguel Ángel García, spanish medical doctor
  • From inability to let well alone; from too much zeal for the new and contempt for what is old; from putting knowledge before wisdom, science before art and cleverness before common sense; from treating patients as cases; and from making the cure of the disease more grievous than the endurance of the same, Good Lord, deliver us.^ Contributing to an increase in the overall size of the national ESRD program is the increased acceptance of patients, a greater incidence among older Americans, and an improvement in the survival of patients with ESRD.  For example, during 1990 more than 195,000 Americans were treated for end-stage renal disease under the Medicare program.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Makoff R. Water-soluble vitamin status in patients with renal disease treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
    • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Prepared by enzymatic phosphorylation of 5'-GMP. This salt form is much more stable than the sodium salt.
    • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

    • Sir Robert Hutchison, 20th century physician, British Medical Journal, 1953; 1: 671.
  • The closest most doctors will ever get to empathy is cuddling a hot water bottle; the closest thing to their hearts are usually their wallets.
    • Swami Raj
  • Medicine, the only profession that labours incessantly to destroy the reason for its existence.
    • James Bryce
  • The only real difference between medicine and poison is the dose....and intent.
    • Oscar G. Hernandez, MD
  • Doctors are men who prescribe medicines of which they know little, to cure diseases of which they know less, in human beings of whom they know nothing.
  • Wherever the art of medicine is loved, there also is love of humanity.

Quotes in fiction

  • The smart man knows bandages only hides his wound.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
Wiktionary-logo-en.png
Look up medicine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Crystal Clear app kaddressbook.png
Please help develop this page
This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. .If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ If you do not see what you need for your application, let us know!
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

To help you get started with content, we have automatically added references below to other Wikimedia Foundation projects. This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Medicine" as an educational resource. However, please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects. .You can also use the links in the blue box to help you classify this page by subject, educational level and resource type.^ McMahon LP, Dawborn JK. Subjective quality of life assessment in hemodialysis patients at different levels of hemoglobin following use of recombinant human erythropoietin.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Wikipedia-logo.png Run a search on Medicine at Wikipedia.
Commons-logo.svg Search Wikimedia Commons for images, sounds and other media related to: Medicine
Wikimedia-logo.svg Search for Medicine on the following projects:
Smiley green alien whatface.svg Lost on Wikiversity? Please help by choosing project boxes to classify this resource by:
  • subject
  • educational level
  • resource type

See also


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.MEDICINE. - The science of medicine, as we understand it, has for its province the treatment of disease.^ In medicine, a medical problem that occurs during a disease, or after a procedure or treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The word "medicine" (Lat. medicina: sc. .ars, art of healing, from mederi, to heal) may be used very widely, to include Pathology, the theory of the causation of disease, or, very narrowly, to mean only the drug or form of remedy prescribed by the physician - this being more properly the subject of Therapeutics (q.v.) and Pharmacology. But it is necessary in practice, for historical comprehensiveness, to keep the wider meaning in view.^ A device used to deliver drugs directly to the cervix (the lower, narrow end of the uterus that forms a canal between the uterus and vagina).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cultured cells may be used to diagnose infections, to test new drugs, and in research.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A form of the anticancer drug camptothecin that may have fewer side effects and work better than camptothecin.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Disease (see Pathology) is the correlative of health, and the word is not capable of a more penetrating definition. .From the time of Galen, however, it has been usual to speak of the life of the body either as proceeding in accordance with nature (Kara Ou6cv, secundum naturam) or as overstepping the bounds of nature (irapa OvQCV, praeter naturam). Taking disease to be a deflexion from the line of health, the first requisite of medicine is an extensive and intimate acquaintance with the norm of the body.^ After this happens several times, the first signal alone can cause the response that would usually need the second signal.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A type of kidney tumor that is usually found before birth by ultrasound or within the first 3 months of life.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In medicine, describes the delivery of health care over a period of time.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The structure and functions of the body form the subject of Anatomy (q.v.) and Physiology. The medical art (ars medendi) divides itself into departments and subdepartments.^ These enzymes change many drugs, including anticancer drugs, into less toxic forms that are easier for the body to excrete.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The most fundamental division is into internal and external medicine, or into medicine proper and surgery.^ NIDA uses its monopoly to fundamentally obstruct research aimed at developing marijuana into an FDA-approved prescription medicine.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NIDA's monopoly fundamentally obstructs MAPS research aimed at developing smoked or vaporized marijuana into a prescription medicine.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NIDA's monopoly fundamentally obstructs MAPS research aimed at developing smoked or vaporized marijuana into a prescription medicine .
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.The treatment of wounds, injuries and deformities, with operative interference in general, is the special department of surgical practice (the corresponding parts of pathology, including inflammation, repair, and removable tumours, are sometimes grouped together as surgical pathology); and where the work of the profession is highly subdivided, surgery becomes the exclusive province of the surgeon, while internal medicine remains to the physician.^ Surgery to remove the entire uterus, including the cervix.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

A third great department of practice is formed by obstetric medicine or midwifery (see Obstetrics); and dentistry, or dental surgery, is given up to a distinct branch of the profession.
A state of war, actual or contingent, gives occasion to special developments of medical and surgical practice (military hygiene and military surgery). Wounds caused by projectiles, sabres, &c., are the special subject of naval and military surgery; while under the head of military hygiene we may include the general subject of ambulances, the sanitary arrangements of camps, and the various forms of epidemic camp sickness.
.The administration of the civil and criminal law involves frequent relations with medicine, and the professional subjects most likely to arise in that connexion, together with a summary of causes celebres, are formed into the department of Medical Jurisprudence.^ Research into alternative delivery methods such as vaporization was one of the primary recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's landmark 1999 report on medical marijuana .
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A new medical marijuana DEA Administrative Law Judge hearing was formally launched on Monday, February 7.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lester Grinspoon wrote an excellent paper, "The History of Cannabis as Medicine" for the DEA Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearing starting August 22, 2005.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.In preserving the public health, the medical profession is again brought into direct relation with the state, through the public medical officers.^ Under the direction of the Knesset (Israels legislative body), the Israeli Ministry of Health is considering allowing medical marijuana producers to sell marijuana to Ministry of Health approved patients.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Public Health, Massachusetts Senators Kerry and Kennedy, 38 members of the US House of Representatives, and the California and Texas State Medical Associations, the two largest US state medical associations.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A program of the National Institutes of Health to bring together an independent group of experts to review scientific evidence related to an important public health issue.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

History Of Medicine Medicine a Portrayed in the Homeric Poems. - In the state of society pictured by Homer it is clear that medicine has already had a history. .We find a distinct and organized profession; we find a system of treatment, especially in regard to injuries, which it must have been the work of long experience to frame; we meet with a nomenclature of parts of the body substantially the same (according to Daremberg) as that employed long afterwards in the writings of Hippocrates; in short, we find a science and an organization which, however imperfect as compared with those of later times, are yet very far from being in their beginning.^ Modulates thiol groups in biological systems, especially in those involving cAMP, Ca 2+ and inositol phosphate.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This is incredibly damning since time delays in pharmaceutical drug development are very expensive and substantially impede the process.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The Homeric heroes themselves are repre sented as having considerable skill in surgery, and as able to attend to ordinary wounds and injuries, but there is also a professional class, represented by Machaon and Podalirius, the two sons of Asclepius, who are treated with great respect. It would appear, too, from the Aethiopis of Archinus (quoted by Welcker and Haser) that the duties of these two were not precisely the same. Machaon's task was more especially to heal injuries, while Podalirius had received from .his father the gift of "recognizing what was not visible to the eye, and tending what could not be healed." In other words, a rough indication is seen of the separation of medicine and surgery. Asclepius appears in Homer as a Thessalian king, not as a god, though.in later times divine honours were paid to him. .There is no sign in the Homeric poems of the subordination of medicine to religion which is seen in ancient Egypt and India, nor are priests charged, as they were in those countries, with medical functions - all circumstances which throw grave doubts on the commonly received opinion that medicine derived its origin in all countries from religious observances.^ There seems to be no appeal process at all in the PHS/NIDA review of medical marijuana research proposals and there are certainly no deadlines that compel PHS/NIDA to respond within any reasonable period of time.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There have been no US-based privately-funded marijuana production facilities since 1942, when marijuana was removed from the US Pharmacopoeia and its medical use was prohibited.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As far as we can tell, there has been no US-based privately-funded marijuana production facility since 1942, when marijuana was removed from the US Pharmacopoeia and its medical use was prohibited.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Although the actual organization of medicine among the Homeric Greeks was thus quite distinct from religion, the worship of Asclepius (or Aesculapius) as the god of healing demands some notice. .This cult spread very widely among the Greeks; it had great civil importance, and lasted even into Christian times; but there is no reason to attribute to it any special connexion with the development of the science or profession of medicine.^ There seems to be no appeal process at all in the PHS/NIDA review of medical marijuana research proposals and there are certainly no deadlines that compel PHS/NIDA to respond within any reasonable period of time.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We also got Gust to acknowledge that the priorities of the HHS guidelines for providing marijuana to researchers are clearly skewed away from research aimed at developing marijuana into a medicine in its plant form, with the guidelines even using the word "must" be aimed at developing marijuana extracts.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NIDA uses its monopoly to fundamentally obstruct research aimed at developing marijuana into an FDA-approved prescription medicine.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Sick persons repaired, or were conveyed, to the temples of Asclepius in order to be healed, just as in modern times relief is sought by a devotional pilgrimage or from the waters of some sacred spring, and then as now the healing influence was sometimes sought by deputy. The sick person, or his representative, after ablution, prayer and sacrifice, was made to sleep on the hide of the sacrificed animal, or at the feet of the statue of the god, while sacred rites were performed. In his sleep (incubatio, 1yuou / 7 ra) the appropriate remedy was indicated by a dream. .Moral or dietetic remedies were more often prescribed than drugs.^ The demand for limiting business power springs more often from those who feel themselves at a disadvantage in interbusiness transactions than it does from households ...
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment using more than one anticancer drug.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Crosses the blood-brain barrier more readily than cyclothiazide and diazoxide and is a more potent cognitive enhancing drug.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.The record of the cure was inscribed on the columns or walls of the temple; and it has been thought that in this way was introduced the custom of "recording cases," and that the physicians of the Hippocratic school thus learnt to accumulate clinical experience.^ In case a consumer experiences delay in the arrival of the consignment of generic drugs, we ship the consignment at absolutely no cost to the customer.
  • Prescription Medicines - Prescription Drugs & Medicines, Indian online pharmacy for all type of generic drugs 1 February 2010 1:49 UTC www.alldaychemist.com [Source type: Reference]

But the priests of Asclepius were not physicians. Although the latter were often called Asclepiads, this was in the first place to indicate their real or supposed descent from Asclepius, and in the second place as a complimentary title. No medical writing of antiquity speaks of the worship of Asclepius in such a way as to XVIII. 2 a imply any connexion with the ordinary art of healing. The two systems appear to have existed side by side, but to have been distinct, and if they were ever united it must have been before the times of which we have any record. The theory of a development of Greek medicine from the rites of Asclepius, though defended by eminent names, must accordingly be rejected.
Table of contents

Development of Medicine in Greece

.It is only from non medical writers that anything is known of the development of medicine in Greece before the age of Hippocrates.^ In contrast, vaporizers do eliminate combustion products and address the Institute of Medicine’s 1999 recommendation for the development of non-smoking delivery systems for the medicinal use of marijuana.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This development could have implications for research with medical marijuana, since one of the government’s main arguments has been that no legitimate medicine is smoked.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This development could have implications for research with medical marijuana, since one of the government's main arguments has been that no legitimate medicine is smoked.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The elaborate collections made by Daremberg of medical notices in the poets and historians illustrate the relations of the profession to society, but do little to prepare us for the Hippocratic period. Nor is much importance to be attached to the influence of the philosophical sects on medicine except as regards the school of Pythagoras. That philosopher and several of his successors were physicians, but we do not know in what relation they stood to later medical schools. We must therefore hasten onward to the age of Pericles, in which Hippocrates, already called "the Great," was in medicine as complete a representative of the highest efforts of the Greek intellect as were his contemporaries the great philosophers, orators and tragedians. The medical art as we now practise it, the character of the physician as we now understand it, both date for us from Hippocrates. The justification of this statement is found in the literary collection of writings known by his name. Of these certainly many are falsely ascribed to the historical Hippocrates of Cos; others are almost as certainly rightly so ascribed; others again are clearly works of his school, whether from his hand or not. But which are to be regarded as the "genuine works" is still uncertain, and authorities are conflicting. There are clearly two schools represented in the collection - that of Cnidus in a small proportion, and that of Cos in far the larger number of the works. The latter was that to which Hippocrates belonged, and where he gave instruction; and accordingly it may be taken that works of this school, when not obviously of a different date, are Hippocratic in doctrine if not in actual authorship.

Hippocratic Medicine

The first grand characteristic of Hippocratic medicine is the high conception of the duties and status of the physician, shown in the celebrated "Oath of Hippocrates" and elsewhere - equally free from the mysticism of a priesthood and the vulgar pretensions of a mercenary craft. .So matured a professional sentiment may perhaps have been more the growth of time and organization than the work of an individual genius, but certainly corresponds with the character universally attributed to Hippocrates himself.^ Approximately 100 times more effective than 2,4-dinitrophenol.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Data suggests the presence of the epoxide renders this metabolite more active than cytochalasin D in inhibition of tumor cell growth in vitro.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A condition lasting for more than 6 months in which a person feels tired most of the time and may have trouble concentrating and carrying out daily activities.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The second great quality is the singular artistic skill and balance with which the Hippocratic physician used such materials and tools as he possessed.^ The second part of the resolution says that in states where patients are permitted to use medical marijuana for serious and/or chronic illnesses and the patient's physician has recommended its use in accordance with that state's medical practice standards, that patients should not be subject to federal criminal penalties for such appropriate medical use.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.Here we recognize the true Greek But this artistic completeness was closely connected with the third cardinal virtue of Hippocratic medicine - the clear recognition of disease as being equally with life a process governed by what we should now call natural laws, which could be known by observation, and which indicated the spontaneous and normal direction of recovery, by following which alone could the physician succeed.^ Currently, the only process that could result in marijuana becoming legal as a medicine under federal law is for privately-funded sponsors to conduct scientific research with the aim of obtaining FDA approval for its use as a prescription medicine.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, he admitted that unlike normal peer-review processes, the PHS/NIDA peer review process is composed entirely of government employees, with no outside experts.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the fourth place, these views of the "natural history of disease" (in modern language) led to habits of minute observation and accurate interpretation of symptoms, in which the Hippocratic school was unrivalled in antiquity, and has been the model for all succeeding ages, so that even in these days, with our enormous advances in knowledge, the true method of clinical medicine may be said to be the method of Hippocrates.^ Gallimore B, Gagnon RF, Subang R, Richards GK. Natural history of chronic Staphylococcus epidermidis foreign body infection in a mouse model.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers study the medical and lifestyle histories of the people in each group to learn what factors may be associated with the disease or condition.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In medicine, it may refer to a condition a person has or a medication a person is taking that is not being studied in the clinical trial he or she is taking part in.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The actual science of the Hippocratic school was of course very limited. .In anatomy and physiology little advance had been made, and so of pathology in the sense of an explanation of morbid processes or knowledge of diseased structures there could be very little.^ Despite the structural similarity to fostriecin, there is little comparative data to support a common mode of action.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

The most valuable intellectual possession was a large mass of recorded observations in individual cases and epidemics of disease. .Whether these observations were systematic or individual, and how they were recorded, are points of which we are quite ignorant, as the theory that the votive tablets in the temples supplied such materials must be abandoned.^ The substances in the mixture are separated based on how far they move through the material.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Though the Hippocratic medicine was so largely founded on observation, it would be an error to suppose that dogma or theory had no place. The dominating theory of disease was the humoral, which has never since ceased to influence medical thought and practice. .According to this celebrated theory, the body contains four humours - blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile, a right proportion and mixture of which constitute health; improper proportions or irregular distribution, disease.^ The system that contains the heart and the blood vessels and moves blood throughout the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ According to this type of medicine, the constitution is the specific way a person’s organs affect health and how he or she looks, thinks, behaves, and responds to treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is doubtful whether the treatise in which this theory is fully expounded is as old as Hippocrates himself; but it was regarded as a Hippocratic doctrine, and, when taken up and expanded by Galen, its terms not only became the common property of the profession, but passed into general literature and common language.^ It is taken up by cancer cells and breaks down into 5-fluorouracil, a substance that kills tumor cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Another Hippocratic doctrine, the influence of which is not even yet exhausted, is that of the healing power of nature. Not that Hippocrates taught, as he was afterwards reproached with teaching, that nature is sufficient for the cure of diseases; for he held strongly the efficacy of art. .But he recognized, at least in acute diseases, a natural process which the humours went through - being first of all crude, then passing through coction or digestion, and finally being expelled by resolution or crisis through one of the natural channels of the body.^ In traditional Chinese medicine, meridians are channels that form a network in the body, through which qi (vital energy) flows.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The duty of the physician was to foresee these changes, "to assist or not to hinder them," so that "the sick man might conquer the disease with the help of the physician."^ And that’s just what is starting to happen (but not for the US drug industry or the patients these medicines might help).
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The times at which crises were to be expected were naturally looked for with anxiety; and it was a cardinal point in the Hippocratic system to foretell them with precision. Hippocrates, influenced as is thought by the Pythagorean doctrines of number, taught that they were to be expected on days fixed by certain numerical rules, in some cases on odd, in others on even numbers - the celebrated doctrine of "critical days." This false precision can have had no practical value, but may have enforced habits of minute observation. It follows from what has been said that prognosis, or the art of foretelling the course and event of the disease, was a strong point with the Hippocratic physicians. In this they have perhaps never been excelled. .Diagnosis, or recognition of the disease, must have been necessarily imperfect, when no scientific nosology or system of disease existed, and the knowledge of anatomy was quite inadequate to allow of a precise determination of the seat of disease; but symptoms were no doubt observed and interpreted skilfully.^ A system in which medical doctors and other healthcare professionals (such as nurses, pharmacists, and therapists) treat symptoms and diseases using drugs, radiation, or surgery.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The pulse is not spoken of in any of the works now attributed to Hippocrates himself, though it is mentioned in other works of the collection.
.In the treatment of disease, the Hippocratic school attached great importance to diet, the variations necessary in different diseases being minutely defined.^ Continuous variables were assessed by the weighted mean difference (WMD) between the treatment group and the control group.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cytokines can also be made in the laboratory by recombinant DNA technology and used in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer and heart disease and in the relief of side effects caused by some cancer treatments.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Medicines were regarded as of secondary importance, but not neglected, two hundred and sixty-five drugs being mentioned at different places in the Hippocratic works. Blood-letting was known, but not greatly practised. The highest importance was attached to applying all remedies at the right moment, and the general principle enforced of making all influences - internal and external - co-operate for the relief of the patient. The principles of treatment just mentioned apply more especially to the cure of acute diseases; but they are the most salient characteristics of the Hippocratic school. In chronic cases diet, exercise and natural methods were chiefly relied upon.
.The school of Cnidus, as distinguished from that of Cos, of which Hippocrates is the representative, appears to have differed in attaching more importance to the differences of special diseases, and to have made more use of drugs.^ A drug used to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after organ transplants.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment using more than one anticancer drug.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy uses different drugs to kill or slow the growth of cancer cells; immunotherapy uses treatments to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune system to fight cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

A treatise on the diseases of women, contained in the Hippocratic collection, and of remarkable practical v alue, is attributed to this school.
The above sketch of Hippocratic medicine will make it less necessary to dwell upon the details relating to subsequent medical schools or sects in ancient times. .The general conception of the physician's aim and task remained the same, though, as knowledge increased, there was much divergence both in theory and practice - even opposing schools were found to be developing some part of the Hippocratic system.^ In addition, they expect they will eventually be given permission to sell marijuana to patients, though how much research will have to be conducted first remains to be determined.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Too much cholesterol in the blood may build up in blood vessel walls, block blood flow to tissues and organs, and increase the risk of developing heart disease and stroke.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It kills cancer cells that may be in the brain and spinal cord, even though no cancer has been detected there.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Direct opponents or repudiators of the authority of Hippocrates were rare, all generally appealing to his authority. But, insensibly, the least valuable part of the Hippocratic work, the theory, was made permanent; the most valuable, the practical, neglected.

Post-Hippocratic Medicine

.After Hippocrates the progress of medicine in Greece does not call for any special remark in such a sketch as this, but mention must be made of one great name.^ For example, a chimeric antibody is made by joining antibody genes from two different species, such as human and mouse.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Though none of Aristotle's writings are strictly medical, he has by his researches in anatomy and physiology contributed greatly to the progress of medicine.^ Research into alternative delivery methods such as vaporization was one of the primary recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's landmark 1999 report on medical marijuana .
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "By controlling who can research marijuana and how they can do it, the DEA has greatly limited promising research that could lead to [government] approved medications," Doblin said.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The New York Times published "Medicinal Marijuana On Trial" , discussing medical marijuana research and Ashcroft v.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

It should also be remembered that he was of an Asclepiad family, and received that partly medical education which was traditional in such families, and also himself is said to have practised medicine as an amateur. .Moreover, his works on natural history doubtless furthered the progress among the Greeks of sciences tributary to medicine, though the only specimens of such works which have come down to us from the Peripatetic school are those of Theophrastus, who may be considered the founder of the scientific study of botany.^ But Mr. Alden said only some kinds of marijuana worked - not the weak variety provided by the federal government, which he smoked during a research study.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A member of the clergy in charge of a chapel or who works with the military or with an institution, such as a hospital.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer antigen 125 levels may also help monitor how well cancer treatments are working or if cancer has come back.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Among his encyclopaedic writings were some on medical subjects, of which fragments only have been preserved. .The Peripatetic school may have been more favourable to the development of medicine, as of other departments of natural knowledge, than any other; but there is no evidence that any of the philosophical schools had important influence on the progress of medicine.^ An inherited disorder in which there is a lower-than-normal number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell that is important in fighting infections).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Thienylnaphthamide compound that is a potent and ATP binding site-targeting inhibitor of JNK2 and JNK3 with little or no activity against JNK1, p38a, and a panel of more than 30 other kinases.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since there has still been no final negative action by DEA, it appears these letters may have had an impact.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The fruit of Aristotle's teaching and example was seen later on in the schools of Alexandria.
The century after the death of Hippocrates is a time almost blank in medical annals. It is probable that the science, like others, shared in the general intellectual decline of Greece after the Macedonian supremacy; but the works of physicians of the period are almost entirely lost, and were so even in the time of Galen. .Galen classes them all as of the dogmatic school; but, whatever may have been their characteristics, they are of no importance in the history of the science.^ They may occur in people of all ages, but are most common in the elderly.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Alexandrian School of Medicine

.The dispersion of Greek science and intellectual activity through the world by the conquests of Alexander and his successors led to the formation of more than one learned centre, in which medicine among other sciences was represented.^ Thienylnaphthamide compound that is a potent and ATP binding site-targeting inhibitor of JNK2 and JNK3 with little or no activity against JNK1, p38a, and a panel of more than 30 other kinases.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A vanilloid analog 100-fold more potent than anandamide in producing hypothermia, analgesia, catalepsy and inhibiting spontaneous activity when administered to mice.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Anderson Valley Advertiser has followed the details of the medical marijuana issue more closely than any other paper.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.Pergamum was early distinguished for its medical school; but in this as in other respects its reputation was ultimately effaced by the more brilliant fame of Alexandria.^ The Anderson Valley Advertiser has followed the details of the medical marijuana issue more closely than any other paper.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

It is here that the real continuation and development of Hippocratic medicine can be traced.
In one department the Alexandrian school rapidly surpassed its Greek original - namely, in the study of anatomy. .The dissection of the human body, of which some doubtful traces or hints only are found in Greek times, was assiduously carried out, being favoured or even suggested perhaps by the Egyptian custom of disembowelling and embalming the bodies of the dead.^ A condition lasting for more than 6 months in which a person feels tired most of the time and may have trouble concentrating and carrying out daily activities.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

There is no doubt that the organs were also examined by opening the bodies of living persons - criminals condemned to death being given over to the anatomists for this purpose.
Two eminent names stand in the first rank as leaders of the two earliest schools of medicine which arose in Alexandria, Herophilus and Erasistratus.
Herophilus (335-280 B.C.) was a Greek of Chalcedon, a pupil of the schools both of Cos and of Cnidus. He was especially noted for his profound researches in anatomy (see i. 802), and in the knowledge and practice of medicine he appears to have been equally renowned. He professed himself a close adherent of Hippocrates, and adopted his theory of the humours. He also made extensive use of drugs and of bleeding. The reputation of Herophilus is attested by the fact that four considerable physicians wrote works about him and his writings, and he is further spoken of with the highest respect by Galen and Celsus. By the general voice of the medical world of antiquity he was placed only second to Hippocrates.
Erasistratus (d. 280 B.C.) was the contemporary and rival of Herophilus. .Little is known of his life, .except that he spent some time at the court of Seleucus Nicator at Antioch before coming to Alexandria, and that he cultivated anatomy late in life, after he had taken up his abode in the latter city.^ It is linked to ATSM, which is taken up by tissues that have low levels of oxygen, such as some tumor tissues.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

His numerous works are also almost entirely lost, fragments only being preserved by Galen and others. Erasistratus, instead of following Hippocrates as Herophilus did, depreciated him, and seems to have been rather aggressive and independent in his views. He appears to have leaned to mechanical explanations of the symptoms of disease, as was especially the case with inflammation, of which he gave the first rational, though necessarily inadequate, theory.
.The two schools composed of the followers of Herophilus and Erasistratus respectively long divided between them the medical world of Alexandria.^ Each vitamin E dose was divided into four doses on days one and two, and days seven and eight, respectively.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ PTSD symptoms will be assessed at four weeks, followed by a two week medication cessation period after the cannabis use has stopped, and a third 60-minute assessment of PTSD symptoms at six weeks.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The names of many prominent members of both sects have been preserved, but it would be useless to repeat them. The Herophilists still reverenced the memory of Hippocrates, and wrote numerous commentaries on his works. They produced many eminent anatomists, but in the end seem to have become lost in theoretical subtleties, and to have maintained too high a standard of literary cultivation. .The school of Erasistratus was less distinguished in anatomy than that of Herophilus, but paid more attention to the special symptoms of diseases, and employed a great variety of drugs.^ Treatment using more than one anticancer drug.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Crosses the blood-brain barrier more readily than cyclothiazide and diazoxide and is a more potent cognitive enhancing drug.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A system in which medical doctors and other healthcare professionals (such as nurses, pharmacists, and therapists) treat symptoms and diseases using drugs, radiation, or surgery.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

It was longer-lived than that of Herophilus, for it still numbered many adherents in the 2nd century after Christ, a century after the latter had become extinct.
.The Erasistrateans paved the way for what was in some respects the most important school which Alexandria produced, that known as the empiric, which, though it recognized no master by name, may be considered to have been founded by Philinus of Cos (280 B.C.), a pupil of Herophilus; but Serapion, a great name in antiquity, and Glaucias of Tarentum, who traced the empirical doctrine back to the writings of Hippocrates, are also named among its founders.^ Even if we lose, we win in some important ways.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.The most striking peculiarity of the empirics was that they rejected anatomy, regarding it as useless to inquire into the causes of things, and thus, as they contended, being the more minute in their observation of the actual phenomena of disease.^ A coma may be caused by many things, including trauma, drugs, toxins, or certain diseases.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A water-soluble and odorless disulfide-reducing agent that is more stable and effective than DTT. TCEP reduces even the most stable water-soluble alkyl disulfides at pH 4.5 within 5 minutes.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

They professed that their whole practice was based upon experience, to which word they gave a special meaning. Three sources, and three only, could experience draw from: observation, history (i.e. recorded observation), and judgment by analogy. These three bases of knowledge were known as the "tripod" of the empirics. It should not, however, be forgotten that the empirics'read and industriously commented on the works of Hippocrates. .They were extremely successful in practical matters, especially in surgery and in the use of drugs, and a large part of the routine knowledge of diseases and remedies which became traditional in the times of the Roman empire is believed to have been derived from them.^ Surgery in which a healthy blood vessel taken from another part of the body is used to make a new path for blood around a blocked artery leading to the heart.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug used to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after organ transplants.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Removal or destruction of the testicles or ovaries using radiation, surgery, or drugs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

In the 2nd century the school became closely connected with the philosophical sect of the Sceptics, whose leader, Sextus (200 B.C.), was an empirical physician. It lived and flourished far beyond this time, when transplanted to Rome, not less than in its native Alexandria, and appears to be recognizable even up to the beginning of the middle ages.
If we look at the work of the Alexandrian schools in medicine as a whole, we must admit that the progress made was great and permanent. The greatest service rendered to medicine was undoubtedly the systematic study of anatomy. It is clear that the knowledge of function (physiology) did not by any means keep pace with the knowledge of structure, and this was probably the reason why the important sect of the empirics were able entirely to dispense with anatomical knowledge. .The doctrines of Hippocrates, though lightly thought of by the Erasistrateans, still were no doubt very widely accepted, but the practice of the Hippocratic school had been greatly improved in almost every department - surgery and obstetrics being probably those in which the Alexandrian practitioners could compare most favourably with those of modern times.^ A study that compares two groups of people: those with the disease or condition under study (cases) and a very similar group of people who do not have the disease or condition (controls).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Its actions are very similar to those of NG-hydroxy-L-arginine on the potentiation and stabilization of NO. .
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

We have now to trace the fortunes of this body of medical doctrine and practice when transplanted to Rome, and ultimately to the whole Roman world.

Roman Medicine

The Romans cannot be said to have at any time originated or possessed an independent school of medicine. .They had from early times a very complicated system of superstitious medicine, or religion, related to disease and the cure of disease, borrowed, as is thought, from the Etruscans; and, though the saying of Pliny that the Roman people got on for six hundred years without doctors was doubtless an exaggeration, and not, literally speaking, exact, it must be accepted for the broad truth which it contains.^ A system in which medical doctors and other healthcare professionals (such as nurses, pharmacists, and therapists) treat symptoms and diseases using drugs, radiation, or surgery.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The goal of comfort care is to prevent or treat as early as possible the symptoms of a disease, side effects caused by treatment of a disease, and psychological, social, and spiritual problems related to a disease or its treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A study that compares two groups of people: those with the disease or condition under study (cases) and a very similar group of people who do not have the disease or condition (controls).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

When a medical profession appears, it is, so far as we are able to trace it, as an importation from Greece.
.The first Greek physician whose name is preserved as having migrated to Rome was Archagathus, who came over from the Peloponnesus in 218 B.C.; but there were probably others before him.^ Patients who died before four weeks (n=48) were excluded from all other outcomes.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ None of the other outcomes are reported for the 33 patients who died before 10 weeks.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients who died before 10 weeks of life (n = 33) were excluded from all other outcomes.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.When Greece was made a Roman province, the number of such physicians who sought their fortunes in Rome must have been very large.^ Decisions regarding phototherapy were made by staff physicians who were unaware of the study results.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Leukemia is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow, and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A slowly progressing cancer that starts in blood-forming tissues such as the bone marrow, and causes large numbers of white blood cells to be produced and enter the blood stream.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The bitter words of M. Porcius Cato, who disliked them. as he did other representatives of Greek culture, are evidence of this. The most eminent of these earlier Greek physicians at Rome was Asclepiades, the friend of Cicero (born 124 B.C. at Prusa in Bithynia). He came to Rome as a young man, and soon became distinguished both for his medical skill and his oratorical power. He introduced a system which, so far as we know, was his own, though founded upon the Epicurean philosophical creed; on the practical side it conformed pretty closely to the Stoic rule of life, thus adapting itself to the leanings of the better stamp of Romans in the later times of the republic. According to Asclepiades all diseases depended upon alterations in the size, number, arrangement or movement of the "atoms," of which, according to the doctrine of Epicurus, the body consisted. These atoms were united into passages (iropot) through which the juices of the body were conveyed. This doctrine, of which the developments need not further be followed, was important chiefly in so far that it was perfectly distinct from, and opposed to, the humoral pathology of Hippocrates. .In the treatment of disease Asclepiades attached most importance to diet, exercise, passive movements or frictions, and the external use of cold water - in short, to a modified athletic training.^ Any method that uses cold temperature to treat disease.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cytokines can also be made in the laboratory by recombinant DNA technology and used in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A currently accepted and widely used treatment for a certain type of disease, based on the results of past research.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

He rejected the vis medicatrix naturae, pointing out that nature in many cases not only did not help but marred the cure. His knowledge of disease and surgical skill were, as appears from the accounts given by Celsus and Caelius Aurelianus, very considerable. .Asclepiades had many pupils who adhered more or less closely to his doctrines, but it was especially one of them, Themison, who gave permanence to the teachings of his master by framing out of them, with some modifications, a new system of medical doctrine, and founding on this basis a school which lasted for some centuries in successful rivalry with the Hippocratic tradition, which, as we have seen, was up to that time the prevailing influence in medicine.^ After taking over two years to reply, HHS/NIDA's protocol reviewers didn't take the time to read the protocol carefully and made some rather basis mistakes in the review.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The New York Times published "Medicinal Marijuana On Trial" , discussing medical marijuana research and Ashcroft v.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The current population includes many infants who are more premature and smaller than the infants on whom the recommendations were based.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

This system was known as methodism, its adherents as the methodici or methodists. Its main principles were that it was useless to consider the causes of a disease, or even the organ affected by the disease, and that it was sufficient to know what was common to all diseases, viz. their common qualities (communitates, KocvorJr€s). Of these there were three possible forms - (1) relaxation, (2) contraction of the minute passages or ropoc, and (3) a mixed state, partly lax, partly constricted. .The signs of these morbid states were to be found in the general constitution of the body, especially in the excretions.^ February 6, 2009: ASA gets 16 Members of the United States Congress to Sign a Letter to the Attorney General .
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.Besides this it was important only to consider whether the disease was acute or chronic, whether it was increasing, declining or stationary.^ Information on chronic lung disease was available in 266 of 269 enrolled infants, while only 225 infants had an eye examination.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Treatment of disease was directed not to any special organ, nor to producing the crises and critical discharges of the Hippocratic school, but to correcting the morbid common condition or "community," relaxing the body if it was constricted, causing contraction if it was too lax, and in the "mixed state" acting according to the predominant condition.^ Under the direction of the Knesset (Israels legislative body), the Israeli Ministry of Health is considering allowing medical marijuana producers to sell marijuana to Ministry of Health approved patients.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The complication may be caused by the disease, procedure, or treatment or may be unrelated to them.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The goal of comfort care is to prevent or treat as early as possible the symptoms of a disease, side effects caused by treatment of a disease, and psychological, social, and spiritual problems related to a disease or its treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

This simple rule of treatment was the system or "method" from which the school took its name.
The methodists agreed with the empirics in one point, in their contempt for anatomy; but, strictly speaking, they were dogmatists, though with a dogma different from that of the Hippocratic school. Besides Themison, its systematic founder, the school boasted many physicians eminent in their day, among whom Thessalus of Tralles, a halfeducated and boastful pretender, was one of the most popular. He reversed the Hippocratic maxim "art is long," promising his scholars to teach them the whole of medicine in six months, and had inscribed upon his tomb iaTpovLKc, 7 r, as being superior to all living and bygone physicians.
In the and century a much greater name appears among the methodists, that of Soranus of Ephesus, a physician mentioned with praise even by Tertullian and Augustine, who practised at Rome in the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian. Soranus is known by a work, still extant in the Greek original, on the diseases of women, and also by the Latin work of Caelius Aurelianus, three centuries later, on acute and chronic diseases, which is based upon, if not, as some think, an actual translation of, the chief work of Soranus, and which is the principal source of our knowledge of the methodic school. The work on diseases of women is the only complete work on that subject which has come down to us from antiquity, and shows remarkable fullness of practical knowledge in relation to its subject. .It is notable that an important instrument of research, the speculum, which has been reinvented in modern times, was used by Soranus; and specimens of still earlier date, showing great mechanical perfection, have been found among the ruins of Pompeii.^ NCI studies show lack of activity against tumors and AIDS. An interesting metabolite which has received little attention in modern times.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

The work on acute and chronic diseases is also full of practical knowledge, but penetrated with the theories of the methodists.
The methodic school lasted certainly for some centuries, and influenced the revival of medical science in the middle ages, though overshadowed by the greater reputation of Galen. .It was the first definite product of Greek medicine on Roman soil, but was destined to be followed by others, which kept up a more or less successful rivalry with it, and with the Hippocratic tradition.^ This is the sort of argument that was more persuasive up until about 10 years ago, before the FDA developed guidelines for the investigation of botanical medicines.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Anderson Valley Advertiser has followed the details of the medical marijuana issue more closely than any other paper.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The manufacturer's recommendation is 1.5 ml/day for infants weighing less than 1 kg, 3.25 ml/day for those weighing 1 to 3 kg, and 5 ml/day for infants and children weighing 3 kg or more and up to 11 years of age.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The so-called pneumatic school was founded by Athenaeus, in the 1st century after Christ. According to its doctrines the normal as well as diseased actions of the body were to be referred to the operation of the pneuma or universal soul. This doctrine, crudely transferred from philosophical speculation, was intended to reconcile the humoral (or Hippocratic) and solidist (or methodic) schools; but the methodists seem to have claimed Athenaeus as one of themselves.
.The conflicts of the opposing schools, and the obvious deficiencies of each, led many physicians to try and combine the valuable parts of each system, and to call themselves eclectics.^ Nearly three decades later he led a team that identified the endocannabinoid anandamide , part of an endogenous cannabinoid system in the human nervous system.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Among these were found many of the most eminent physicians of Graeco-Roman times. It may be sufficient to name Rufus or Ephesus (2nd century A.D), and Archigenes (fl. A.D. 90), who is mentioned by Juvenal.
.Although no system or important doctrine of medicine was originated by the Roman intellect, and though the practice of the profession was probably almost entirely in the hands of the Greeks, the most complete picture which we have of medical thought and activity in Roman times is due to a Latin pen, and to one who was, in all probability, not a physician.^ A condition lasting for more than 6 months in which a person feels tired most of the time and may have trouble concentrating and carrying out daily activities.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ At this point, one of the most telling moments in the entire hearing took place, the classic pregnant pause.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The hearings are now almost all over except for one additional witness who is scheduled to testify on January 17.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.A. Cornelius Celsus, a Roman patrician, who lived probably in the ist century, appears to have studied medicine as a branch of general knowledge.^ According to a new study by Swiss researchers, teenagers who smoke marijuana but not tobacco appear to be more likely to get good grades, play sports and live with both parents than those who also use tobacco.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Whether he was a practising physician or not has been a matter of controversy. The conclusion supported by most evidence seems to be that he practised on his friends and dependants, but not as a remunerative profession. His well-known work, De medicina, was one of a series of treatises intended to embrace all knowledge proper for a man of the world. It was not meant for the physicians, and was certainly little read by them, as Celsus is quoted by no medical writer, and when referred to by Pliny, is spoken of as an author not a physician. .There is no doubt that his work is chiefly a compilation; and Daremberg, with other scholars, has traced a large number of passages of the Latin text to the Greek originals from which they were translated.^ The strength of this inference appears strong, based on a large number of randomized patients and no evidence of heterogeneity.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no order too large or small for Metal Associates to process, so call today.

^ The strength of this inference appears strong, based on a large number of randomized patients (> 1000) and no evidence of heterogeneity.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In the description of surgical operations the vagueness of the language seems sometimes to show that the author had not performed such himself; but in other parts, and especially in his historical introduction, he speaks with more confidence; and everywhere he compares and criticizes with learning and judgment.^ A five times more potent inhibitor of endothelial cell NOS than other arginine analogs such as L-NAME and L-NMMA. Inhibits NO production in endothelial cytosol.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.The whole body of medical literature belonging to the Hippocratic and Alexandrian times is ably summarized, and a knowledge of the state of medical science up to and during the times of the author is thus conveyed to us which can be obtained from no other source.^ There have been no US-based privately-funded marijuana production facilities since 1942, when marijuana was removed from the US Pharmacopoeia and its medical use was prohibited.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As far as we can tell, there has been no US-based privately-funded marijuana production facility since 1942, when marijuana was removed from the US Pharmacopoeia and its medical use was prohibited.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Public Health, Massachusetts Senators Kerry and Kennedy, 38 members of the US House of Representatives, and the California and Texas State Medical Associations, the two largest US state medical associations.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.The work of Celsus is thus for us only second in importance to the Hippocratic writings and the works of Galen; but it is valuable rather as a part of the history of medicine than as the subject of that history.^ He also said researchers believe that if they can perfect a method of "vaporizing" marijuana -- allowing it to be inhaled rather than smoked -- it would be easier to administer as medicine.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.It forms no link in the general chain of medical tradition, for the simple reason that the influence of Celsus (putting aside a few scanty allusions in medieval times) commenced in the 15th century, when his works were first discovered in manuscript or committed to the press.^ There seems to be no appeal process at all in the PHS/NIDA review of medical marijuana research proposals and there are certainly no deadlines that compel PHS/NIDA to respond within any reasonable period of time.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.Since then, however, he has been almost up to our own times the most popular and widely read of all medical classics, partly for the qualities already indicated, partly because he was one of the few of those classics accessible to readers of Latin, and partly also because of the purity and classical perfection of his language.^ The article, with multiple graphics, was the lead article in the Ideas section which most everyone reads since it contains the editorials, the op-eds and other feature articles.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At this point, one of the most telling moments in the entire hearing took place, the classic pregnant pause.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It has now been almost one year since the DEA rejected the recommended ruling of their own Administrative Law Judge Mary Ellen Bittner.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Of Pliny, another encyclopaedic writer, a few words must be said, though he was not a physician. In his Natural History we find as complete a summary of the popular medicine of his time as Celsus gives of the scientific medicine. .Pliny disliked doctors, and lost no opportunity of depreciating regular medicine; nevertheless he has left many quotations from, and many details about, medical authors which are of the highest value.^ B. Bakalar of Harvard Medical School, authors of Marihuana: The Forbidden Medicine For information about California State-funded medical marijuana research projects, coordinated by the Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research (CMCR), look here.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.He is useful to us for what he wrote about the history of medicine, not for what he contributed.^ "The use of controlled substances for legitimate research purposes is well-established, and has yielded a number of miracle medicines widely available to patients and doctors," Norquist wrote.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Lester Grinspoon wrote an excellent paper, "The History of Cannabis as Medicine" for the DEA Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearing starting August 22, 2005.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Like Celsus, he had little influence on succeeding medical literature or practice.
.We now come to the writer who, above all others, gathered up into himself the divergent and scattered threads of ancient medicine, and out of whom again the greater part of modern European medicine has flowed.^ Patients who died before four weeks (n=48) were excluded from all other outcomes.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The duration of vitamin E supplementation was up to one week in eleven studies and greater than one week in all patients in thirteen studies.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The hearings are now almost all over except for one additional witness who is scheduled to testify on January 17.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Galen was a man furnished with all the anatomical, medical and philosophical knowledge of his time; he had studied all kinds of natural curiosities, and had stood in near relation to important political events; he possessed enormous industry, great practical sagacity and unbounded literary fluency. He had, in fact, every quality necessary for an encyclopaedic writer, or even for a literary and professional autocrat. He found the medical profession of his time split up into a number of sects, medical science confounded under a multitude of dogmatic systems, the social status and moral integrity of physicians degraded. He appears. to have made it his object to reform these evils, to reconcile scientific acquirements and practical skill, to bring back the unity of medicine as it had been understood by Hippocrates, and at the same time to raise the dignity of medical practitioners.
Galen was as devoted to anatomical and, so far as then understood, physiological research as to practical medicine. .He worked enthusiastically at dissection, though, the liberty of the Alexandrian schools no longer existing, he could dissect only animals, not the human body.^ Nishida 1986 {published data only} Nishida A, Togari H. Effect of vitamin E administration on alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the retina, choroid and vitreous body of human neonates.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In his anatomical studies Galen had a twofold object - a philosophical, to show the wisdom of the Creator in making everything fit to serve its purpose; and a practical, to aid the diagnosis, or recognition, of disease.^ These studies test new methods of screening, prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The first led him into a teleological system so minute and overstrained as to defeat its own end; the second was successfully attained by giving greater precision and certainty to medical and surgical practice in difficult cases. His general physiology was essentially founded upon the Hippocratic theory of the four elements, with which he combined the notion of spirit (pneuma) penetrating all parts, and mingled with the humours in different proportions. It was on this field that he most vehemently attacked the prevailing atomistic and materialistic views of the methodic school, and his conception of the pneuma became in some respects half metaphysical. His own researches in special branches of physiology were important, but do not strictly belong to our present subject.
The application of physiology to the explanation of diseases, and thus to practice, was chiefly by the theory of the temperaments or mixtures which Galen founded upon the Hippocratic doctrine of humours, but developed with marvellous and fatal ingenuity. The normal condition or temperament of the body depended upon a proper mixture or proportion of the four elements - hot, cold, wet and dry. From faulty proportions of the same arose the intemperies (" distempers"), which, though not diseases, were the occasions of disease. Equal importance attached to faulty mixtures or dyscrasiae of the blood. By a combination of these morbid predispositions with the action of deleterious influences from without all diseases were produced. Galen showed extreme ingenuity in explaining all symptoms and all diseases on his system. .No phenomenon was without a name, no problem without a solution.^ A stable NO-amine complex that can spontaneously release two equivalents of NO in solution under physiological conditions without any cofactor.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

And, though it was precisely in his fine-spun subtlety that he departed furthest from scientific method and practical utility, it was this very quality which seems in the end to have secured his popularity and established his pre-eminence in the medical world.
.Galen's use of drugs was influenced largely by the same theories.^ A drug used to help people stop smoking by acting the same way nicotine acts in the brain.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

In drugs were to be recognized the same elementary qualities - hot, cold, moist, dry, &c. - as in the human body; and, on the principle of curing by contraries, the use of one or other was indicated. .The writings of Galen contain less of simple objective observations than those of several other ancient physicians, all being swept into the current of dogmatic exposition.^ Less potent Na + /K + -ATPase inhibitor than other bufadienolides.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Currently, the Israeli government has only given Golan, and several other producers, permission to give away the medicine they grow, but not to sell it.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also being studied in the treatment of several other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

But there is enough to show the thoroughness and extent of his practical knowledge. .Unfortunately it was neither this nor his zeal for research that chiefly won him followers, but the completeness of his theoretical explanations, which fell in with the mental habits of succeeding centuries, and were such as have flattered the intellectual indolence of all ages.^ Complete follow-up: no; incomplete data provided on babies who died before 10 days of age.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

But the reputation of Galen grew slowly; he does not appear to have enjoyed any pre-eminence over other physicians of his time, to most of whom he was strongly opposed in opinion. In the next generation he began to be esteemed only as a philosopher; gradually his system was implicitly accepted, and it enjoyed a great though not exclusive predominance till the fall of Roman civilization. .When the Arabs possessed themselves of the scattered remains of Greek culture, the works of Galen were more highly esteemed than any others except those of Aristotle.^ The demand for limiting business power springs more often from those who feel themselves at a disadvantage in interbusiness transactions than it does from households ...
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Potent and highly κ/μ selective κ-opioid receptor agonist (25 times more potent than morphine).
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The manufacturer's recommendation is 1.5 ml/day for infants weighing less than 1 kg, 3.25 ml/day for those weighing 1 to 3 kg, and 5 ml/day for infants and children weighing 3 kg or more and up to 11 years of age.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Through the Arabs the Galenical system found its way back again to western Europe. .Even when Arabian medicine gave way before the direct teaching of the Greek authors rescued from neglect, the authority of Galen was increased instead of being diminished; and he assumed a position of autocracy in medical science which was only slowly undermined by the growth of modern science in the 17th and 18th centuries.^ "The question of whether marijuana has any legitimate medical purpose should be determined by sound science and medicine," DEA Administrator Asa Hutchinson said in a statement.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The facility will be directed by an Israeli medical marijuana advocate, and has been authorized by the Israeli Ministry of Health to provide marijuana only to medical marijuana patients formally approved by the Ministry.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The history of medicine in Roman times is by no means the same thing as the history of the fate of the works of Galen. For some centuries the methodic school was popular at Rome, and produced one physician, Caelius Aurelianus, who must be pronounced, next to Celsus, the most considerable of the Latin medical writers. His date was in all probability the end of the 4th or the beginning of the 5th century. .The works bearing his name are, as has been said, entirely based upon the Greek of Soranus, but are important both because their Greek originals are lost, and because they are evidence of the state of medical practice in his own time.^ "By controlling who can research marijuana and how they can do it, the DEA has greatly limited promising research that could lead to [government] approved medications," Doblin said.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Yohai Golan has estimated that the value of the marijuana that they will give away is roughly $6 million per year, based on prices for legal Dutch medical marijuana and prices for medical marijuana in the US. .
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Yet more evidence that the Bush Administration is actively working to obstruct medical marijuana research.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The popularity of Caelius is evidenced by the fact that in the 6th century an abridgment of his larger work was recommended by Cassiodorus to the Benedictine monks for the study of medicine.
Before quitting this period the name of Aretaeus of Cappadocia must be mentioned. .So little is known about him that even his date cannot be fixed more closely than as being between the second half of the 1st century and the beginning of the 3rd.^ There is nothing in the inventory with a CBD content more than about half of what the Dutch government is offering, and only small amounts of high-THC content marijuana, which have even lower amounts of CBD. There is nothing comparable to a strain offered by the Dutch government, containing 18% THC and 0.8% CBD. .
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Anderson Valley Advertiser has followed the details of the medical marijuana issue more closely than any other paper.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.His works have been much admired for the purity of the Greek style, and his accurate descriptions of disease; but, as he quotes no medical author, and is quoted by none before Alexander of Aphrodisias at the beginning of the 3rd century, it is clear that he belonged to no school and founded none, and thus his position in the chain of medical tradition is quite uncertain.^ A person with celiac disease may become malnourished no matter how much food is consumed.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ No exclusion criteria were used before randomization; however, patients randomized before delivery and found after birth to have lethal malformations were excluded from the study.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Alexander of Aphrodisias, who lived and wrote at Athens in the time of Septimius Severus, is best known by his commentaries on Aristotle, but also wrote a treatise on fevers, still extant.

Ancient Medicine after Galen

The Byzantine school of medicine, which closely corresponds to the Byzantine literary and historical schools, followed closely in Galen's footsteps, and its writers were chiefly compilers and encyclopaedists. The earliest is Oribasius (326-403), whose date and position are fixed by his being the friend and court physician of Julian the Apostate. He was a Greek of Pergamum, educated in Alexandria, and long resident in Byzantium. .His great work Evvaywyai tar pucai, of which only about one-third has been preserved, was a medical encyclopaedia founded on extracts from Hippocrates, Galen, Dioscorides (fl. A.D. 50) and certain Greek writers who are otherwise very imperfectly known.^ For information about GW Pharmaceutical Company research into the medical uses of marijuana extracts, see their website .
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most data are available only for the 99 infants who completed the trial, i.e., survived for at least one month.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ But researchers who want marijuana have only one legal source: a crop grown in Mississippi and dispensed by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The work is thus one of great historical value but of no originality. .The next name which requires to be mentioned is that of Aetius (A.D. 550), a compiler who closely followed Oribasius, but with inferior powers, and whose work also has an historical but no original value.^ Complete follow-up: no; incomplete information on three patients who died.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Complete follow-up: no; incomplete data provided on babies who died before 10 days of age.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Complete follow-up: no; data reported on the 44 infants who completed the 3-day schedule of vitamin E. Blinding of outcome: no.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

A higher rank among medical writers is assigned to Alexander of Tralles (525-605), whose doctrine was that of an eclectic. His practical and therapeutical rules are evidently the fruit of his own experience, though it would be difficult to attribute to him any decided advance in medical knowledge. But the most prominent figure in Byzantine medicine is that of Paul of Aegina (Paulus Aegineta), who lived probably in the early part of the 7th century. His skill, especially in surgery, must have been considerable, and his 'Ia. rpucci gives a very complete picture of the achievements of the Greeks i n this department. Another work, on obstetrics, now lost, was equally famous, and procured for him, among the Arabs, the name of "the Obstetrician." .His reputation lasted through the middle ages, and was not less in the Arabian schools than in the West.^ Entry criteria: birth weight equal to or less than 1000 g, postnatal age equal to or less than 24 hours, informed consent.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Entry criteria: gestational age less than 37 weeks and birth weight less than 1751 g.
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Preterm infants (gestational age less than 37 weeks).
  • Vitamin E supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortalityin preterm infants 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

In this respect Paulus is a most important influence in the development of medicine. .His great work on surgery was early translated into Arabic, and became the foundation of the surgery of Abulcasis, which in turn (to anticipate) was one of the chief sources of surgical knowledge to Europe in the middle ages.^ To receive the award, one goal of the cancer center must be to turn clinical and basic research into better health care.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The succeeding period of Byzantine history was so little favourable to science that no name worthy of note occurs again (though many medical works of this period are still extant) till the 13th century, when we meet with a group of writers: Demetrius Pepagomenus, Nicolaus Myrepsus and Johannes, called Actuarius, who flourished under the protection of the Palaeologi.^ Towards this end, MAPS is working with David Ostrow, M.D., who is funded by the Marijuana Policy Project (MPP), to lobby the American Medical Association (AMA) to pass a two-fold resolution at this November's annual meeting.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A study that compares two groups of people: those with the disease or condition under study (cases) and a very similar group of people who do not have the disease or condition (controls).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The work of the last has some independent merit; but all are interesting as showing a fusion of Greek and Arabian medicine, the latter having begun to exercise even in the 11th century a reflex influence on the schools of Byzantium. Something was borrowed even from the school of Salerno, and thus the close of Byzantine medicine is brought into connexion with the dawn of science in modern Europe.
In the West the period after Galen affords little evidence of anything but a gradual though unvarying decline in Roman medicine. Caelius Aurelianus, already referred to as the follower of Soranus, must be mentioned as showing the persistence of the methodic school. An abridgment of one of his writings, with the title of Aurelius, became the most popular of all Latin medical works. As a writer he was worthy of a better period of medical literature. .Little else was produced in these times but compilations, of the most meagre kind, chiefly of the nature of herbals, or domestic receiptbooks; among the authors of which it may be sufficient to name Serenus Sammonicus (3rd century), Gargilius Martialis (3rd century) and Marcellus Empiricus (5th century).^ A condition lasting for more than 6 months in which a person feels tired most of the time and may have trouble concentrating and carrying out daily activities.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In these turbulent times, it does seem within our reach for us to mobilize sufficient pressure on DEA to force the acceptance of a favorable recommendation.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Certain compilations still extant bear the falsely-assumed names of eminent writers, such as Pliny and Hippocrates. A writer with the (perhaps assumed) name of Apuleius Platonicus produced a herbal which held its ground till the 15th century at least, and was in the 9th translated into Anglo-Saxon. These poor compilations, together with Latin translations of certain works of Galen and Hippocrates, formed a medical literature, meagre and unprogressive indeed, but of which a great part survived through the middle ages till the discovery of printing and revival of learning. .It is important to remember that this obscure stream of tradition flowed on, only partially affected by the influx of Arabian, or even the early revival of purer classical learning.^ Because Pifithrin-m targets only the mitochondrial branch of the p53 pathway without affecting the important transcriptional functions of p53, it is superior to Pifithrin-a in in vivo studies.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Arabian Medicine

The rise of the Mahommedan Empire, which influenced Europe so deeply both politically and intellectually, made its mark also in the history of medicine. As in the parallel case of the Roman conquest of Greece, the superior culture of the conquered race asserted its supremacy over their Arab conquerors. After the Mahommedan conquests became consolidated, and learning began to flourish, schools of medicine, often connected with hospitals and schools of pharmacy, arose in all the chief seats of Moslem power. At Damascus Greek medicine was zealously cultivated with the aid of Jewish and Christian teachers. .In Bagdad, under the rule of Harun el Rashid and his successors, a still more flourishing school arose, where numerous translations of Greek medical works were made.^ Yet more evidence that the Bush Administration is actively working to obstruct medical marijuana research.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The names of Mesua, or Yalhya ibn Masawaih (d. A.D. 857-858), celebrated for his knowledge of drugs, and Honein ibn Ishaq el `Ibadi (d. 873) or Joannitius, the translator and commentator of Hippocrates and Galen, belong to this period. Certain writings of Joannitius, translated into Latin, were popular in the middle ages in Europe, and were printed in the 16th century. At the same time the Arabs became acquainted with Indian medicine, and Indian physicians lived at the court of Bagdad. The Islamite rulers in Spain were not long behind those of the East in encouraging learning and medical science, and developed culture to a still higher degree of perfection. In that country much was due to the Jews, who had already established schools in places which were afterwards the seats of Moslem dominion. From the 10th to the 13th century was the brilliant period of Arabian medicine in Spain.1 The classical period of Arabian medicine begins with Rhazes (Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya el-Razi, A.D. 925-926), a native of Rai in the province of Dailam (Persia), who practised with distinction at Bagdad; he followed the doctrines of Galen, but learnt much from Hippocrates. He was the first of the Arabs to treat medicine in a comprehensive and encyclopaedic, manner, surpassing probably in voluminousness Galen himself, though but a small proportion of his works are extant. Rhazes is deservedly remembered as having first described small-pox and measles in an accurate manner. .Hali, i.e. `Ali ibn el-'Abbas, a Persian, wrote a medical textbook, known as the "Royal Book," which was the standard authority among the Arabs up to the time of Avicenna (A.D. 980-1037) and was more than once translated into Latin and printed.^ Approximately 100 times more effective than 2,4-dinitrophenol.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer cells take up more C-11 choline than normal cells, so the pictures can be used to find cancer cells in the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A condition lasting for more than 6 months in which a person feels tired most of the time and may have trouble concentrating and carrying out daily activities.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Other 1 See Dozy, Cat. Cod. Or. Lug. Bat. ii. 296.
writers of this century need not be mentioned here; but the next, the 11th century, is given as the probable though uncertain date of a writer who had a great influence on European medicine, Mesua the younger of Damascus, whose personality is obscure, and of whose very existence some historians have doubted, thinking that the name was assumed by some medieval Latin writer. The work De simplicibus, which bears his name, was for centuries a standard authority on what would now be called materia medica, was printed in twenty-six editions in the 15th century and later, and was used in the formation of the first London pharmacopoeia, issued by the College of Physicians in the reign of James I. Either to the 10th or the 11th century must be referred the name of another Arabian physician who has also attained the position of a classic, Abu'l Qasiin or Abulcasis, of El-Zahra, near Cordova, in Spain. His great work, Altasrif, a medical encyclopaedia, is chiefly valued for its surgical portion (already mentioned), which was translated into Latin in the 16th century, and was for some centuries a standard if not the standard authority on surgery in Europe. Among his own countrymen the fame and position of Abulcasis were soon eclipsed by the greater name of Avicenna.
Avicenna has always been regarded as the chief representative of Arabian medicine. He wrote on philosophy also, and in both subjects acquired the highest reputation through the whole of eastern Islam. In Mahommedan Spain he was lees regarded, but in Europe his works even eclipsed and superseded those of Hippocrates and Galen. His style and expository power are highly praised, but the subject-matter shows little originality. The work by which he is chiefly known, the celebrated "canon," is an encyclopaedia of medical and surgical knowledge, founded upon Galen, Aristotle, the later Greek physicians, and the earlier Arabian writers, singularly complete and systematic, but is thought not to show the practical experience of its author. .As in the case of Galen, the formal and encyclopaedic character of Avicenna's works was the chief cause of his popularity and ascendancy, though in modern times these very qualities in a scientific or medical writer would rather cause him to become more speedily antiquated.^ In any case, there is no alternative supplier with a DEA license and starting a new facility would take a substantial amount of time, easily a year or more, with these time lags being very costly after investing millions in research.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After this happens several times, the first signal alone can cause the response that would usually need the second signal.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Our national medical system relies on proven scientific research, not popular opinion."
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

In the long list of Arabian medical writers none can here be mentioned except the great names of the Hispano-Moorish school, a school both philosophically and medically antagonistic to that of Avicenna. Of these the earliest is Avenzoar or Abumeron, that is, Abu Merwan `Abd al-Malik Ibn Zuhr (beginning of 12th century), a member of a family which gave several distinguished members to the medical profession. His chief work, Al-Teysir (facilitatio), is thought to show more practical experience than the writings of Avicenna, and to be less based upon dialectical subtleties. .It was translated into Latin, and more than once printed, as were some of his lesser works, which thus formed a part of the contribution made by the Arabians to European medicine.^ Voth's main point was that marijuana has so many ingredients that it can't possibly be made into a medicine.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Salt form of okadaic acid, with slightly greater stability than the free acid after it is put into stock solution (in organic solvents).
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A synthetic form of marijuana's active ingredient has been made into a prescription drug, Marinol.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

His friend and pupil AvERROES of Cordova (q.v.), so well known for his philosophical writings, was also an author in medical subjects, and as such widely read in Latin. The famous Rabbi Maimonides (A.D. 1135-1201) (q.v.) closes for us the roll of medical writers of the Arabian school. .His works exist chiefly in the original Arabic or in Hebrew translations; only some smaller treatises have been translated into Latin, so that no definite opinion can be formed as to their medical value.^ But Mr. Alden said only some kinds of marijuana worked - not the weak variety provided by the federal government, which he smoked during a research study.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

But, so far as is known, the independent and rationalistic spirit which the two last-named writers showed in philosophy did not lead them to take any original point of view in medicine.
The works of the Arabian medical writers who have now been mentioned form a very small fraction of the existing literature. .Three hundred medical writers in Arabic are enumerated by Ferdinand Wiistenfeld (1808-1899), and other historians have enlarged the list (Haser), but only three have been printed in the original; a certain number more are known through old Latin translations, and the great majority still exist in manuscript.^ When you enter three or more characters, a list of up to 10 suggestions will popup under the textbox.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

It is thus evident that the circumstance of having been translated (which may have been in some cases almost an accident) is what has chiefly determined the influence of particular writers on Western medicine. But it is improbable that further research will alter the general estimate of the value of Arabian medicine. .There can be no doubt that it was in the main Greek medicine, modified to suit other climates, habits and national tastes, and with some important additions from Oriental sources.^ This development could have implications for research with medical marijuana, since one of the government’s main arguments has been that no legitimate medicine is smoked.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This development could have implications for research with medical marijuana, since one of the government's main arguments has been that no legitimate medicine is smoked.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Doblin said there are potentially many other medicinal uses of marijuana, including the treatment of multiple sclerosis and AIDS-related neuropathy.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The greater part is taken from Hippocrates, Galen, Dioscorides and later Greek writers. .The Latin medical writers were necessarily unknown to the Arabs; and this was partly the cause that even in Europe Galenic medicine assumed such a preponderance, the methodic school and Celsus being forgotten or neglected.^ Research into alternative delivery methods such as vaporization was one of the primary recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's landmark 1999 report on medical marijuana .
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

In anatomy and physiology the Arabians distinctly went back; in surgery they showed no advance upon the Greeks; in practical medicine nothing new can be traced, except the description of certain diseases (e.g. small-pox and measles) unknown or imperfectly known to the .Greeks; the only real advance was in pharmacy and the therapeutical use of drugs.^ It is also used together with other drugs to treat advanced, metastatic, or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug that is used to treat advanced ovarian cancer that has never been treated or symptoms of ovarian cancer that has come back after treatment with other anticancer drugs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug used to treat advanced renal cell carcinoma (a type of kidney cancer).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

By their relations with the farther East, the Arabs became acquainted with valuable new remedies which have held their ground till modern times; and their skill in chemistry enabled them to prepare new chemical remedies, and form many combinations of those already in use. They produced the first pharmacopoeia, and established the first apothecaries' shops. Many of the names and many forms of medi cines now used, and in fact the general outline of modern pharmacy, except so far as modified by modern chemistry, started with the Arabs. Thus does Arabian medicine appear as judged from a modern standpoint; but to medieval Europe, when little but a tradition remained of the great ancient schools, it was invested with a far higher degree of originality and importance.
.It is now necessary to consider what was the state of medicine in Europe after the fall of the Western Empire and before the influence of Arabian science and literature began to be felt.^ DEA's rationale is not stated but it seems that they now consider the research to be publicly funded, which requires a "Research" license.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

This we may call the pre-Arabian or Salernitan period.

Medicine in the Early Middle Ages: School of Salerno

.In medical as in civil history there is no real break.^ There have been no US-based privately-funded marijuana production facilities since 1942, when marijuana was removed from the US Pharmacopoeia and its medical use was prohibited.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As far as we can tell, there has been no US-based privately-funded marijuana production facility since 1942, when marijuana was removed from the US Pharmacopoeia and its medical use was prohibited.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

A continuous thread of learning and practice must have connected the last period of Roman medicine already mentioned with the dawn of science in the middle ages. But the intellectual thread is naturally traced with greater difficulty than that which is the theme of civil history; and in periods such as that from the 5th to the 10th century in Europe it is almost lost. The chief homes of medical as of other learning in these disturbed times were the monasteries. Though the science was certainly not advanced by their labours, it was saved from total oblivion, and many ancient medical works were preserved either in Latin or vernacular versions. The Anglo-Saxon Leechdoms 1 of the 11th century, published in the Rolls series of medieval chronicles and memorials, admirably illustrate the mixture of magic and superstition with the relics of ancient science which constituted monastic medicine. Similar works, in Latin or other languages, exist in manuscript in all the great European libraries. .It was among the Benedictines that the monastic study of medicine first received a new direction, and aimed at a higher standard.^ The studies will be the first to emerge out of the university’s Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research (CMCR), a program created by the state Legislature in 1999.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The study of Hippocrates, Galen, and other classics was recommended by Cassiodorus (6th century), and in the original mother-abbey of Monte Cassino medicine was studied; but there was not there what could be called a medical school; nor had this foundation any connexion (as has been supposed) with the famous school of Salerno.
The origin of this, the most important source of medical knowledge in Europe in the early middle ages, is involved in obscurity. It is known that Salerno, a Roman colony, in a situation noted in ancient times for its salubrity, was in the 6th century at least the seat of a bishopric, and at the end of the 7th century of a Benedictine monastery, and that some of the prelates and higher clergy were distinguished for learning, and even for medical acquirements. But it has by recent researches been clearly established that the celebrated Schola salernitana was a purely secular institution. All that can with certainty be said is that a school or collection of schools gradually grew up in which especially medicine, but also, in a subordinate degree, law and philosophy were taught. In the 9th century Salernitan physicians were already spoken of, and the city was known as Civitas hippocratica. A little later we find great and royal personages resorting to Salerno for the restoration of their health, among whom was William of Normandy, afterwards the Conqueror. The number of students of medicine must at one time have been considerable, and in a corresponding degree the number of teachers. Among the latter many were married, and their wives and daughters appear also in the lists of professors. The most noted female professor was the celebrated Trotula in the 11th century. The Jewish element appears to have' been important among the students, and possibly among the professors. The reputation of the school was great till the 12th or 13th century, when the introduction of the Arab medicine was gradually fatal to it. The foundation of the university of Naples, and the rise of Montpellier, also contributed to its decline.
The teachings of the Salernitan doctors are pretty well known. through existing works, some of which have only recently been discovered and published. The best-known is the rhyming Latin poem on health by Joannes de Meditano, Regimen sanitatis Salerni, professedly written for the use of the "king of England," supposed to mean William the Conqueror; it had an immense reputation in the middle ages, and was afterwards many times printed, and translated into most European languages. This was a popular work intended for the laity; but there are others strictly professional.
1 Derived from the Anglo-Saxon laece, a physician, and dom, a law.
Among the writers it may be sufficient to mention here Gariopontus; Copho, who wrote the Anatome porci, a well-known medieval book; Joannes Platearius, first of a family of physicians bearing the same name, whose Practica, or medical compendium, was afterwards several times printed; and Trotula, believed to be the wife of the last-named. All of these fall into the first period before the advent of Arabian medicine. In the transitional period, when the Arabian school began to influence European medicine, but before the Salernitans were superseded, comes Nicolaus Praepositus, who wrote the Antidotarium, a collection of formulae for compound medicines, which became the standard work on the subject, and the foundation of many later compilations. An equally popular writer was Gilles de Corbeil (Aegidius Corboliensis), at one time a teacher at Salerno, afterwards court physician to Philip Augustus of France, who composed several poems in Latin hexameters on medical subjects. Two of them, on the urine and the pulse respectively, attained the position of medical classics.
None of these Salernitan works rise much above the rank of compilations, being founded on Hippocrates, Galen and later Greek writers, with an unmistakable mixture of the doctrines of the methodists. But they often show much practical experience, and exhibit the naturalistic method of the Hippocratic school. .The general plan of treatment is dietetic rather than pharmaceutical, though the art of preparing drugs had reached a high degree of complexity at Salerno.^ Treatment using more than one anticancer drug.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug used to treat high blood pressure that is also being studied in the prevention of side effects caused by radiation therapy used in the treatment of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug used in the treatment of hypercalcemia (abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood) and cancer that has spread to the bone (bone metastases).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Anatomy was as little regarded as it was in the later ancient schools, the empiric and methodic, but demonstrations of the parts of the body were given on swine. .Although it cannot be said that the science of medicine was advanced at Salerno, still its decline was arrested at a time when every other branch of learning was rapidly falling into decay; and there can be no doubt that the observation of patients in hospitals, and probably clinical instruction, were made use of in learning and teaching.^ In other words, because supplies are provided at cost, there is no lack of competition, since, according to Mr. Strait, the words used in the Code of Federal Regulations "all seem to be geared around the economics."
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There have been no US-based privately-funded marijuana production facilities since 1942, when marijuana was removed from the US Pharmacopoeia and its medical use was prohibited.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There is a carotid artery on each side of the neck, and each one splits into two branches.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The school of Salerno thus forms a bridge between the ancient and the modern medicine, more direct though less conspicuous than that circuitous route, through Byzantium, Bagdad and Cordova, by which Hippocrates and Galen, in Arabian dress, again entered the European world.^ Potent FP agonist, more potent (2- to 3-fold) than fluprostenol but less selective.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Though the glory of Salerno had departed, the school actually existed till it was finally dissolved by an edict of the emperor Napoleon I. in the year 1811.

Introduction of Arabian Medicine: The Scholastic Period

About the middle of the 11th century the Arabian medical writers began to be known by Latin translations in the Western world. Constantinus Africanus, a monk, was the author of the earliest of such versions (A.D. roso); his labours were directed chiefly to the less important and less bulky Arabian authors, of whom Haly was the most noted; the real classics were not introduced till later. .For some time the Salernitan medicine held its ground, and it was not till the conquest of Toledo by Alphonso of Castile that any large number of Western scholars came in contact with the learning of the Spanish Moors, and systematic efforts were made to translate their philosophical and medical works.^ It can also be made in the laboratory, and is added to some soft drinks, foods, and medicines.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Jewish scholars, often under the patronage of Christian bishops, were especially active in the work. In Sicily also the Oriental tendencies of Frederick Barbarossa and Frederick II. worked in the same direction. Gerard of Cremona, a physician of Toledo (1114-1187), made translations, it is said by command of Barbarossa, from Avicenna and others. It is needless to point out the influence of the crusades in making Eastern ideas known in the Western world. The influence of Arabian medicine soon began to be felt even in the Hippocratic city of Salerno, and in the r3th century is said to have held an even balance with the older medicine. .After this time the foreign influence predominated; and by the time that the Aristotelian dialectic, in the introduction of which the Arabs had so large a share, prevailed in the schools of Europe, the Arabian version of Greek medicine reigned supreme in the medical world.^ The New York Times published "Medicinal Marijuana On Trial" , discussing medical marijuana research and Ashcroft v.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Perspective Section of the New England Journal of Medicine published an article, "Medical Marijuana and the Supreme Court," by Susan Oakie, MD, a contributing editor of the Journal.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

That this movement coincided with the establishment of some of the older European universities is well known. The history of medicine in the period now opening is closely combined with the history of scholastic philosophy. Both were infected with the same dialectical subtlety, which was, from the nature of the subject, especially injurious to medicine.
.At the same time, through the rise of the universities, medical learning was much more widely diffused, and the first definite forward movement was seen in the school of Montpellier, where a medical faculty existed early in the 12th century, afterwards united with faculties of law and philosophy.^ Occurring or existing at the same time as something else.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Denial of a license to the University of Massachusetts to produce marijuana for lawful scientific and medical purposes is contrary to both the spirit of 21 U.S.C. 823(a)(1) and to sound public policy.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Commentary in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), by Dean Lawrence Gostin, Georgetown Law School, criticizes NIDA for blocking medical marijuana research.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The medical school owed its foundation largely to Jewish teachers, themselves educated in the Moorish schools of Spain, and imbued with the intellectual independence of the Averroists. Its rising prosperity coincided with the decline of the school of Salerno. Montpellier became distinguished for the practical and empirical spirit of its medicine, as contrasted with the dogmatic and scholastic teaching of Paris and other universities. .In Italy, Bologna and Padua were earliest distinguished for medical studies - the former preserving more of the Galenical tradition, the latter being more progressive and Averroist.^ A validation study is more appropriate for developing the Volcano vaporizer as a medical device, a task best left to the manufacturer of that vaporizer.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In medicine, it may refer to a condition a person has or a medication a person is taking that is not being studied in the clinical trial he or she is taking part in.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A validation study is more appropriate for developing the Volcano vaporizer as an FDA-approved medical device, which MAPS isnt seeking to do.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The northern universities contributed little - the reputation even of Paris being of later growth.
.The supremacy of Arabian medicine lasted till the revival of learning, when the study of the medical classics in their original language worked another revolution.^ PHS/NIDA's handling of the original version of this protocol was another classic case of the dysfunctional nature of NIDA's monopoly on research-grade marijuana.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers study the medical and lifestyle histories of the people in each group to learn what factors may be associated with the disease or condition.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In medicine, it may refer to a condition a person has or a medication a person is taking that is not being studied in the clinical trial he or she is taking part in.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The medical writers of this period, who chiefly drew from Arabian sources, have been called Arabists (though it is difficult to give any clear meaning to this term), and were afterwards known as the neoterics.
.The medical literature of this period is extremely voluminous, but essentially second-hand, consisting mainly of commentaries on Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna and others, or of compilations and compendia still less original than commentaries.^ Less potent Na + /K + -ATPase inhibitor than other bufadienolides.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Among these may be mentioned the Conciliator of Peter of Abano (1250-1315), the Aggregator of Jacob de Dondi (1298-1359), both of the school of Padua, and the Pandectae medicinae of the Salernitan Matthaeus Sylvaticus (d. 1342), a sort of medical glossary and dictionary. But for us the most interesting fact is the first appearance of Englishmen as authors of medical works having a European reputation, distinguished, according to the testimony of Haser, by a practical tendency characteristic - of the British race, and fostered in the school of Montpellier.
The first of these works is the Compendium medicinae, also called Laurea or Rosa anglicana, of Gilbert (Gilbertus Anglicus, about 1290), said to contain good observations on leprosy. A more important work, the Practica seu lilium medicinae, of Bernard Gordon, a Scottish professor at Montpellier (written in the year 1307), was more widely spread, being translated into French and Hebrew, and printed in several editions. Of these two physicians the first probably, the latter certainly, was educated and practised abroad, but John Gaddesden (1280?-1361), the author of Rosa anglica seu Practica medicinae (between 1305 and 1317), was a graduate in medicine of Merton College, Oxford, and court physician. His compendium is entirely wanting in originality, and perhaps unusually destitute of common sense, but it became so popular as to be reprinted up to the end of the 16th century. Works of this kind became still more abundant in the 14th and in the first half of the 15th century, till the wider distribution of the medical classics in the original put them out of fashion.
.In surgery this period was far more productive than in medicine, especially in Italy and France, but the limits of our subject only permit us to mention Gulielmus de Saliceto of Piacenza (about 1275), Lanfranchi of Milan (died about 1306), the French surgeon, Guy de Chauliac (about 1350) and the Englishman, John Ardern (about 1350).^ The demand for limiting business power springs more often from those who feel themselves at a disadvantage in interbusiness transactions than it does from households ...
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As far as we can tell, there has been no US-based privately-funded marijuana production facility since 1942, when marijuana was removed from the US Pharmacopoeia and its medical use was prohibited.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The big question is whether the FDA will want more data than MAPS and California NORML have already gathered on the Volcano ( www.vapormed.de ) or will accept the data we have already submitted, which is more than FDA has about what is in marijuana smoke post-combustion.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

In anatomy also the beginning of a new epoch was made by Mondino de Liucci or Mundinus (1275-1326), and his followers. The medical writings of Arnald de Villanova (c. 1235-1313) (if the Breviarium practicae be rightly ascribed to him) rise above the rank of compilations. .Finally, in the 13th and especially the 14th century we find, under the name of consilia, the first medieval reports of medical cases which are preserved in such a form as to be intelligible.^ Research into alternative delivery methods such as vaporization was one of the primary recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's landmark 1999 report on medical marijuana .
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The San Francisco Chronicle reports that "Medical Marijuana Advocates Likely to Get Break Under Kerry" .
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Collections of consilia were published, among others, by Gentilis Fulgineus before 1348, by Bartolomeo Montagnana (d. 1470), and by Baverius de Baveriis of Imola (about 1450). The last-named contains much that is interesting and readable.

Period of the Revival of Learning

The impulse which all departments of intellectual activity received from the revival of Greek literature in Europe was felt by medicine among the rest. Not that the spirit of the science, or of its corresponding practice, was at once changed. .The basis of medicine through the middle ages had been literary and dogmatic, and it was literary and dogmatic still; but the medical literature now brought to light - including as it did the more important works of Hippocrates and Galen, many of them hitherto unknown, and in addition the forgotten element of Latin medicine, especially the work of Celsus - was in itself far superior to the second-hand compilations and incorrect versions which had formerly been accepted as standards.^ Yet more evidence that the Bush Administration is actively working to obstruct medical marijuana research.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There will need to be more work done to persuade the Ministry of Health that selling the medicine to patients is an appropriate course of action.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The classical works, though still regarded with unreasoning reverence, were found to have a germinative and vivifying power that carried the mind out of the region of dogma, and prepared the way for the scientific movement which has been growing in strength up to our own day.
.Two of the most important results of the revival of learning were indeed such as are excluded from the scope of this brief sketch - namely, the reawakening of anatomy, which to a large extent grew out of the study of the works of Galen, and the investigation of medicinal plants, to which a fresh impulse was given by the revival of Dioscorides (A.D. 50) and other ancient naturalists.^ The studies will be the first to emerge out of the university’s Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research (CMCR), a program created by the state Legislature in 1999.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The former brought with it necessarily a more accurate conception of physiology, and thus led up to the great discovery of Harvey, which was the turningpoint in modern medicine. .The latter gave rise, on the one hand, to the modern science of botany, on the other to a more rational knowledge of drugs and their uses.^ Treatment using more than one anticancer drug.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also used together with other drugs to treat advanced, metastatic, or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also used to treat metastatic breast cancer that has not improved after treatment with certain other anticancer drugs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

At the same time, the discovery of America, and increased intercourse with the East, by introducing a variety of new plants, greatly accelerated the progress both of botany and pharmacology.
But it was not in these directions that improvement was first looked for. It was at first very naturally imagined that the simple revival of classical and especially of Greek literature would at once produce the same brilliant results in medicine as in literature and philosophy. .The movement of reform started, of necessity, with scholars rather than practising physicians - more precisely with a group of learned men, whom we may be permitted, for the sake of a name, to call the medical humanists, equally enthusiastic in the cause of letters and of medicine.^ Researchers study the medical and lifestyle histories of the people in each group to learn what factors may be associated with the disease or condition.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A condition lasting for more than 6 months in which a person feels tired most of the time and may have trouble concentrating and carrying out daily activities.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ He also said researchers believe that if they can perfect a method of "vaporizing" marijuana -- allowing it to be inhaled rather than smoked -- it would be easier to administer as medicine.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

From both fields they hoped to expel the evils which were summed up in the word barbarism. Nearly all medieval medical literature was condemned under this name; and for it the humanists proposed to substitute the originals of Hippocrates and Galen, thus leading back medicine to its fountain-head. Since a knowledge of Greek was still confined to a small body of scholars, and a still smaller proportion of physicians, the first task was to translate the Greek classics into Latin. To this work several learned physicians, chiefly Italians, applied themselves with great ardour. Among the earliest were Nicolaus Leonicenus of Vicenza (1428-1524), Giovanni de Monte or Montanus (1498-1552), and many others in Italy. In northern Europe should be mentioned Gulielmus Copus (1471-1532) and Gunther of Andernach (1487-1584), better known as Guinterius Andernacensis, both for a time professors at Paris; and, among the greatest, Thomas Linacre (about 1460-1524; see Linacre). A little later Janus Cornarius or Hagenbut (150o-1558) and Leonhard Fuchs (1501-1566) in Germany, and John Kaye of Caius (1510-1572) in England, carried on the work. Symphorien Champier (Champerius or Campegius) of Lyons (1472-1539), a contemporary of Rabelais, and the patron of Servetus, wrote with fantastic enthusiasm on the superiority of the Greek to the Arabian physicians, and possibly did something to enlist in the same cause the two far greater men just mentioned. Rabelais not only lectured on Galen and Hippocrates, but edited some works of the latter; and Michael Servetus (1511-1553), in a little tract Syruporum universa ratio, defended the practice of Galen as compared with that of the Arabians. The great Aldine Press made an important contribution to the work, by editiones principes of Hippocrates and Galen in the original. Thus was the campaign opened against the medieval and Arabian writers, till finally Greek medicine assumed a predominant position, and Galen took the place of Avicenna. The result was recorded in a formal manner by the Florentine Academy, sometime shortly before 1 535: "Quae, excusso. Arabicae et barbarae servitutis medicae jugo, ex professo se Galenicam appellavit et profligato barbarorum exercitu unum totum et solum Galenum, ut optimum artis medicae authorem, in omnibus se sequuturam pollicita est." Janus Cornarius, from whom this is quoted, laments, however, that the Arabians still reigned in most of the schools of medicine, and that the Italian and French authors of works called Practica were still in high repute. The triumph of Galenism was therefore not complete by the middle of the 16th century. It was probably most so, and earliest, in the schools of Italy and in those of England, where the London College of Physicians might be regarded as an offshoot of the Italian schools. .Paris was the stronghold of conservatism, and Germany was stirred by the teachings of one who must be considered apart from all schools - Paracelsus.^ The hearings are now almost all over except for one additional witness who is scheduled to testify on January 17.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.The nature of the struggle between the rival systems may be well illustrated by a formidable controversy about the rules for bleeding in acute diseases.^ Selective inhibitor of BTK. Inhibits the catalytic activity of BTK as well as the interaction between BTK and PKCβII, in intact cells and in cell-free systems, without affecting the activity of PKC. .
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Valeri A, Radhakrishnan J, Vernocchi L, Carmichael LD, Stern L. The epidemiology of peritonitis in acute peritoneal dialysis: a comparison between open- and closed-drainage systems.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

This operation, according to the Arabian practice, was always performed on a vein at a distance from the organ affected. The Hippocratic and also Galenic rule, to let blood from, or near to, the diseased organ, was revived by Pierre Brissot (1470-1522), a professor in the university of Paris. His attempt at reform, which was taken to be, as in effect it was, a revolt against the authority of the Arabian masters, led to his expulsion from Paris, and the formal prohibition by the parliament of his method. .Upon this apparently trifling question arose a controversy which lasted many years, occupied several universities, and led to the interposition of personages no less important than the pope and the emperor, but which is thought to have largely contributed to the final downfall of the Arabian medicine.^ Xanthone structurally related to the aflatoxins and while available data has led it to be considered mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic, it is less widespread and potent than the aflatoxins.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ David has also donated $5000 to Philippe Lucas of Vancouver Island Compassion Society (VICS) for research with patients who have been provided marijuana from VICS over the last several years.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If the test subject in question were dandelions, there would be no controversy here.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Paracelsus and Chemical Medicine. - Contemporary with the school of medical humanists, but little influenced by them, lived in Germany a man of strange genius, of whose character and importance the most opposite opinions have been expressed. The first noticeable quality in Paracelsus (c. 1490-1541) is his revolutionary independence of thought, which was supported by his immense personal arrogance. Himself well trained in the learning and medical science of the day, he despised and trampled upon all traditional and authoritative teachings. .He began his lectures at Basel by burning the books of Avicenna and others; he afterwards boasted of having read no books for ten years; he protested that his shoe-buckles were more learned than Galen and Avicenna.^ The Anderson Valley Advertiser has followed the details of the medical marijuana issue more closely than any other paper.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We have now been trying without success for more than five years to purchase 10 grams of marijuana from NIDA for the expansion of our vaporizer research.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemic Labs had applied to purchase the 10 grams more than two years before.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

On the other hand, he spoke with respect of Hippocrates, and wrote a commentary on his Aphorisms. In this we see a spirit very different from the enthusiasm of the humanists for a purer and nobler philosophy than the scholastic and Arabian versions of Greek thought. .There is no record of Paracelsus' knowledge of Greek, and as, at least in his student days, the most important works of Greek medicine were very imperfectly known, it is probable he had little first hand acquaintance with Galen or Hippocrates, while his breach with the humanists is the more conspicuous from his lecturing and writing chiefly in his native German.^ One of my most important findings has been that innovation, quality, and diversity of product characteristics satisfying consumers' demands are more likely to be achieved when there are multiple producers than when there is only one, i.e., a monopoly.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There will need to be more work done to persuade the Ministry of Health that selling the medicine to patients is an appropriate course of action.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If ALJ Bittner issues an unfavorable recommendation, DEA wins and there will probably be no privately-funded medical marijuana research effort ever started until a more reasonable President is in office.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Having thus made a clean sweep of nearly the whole of the dogmatic medicine, what did Paracelsus put in its place? Certainly not pure empiricism, or habits of objective observation. He had a dogma of his own - one founded, according to his German expositors, on the views of the Neoplatonists, of which a few disjointed specimens must here suffice. The human body was a "microcosm" which corresponded to the "macrocosm," and contained in itself all parts of visible nature, - sun, moon, stars and the poles of heaven. To know the nature of man and how to deal with it, the physician should study, not anatomy, which Paracelsus utterly rejected, but all parts of external nature. Life was a perpetual germinative process controlled by the indwelling spirit or Archeus; and diseases, according to the mystical conception of Paracelsus, were not natural but spiritual. Nature was sufficient for the cure of most diseases; art had only to interfere when the internal physician, the man himself, was tired or incapable. Then some remedy had to be introduced which should be antagonistic, not to the disease in a physical sense, but to the spiritual seed of the disease. These remedies were arcana - a word corresponding partly to what we now call specific remedies, but implying a mysterious connexion between the remedy and the "essence" of the disease. .Arcana were often shown to be such by their physical properties, not only by such as heat, cold, &c., but by fortuitous resemblances to certain parts of the body; thus arose the famous doctrine of "signatures," or signs indicating the virtues and uses of natural objects, which was afterwards developed into great complexity.^ NIDA uses its monopoly to fundamentally obstruct research aimed at developing marijuana into an FDA-approved prescription medicine.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Has been used in structural elucidation of mispairs with natural bases to explain their mutagenic properties.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since it is not possible to obtain a patent on marijuana for use as a prescription medicine, an Orphan Drug Designation makes marijuana available for research and development into a prescription medicine.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Great importance was also attached to chemically prepared remedies as containing the essence or spiritual quality of the material from which they were derived. The actual therapeutical resources of Paracelsus included a large number of metallic preparations, in the introduction of some of which he did good service, and, among vegetable preparations, the tincture of opium, still known by the name he gave it, laudanum. In this doubtless he derived much advantage from his knowledge of chemistry, though the science was as yet not disentangled from the secret traditions of alchemy, and was often mixed up with imposture.
.German historians of medicine attach great importance to the revolt of Paracelsus against the prevailing systems, and trace in his writings anticipations of many scientific truths of later times.^ We estimate that the odds of prevailing over DEA are 2-1 against us -- in other words, more favorable than many of MAPS' long-shot efforts.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

That his personality was influential, and his intrepid originality of great value as an example in his own country, is undeniable. As a national reformer he has been not inaptly compared to Luther. But his importance in the universal history of medicine we cannot estimate so highly. The chief immediate result we can trace is the introduction of certain mineral remedies, especially antimony, the use of which became a kind of badge of the disciples of Paracelsus. The use of these remedies was not, however, necessarily connected with a belief in his system, which seems to have spread little beyond his own country. Of the followers of Paracelsus some became mere mystical quacks and impostors. Others, of more learning and better repute, were distinguished from the regular physicians chiefly by their use of chemical remedies. In France the introduction of antimony gave rise to a bitter controversy which lasted into the 17th century, and led to the expulsion of some men of mark from the Paris faculty. In England "chemical medicine" is first heard of in the reign of Elizabeth, and was in like manner contemned and assailed by the College of Physicians and the Society of Apothecaries. But it should be remembered that all the chemical physicians did not call Paracelsus master. The most notorious of that school in England, Francis Anthony (1550-1623), never quotes Paracelsus, but relies upon Arnald de Villanova and Raimon Lull. From this time, however, it is always possible to trace a school of chemical practitioners, who, though condemned by the orthodox Galenists, held their ground, till in the 17th century a successor of Paracelsus arose in the celebrated J. B. Van Helmont.

Consequences of the Revival of Ancient Medicine

.The revival of Galenic and Hippocratic medicine, though ultimately it conferred the greatest benefits on medical sciences, did not immediately produce any important or salutary reform in practical medicine.^ DesMoines Register Columnist Rekha Basu delivers a compassionate and practical article on the benefits of marijuana and the "Catch-22" of the present medical marijuana struggle.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "The question of whether marijuana has any legitimate medical purpose should be determined by sound science and medicine," DEA Administrator Asa Hutchinson said in a statement.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.The standard of excellence in the ancient writers was indeed far above the level of the 16th century; but the fatal habit of taking at second hand what should have been acquired by direct observation retarded progress more than the possession of better models assisted it, so that the fundamental faults of medieval science remained uncorrected.^ Himmelfarb J, Robinson R, Nye R, McMonagle E, Spratt D. Anabolic and catabolic hormone levels are better predictors of nutritional status than KT-V or PCR in hemodialysis [abstract].
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Chazot C, Chazot I, Charra B, Terrat JC, Vanel T, Calemard E, Ruffet M, Laurent G. Functional study of hands among patients dialysed for more than 10 years.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Nevertheless some progress has to be recorded, even if not due directly to the study of ancient medicine. In the first place the 15th and 16th centuries were notable for the outbreak of certain epidemic diseases, which were unknown to the old physicians. Of these the chief was the "sweating sickness" or "English sweat," especially prevalent in, though not confined to, the country whence it is named. .Among many descriptions of this disease, that by John Kaye or Caius, already referred to, was one of the best, and of great importance as showing that the works of Galen did not comprise all that could be known in medicine.^ This development could have implications for research with medical marijuana, since one of the government’s main arguments has been that no legitimate medicine is smoked.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This development could have implications for research with medical marijuana, since one of the government's main arguments has been that no legitimate medicine is smoked.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

The spread of syphilis, a disease equally unknown to the ancients, and the failure of Galen's remedies to cure it, had a similar effect.
In another direction the foundations of modern medicine were being laid during the 16th century - namely, by the introduction of clinical instruction in hospitals. .In this Italy, and especially the renowned school of Padua, took the first step, where Giovanni De Monte (Montanus), (1498-1552), already mentioned as a humanist, gave clinical lectures on the patients in the hospital of St Francis, which may still be read with interest.^ Nube MJ, De Vet JA, Steffens A, Van Geelen JA. Long-term results of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: the first hundred patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Chew SL, Lins RL, Daelemans R, Zachee P, De Clerck LS, Vermylen J. Are antiphospholipid antibodies clinically relevant in dialysis patients?
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Pupils flocked to him from all European countries; Germans are especially mentioned; a Polish student reported and published some of his lectures; and the Englishman Kaye was a zealous disciple, who does not, however, seem to have done anything towards transplanting this method of instruction to his own country. Inspections of the dead, to ascertain the nature of the disease, were made, though not without difficulty, and thus the modern period of the science of morbid anatomy was ushered in.

Medicine in the 17th Century

The medicine of the early 17th century presents no features to distinguish it from that of the preceding century. The practice and theory of medicine were mainly founded upon Hippocrates and Galen, with everincreasing additions from the chemical school. But the development of mathematical and physical science soon introduced a fundamental change in the habits of thought with respect to medical doctrine.
These discoveries not only weakened or destroyed the respect for authority in matters of science, but brought about a marked tendency to mechanical explanations of life and disease. When William Harvey by his discovery of the circulation furnished an explanation of many vital processes which was reconcilable with the ordinary laws of mechanics, the efforts of medical theorists were naturally directed to bringing all the departments of medicine under similar laws. It is often assumed that the writings and influence of Bacon did much towards introducing a more scientific method into medicine and physiology. But, without discussing the general philosophical position or historical importance of Bacon, it may safely be said that his direct influence can be little traced in medical writings of the first half of the r 7th century. Harvey, as is well known, spoke slightingly of the great chancellor, and it is not till the rapid development of physical science in England and Holland in the latter part of the century, that we find Baconian principles explicitly recognized.
The dominant factors in the r 7th-century medicine were the discovery of the circulation by William Harvey (published in 1628), the mechanical philosophy of Descartes and the contemporary progress of physics, the teaching of Van Helmont and the introduction of chemical explanations of morbid processes, and finally, combined of all these, and inspiring them, the rise of the spirit of inquiry and innovation, which may be called the scientific movement. Before speaking in detail of these, we may note that by other influences quite independent of theories, important additions were made to practical medicine. The method of clinical instruction in hospitals, commenced by the Italians, was introduced into Holland, where it was greatly developed, especially at Leiden, in the hands of Francis de la Bo gy, called Sylvius (1641-1672). .It is noteworthy that concurrently with the rise of clinical study the works of Hippocrates were more and more valued, while Galen began to sink into the background.^ Iseki K, Kawazoe N, Fukiyama K. Predictive values of clinical indices on survival in chronic hemodialysis patients a short-term prospective study [abstract].
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.At the same time the discovery of new diseases, unknown to the ancients, and the keener attention which the great epidemics of plague caused to be paid to those already known, led to more minute study of the natural history of disease.^ Parfrey PS, Harnett JD, Barre PE. The natural history of myocardial disease in dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Levine E, Slusher SL, Grantham JJ, Wetzel LH. Natural history of acquired renal cystic disease in dialysis patients: a prospective longitudinal CT study.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The most important disease hitherto undescribed was rickets, first made known by Arnold de Boot, a Frisian who practised in Ireland, in 1649, and afterwards more fully in the celebrated work of Francis Glisson (1597-1677) in 1651. The plague was carefully studied by Isbrand de Diemerbroek, in his De Peste (1646), and others. Nathaniel Hodges of London (1629-1688) in 1665 seems to have been the first who had the courage to make a post mortem inspection of a plague patient. Christopher Bennet (1617-1655) wrote an important work on consumption in 1654. During the same period Many new remedies were introduced, the most important being cinchona-bark, brought to Spain in the year 1640. The progress of pharmacy was shown by the publication of Dispensatories or Pharmacopoeiae such as that of the Royal College of Physicians of London in 1618. This, like the earlier German works of the same kind (on which it was partly founded), contains both the traditional (Galenical) and the modern or chemical remedies.

Van Helmont

.The medicine of the 17th century was especially distinguished by the rise of sytems; and we must first speak of an eccentric genius who endeavoured to construct a system for himself, as original and opposed to tradition as that of Paracelsus.^ Bis-coclaurine alkaloid used for centuries in Chinese traditional medicine for cardiovascular diseases.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

J. B. Van Helmont (1578-1644) was a man of noble family in Brussels, who, after mastering all other branches of learning as then understood, devoted himself with enthusiasm to medicine and chemistry. By education and position a little out of the regular lines of the profession, he took up in medicine an independent attitude. Well acquainted with the doctrines of Galen, he rejected them as thoroughly as Paracelsus did, and borrowed from the latter some definite ideas as well as his revolutionary spirit. The archeus of Paracelsus appears again, but with still further complications - the whole body being controlled by the archeus influus, and the organ of the soul and its various parts by the archei insiti, which are subject to the central archeus. Many of the symptoms of diseases were caused by the passions and perturbations of the archeus, and medicines acted by modifying the ideas of the same archeus. These and other notions cannot be here stated at sufficient length to be intelligible. .It is enough to say that on this fantastic basis Helmont constructed a medical system which had some practical merits, that his therapeutical methods were mild and in many respects happy, and that he did service by applying newer chemical methods to the preparation of drugs.^ Servicing Aerospace, Defense, Nuclear, Medical, Petro-Chemical.

He thus had some share, though a share not generally recognized, in the foundation of the iatro-chemical school, now to be spoken of. But his avowed followers formed a small and discredited sect, which, in England at least, can be clearly traced in the latter part of the century.

Discovery of the Circulation of the Blood

The influence of Harvey's discovery began to be felt before the middle of the century. Its merits were recognized by Descartes, among the first, nine years after its publication. For the history of the discovery, and its consequences in anatomy and physiology, we must refer to the article Harvey. In respect of practical medicine, much less effect was at first noticeable. But this example, combined with the Cartesian principles, set many active and ingenious spirits to work to reconstruct the whole of medicine on a physiological or even a mechanical basis - to endeavour to form what we should now call physiological or scientific medicine. The result of this was not to eliminate dogma from medicine, though it weakened the authority of the old dogma. The movement led rather to the formation of schools or systems of thought, which under various names lasted on into the 18th century, while the belief in the utility or necessity of schools and systems lasted much longer. The most important of these were the so-called iatro-physical or mechanical and the iatro-chemical schools.

Iatro-Physical School

The iatro-physical school of medicine grew out of physiological theories. Its founder is held to have been G. A. Borelli (1608-1679), whose treatise De motu animalium, published in 1680, is regarded as marking an epoch in physiology. The tendency of the school was to explain the actions and functions of the body on physical, and especially on mechanical, principles. .The movements of bones and muscles were referred to the theory of levers; the process of digestion was regarded as essentially a process of trituration; nutrition and secretion were shown to be dependent upon the tension of the vessels, and so forth.^ Shown to induces GPR40-dependent Ca2+ mobilization in HEK-293 cells and potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in MIN6 cells.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

The developments of this school belong rather to the history of physiology, where they appear, seen in the light of modern science, as excellent though premature endeavours in a scientific direction. But the influence of these theories on practical medicine was not great. The more judicious of the mechanical or physical school refrained, as a judicious modern physiologist does, from too immediate an application of their principles to daily practice. Mechanical theories were introduced into pathology, in explanation of the processes of fever and the like, but had little or no influence on therapeutics. The most important men in this school after Borelli were Nicolaus Stensen (Steno), (1638-1686), Giorgio Baglivi (1669-1707) and Lorenzo Bellini (1643-1704). An English physician, William Cole (1635-1716), is also usually ranked with them. One of the most elaborate developments of the system was that of Archibald Pitcairne (1652-1713), a Scottish physician who became professor at Leiden, to be spoken of hereafter.

Iatro-Chemical School

The so-called iatro-chemical school stood in a much closer relation to practical medicine than the iatrophysical. .The principle which mainly distinguished it was not merely the use of chemical medicines in addition to the traditional, or, as they were called in distinction, "Galenical" remedies, but a theory of pathology or causation of disease entirely different from the prevailing "humoral" pathology.^ The active agent in a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat chronic myelocytic leukemia.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bis-coclaurine alkaloid used for centuries in Chinese traditional medicine for cardiovascular diseases.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A naturally occuring furanocoumarin used to treat septic shock in traditional Chinese medicine.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Its chief aim was to reconcile the new views in physiology and chemistry with practical medicine. In some theoretical views, and in the use of certain remedies, the school owed something to Van Helmont and Paracelsus, but took in the main an independent position. The founder of the iatrochemical school was Sylvius (1614-1672), who belonged to a French family settled in Holland, and was for fourteen years professor of medicine at Leiden, where he attracted students from all quarters of Europe. .He made a resolute attempt to reconstruct medicine on the two bases of the doctrine of the circulation of the blood and the new views of chemistry.^ Steuer RR, Harris DH, Conis JM. A new optical technique for monitoring hematocrit and circulating blood volume: its application in renal dialysis.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Fermentation, which was supposed to take place in the stomach, played an important part in the vital processes. Chemical disturbances of these processes, called acridities, &c., were the cause of fevers and other diseases. Sometimes acid sometimes alkaline properties predominated in the juices and secretions of the body, and produced corresponding disturbances. In nervous diseases disturbances of the vital "spirits" were most important. Still in some parts of his system Sylvius shows an anxiety to base his pathology on anatomical changes. The remedies he employed were partly galenical, partly chemical. He was very moderate in the use of bleeding.
The doctrines of Sylvius became widely spread in Holland and Germany; less so in France and Italy. In England they were not generally accepted till adopted with some modifications by Thomas Willis the great anatomist (1621-1675), who is the chief English representative of the chemical school. Willis was as thorough-going a chemist as Sylvius. He regarded all bodies, organic and inorganic, as composed of the three elements - spirit, sulphur and salt, the first being only found abundantly in animal bodies. The "intestine movement of particles" in every body, or fermentation, was the explanation of many of the processes of life and disease. The sensible properties and physical alterations of animal fluids and solids depended upon different proportions, movements and combinations of these particles. The elaborate work Pharmaceutice rationalis (1674), based on these materials, had much influence in its time, though it was soon forgotten. .But some parts of Willis's works, such as his descriptions of nervous diseases, and his account (the earliest) of diabetes, are classical contributions to scientific medicine.^ Willis R. Foster, M.D., Benjamin T. Burton, Ph.D., and M. James Scherbenske, Ph.D., National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases .
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

In the application of chemistry to the examination of secretions Willis made some important steps. The chemical school met with violent opposition, partly from the adherents of the ancient medicine, partly from the iatro-mechanical school. Towards the end of the 17th century appeared an English medical reformer who sided with none of these schools, but may be said in some respects to have surpassed and dispensed with them.
Sydenham and Locke. - Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689) was educated at Oxford and at Montpellier. He was well acquainted with the works of the ancient physicians, and probably fairly so with chemistry. Of his knowledge of anatomy nothing definite can be said, as he seldom refers to it. His main avowed principle was to do without hypothesis, and study the actual diseases in an unbiassed manner. As his model in medical methods, Sydenham repeatedly and pointedly refers to Hippocrates, and he has not unfairly been called the English Hippocrates. .He resembled his Greek master in the high value he set on the study of the "natural history of disease"; in the importance he attached to "epidemic constitution" - that is, to the influence of weather and other natural causes in modifying disease; and further in his conception of the healing power of nature in disease, a doctrine which he even expanded beyond the teaching of Hippocrates.^ Parfrey PS, Harnett JD, Barre PE. The natural history of myocardial disease in dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Levine E, Slusher SL, Grantham JJ, Wetzel LH. Natural history of acquired renal cystic disease in dialysis patients: a prospective longitudinal CT study.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.According to Sydenham, a disease is nothing more than an effort of nature to restore the health of the patient by the elimination of the morbific matter.^ Parfrey PS, Harnett JD, Barre PE. The natural history of myocardial disease in dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Chazot C, Chazot I, Charra B, Terrat JC, Vanel T, Calemard E, Ruffet M, Laurent G. Functional study of hands among patients dialysed for more than 10 years.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The extent to which his practice was influenced by this and other a priori conceptions prevents us from classing Sydenham as a pure empiric; but he had the rare merit of never permitting himself to be enslaved even by his own theories. Still less was his mind warped by either of the two great systems, the classical and the chemical, which then divided the medical world. Sydenham's influence on European medicine was very great. His principles were welcomed as a return to nature by those who were weary of theoretical disputes. .He introduced a milder and better way of treating fevers - especially small-pox, and gave strong support to the use of specific medicines - especially Peruvian bark.^ Laupacis A, Wong C, Churchill D. The use of generic and specific quality-of-life measures in hemodialysis patients treated with erythropoietin.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

He was an advocate of bleeding, and often carried it to excess. Another important point in Sydenham's doctrine is his clear recognition of many diseases as being what would be now called specific, and not due merely to an alteration in the primary qualities or humours of the older schools. From this springs his high appreciation of specific medicines.
One name should always be mentioned along with Sydenhamthat of his friend John Locke. The great sensational philosopher was a thoroughly trained physician, and practised privately. He shared and defended many of Sydenham's principles, and in the few medical observations he has left shows himself to be even more thorough-going than the "English Hippocrates." It is deeply to be regretted in the interests of medicine that he did not write more. It is, however, reasonable to suppose that his commanding intellect often makes itself felt in the words of Sydenham. One sentence of Locke's, in a letter to William Molyneux, sums up the practical side of Sydenham's teaching: "You cannot imagine how far a little observation carefully made by a man not tied up to the four humours [Galen], or sal, sulphur and mercury [Paracelsus], or to acid and alcali [Sylvius and Willis] which has of late prevailed, will carry a man in the curing of diseases though very stubborn and dangerous; and that with very little and common things, and almost no medicine at all." We thus see that, while the great anatomists, physicists and chemists - men of the type of Willis, Borelli and Boyle - were laying foundations which were later on built up into the fabric of scientific medicine, little good was done by the premature application of their half-understood principles to practice. The reform of practical medicine was effected by men who aimed at, and partly succeeded in, rejecting all hypothesis and returning to the unbiassed study of natural processes, as shown in health and disease.
.Sydenham showed that these processes might be profitably studied and dealt with without explaining them; and, by turning men's minds away from explanations and fixing them on facts, he enriched medicine with a method more fruitful than any discoveries in detail.^ Chazot C, Chazot I, Charra B, Terrat JC, Vanel T, Calemard E, Ruffet M, Laurent G. Functional study of hands among patients dialysed for more than 10 years.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

From this time forth the reign of canonical authority in medicine was at an end, though the dogmatic spirit long survived.

The r8th Century

The medicine of the i 8th century is notable, like that of the latter part of the 17th, for the striving after complete theoretical systems. The influence of the iatro-physical school was by no means exhausted; and in England, especially through the indirect influence of Sir Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) great astronomical generalizations, it took on a mathematical aspect, and is sometimes known as iatro-mathematical. This phase is most clearly developed in Archibald Pitcairne (1652-1713), who, though a determined opponent of metaphysical explanations, and of the chemical doctrines, gave to his own rude mechanical explanations of life and disease almost the dogmatic completeness of a theological system. His countryman and pupil, George Cheyne (1671-1743), who lived some years at Bath, published a new theory of fevers on the mechanical system, which had a great reputation. Their English contemporaries and successors, John Freind, William Cole, and Richard Mead, leaned also to mechanical explanations, but with a distrust of systematic theoretical completeness, which was perhaps partly a national characteristic, partly the result of the teaching of Sydenham and Locke. Freind (1675-1728) in his Emmenologia gave a mechanical explanation of the phenomena of menstruation. He is also one of the most distinguished writers on the history of medicine. Cole (1635-1716) (see above) published mechanical hypotheses concerning the causation of fevers which closely agree with those of the Italian iatro-mechanical school. .More distinguished in his own day than any of these was Mead (1673-1754), one of the most accomplished and socially successful physicians of modern times.^ Has a longer life-time than DMPO. Can distinguish between superoxide-dependent and independent mechanisms.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Mead was the pupil of the equally popular and successful John Radcliffe (1650-1714), who had acquired from Sydenham a contempt for book-learning, and belonged to no school in medicine but the school of common sense. Radcliffe left, however, no work requiring mention in a history of medicine. Mead, a man of great learning and intellectual activity, was an ardent advocate of the mathematical doctrines. "It is very evident," he says, "that all other means of improving medicine have been found ineffectual, by the stand it was at for two thousand years, and that, since mathematicians have sot themselves to the study of it, men already begin to talk so intelligibly and comprehensibly, even about abstruse matters, that it is to be hoped that mathematical learning will be the distinguishing mark of a physician and a quack." His Mechanical Account of Poisons, in the first edition (1702), gave an explanation of the effects of poisons, as acting only on the blood. Afterwards he modified his hypothesis, and referred the disturbances produced to the "nervous liquor," which he supposed to be a quantity of the "universal elastic matter" diffused through the universe, by which Newton explained the phenomena of light - i.e. what was afterwards called the luminiferous ether. Mead's treatise on The Power of the Sun and Moon over Human Bodies (1704), equally inspired by Newton's discoveries, was a premature attempt to assign the influence of atmospheric pressure and other cosmical causes in producing disease. His works contain, however, many original experiments, and excellent practical observations. .James Keill (1673-1719) applied Newtonian and mechanical principles to the explanation of bodily functions with still greater accuracy and completeness; but his researches have more importance for physiology than for practical medicine.^ Chazot C, Chazot I, Charra B, Terrat JC, Vanel T, Calemard E, Ruffet M, Laurent G. Functional study of hands among patients dialysed for more than 10 years.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Boerhaave

None of these men founded a school - a result due in part to their intellectual character, in part to the absence in England of medical schools equivalent in position and importance to the universities of the Continent. An important academical position was, on the other hand, one of the reasons why a physician not very different in his way of thinking from the English physicians of the age of Queen Anne was able to take a far more predominant position in the medical world. Hermann Boerhaave (1668-1738) was emphatically a great teacher. He was for many years .professor of medicine at Leiden, where he lectured five hours a day, and excelled in influence and reputation not only his greatest forerunners, Montanus of Padua and Sylvius of Leiden, but probably every subsequent teacher. The hospital of Leiden, though with only twelve beds available for teaching, became the centre of medical influence in Europe. Many of the leading English physicians of the 18th century studied there; Gerard Van Swieten (1700-1772), a pupil of Boerhaave, transplanted the latter's method of teaching to Vienna, and founded the noted Vienna school of medicine.
As the organizer, and almost the constructor, of the modern method of clinical instruction, the services of Boerhaave to the progress of medicine were immense, and can hardly be overrated. In his teaching, as in his practice, he avowedly followed the method of Hippocrates and Sydenham, both of whom he enthusiastically admired. In his medical doctrines he must be pronounced an eclectic, though taking his stand mainly on the iatro-mechanical school. The bestknown parts of Boerhaave's system are his doctrines of inflammation, obstruction and "plethora. ' By the last named especially he was long remembered. His object was to make all the anatomical and physiological acquisitions of his age, even microscopical anatomy, which he diligently studied, available for use in the practice of medicine. He thus differed from Sydenham, who took almost as little account of modern science as of ancient dogma. Boerhaave may be in some respects compared tO Galen, but again differed from him in that he always abstained from attempting to reduce his knowledge to a uniform and coherent system. Boerhaave attached great importance to the study of the medical classics, but rather treated them historically than quoted them as canonical authorities. .It almost follows from the nature of the case that the great task of Boerhaave's life, a synthesis of ancient and modern medicine, and the work in which this is chiefly contained, his.^ We routinely work with the following materials: natural rubber, SBR, Nitrite, EPDM, Neoprene, silicon, viton, butyl & acrylic rubber.
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

celebrated Institutions, could not have any great permanent value. .Nearly the same thing is true even of the Aphorisms, in which, following the example of Hippocrates, he endeavoured to sum up the results of his long experience.^ Kusakari J, Hara A, Takeyama M, Suzuki S, Igari T. The hearing of the patients treated with hemodialysis: a long term follow-up study.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Hoffmann and Stahl

We have now to speak of two writers in whom the systematic tendency of the 18th century showed itself most completely.
Friedrich Hoffmann (1660-1742), like Boerhaave, owed his influence, and perhaps partly his intellectual characteristics, to his academical position. He was in 1693 appointed the first professor of medicine in the university of Halle, then just founded by the elector Frederick III. Here he became, as did his contemporary and rival Stahl, a popular and influential teacher, though their university had not the European importance of Leiden. Hoffmann's" system "was apparently intended to reconcile the opposing" spiritual "and" materialistic "views of nature, and is thought to have been much influenced by the philosophy of Leibnitz. His medical theories rest upon a complete theory of the universe. Life depended upon a universally diffused ether, which animals breathe in from the atmosphere, and which is contained in all parts of the body. .It accumulates in the brain, and there generates the" nervous fluid "or pneuma - a theory closely resembling that of Mead on the" nervous liquor,"unless indeed Mead borrowed it from Hoffmann.^ PDMP closely resembles the natural sphingolipid substrate of brain glucosyltransferase and acts as a potent and competitive inhibitor of this enzyme.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

On this system are explained all the phenomena of life and disease. Health depends on the maintenance of a proper" tone "in the body - some diseases being produced by excess of tone, or" spasm "; others by" atony,"or want of tone. But it is impossible here to follow its further developments. Independently of his system, which has long ceased to exert any influence, Hoffmann made some contributions to practical medicine; and his great knowledge of chemistry enabled him to investigate the subject of mineral waters. He was equally skilful in pharmacy, but lowered his position by the practice, which would be unpardonable in a modern physician, of trafficking in secret remedies.
.George Ernest Stahl (1660-1734) was for more than twenty years professor of medicine at Halle, and thus a colleague of Hoffmann, whom he resembled in constructing a complete theoretical system, though their systems had little or nothing in common.^ Chazot C, Chazot I, Charra B, Terrat JC, Vanel T, Calemard E, Ruffet M, Laurent G. Functional study of hands among patients dialysed for more than 10 years.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Stahl's chief aim was to oppose materialism. For mechanical conceptions he substituted the theory of" animism "- attributing to the soul the functions of ordinary animal life in man, while the life of other creatures was left to mechanical laws. The symptoms of disease were explained as efforts of the soul to rid itself from morbid influences, the soul acting reasonably with respect to the end of self-preservation. The anima thus corresponds partly to the" nature "of Sydenham, while In other respects it resembles the archeus of Van Helmont. Animism in its completeness met with little acceptance during the lifetime of its author, but influenced some of the iatro-physical school. Stahl was the author of the theory of" phlogiston "in chemistry, which in its day had great importance.

Haller and Morgagni

From the subtleties of rival systems it is a satisfaction to turn to two movements in the medicine of the 18th century which, though they did not extinguish the spirit of system-making, opened up paths of investigation by which the systems were ultimately superseded. These are physiology in the modern sense, as dating from Haller, and pathological anatomy, as dating from Morgagni.
Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777) was a man of even more encyclopaedic attainments than Boerhaave. He advanced chemistry, botany, anatomy, as well as physiology, and was incessantly occupied in endeavouring to apply his scientific studies to practical medicine, thus continuing the work of his great teacher Boerhaave. .Besides all this he was probably more profoundly acquainted with the literature and bibliography of medicine than any one before or since.^ A citation may appear in more than one category.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Current Bibliographies in Medicine (CBM) is a continuation in part of the National Library of Medicine's Literature Search Series, which ceased in 1987 with No.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Haller occupied in the new university of Gottingen (founded 1737) a position corresponding to that of Boerhaave at Leiden, and in like manner influenced a very large circle of pupils, The appreciation of his work in physiology belongs to the history of that science; we are only concerned here with its influence on medicine. Haller's definition of irritability as a property of muscular tissue, and its distinction from sensibility as a property of nerves, struck at the root of the prevailing hypothesis respecting animal activity. It was no longer necessary to suppose that a halfconscious" anima "was directing every movement. Moreover, Haller's views did not rest on a priori speculation, but on numerous experiments. He was among the first to investigate the action of medicines on healthy persons. Unfortunately the lesson which his contemporaries learnt was not the importance of experiment, but only the need of contriving ether" systems "less open to objection; and thus the influence of Haller led directly to the theoretical subtleties of William Cullen and John Brown, and only indirectly and later on to the general anatomy of M. F. X. Bichat. The great name of Haller does not therefore occupy a very prominent place in the history of practical medicine.
The work of Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771) had and still preserves a permanent importance beyond that of all the contemporary theorists. .In a series of letters, De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis, published when he was in his eightieth year, he describes the appearances met with at the post mortem examination as well as the symptoms during life in a number of cases of various diseases.^ Each year, increasing numbers of people with irreversible end stage renal failure are treated under the United States Medicare ESRD (End-Stage Renal Disease) programs.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Poch E, Almirall J, Alsina M, del Rio R, Cases A, Revert L. Calciphylaxis in a hemodialysis patient: appearance after parathyroidectomy during a psoriatic flare.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

It was not the first work of the kind. The Swiss physician, Theophile Bonet (1620-1689) had published his Sepulcretum in 1679; and observations of post mortem appearances had been made by Montanus, P. Tulp, Raymond Vieussens, A.M. Valsalva, G. M. Lancisi, Haller and others. But never before was so large a collection of cases brought together, described with such accuracy, or illustrated with equal anatomical and medical knowledge. Morgagni's work at once made an epoch in the science. Morbid anatomy now became a recognized branch of medical research, and the movement was started which has lasted till our own day.
The contribution of Morgagni to medical science must be regarded as in some respects the counterpart of Sydenham's. .The latter had, in neglecting anatomy, neglected the most solid basis for studying the natural history of disease; though perhaps it was less from choice than because his practice, as he was not attached to a hospital, gave him no opportunities.^ Parfrey PS, Harnett JD, Barre PE. The natural history of myocardial disease in dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Levine E, Slusher SL, Grantham JJ, Wetzel LH. Natural history of acquired renal cystic disease in dialysis patients: a prospective longitudinal CT study.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

But it is on the combination of the two methods - that of Sydenham and of Morgagni - that modern medicine rests; and it is through these that it has been able to make steady progress in its own field, independently of the advance of physiology or other sciences.
The method of Morgagni found many imitators, both in his own country and in others. In England the first important name in this field is at the same time that of the first writer of a systematic work in any language on morbid anatomy, Matthew Baillie (1761-1823), a nephew of John and William Hunter, who published his treatise in 1795.

Cullen and Brown

It remains to speak of two systematic writers on medicine in the 18th century, whose great reputation prevents them from being passed over, though their real contribution to the progress of medicine was not great - Cullen and Brown.
William Cullen (1710-1790) was a most eminent and popular professor of medicine at Edinburgh. The same academical influences as surrounded the Dutch and German founders of systems were doubtless partly concerned in leading him to form the plan of a comprehensive system of medicine. Cullen's system was largely based on the new physiological doctrine of irritability, but is especially noticeable for the importance attached to nervous action. Thus even gout was regarded as a" neurosis."These pathological principles of Cullen are contained in his First Lines of the Practice of Physic, an extremely popular book, often reprinted and translated. .More importance is to be attached to his Nosology or Classification of Diseases. The attempt to classify diseases on a natural-history plan was not new, having been commenced by Sauvages and others, and is perhaps not a task of the highest importance.^ Parfrey PS, Harnett JD, Barre PE. The natural history of myocardial disease in dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Cullen drew out a classification of great and needless complexity, the chief part of which is now forgotten, but several of his main divisions are still preserved.
It is difficult to form a clear estimate of the importance of the last systematizer of medicine - John Brown (1735-1788) - for, though in England he has been but little regarded, the wide though shortlived popularity of his system on the Continent shows that it must have contained some elements of brilliancy, if not originality. .His theory of medicine professed to explain the processes of life and disease, and the methods of cure, upon one simple principle - that of the property of" excitability,"in virtue of which the" exciting powers,"defined as being (1) external forces and (2) the functions of the system itself, call forth the vital phenomena" sense, motion, mental function and passion."All exciting powers are stimulant, the apparent debilitating or sedative effect of some being due to a deficiency in the degree of stimulus; so that the final conclusion is that" the whole phenomena of life, health as well as disease, consist in stimulus and nothing else."Brown recognized some diseases as sthenic, others as asthenic, the latter requiring stimulating treatment, the former the reverse; but his practical conclusion was that 97% of all diseases required a" stimulating "treatment.^ McClellan WM, Anson C, Birkeli K, Tuttle E. Functional status and quality of life: predictors of early mortality among patients entering treatment for end stage renal disease.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Lowers seizure threshold and reverses the sedative effect of flurazepam.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Used in the stimulation of β-galactosidase in cellular systems in which dioxane would disrupt normal cell function.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

In this he claimed to have made the most salutary reform because all physicians from Hippocrates had treated diseases by depletion and debilitating measures with the object of curing by elimination. It would be unprofitable to attempt a complete analysis of the Brunonian system; and it is difficult now to understand why it attracted so much attention in its day. To us at the present time it seems merely a dialectical construction, having its beginning and end in definitions: the words power, stimulus, &c., being used in such a way as not to correspond to any precise physical conceptions, still less to definite material objects or forces. .One recommendation of the system was that it favoured a milder system of treatment than was at that time in vogue; Brown may be said to have been the first advocate of the modern stimulant or feeding treatment of fevers.^ HRP-based detection systems; sites of HRP activity appear as brown-orange deposits; recommended for use with Clarion Mounting Medium (sc-24942).
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

He advocated the use of" animal soups "or beef-tea. Further, he had the discernment to see that certain symptoms - such as convulsions and delirium, which were then commonly held always to indicate inflammation - were often really signs of weakness.
The fortunes of Brown's system (called, from having been originally written in Latin, the Brunonian) form one of the strangest chapters in the history of medicine. In Scotland, Brown so far won the sympathy of the students that riotous conflicts took place between his partisans and opponents. In England his system took little root. In Italy, on the other hand, it received enthusiastic support, and, naturally, a corresponding degree of opposition. The most important adherent to Brown's system was J. Rasori (1763-1837), who taught it as professor at Pavia, but afterwards substituted his own system of contra-stimulus. The theoretical differences between this and the" stimulus "theory need not be expounded. .The practical difference in the corresponding treatment was very great, as Rasori advocated a copious use of bleeding and of depressing remedies, such as antimony.^ Clinically used for treatment of depression and anxiety.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Joseph Frank (1774-1841), a German professor at Pavia, afterwards of Vienna, the author of an encyclopaedic work on medicine now forgotten, embraced the Brunonian system, though he afterwards introduced some modifications, and transplanted it to Vienna. Many names are quoted as partisans or opponents of the Brunonian system in Italy, but scarcely one of them has any other claim to be remembered. In Germany the new system called forth, a little later, no less enthusiasm and controversial heat. C. Girtanner (1760-1800) first began to spread the new ideas (though giving them out as his own), but Weikard was the first avowed advocate of the system. RSschlaub (1768-1835) modified Brown's system into the theory of excitement (Erregungstheorie), which for a time was extremely popular in Germany. The enthusiasm of the younger Brunonians in Germany was as great as in Edinburgh or in Italy, and led to serious riots in the university of Gottingen. In America the system was enthusiastically adopted by a noted physician, Benjamin Rush (1745-1813), of Philadelphia, who was followed by a considerable school. France was not more influenced by the new school than England. .In both countries the tendency towards positive science and progress by objective investigation was too marked for any theoretical system to have more than a passing influence.^ Cellular data have indicated that the compound is more effective towards Raf-1and A-Raf than B-Raf.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

In France, however, the influence of Brown's theories is very clearly seen in the writings of Francois J. V. Broussais, who, though not rightly classed with the system-makers, since his conclusions were partly based upon anatomical investigation, resembled them in his attempt to unite theory and practice in one comprehensive synthesis. The explanation of the meteoric splendour of the Brunonian system in other countries seems to be as follows. In Italy the period of intellectual decadence had set in, and no serious scientific ardour remained to withstand the novelties of abstract theory. In Germany the case was somewhat different. Intellectual activity was not wanting, but the great achievements of the 18th century in philosophy and the moral sciences had fostered a love of abstract speculation; and some sort of cosmical or general system was thought indispensable in every department of special science. Hence another generation had to pass away before Germany found herself on the level, in scientific investigation, of France and England.
Before the theoretic tendency of the 18th century was quite exhausted, it displayed itself in a system which, though in some respects isolated in the history of medicine, stands nearest to that of Brown - that, namely, of Hahnemann (see Homoeopathy). S. C. F. Hahnemann (1753-1844) was in conception as revolutionary a reformer of medicine as Paracelsus. He professed to base medicine entirely on a knowledge of symptoms, regarding all investigation of the causes of symptoms as useless. .While thus rejecting all the lessons of morbid anatomy and pathology, he put forward views respecting the causes of disease which hardly bear to be seriously stated.^ Blythe WB, Maddux FW. Hypertension as a causative diagnosis of patients entering end-stage renal disease programs in the United States from 1980 to 1986.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

All chronic maladies result either from three diseasespsora (the itch), syphilis or sycosis (a skin disease), or else are maladies produced by medicines. Seven-eighths of all chronic diseases are produced by itch driven inwards.' (It is fair to say that these views were published in one of his later works.) .In treatment of disease Hahnemann rejected entirely the notion of a vis medicatrix naturae, and was guided by his well-known principle 1 The itch (scabies) is really an affection produced by the presence in the skin of a species of mite (Acarus scabiei), and when this is destroyed or removed the disease is at an end.^ Hou S, Orlowski J, Pahl M, Ambrose S, Hussey M, Wong D. Pregnancy in women with end-stage renal disease: treatment of anemia and premature labor.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Knight F, Gorynski L, Bentson M, Harmon W. Chronic hemodialysis as a treatment for the infant or small child with end stage renal disease.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Rosansky SJ, Jackson K. Rate of change of end-stage renal disease treatment incidence 1978-1987--has there been selection?
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

" similaa similibus curantur,"which he explained as depending on the law that in order to get rid of a disease some remedy must be given which should substitute for the disease an action dynamically similar, but weaker. The original malady being thus got rid of, the vital force would easily be able to cope with and extinguish the slighter disturbance caused by the remedy. Something very similar was held by Brown, who taught that" indirect debility was to be cured by a lesser degree of the same stimulus as had caused the original disturbance. Generally, however, Hahnemann's views contradict those of Brown, though moving somewhat in the same plane. In order to select remedies which should fulfil the indication of producing symptoms like those of the disease, Hahnemann made many observations of the action of drugs on healthy persons. He did not originate this line of research, for it had been pursued, if not originated, by Haller, and cultivated systematically by Tommasini, an Italian "contra-stimulist"; but he carried it out with much elaboration. His results, nevertheless, were vitiated by being obtained in the interest of a theory, and by singular want of discrimination. In his second period he developed the theory of "potentiality" or dynamization - namely, that medicines gained in strength by being diluted, if the dilution was accompanied by shaking or pounding, which was supposed to "potentialize" or increase the potency of the medicine. On this principle Hahnemann ordered his original tinctures to be reduced in strength to onefiftieth; these first dilutions again to one-fiftieth; and so on, even till the thirtieth dilution, which he himself used by preference, and to which he ascribed the highest "potentiality." From a theoretical point of view Hahnemann's is one of the abstract systems, pretending to universality, which modern medicine neither accepts nor finds it worth while to controvert. In the treatment of disease his practical innovations came at a fortunate time, when the excesses of the depletory system had only partially been superseded by the equally injurious opposite extreme of Brown's stimulant treatment. Hahnemann's use of mild and often quite inert remedies contrasted favourably with both of these. Further, he did good by insisting upon simplicity in prescribing, when it was the custom to give a number of drugs, often heterogeneous and inconsistent, in the same prescription. But these indirect benefits were quite independent of the truth or falsity of his theoretical system.

Positive Progress in the 18th Century

In looking back on the repeated attempts in the 18th century to construct a universal system of medicine, it is impossible not to regret the waste of brilliant gifts and profound acquirements which they involved. It was fortunate, however, that the accumulation of positive knowledge in medicine did not cease. While Germany and Scotland, as the chief homes of abstract speculation, gave birth to most of the theories, progress in objective science was most marked in other countries - in Italy first, and afterwards in England and France. We must retrace our steps a little to enumerate several distinguished names which, from the nature of the case, hardly admit of classification.
In Italy the tradition of the great anatomists and physiologists of the 17th century produced a series of accurate observers and practitioners. Among the first of these were Antonio Maria Valsalva (1666-1723), still better known as an anatomist; Giovanni Maria Lancisi (1654-1720), also an anatomist, the author of a classical work on the diseases of the heart and aneurisms; and Ippolito Francisco Albertini (1662-1738), whose researches on the same class of diseases were no less important.
In France, Jean Baptiste Senac (1693-1770) wrote also an important work on the affections of the heart. .Sauvages, otherwise F. B. de Lacroix (1706-1767), gave, under the title Nosologia methodica, a natural-history classification of diseases; Jean Astruc (1684-1766) contributed to the knowledge of general diseases.^ Parfrey PS, Harnett JD, Barre PE. The natural history of myocardial disease in dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

But the state of medicine in that country till the end of the 18th century was unsatisfactory as compared with some other parts of Europe.
In England the brilliancy of the early part of the century in practical medicine was hardly maintained to the end, and presented, indeed, a certain contrast with the remarkable and unflagging progress of surgery in the same period. The roll of the College of Physicians does not furnish many distinguished names. Among these should be mentioned John Fothergill (1712-1780), who investigated the "putrid sore throat" now called diphtheria, and the form of neuralgia popularly known as tic douloureux. A physician of Plymouth, John Huxham (1694-1768), made researches on epidemic fevers, in the spirit of Sydenham and Hippocrates, which are of the highest importance. William Heberden (1710-1801), a London physician, called by Samuel Johnson ultimus Romanorum, " the last of our learned physicians," left a rich legacy of practical observations in the Commentaries published after his death. .More important in their results than any of these works were the discoveries of Edward Jenner, respecting the prevention of small-pox by vaccination, in which he superseded the partially useful but dangerous practice of inoculation, which.^ Tool useful for increasing intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations.More effective than A23187 and non-fluorescent.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

had been introduced into England in 1721. The history of this discovery need not be told here, but it may be pointed out that, apart from its practical importance, it has had great influence on the scientific study of infectious diseases. The name of John Pringle (1707-1782) should also be mentioned as one of the first to study epidemics of fevers occurring in prisons and camps. His work, entitled Observations on the Diseases of an Army, was translated into many European languages and became the standard authority on the subject.
In Germany the only important school of practical medicine was that of Vienna, as revived by Gerard van Swieten (1700-1772), a pupil of Boerhaave, under the patronage of Maria Theresa. Van Swieten's commentaries on the aphorisms of Boerhaave are thought more valuable than the original text. .Other eminent names of the same school are Anton de Hain (1704-1776), Anton Stdrek (1731-1803), Maximilian Stoll (1742-1788), and John Peter Frank (1745-1821), father of Joseph Frank, before mentioned as an adherent of the Brownian system, and like his son carried away for a time by the new doctrines.^ A five times more potent inhibitor of endothelial cell NOS than other arginine analogs such as L-NAME and L-NMMA. Inhibits NO production in endothelial cytosol.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.This, the old "Vienna School," was not distinguished for any notable discoveries, but for success in clinical teaching, and for its sound method of studying the actual facts of disease during life and after death, which largely contributed to the establishment of the "positive medicine" of the 19th century.^ Bis-coclaurine alkaloid used for centuries in Chinese traditional medicine for cardiovascular diseases.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

One novelty, however, of the first importance is due to a Vienna physician of the period, Leopold Auenbrugger (1722-1809), the inventor of the method of recognizing diseases of the chest by percussion. Auenbrugger's method was that of direct percussion with the tips of the fingers, not that which is now used, of mediate percussion with the intervention of a finger or plessimeter; but the results of his method were the same and its value nearly as great. Auenbrugger's great work, the Inventum novum, was published in 1761. The new practice was received at first with contempt and even ridicule, and afterwards by Stoll and Peter Frank with only grudging approval. It did not receive due recognition till 1808, when J. N. Corvisart translated the Inventum novum into French, and Auenbrugger's method rapidly attained a European reputation. Surpassed, but not eclipsed, by the still more important art of auscultation introduced by R. T. H. Laennec, it is hardly too much to say that this simple and purely mechanical invention has had more influence on the development of modern medicine than all the "systems" evolved by the most brilliant intellects of the 18th century.

Rise of the Positive School in France

The reform of medicine in France must be dated from the great intellectual awakening caused by the Revolution, but more definitely starts with the researches in anatomy and physiology of Marie Francois Xavier Bichat (1771-1802). The importance in science of Bichat's classical works, especially of the Anatomie generale, cannot be estimated here; we can only point out their value as supplying a new basis for pathology or the science of disease. Among the most ardent of his followers was Francois Joseph Victor Broussais (1772-1838), whose theoretical views, partly founded on those of Brown and partly on the so-called vitalist school of Theophile Bordeu (1722-1776) and Paul Joseph Barthez (1734-1806), differed from these essentially in being avowedly based on anatomical observations. Broussais's chief aim was to find an anatomical basis for all diseases, but he is especially known for his attempt to explain all fevers as a consequence of irritation or inflammation of the intestinal canal (gastroenterite). A number of other maladies, especially general diseases and those commonly regarded as nervous, were attributed to the same cause. It would be impossible now to trace the steps which led to this wild and long since exploded theory. It led, among other consequences, to an enormous misuse of bleeding. Leeches were his favourite instruments, and so much so that he is said to have used ioo,000 in his own hospital wards during one year. He was equalled if not surpassed in this excess by his follower Jean Bouillaud (1796-1881), known for his important work on heart diseases. Broussais's system, to which he gave the name of "Medecine physiologique," did much indirect good, in fixing attention upon morbid changes in the organs, and thus led to the rise of the strongly opposed anatomical and pathological school of Corvisart, Laennec and Bayle.
Jean Nicolas Corvisart (1755-1821) has already been mentioned as the translator and introducer into France of Auenbrugger's work on percussion. He introduced some improvements in the method, but the only real advance was the introduction of mediate percussion by Pierre Adolphe Piorry (1794-1879) in 1828. The discovery had, however, yet to be completed by that of auscultation, or listening to sounds produced in the chest by breathing, the movements of the heart, &c. The combination of these methods constitutes what is now known as physical diagnosis. Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec (1781-1826) was the inventor of this most important perhaps of all methods of medical research. Except for some trifling notices of sounds heard in certain diseases, this method was entirely new. .It was definitely expounded in an almost complete form in his work De l'auscultation mediate, published in 1819. Laennec attached undue importance to the use of the stethoscope, and laid too much weight on specific signs of specific diseases; otherwise his method in its main features has remained unchanged.^ Potent and specific inhibitor of CKII. It has been used to inhibit RNA polymerase II mediated-transcription which may be dependent on CKII and its interaction with ATF-1.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

The result of his discovery was an entire revolution in the knowledge of diseases of the chest; but it would be a mistake to forget that an essential factor in this revolution was the simultaneous study of the condition of the diseased organs as seen after death. Without the latter, it is difficult to see how the information conveyed by sounds could ever have been verified. This increase of knowledge is therefore due, not to auscultation alone, but to auscultation combined with morbid anatomy. .In the case of Laennec himself this qualification takes nothing from his fame, for he studied so minutely the relations of post-mortem appearances to symptoms during life that, had he not discovered auscultation, his researches in morbid anatomy would have made him famous.^ Poch E, Almirall J, Alsina M, del Rio R, Cases A, Revert L. Calciphylaxis in a hemodialysis patient: appearance after parathyroidectomy during a psoriatic flare.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The pathologico-anatomical method was also followed with great zeal and success by Gaspard Laurent Bayle (1774-1816), whose researches on tubercle, and the changes of the lungs and other organs in consumption, are the foundation of most that has been done since his time. It was of course antecedent to the discovery of auscultation. Starting from these men arose a school of physicians who endeavoured to give to the study of symptoms the same precision as belonged to anatomical observations, and by the combination of both methods made a new era in clinical medicine. Among these were Auguste Francois Chomel (1788-1858), Pierre Charles Alexandre Louis (1787-1872), Jean Cruveilhier (1791-1874) and Gabriel Andral (1797-1876). Louis, by his researches on pulmonary consumption and typhoid fever, had the chief merit of refuting the doctrines of Broussais. In another respect also he aided in establishing an exact science of medicine by the introduction of the numerical or statistical method. By this method only can the fallacies which are attendant on drawing conclusions from isolated cases be avoided; and thus the chief objection which has been made to regarding medicine as an inductive science has been removed. Louis's method was improved and systematized by Louis Denis Jules Gavarret (1809-1890) and its utility is now universally recognized. During this brilliant period of French medicine the superiority of the school of Paris could hardly be contested. We can only mention the names of Pierre Bretonneau (1771-1862), Louis Leon Rostan (1790-1866), Jean Louis D'Alibert (1766-1837), Pierre Francois Olive Rayer (1793-1867) and Armand Trousseau (1801-1866), the eloquent and popular teacher.
English Medicine from 1800 to 1840. - The progress of medicine in England during this period displays the same characteristics as at other times, viz. a gradual and uninterrupted development, without startling changes such as are caused by the sudden rise or fall of a new school. Hardly any theoretical system is of English birth; Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), the grandfather of the great Charles Darwin, alone makes an exception. In his Zoonomia (1794) he expounded a theory of life and disease which had some resemblance to that of Brown, though arrived at (he says) by a different chain of reasoning.
Darwin's work shows, however, the tendency to connect medicine with physical science, which was an immediate consequence of the scientific discoveries of the end of the 18th century, when Priestley and Cavendish in England exercised the same influence as Lavoisier in France. The English school of medicine was also profoundly stirred by the teachings of the two brothers William and John Hunter, especially the latter - who must therefore be briefly mentioned, though their own researches were chiefly concerned with subjects lying a little outside the limits of this sketch. William Hunter (1718-1783) was known in London as a brilliant teacher of anatomy and successful obstetric physician; his younger brother and pupil, John Hunter (1728-1793), was also a teacher of anatomy, and practised as a surgeon. His immense contributions to anatomy and pathology cannot be estimated here, but his services in stimulating research and training investigators belong to the history of general medicine. They are sufficiently evidenced by the fact that Edward Jenner and Matthew Baillie were his pupils.
The same scientific bent is seen in the greater attention paid to morbid anatomy (which dates from Baillie) and the more scientific method of studying diseases. An instance of the latter is the work of Robert Willan (1757-1812) on diseases of the skin - a department of medicine in which abstract and hypothetical views had been especially injurious. Willan, by following the natural-history method of Sydenham, at once put the study on a sound basis; and his work has been the starting-point of the most important modern researches. About the same time William Charles Wells (1757-1817), a scientific investigator of remarkable power, and the author of a celebrated essay on dew, published observations on alterations in the urine, which, though little noticed at the time, were of great value as assisting in the important discovery made some years afterwards by Richard Bright.
These observers, and others who cannot be mentioned here, belong to the period when English medicine was still little influenced by the French school. Shortly after 1815, however, when the continent of Europe was again open to English travellers, many English doctors studied in Paris, and the discoveries of their great French contemporaries began to be known. The method of auscultation was soon introduced into England by pupils of Laennec. John Forbes (1787-1861) in 1824, and William Stokes (1804-1878) of Dublin in 1825, published treatises on the use of the stethoscope. Forbes also translated the works of Laennec and Auenbrugger, and an entire revolution was soon effected in the knowledge of diseases of the chest. James Hope (1801-1841) and Peter Mere Latham (1789-1875) further developed this subject, and the former was also known for his researches in morbid anatomy. The combination of clinical and anatomical research led, as in the hands of the great French physicians, to important discoveries by English investigators. The discovery by Richard Bright (1789-1858) of the disease of the kidneys known by his name proved to be one of the most momentous of the century. It was published in Reports of Medical Cases 1827-1831.. Thomas Addison (1793-1860) takes, somewhat later, a scarcely inferior place. The remarkable physiological discoveries of Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) and Marshall Hall (1790-1857) for the first time rendered possible the discrimination of diseases of the spinal cord. Several of these physicians were also eminent for their clinical teaching - an art in which Englishmen had up till then been greatly deficient.
Although many names of scarcely less note might be mentioned among the London physicians of the early part of the century, we must pass them over to consider the progress of medicine in Scotland and Ireland. In Edinburgh the admirable teaching of Cullen had raised the medical faculty to a height of prosperity of which his successor, James Gregory (1758-1821), was not unworthy. His nephew, William Pulteney Alison (1790-1859), was even more widely known. These great teachers maintained in the northern university a continuous tradition of successful teaching, which the difference in academical and other circumstances rendered hardly possible in London. Nor was the northern school wanting in special investigators, such as John Abercrombie (1780-1844), known for his work on diseases of the brain and spinal cord, published in 1828, and many others. Turning to Ireland, it should be said that the Dublin school in this period produced two physicians of the highest distinction. Robert James Graves (1796-1853) was a most eminent clinical teacher and observer, whose lectures are regarded as the model of clinical teaching, and indeed served as such to the most popular teacher of the Paris school in the middle of this century, Trousseau. William Stokes (1804-1878) was especially known for his works on diseases of the chest and of the heart, and for his clinical teaching.

German Medicine from 1800 to 1840

Of the other countries of Europe, it is now only necessary to mention Germany. Here the chief home of positive medicine was still for a long time Vienna, where the "new Vienna school" continued and surpassed the glory of the old. Joseph Skoda (1805-1881) extended, and in some respects corrected, the art of auscultation as left by Laennec. Karl Rokitansky (1804-1878), by his colossal labours, placed the science of morbid anatomy on a permanent basis, and enriched it by numerous discoveries of detail. Most of the ardent cultivators of this science in Germany in the next generation were his pupils. In the other German schools, though some great names might be found, as Moritz Heinrich Romberg (1795-1873), the founder of the modern era in the study of nervous diseases, the general spirit was scholastic and the result barren till the teaching of one man, whom the modern German physicians generally regard as the regenerator of scientific medicine in their country, made itself felt. Johann Lucas Schdnlein (1793-1864) was first professor at Wiirzburg, afterwards at Zurich, and for twenty years at Berlin (from 1839-1859). Schdnlein's positive contributions to medical science were not large; but he made in 1839 one discovery, apparently small, but in reality most suggestive, namely, that the contagious disease of the head called favus is produced by the growth in the hair of a parasitic fungus. In this may be found the germ of the startling modern discoveries in parasitic diseases. His systematic doctrines founded the so-called "natural history school"; but his real merit was that of the founder or introducer of a method. In the words of H. Haser: "Schdnlein has the incontestable merit of having been the first to establish in Germany the exact method of the French and the English, and to impregnate this method with the vivifying spirit of German research." (J. F. P.) Modern Progress. - In recent times the positive bent of modern knowledge and methods in other spheres of science and thought, and especially in biology, has influenced medicine profoundly. Minuter accuracy of observation was inculcated by the labours and teaching of the great anatomists of the 17th century; and, for modern times, experimental physiology was instituted by Harvey, anatomy having done little to interpret life in its dynamic aspects. For medicine in England Harvey did what William Gilbert did for physics and Robert Boyle for chemistry: he insisted upon direct interrogation of natural processes, and thereby annihilated the ascendancy of mere authority, which, while nations were in the making, was an essential principle in the welding together of heterogeneous and turbulent peoples. .The degradation of medicine between Galen and Harvey, if in part it consisted in the blind following of the authority of the former physician, was primarily due to other causes; and its new development was not due to the discovery of the experimental method alone: social and political causes also are concerned in the advance even of the exact sciences.^ Knabe C, Grosse-Siestrup C, Becker H, Pustelnik A, Gahl G. A new method to evaluate the CAPD-catheter-exit and other percutaneous devices.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Among such contributory causes is the more familiar intercourse of settled nations which we enjoy in our own day; the ideas of one nation rapidly permeate neighbouring nations, and by the means of printed books penetrate into remoter provinces and into distant lands. Hence the description of the advance of medicine in western Europe and America may for the latest stage be taken as a whole, without that separate treatment, nation by nation, which in the history of earlier times was necessary. Italy lost the leading place she had taken in the new development of science. The several influences of modern Germany, France and America became of the first importance to English medicine; but these tides, instead of pursuing their courses as independent streams, have become confluent. The work of Theodor Schwann (1810-1882), Johannes Muller (1809-1875), Rudolph Virchow and Karl Ludwig (1816-1895) in Germany, of R. T. H. Laennec and Claude Bernard in France, was accepted in England, as that of Matthew Baillie, Charles Bell, Bright, Graves and others of the British school, quickly made itself felt abroad.
.The character of modern medicine cannot be summed in a word, as, with more or less aptness, that of some previous periods may be.^ The two diastereomers may be separated by silica gel chromatography providing 8(R) (more polar) and 8(S) (less polar) hepoxilins.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.Modern medicine, like modern ?xperiscience, is as boldly speculative as it has been in mental any age, and yet it is as observant as in any naturalistic period; its success lies in the addition to these qualities of the method of verification; the fault of previous times being not the activity of the speculative faculty, without which no science can be fertile, but the lack of methodical reference of all and sundry propositions, and parts of propositions, to the test of experiment.^ NCI studies show lack of activity against tumors and AIDS. An interesting metabolite which has received little attention in modern times.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.In no department is the experimental method more continually justified than in that of the natural history of disease, which at first sight would seem to have a certain independence of it and a somewhat exclusive value of its own.^ Parfrey PS, Harnett JD, Barre PE. The natural history of myocardial disease in dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A five times more potent inhibitor of endothelial cell NOS than other arginine analogs such as L-NAME and L-NMMA. Inhibits NO production in endothelial cytosol.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No metabolic side effects as observed with dibutyryl-cAMP or 8-Br-cAMP. More lipophilic and membrane permeant than Sp-cAMPS. .
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.Hippocrates had no opportunity of verification by necropsy, and Sydenham ignored pathology; yet the clinical features of many but recently described diseases, such, for example, as that named after Graves, and myxoedema, both associated with perversions of the thyroid gland, lay as open to the eye of physicians in the past as to our own.^ McCarthy JT, Hodgson SF, Fairbanks VF, Moyer TP. Clinical and histologic features of iron-related bone disease in dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Again, to the naturalist the symptoms of tabes dorsalis were distinctive enough, had he noted them. .No aid to the trained eye was necessary for such observations, and for many other such; yet, if we take Sir Thomas Watson (1792-1882) as a modern Sydenham, we may find in his lectures no suspicion that there may be a palsy of muscular co-ordination apart from deprivation of strength.^ A five times more potent inhibitor of endothelial cell NOS than other arginine analogs such as L-NAME and L-NMMA. Inhibits NO production in endothelial cytosol.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Indeed, it does not seem to have occurred to any one to compare the muscular strength in the various kinds of paraplegia. .Thus it was, partly because the habit of acceptance of authority, waning but far from extirpated, dictated to the clinical observer what he should see; partly because the eye of the clinical observer lacked that special training which the habit and influence of experimental verification alone can give, that physicians, even acute and practised physicians, failed to see many and many a symptomatic series which went through its evolutions conspicuously enough, and needed for its appreciation no unknown aids or methods of research, nor any further advances of pathology.^ The Current Bibliographies in Medicine series is also available at no cost to anyone with Internet access through FTP (File Transfer Protocol).
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.We see now that the practice of the experimental method endows with a new vision both the experimenter himself and, through his influence, those who are associated with him in medical science, even if these be not themselves actually engaged in experiment; a new discipline is imposed upon old faculties, as is seen as well in other sciences as in those on which medicine more directly depends.^ Knabe C, Grosse-Siestrup C, Becker H, Pustelnik A, Gahl G. A new method to evaluate the CAPD-catheter-exit and other percutaneous devices.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

And it is not only the perceptions of eye or ear which tell, but also the association of concepts behind these adits of the mind. It was the concepts derived from the experimental methods of Harvey, Lavoisier, Liebig, Claude Bernard, Helmholtz, Darwin, Pasteur, Lister and others which, directly or indirectly, trained the eyes of clinicians to observe more closely and accurately; and not of clinicians only, but also of pathologists, such as Matthew Baillie, Cruveilhier, Rokitansky, Bright, Virchowto name but a few of those who, with (as must be admitted) new facilities for necropsies, began to pile upon us discoveries in morbid anatomy and histology. If at first in the 18th century, and in the earlier 19th, the discoveries in this branch of medical knowledge had a certain isolation, due perhaps to the prepossessions of the school of Sydenham, they soon became the property of the physician, and were brought into co-ordination with the clinical phenomena of disease. The great Morgagni, the founder of morbid anatomy, himself set the example of carrying on this study parallel with clinical observation; and always insisted that the clinical story of the case should be brought side by side with the revelations of the necropsy. In pathology, indeed, Virchow's (1821-1902) influence in the transfiguration of this branch of science may almost be compared to that of Darwin and Pasteur in their respective domains. In the last quarter of the 19th century the conception grew clearer that morbid anatomy for the most part demonstrates disease in its static aspects only, and also for the most part in the particular aspect of final demolition; and it became manifest as pathology and clinical medicine became more and more thoroughly integrated, that the processes which initiate and are concerned in this dissolution were not revealed by the scalpel.
Again, the physician as naturalist, though stimulated by the pathologist to delineate disease in its fuller manifestations, yet was hampered in a measure by the didactic method of constructing "types" which should command the attention of the disciple and rivet themselves on his memory; thus too often those incipient and transitory phases which initiate the paths of dissolution were missed. .Not only so, but the physician, thus fascinated by "types," and impressed by the silent monumentsof the pathological museum, was led to localize disease too much, to isolate the acts of nature, and to forget not only the continuity of the phases which lead up to the exemplary forms, or link them together, but to forget also that even between the types themselves relations of affinity must exist - and these oftentimes none the less intimate for apparent diversities of form, for types of widely different form may be, and indeed often are, more closely allied than types which have more superficial resemblance - and to forget, moreover, how largely negative is the process of abstraction by which types are imagined.^ A citation may appear in more than one category.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Upon this too static a view, both of clinical type and of post-mortem-room pathology, came a despairing spirit, almost of fatalism, which in the contemplation of organic ruins lost the hope of cure of organic diseases. So prognosis became pessimistic, and the therapeutics of the abler men negative, until fresh hopes arose of stemming the tides of evil at their earliest flow. Such was medicine, statically ordered in pathology, statically ordered in its clinical concepts, when, on the 24th of November 1859 the Origin of Species was published. It is no exa eration to say that this epoch-making work gg }' p g brought to birth a world of conceptions as new as the work of Copernicus. For the natural philosopher the whole point of view of things was changed; in biology not only had the anthropocentric point of view been banished, but the ancient concept of perpetual flux was brought home to ordinary men, and entered for good into the framework of thought. The study of comparative pathology, yet in an inchoate stage, and of embryology, illuminated and enlarged biological conceptions, both normal and abnormal; and the ens reale subsistens in corpore disappeared for ever - at any rate from physiology and medicine. Before Darwin - if the name of Darwin may be used to signify the transformation of thought of which he was the chief artificer - natural objects were regarded, not in medicine and pathology only, as a set of hidebound events; and natural operations as moving in fixed grooves, after a fashion which it is now difficult for us to realize. .With the melting of the ice the more daring spirits dashed into the new current with such ardour that for them all traditions, all institutions, were thrown into hotchpot; even elderly and sober physicians took enough of the infection to liberate their minds, and, in the field of the several diseases and in that of post-mortem pathology, the hollowness of classification by superficial resemblance, the transitoriness of forms, and the flow of processes, broke upon the view.^ Flow Forming Processes .
  • Titanium Information and Resources 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.titanium.cc [Source type: Reference]
  • Aluminum Suppliers Information and Resources 10 February 2010 11:10 UTC www.aluminumsuppliers.net [Source type: Reference]

.Thus it came about not only that classifications of disease based on superficial likeness - such as jaundice, dropsy, inflammation - were broken up, and their parts redistributed, but also that even more set diseases began to lose their settlements, and were recognized as terms of series, as transitory or culminating phases of perturbations which might be traced to their origins, and in their earlier stages perhaps withstood.^ Benhamou PY, Marwah T, Balducci F, Zmirou D, Borgel F, Cordonnier D, Halimi S, Papoz L. Classification of diabetes in patients with end-stage renal disease.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The doctrine of heredity in disease thus took a larger aspect; the view of morbid series was no longer bounded even by the life of the individual; and the propagation of taints, and of morbid varieties of man, from generation to generation proved to be no mere repetition of fixed features but, even more frequently, to be modes of development or of dissolution betraying themselves often in widely dissimilar forms, in series often extending over many lives, the terms of which at first sight had seemed wholly disparate.^ NO donor similar to NOC-5 and NOC-7 but with a much longer half-life of NO release.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Its extended stability and slow development of bacterial resistance allow long-term virus and tissue culture studies.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Thus, for example, as generations succeed one another, nervous disorders appear in various guise; epilepsy, megrim, insanity, asthma, hysteria, neurasthenia, a motley array at first sight, seemed to reveal themselves as terms of a morbid series; not only so, but certain disorders of other systems also might be members of the series, such as certain diseases of the skin, and even peculiar susceptibilities or immunities in respect of infections from without. .On the other hand, not a few disorders proved to be alien to classes to which narrower views of causation had referred them; of such are tabes dorsalis, neuritis, infantile palsy or tetanus, now removed from the category of primary nervous diseases and placed in one or other of the class of infections; or, conversely, certain forms of disease of the joints are now regarded with some certainty as members of more than one series of diseases chiefly manifest in the nervous system.^ A citation may appear in more than one category.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A five times more potent inhibitor of endothelial cell NOS than other arginine analogs such as L-NAME and L-NMMA. Inhibits NO production in endothelial cytosol.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This salt form is more stable than the dihydrochloride.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

In the effects of simpler poisons the recognition of unity in diversity, as in the affiliation of a peripheral neuritis to arsenic, illustrated more definitely this serial or etiological method of classifying diseases. On the other hand, inheritance was dismissed, or survived only as a "susceptibility," in the cases of tubercle, leprosy and some other maladies now recognized as infectious; while in others, as in syphilis, it was seen to consist in a translation of the infectious element from parent to offspring. These new conceptions of the multiplicity in unity of disease, and of the fluidity and continuity of morbid processes, might have led to vagueness and over-boldness in speculation and reconstruction, had not the experimental method been at hand with clues and tests for the several series. Of this method the rise and wonderful extension of the science of bacteriology also furnished no inconsiderable part.
In the disease of the scalp called favus, Schonlein had discovered a minute mycelial fungus; a remarkable discovery, for it was the first conspicuous step in the attribution of diseases to the action of minute parasites. Schbnlein thus did something to introduce new and positive conceptions and exacter methods into Germany; but unfortunately his own mind retained the abstract habit of his country, and his abilities were dissipated in the mere speculations of Schelling. .Similarly Karl Hoffmann of Wiirzburg wasted his appreciations of the newer schools of developmental biology in fanciful notions of human diseases as reversions to normal stages of lower animals; scrofula being for him a reversion to the insect, rickets to the mollusc, epilepsy to the oscillaria, and so forth.^ Cefali EA, Poynor WJ, Sica D, Cox S. Pharmacokinetic comparison of flurbiprofen in end-stage renal disease subjects and subjects with normal renal function.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Evans RW. Recombinant human erythropoietin and the quality of life of end-stage renal disease patients: a comparative analysis.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Conlon PJ, Walshe JJ, O'Donnell R, O'Donohoe A, Spencer R, Donohoe J, Carmody M. The use of recombinant human erythropoietin in end stage renal disease.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Even that distinguished physiologist Johannes Muller remained a staunch vitalist. Fortunately Germany, which at the beginning of the century was delivered over to Brownism and vitalism and was deaf to Bichat, was rescued from this sort of barrenness by the brilliant experimental work of Claude Bernard and Pasteur in France - work which, as regards the attenuated virus, was a development of that of Edward Jenner, and indeed of Schwann, Robert Koch worthily following Pasteur with his work on the bacillus of anthrax and with his discovery of that of tuberculosis; and by the cellular doctrine and abundant labours in pathology of Virchow. Ludwig Brieger then discovered the toxins of certain infections; and Emil A. von Behring completed the sphere of the new study by his discovery of the antitoxins of diphtheria and tetanus. In practical medicine the subsequent results of Behring and his followers have in diphtheria attained a signal therapeutical success. If the striking conceptions of Paul Ehrlich and Emil Fischer continue to prove as fertile in inspiring and directing research as at present they seem to be, another wide sphere of. conceptions will be opened out, not in bacteriology only, but also in biological chemistry and in molecular physics. Again, besides giving us the clue to the nature of many diseases and to the continuity of many morbid series, by bacteriology certain diseases, such as actinomycosis, have been recognized for the first time.
As the prevalence of the conceptions signified and inspired by the word "phlogiston" kept alive ontological notions of disease, so the dissipation of vitalistic conceptions in the field of physics prepared men's minds in pathology for the new views opened by the discoveries of Pasteur on the side of pathogeny, and of J. F. Cohnheim (1839-1884) and of Iliya Metchnikoff on the dynamical side of his- Fevers tology. Of the older ontological notions of disease the strongest were those of the essence of fever and of the essence of inflammation. Broussais had done much to destroy the notion of fever as an entity, but by extravagances in other directions he had discredited the value of his main propositions. Yet, although, as Andral and other French physicians proved, it was extravagant to say that all fevers take their origin from some local inflammation, it was true and most useful to insist, as Broussais vehemently insisted, that "fever" is no substance, but a generalization drawn from symptoms common to many and various diseases springing from many various and often local causes; from causes agreeing perhaps only in the factor of elevation of the temperature of the body. To the establishment of this new conception the improvement and general use of the clinical thermometer gave invaluable advantages. This instrument, now indispensable in our daily work at the bedside, had indeed long been known both to physiologists (Haller) and to clinicians. .In the 18th century A. de Haen, and, in the United Kingdom, George Cleghorn (1716-1789) of Dublin and James Currie (1756-1805), carried on the use of the thermometer in fevers; and on the continent of Europe in later years F. G. F. von Barensprung (1822-1865) and Ludwig Traube (1818-1876) did the same service; but it is to the work of Karl August Wunderlich (1815-1877) that we owe the establishment of this means of precision as a method of regular observation both in pathology and in clinical medicine.^ Willems M, de Jong G, Moshage H, Verresen L, Goubau P, Desmyter J, Yap SH. Surrogate markers are not useful for identification of HCV carriers in chronic hemodialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

By his almost exhaustive comparison of febrile movements as symptomatic processes Wunderlich dealt the last blow to the expiring doctrine of the "entity" of "fever"; while on the clinical side Bretonneau and Louis, in 1862-1872, by their careful clinical and pathological studies of forms of fever, relieved the new doctrine of the extravagances of Broussais, and prepared the way for the important distinction of enteric from typhus fever by A. P. Stewart (1813-1883), William Jenner, William Budd (1811-1880), Charles Murchison (1830-1879), J. H. F. Autenrieth (1772-1835), Heinrich Gustav Magnus (1802-1870), Huss and others. By the learned and accomplished Armand Trousseau British and German influences were carried into France.
Meanwhile Cohnheim and Metchnikoff were engaged in destroying the ontological conception not of fever only, but also of inflammation, of which, as a local event, an ontological conception was no less strongly implanted. By his researches on the migration of the white corpuscles of the blood Cohnheim, on the bases laid by Virchow, brought the processes of inflammation within the scope of the normal, seeing in them but a modification of normal processes under perturbations of relatively external incidence; even the formation of abscess was thus brought by him within the limits of perversion of processes not differing essentially from those of health; and "new formations," "plastic exudations," and other discontinuous origins of an "essential" pathology, fell into oblivion. And it is not alien from the present point of view to turn for a moment to the light thrown on the cardio-arterial pulse and the measurement of its motions by the more intimate researches into the phenomena of the circulation by many observers, among whom in the 19th century James Hope, E. J. Marey (1830-1904) and C. F. W. Ludwig will always take a leading place. By them the demonstration of Harvey that the circulation of the blood is in large part a mechanical process, and nowhere independent of mechanical laws, was considerably enlarged and extended. In particular the fluctuations of the pulse in fevers and inflammations were better understood, and accurately registered; and we can scarcely realize now that before Harvey the time of the pulse seems not to have been counted by the watch. Discovery in these various directions then led physicians to regard fever and inflammation not as separable entities, but as fluctuating symptomgroups, due to swervings of function from the normal balance under contingent forces.
.As to such reforms in our conceptions of disease the advances of bacteriology profoundly contributed, so under the stress of consequent discoveries, almost prodigious in their extent and revolutionary effect, the conceptions of the etiology of disease underwent no less a transformation than the conceptions of disease itself.^ A five times more potent inhibitor of endothelial cell NOS than other arginine analogs such as L-NAME and L-NMMA. Inhibits NO production in endothelial cytosol.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No metabolic side effects as observed with dibutyryl-cAMP or 8-Br-cAMP. More lipophilic and membrane permeant than Sp-cAMPS. .
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

It is proper to point out here how intimately a pathology thus regenerated modified current conceptions of disease, in the linking of disease to oscillations of health, and the regarding many diseases as modifications of the normal set up by the impingement of external causes; not a few of which indeed may be generated within the body itself - "autogenetic poisoning." The appreciation of such modifications, and of the working of such causes, has been facilitated greatly by the light thrown upon normal processes by advances in physiology; so dependent is each branch of knowledge upon the advances of contiguous and incident studies. To biological chemistry we have been deeply indebted during the latter half of the 19th century. In 1872, Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) gave a new beginning to our knowledge of the chemistry of secretion and of excretion; and later students have increased the range of physiological and pathological chemistry by investigations not only into the several stages of albuminoid material and the transitions which all foodstuffs undergo in digestion, but even into the structure of protoplasm itself. .Digestion, regarded not long ago as little more than a trituration and "coction" of ingesta to fit them for absorption and transfer them to the tissues, now appears as an elaboration of peptones and kindred intermediate products which, so far from being always bland, and mere bricks and mortar for repair or fuel for combustion, pass through phases of change during which they become so unfit for assimilation as to be positively poisonous.^ Opatrny K Jr, Opatrny K, Vit L, Racek J, Valek A. What are the factors contributing to the changes in tissue-type plasminogen activator during haemodialysis?
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A citation may appear in more than one category.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The formation of prussic acid at a certain period of the vital processes of certain plants may be given as an example of such phases; and poisons akin to muscarin seem to arise frequently in development or regression, both in animals and plants.^ An aldonic acid formed by the oxidation of the carbonyl carbon of glucose in microorganisms, plants, and animals.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most widely occurring ecdysteroid in both plant and animal species.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.Thus the digestive function, in its largest sense, is now seen to consist, not only in preparation and supply, but in no small measure also of protective and antidotal conversions of the matters submitted to it; coincidently with agents of digestion proper are found in the circuit of normal digestion "anti-substances" which neutralize or convert peptones in their poisonous phases; an autochthonous ferment, such as rennet for instance, calling forth an anti-rennet, and so on.^ There is no order too large or small for Metal Associates to process, so call today.

Now as our own bodies thus manipulate substances poisonous and antidotal, if in every hour of health we are averting selfintoxication, so likewise are we concerned with the various intruding organisms, whose processes of digestion are as dangerous as our own; if these destructive agents, which no doubt are incessantly gaining admission to our bodies, do not meet within us each its appropriate compensatory defensive agent, dissolution will begin. Thus, much of infection and immunity are proving to be but special cases of digestion, and teleological conceptions of protective processes are modified.
Under the name of chemotaxis (W. Pfeffer) are designated certain of the regulative adaptations by which such ends are attained. By chemical warnings the defensive processes seem to be awakened, or summoned; and when we think of the infinite variety of such possible phases, and of the multitude of corresponding defensive agents, we may form some dim notion of the complexity of the animal blood and tissues, and within them of the organic molecules. .Even in normal circumstances their play and counterplay, attractive and repellent, must be manifold almost beyond conception; for the body may be regarded as a collective organization consisting of a huge colony of micro-organisms become capable of a common life by common and mutual arrangement and differentiation of function, and by toleration and utilization of each other's peculiar products; some organs, such as the liver, for example, being credited with a special power of neutralizing poisons, whether generated under normal conditions or under abnormal, .which gain entrance from the intestinal tract.^ A novel non-thiol-based NO donor which releases NO under physiological conditions with a half-life of 1.7 minutes.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A five times more potent inhibitor of endothelial cell NOS than other arginine analogs such as L-NAME and L-NMMA. Inhibits NO production in endothelial cytosol.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Half-life under physiological conditions is 5 minutes.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

As a part of these discoveries has arisen another but kindred doctrine that of hormones (Starling), juices prepared, not for excretion, not even for partial excretion, but for the fulfilment of physiological equilibrium. Thus the reciprocity of the various organs, maintained throughout the divisions of physiological labour, is not merely a mechanical stability; it is also a mutual equilibration in functions incessantly at work on chemical levels, and on those levels of still higher complexity which seem to rise as far beyond chemistry as chemistry beyond physics. .Not only are the secreted juices of specialized cells thus set one against another in the body, whereby the various organs of the body maintain a mutual play, but the blood itself also in its cellular and fluid parts contains elements potent in the destruction of bacteria and of their secretions.^ Kendomycin is a potent antibacterial agent against Gram positive and negative bacteria including MRSA strains.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cell-permeable alkaloid containing indole/maleimide/imidazole skeleton that acts as a potent and ATP-competitive inhibitor of Chk1 and GSK-3β.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Exhibits potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis; inactive against most other bacteria.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Thus endowed, the blood, unless overwhelmed by extraordinary invasions, does not fail in stability and self-purification. .So various are the conditions of selfregulation in various animals, both in respect of their peculiar and several modes of assimilating different foods, and of protecting themselves against particular dangers from without, that, as we might have expected, the bloods taken from different species, or even perhaps from different individuals, are found to be so divergent that the healthy serum of one species may be, and often is, poisonous to another; not so much in respect of adventitious substances, as because the phases of physiological change in different species do not harmonize; each by its peculiar needs has been modified until, in their several conditions of life, they vary so much about the mean as to have become almost if not quite alien one to another.^ A novel non-thiol-based NO donor which releases NO under physiological conditions with a half-life of 1.7 minutes.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Potent neurotoxin found in the skin of various poisonous frogs.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Grayanotoxin III is one member of a family of toxic diterpenoids found in Rhododendron species.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

In the preservation of immunity then, in its various degrees and kinds, not only is the chemistry of the blood to be studied, but also its histology. By his eminent labours in cellular pathology, Virchow, and Metchnikoff later, gave the last blow to the mere humoral pathology which, after an almost unchallenged prevalence for some two thousand years, now finds a resting-place only in our nurseries. .Now the cellular pathology of the blood, investigated by the aid of modern staining methods, is as important as that of the solid organs; no clinical investigator - indeed, apart from research, no practitioner at this day - can dispense with examination of the blood for purposes of diagnosis; its coagulability and the kinds and the variations of the cells it contains being evidence of many def i nitely morbid states of the body.^ Turi S, Nemeth I, Varga I, Bodrogi T, Matkovics B. The effect of erythropoietin on the cellular defence mechanism of red blood cells in children with chronic renal failure.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Gangliosides are highly purified sialic acid-containing glycolipids that are useful as markers of various cell types and antigens.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Induces apoptosis in various cell types and cell lines by a mechanism involving cellular uptake and possible direct stimulation of procaspase-3 autoprocessing.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Again, not only in certain diseases may strange cells be found in the blood (e.g. in myelogenic leucaemia), but parasites also, both in man, as those of malaria, of sleeping sickness, of kala-azar, and in animals, as redwater, Texas fever, n'gana, have been discovered, to the great advantage of preventive medicine. For some of these, as redwater (pyrosoma), antidotes are already found; for others, as for Texas fever - of which the parasite is unknown, but the mode of its transmission, by the mosquito, discovered (Finlay-Reed) - preventive measures are reducing the prevalence.
It is obvious that the results of such advances prescribe for the clinical physician methods which cannot be pursued without expert assistance; a physician engaged in busy prac- Spec;a;ism. t i ce cannot himself undertake even the verifications required in the conduct of individual cases. Skill in modern laboratory work is as far out of the reach of the untaught as performance on a musical instrument. In spite, therefore, of the encyclopaedic tradition which has persisted from Aristotle through the Arab and medieval schools down to Herbert Spencer, it is forced upon us in our own day that in a pursuit so manysided as medicine, whether in its scientific or in its practical aspect, we have to submit more and more to that division of labour which has been a condition of advance in all other walks of life. .It is now fully recognized that diseases of infants and children, of the insane, of the generative organs of women, of the larynx, of the eye, have been brought successively into the light of modern knowledge by "specialists," and by them distributed to the profession; and that in no other way could this end have been attained.^ Knight F, Gorynski L, Bentson M, Harmon W. Chronic hemodialysis as a treatment for the infant or small child with end stage renal disease.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Fine RN. Choice of treatment modality for the infant, child and adolescent with end-stage renal disease.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

That the division of labour, which may seem to disintegrate the calling of the physician, really unites it, is well seen in the clinical laboratories which were initiated in the later 19th century, and which are destined to a great future. By the approach of skilled pathologists to the clinical wards, a link is forged between practitioners and the men of science who pursue pathology disinterestedly. The first clinical laboratory seems to have been that of Von Ziemssen (1829-1902) at Munich, founded in 1885; and, although his example has not yet been followed as it ought to have been, enough has been done in this way, at Johns Hopkins University and elsewhere, to prove the vital importance of the system to the progress of modern medicine. At the same time provision must be made for the integration of knowledge as well as for the winning of it by several adits. A conspicuous example of the incalculable evil wrought by lack of integration is well seen in the radical divorce of surgery from medicine, which is one of the most mischievous legacies of the middle ages - one whose mischief is scarcely yet fully recognized, and yet which is so deeply rooted in our institutions, in the United Kingdom at any rate, as to be hard to obliterate. That the methods and the subject-matter of surgery and of medicine are substantially the same, and that the advance of one is the advance of the other, the division being purely artificial and founded merely on accidents of personal bent and skill, must be insisted upon at this time of our history. The distinction was never a scientific one, even in the sense in which the word science can be used of the middle ages; it originated in social conceits and in the contempt for mechanical arts which came of the cultivation of "ideas" as opposed to converse with "matter," and which, in the dawn of modern methods, led to the derision of Boyle by Oxford humanists as one given up to "base and mechanical pursuits." Had physicians been brought into contact with facts as hard as those faced by the surgeons of the 16th century (cf. Ambrose Pare), their art would not have lain so long in degradation. .It is under this closer occupation with mechanical conditions that surgery to-day is said - not without excuse, but with no more than superficial truth - to have made more progress than medicine.^ A stable NO-amine complex that can spontaneously release two equivalents of NO in solution under physiological conditions without any cofactor.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A five times more potent inhibitor of endothelial cell NOS than other arginine analogs such as L-NAME and L-NMMA. Inhibits NO production in endothelial cytosol.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No metabolic side effects as observed with dibutyryl-cAMP or 8-Br-cAMP. More lipophilic and membrane permeant than Sp-cAMPS. .
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Medicine and surgery are but two aspects of one art; Pasteur shed light on both surgery and medicine, and when Lister, his disciple, penetrated into the secrets of wound fevers and septicaemia, he illuminated surgery and medicine alike, and, in the one sphere as in the other, co-operated in the destruction of the idea of "essential fevers" and of inflammation as an "entity." Together, then, with the necessary multiplication of specialism, one of the chief lessons of the latter moiety of the 19th century was the unity of medicine in all its branches - a unity strengthened rather than weakened by special researches, such as those into "medical" and "surgical" pathology, which are daily making more manifest the absurdity of the distinction. Surgeons, physicians, oculists, laryngologists, gynaecologists, neurologists and the rest, all are working in allotments of the same field, and combining to a common harvest.
While pathology then, which is especially the "science of medicine," was winning territory on one side from physiology,. of which in a sense it is but an aspect, and on another by making ground of its own in the post mortem room .Medical Y g g P Training. and museum of morbid anatomy, and was fusing these gains in the laboratory so as to claim for itself, as a special branch of science by virtue of peculiar concepts, its due place and provision - provision in the establishment of chairs and of special laboratories for its chemical and biological subdivisions - clinical medicine, by the formal provision of disciplinary classes, was illustrating the truth of the experience that teaching and research must go hand-in-hand, the one reinforcing the other: that no teacher can be efficient unless he be engaged in research also; nay, that for the most part even the investigator needs the encouragement of disciples.^ Water soluble and stable nitric oxide radical scavenger that shows in chemical and biological systems antagonistic action against the free nitric oxide radical (NO·).
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Yet it was scarcely until the last quarter of the 19th century that the apprenticeship system, which was a mere initiation into the art and mystery of a craft, was recognized as antiquated and, in its virtual exclusion of academic study, even mischievous. In place of it, systematic clinical classes have become part of the scheme of every efficient school of medicine. A condition of this reform was the need of a preliminary training of the mind of the pupil in pure science, even in physics and chemistry; that is to say, before introduction into his professional studies. The founding of new teaching universities, in which England, and even France, had been at some disadvantage as compared with Scotland and Germany, strengthened the movement in favour of enlarging and liberalizing technical training, and of anticipating technical instruction by some broader scientific discipline; though, as in all times of transition, something was lost temporarily by a departure from the old discipline of the grammar school before a new scheme of training the mind in scientific habits and conceptions was established or fully apprehended. Yet on the whole, even from the beginning, the revolt was useful in that it shook the position of the "learned physician," who took a literary, fastidious and meditative rather than an experimental interest in his profession, and, as in great part a descendant of the humanists, was never in full sympathy with experimental science. At the risk no doubt of some defects of culture, the newer education cleared the way for a more positive temper, awoke a new sense of accuracy and of verification, and created a sceptical attitude towards all conventions, whether of argument or of practice. Among the drawbacks of this temper, which on the whole made for progress, was the rise of a school of excessive scepticism, which, forgetting the value of the accumulated stores of empiricism, despised those degrees of moral certainty that, in so complex a study and so tentative a practice as medicine, must be our portion for the present, and even for a long future, however great the triumphs of medicine may become. This scepticism took form in the school, most active between 1860 and 1880, known as the school of "Expectant Medicine." .These teachers, genuinely touched with a sense of the scantiness of our knowledge, of our confidence in abstract terms, of the insecurity of our alleged "facts," case-histories and observations, alienated from traditional dogmatisms and disgusted by meddlesome polypharmacy - enlightened, moreover, by the issue of cases treated by means such as the homoeopathic, which were practically "expectant" - urged that the only course open to the physician, duly conscious of his own ignorance and of the mystery of nature, is to put his patient under diet and nursing, and, relying on the tendency of all equilibriums to recover themselves under perturbation, to await events (Vis medicatrix naturae). Those physicians who had occupied themselves in the study of the exacter sciences, or more closely or more exclusively of the wreckage of the post mortem room, were the strongest men of this school, whether in England or abroad.^ Yamamoto Y, Fujimoto S, Eto T. Long-term outcome of chronic hemodialysis patients [abstract].
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Parfrey PS, Harnett JD, Barre PE. The natural history of myocardial disease in dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Iseki K, Kawazoe N, Fukiyama K. Predictive values of clinical indices on survival in chronic hemodialysis patients a short-term prospective study [abstract].
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

But to sit down helpless before human suffering is an unendurable attitude. .Moreover, the insight into origins, into initial morbid processes revealed by the pathologists, eu Theraa woke more and more the hoe of dealin with the peutics. hope dealing elements of disease, with its first beginnings; and in the field of therapeutics, chemical and biological experiment, as in the case of digitalis, mercury and the iodides, was rapidly simplifying remedies and defining their virtues, so that these agents could be used at the bedside with more precision.^ Clinically useful cancer therapeutic agent.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reverse transcriptase inhibitor, IC 50 =0.26 µM. Potent antiviral agent, IC90=50 nM. Clinically useful therapeutic agent for HIV-1 infection and AIDS. .
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Furthermore, the aversion from drugging had the advantage of directing men's minds to remedies taken from the region of the physical forces, of electricity (G. B. Duchenne, 1806-1875), of gymnastics (Ling, 1776-1839), of hydropathy (V. Priessnitz), of massage (Weir Mitchell), of climate (James Clarke), of diet (R. B. Todd, King Chambers, &c.), and even of hypnotism (James Braid 1 795 ? - 1860), while with the improvement of the means of locomotion came the renewal of the old faith and the establishment of new methods in the use of mineral springs. .These and such means, often in combination, took much of the place formerly given to the use of drugs.^ Tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of drug resistant myelogenous leukemia with promising results often resulting in full recovery of white blood cell count.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This process is often used in labeling saccharides with fluorescent molecules or other tags such as biotin.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Again, a like spirit dictated the use of the physical or "natural" methods on a larger scale in the field of prevention. From the new regard given by physiologists and pathologists to the study of origins, and in the new hopes of thus dealing with disease at its springs, not in individuals only but in cities and nations, issued the great school of Preventive Medicine, initiated in England - E. A. Parkes (1819-1876), J. Simon, Sir B. W. Richardson (1828-1896), Sir H. W. Acland (1815-1900), Sir G. Buchanan (1831-1895), and forwarded in Germany by Max von Pettenkofer (1818-1901). Hygiene became for pathology what "milieu" is for physiology. By the modification of physical conditions on a national scale a prodigious advance was made in the art of preventing disease. The ghastly roll of infantile mortality was quickly purged of its darkest features (Ballard and others); aided by bacteriology, sanitary measures attained some considerable degree of exactness; public medicine gained such an ascendancy that special training and diplomas were offered at universities; and in 1875 a consolidated act was passed for the United Kingdom establishing medical officers of health, and responsible lay sanitary authorities, with no inconsiderable powers of enforcing the means of public health in rural, urban, port and other jurisdictions, with summary methods of procedure. .A department of public health was formed within the precincts of the Local Government Board; government laboratories were established, and machinery was devised for the notification of infectious diseases.^ U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH  AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service National Institutes of Health .
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The enormous growth of towns during the second half of the 19th century was thus attended with comparative safety to these great aggregates of mankind; and the death-rates, so far from being increased, relatively decreased in substantial proportions. In 1878 an act was passed giving like powers in the case of the infectious diseases of animals. The establishment in England of the Register of qualified practitioners and of the General Medical Council (in 1858) did something, however imperfectly, to give unity to the profession, unhappily bisected by "the two colleges"; and did much to organize, to strengthen and to purify medical education and qualification. In 1876 women were admitted to the Register kept by the Council. In 1871 the Anatomical Act of 1832 was amended; and in 1876 the Vivisection Act was passed, a measure which investigators engaged in the medical sciences of physiology and pathology resented as likely to prevent in England the advance of knowledge of living function, both in its normal balance and in its aberrancies, and moreover to slacken that habit of incessant reference of propositions to verification which is as necessary to the clinical observer as to the experimentalist. However the opinion of later generations may stand in respect of the Vivisection Act, it will surely appear to them that the other acts, largely based upon the results of experimental methods, strengthening and consolidating the medical profession, and fortifying the advance of medical education, led directly to a fundamental change in the circumstances of the people in respect of health. The intelligent classes have become far better educated in the laws of health, and less disposed to quackery; the less intelligent are better cared for and protected by municipal and central authority. .Thus the housing of the poor has been improved, though this difficult problem is yet far from solution; not the large towns only, but the larger villages also, are cleansed and drained; food has been submitted to inspection by skilled officers; water supplies have been undertaken on a vast scale; personal cleanliness has been encouraged, and with wonderful success efforts have been made to bring civilized Europe back from the effects of a long wave of Oriental asceticism, which in its neglect and contempt of the body led men to regard filth even as a virtue, to its pristine cleanliness under the Greeks and Romans.^ Canepa A, Perfumo F, Carrea A, Giallongo F, Verrina E, Cantaluppi A, Gusmano R. Long-term effect of amino-acid dialysis solution in children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

During the latter half of the 19th century the death-rate of many towns was reduced by something like 50%. Some plagues, such as typhus fever, have been dispelled; others, such as enteric fever, have been almost banished from large areas; and there is much reason to hope that cholera and plague, if introduced, could not get a footing in western Europe, or in any case could be combated on scientific principles, and greatly reduced. Temperance in the use of alcohol has followed the demonstration not only of its unimportance as a food or tonic, but also of its harmfulness, save in very small quantities. In the earlier part of the 19th century, and in remoter districts even in its later years, the use of alcohol was regarded not as a mere indulgence, but as essential to health; the example of teetotallers, as seen in private life and in the returns of the insurance offices, has undermined this prepossession. From the time of Plato medicine has been accused of ministering to the survival of unfit persons, and to their propagation of children. But bodily defect is largely a result of evil circumstances, in the prevention of which the physician is not unsuccessfully engaged, and the growth of sympathy means a stronger cement of the social structure. At any rate the mean standard of health will be raised, perhaps enormously.
In the tropics, as well as in Europe, such methods and such researches threw new light upon the causes and paths of the terrible infections of these climates. In 1880, two years before Koch discovered the bacillus of tubercle, C. L. A. Laveran (b. .1845) discovered the parasite of malaria, and truly conceived its relations to the disease; thus within two years were made two discoveries either of which was sufficient to make the honour of a century.^ A diketopiperazine related metabolite found active against the malaria parasite P. falciparum, to have pronounced plant growth regulatory activity and devoid of antifungal or antibacterial activity.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Before the end of the 19th century this discovery of the blood parasite of malaria was crowned by the hypothesis of Patrick Manson, proved by Ronald Ross, that malaria is propagated by a certain genus of gnat, which acts as an intermediate host of the parasite. Cholera (Haffkine) and yellow fever are yielding up their secrets, and falling under some control. The 10th century, by means of this illumination of one of the darkest regions of disease, may diminish human suffering enormously, and may make habitable rich and beautiful regions of the earth's surface now, so far as man's work is concerned, condemned to sterility. Moreover, freedom of trade and of travel has been promoted by a reform of the antiquated, cumbrous, and too often futile methods of quarantine - a reform as yet very far from complete, but founded upon a better understanding of the nature and propagation of disease.

Special Departments

Hitherto we have presented a survey of the progress of the science and practice of medicine on general. lines; it remains to give some indication of the advance of these subjects of study and practice in particular departments. As regards infections, it is not to be supposed that our knowledge of these maladies has been advanced by pathology and bacteriology only. In the clinical field also it has received a great enlargement. .Diphtheria, long no doubt a plague among mankind, was not carefully described until by Pierre Bretonneau in 1826; and since his time our conception of this disease has been extended by the study of later, secondary and incidental phases of it, such as neuritis, which had always formed part of the diphtheritic series, though the connexion had not been detected.^ Current Bibliographies in Medicine (CBM) is a continuation in part of the National Library of Medicine's Literature Search Series, which ceased in 1987 with No.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Influenza, again, was well known to us in 1836-1840, yet clinical observers had not traced out those sequels which, in the form of neuritis and mental disorder, have impressed upon our minds the persistent virulence of this infection, and the manifold forms of its activity. By the discovery of the bacillus of tubercle, the physician has been enabled to piece together a long and varied list of maladies under several names, such as scrofula and lupus, many of them long suspected to be tuberculous, but now known to belong to the series. It is on clinical grounds that beriberi, scarlet fever, measles, &c., are recognized as belonging to the same class, and evolving in phases which differ not in intimate nature but in the more superficial and inessential characters of time, rate and polymorphism; and the impression is gaining strength that acute rheumatism belongs to the group of the infections, certain sore throats, chorea and other apparently distinct maladies being terms of this series. Thus the field of disease arising not from essential defect in the body, but from external contingencies, is vastly enlarging; while on the other hand the great variability of individuals in susceptibility explains the very variable results of such extrinsic causes. Coincidently therewith, the hope of neutralizing infections by fortifying individual immunity has grown brighter, for it appears that immunity is not a very radical character, but one which, as in the case of vaccination, admits of modification and accurate adjustment in the individual, in no long time and by no very tedious methods. Evidence is accumulating which may end in the explanation and perhaps in the prevention of the direst of human woes - cancer itself, though at present inquiry is being directed rather to intrinsic than to extrinsic causes.
.When, leaving the infections, we look for evidence of progress in our knowledge of more or less local diseases, we may begin with the nervous system.^ The two diastereomers may be separated by silica gel chromatography providing 8(R) (more polar) and 8(S) (less polar) hepoxilins.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

It is in this department, from its abstruseness and complexity, that we should expect the advance of anatomy and physiology - normal and morbid - to be most delayed. If we consult the medical works even of the middle of the 19th century we shall find that, in the light of the present time, accurate knowledge in this sphere, whether clinical, pathological or therapeutical, could scarcely be said to exist. Even in the hands of J. A. Lockhart Clarke (1817-1880), one of the earliest investigators of nervous pathology, the improvement of the compound microscope had not attained the achromatism, the penetration and the magnification which have since enabled J. L. C. Schroeder-van der Kolk (1797-1862), Albert von K0111ker, Santiago Ramon y Cajal, C. Golgi (b. .1844) and others to reveal the minute anatomy of the nervous centres; while the discrimination of tissues and morbid products by stains, as in the silver and osmic acid methods, and in those known by the names of Carl Weigert or Marchi, had scarcely begun.^ Phosphomolybdic acid, also known as dodeca molybdophosphoric acid or PMA is a component of Masson's trichrome stain.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

In England the Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic was founded in 1859, where Charles E. BrownSequard (1817-1894), J. Hughlings-Jackson, Thomas Buzzard, Henry C. Bastian (b. 1837), Sir W. R. Gowers and David Ferrier (b. 1843) found an adequate field for the clinical and pathological parts of their work. .In France, in the wards of the Hotel Dieu, Guillaume Benjamin Duchenne (1806-1875), in association with Trousseau and in his private clinic, pursued his memorable clinical and therapeutical researches into the diseases of the nervous system; and Jean M. Charcot (1825-1893) in that great asylum for the wreckage of humanity - the Salpetriere - discovered an unworked mine of chronic nervous disease.^ Godai K, Uemasu J, Kawasaki H. Clinical significance of serum and urinary neopterins in patients with chronic renal disease.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nissenson AR, Nimer SD, Wolcott DL. Recombinant human erythropoietin and renal anemia: molecular biology, clinical efficacy, and nervous system effects.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Suwata J, Maeda H, Ohmori N, Ohwa M, Ohtsuka H, Shimoyama H. Recombinant human erythropoietin therapy and autonomic nervous system.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.M. H. Romberg (1795-1873) and Theodor Meynert (1833-1892) also were pioneers in the study of nervous diseases, but it was not till later in the century that Germany took a high place in this department of medicine.^ Bis-coclaurine alkaloid used for centuries in Chinese traditional medicine for cardiovascular diseases.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.The discoveries of the separate paths of sensory and motor impulses in the spinal cord, and consequently of the laws of reflex action, by Charles Bell and Marshall Hall respectively, in their illumination of the phenomena of nervous function, may be compared with the discovery in the region of the vascular system of the circulation of the blood; for therein a key to large classes of normal and aberrant functions and a fertile principle of interpretation were obtained.^ Used in the stimulation of β-galactosidase in cellular systems in which dioxane would disrupt normal cell function.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Nor was the theory of reflex action confined to the more "mechanical" functions. By G. H. Lewes and others the doctrine of "cerebral reflex" was suggested, whereby actions, at first achieved only by incessant attention, became organized as conscious or subconscious habits; as for instance in the playing on musical or other instruments, when acts even of a very elaborate kind may directly follow the impulses of sensations, conscious adaptation and the deliberate choice of means being thus economized. .This law has important ethical and political bearings; but in the province of disease this advance of what may be compared to the interlocking of points and signals has had wide influence not only in altering our conceptions of disease, but also in enlarging our views of all perturbations of function.^ Chemical functional groupings may be viewed by clicking here .
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.The grouping of reflex "units," and the paths wherein impulses travel and become associated, have been made out by the physiologist (Sherrington and others) working on the healthy animal, as well as by the record of disease; and not of spontaneous disease alone, for the artificial institution of morbid processes in animals has led to many of these discoveries, as in the method of A. V. Waller (1816-1870), who tracked the line of nervous strands by experimental sections, and showed that when particular strands are cut off from their nutritive centres the consequent degeneration follows the line of the separated strands.^ Tokars JI, Alter MJ, Favero MS, Moyer LA, Bland LA. National surveillance of hemodialysis associated diseases in the United States, 1990.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Tannen R, Jacobson H. Summary of the joint National Institutes of Health/Renal Physician's Association workshop on dialysis, morbidity and mortality.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

By similar methods nature, unassisted, betrays herself but too often; in many instances - probably originating primarily in the nervous tissues themselves - the course of disease is observed to follow certain paths with remarkable consistency, as for instance in diseases of particular tracts of the spinal cord. .In such cases the paths of degeneration are so neatly defined that, when the tissues are prepared after death by modern methods, they are plainly to be seen running along certain columns, the subdivisions of which in the normal state may hardly be distinguishable one from another: some run in strips along the periphery of the spinal cord, at its anterior, middle or posterior segments, as the case may be; in other cases such strips occur within its substance, whether along columns of cells or of white matter.^ A five times more potent inhibitor of endothelial cell NOS than other arginine analogs such as L-NAME and L-NMMA. Inhibits NO production in endothelial cytosol.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is needless to point out how such paths of disease, in their association with characteristic symptoms, have illuminated the clinical features of disease as well as the processes of normal function.^ Potent, selective CysLT1 receptor antagonist sold under the trade name Singulair for the treatment of asthma as well as for the symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cefali EA, Poynor WJ, Sica D, Cox S. Pharmacokinetic comparison of flurbiprofen in end-stage renal disease subjects and subjects with normal renal function.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ McCarthy JT, Hodgson SF, Fairbanks VF, Moyer TP. Clinical and histologic features of iron-related bone disease in dialysis patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Not, however, all diseases of the nervous system conduct themselves on these definite paths, for some of them pay no attention to the geography of structure, but, as one may say, blunder indiscriminately among the several parts; others, again, pick out particular parts definitely enough, but not parts immediately continuous, or even contiguous.^ Current Bibliographies in Medicine (CBM) is a continuation in part of the National Library of Medicine's Literature Search Series, which ceased in 1987 with No.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Diseases of the latter kind are especially interesting, as in them we see that parts of the nervous structure, separated in space, may nevertheless be associated in function; for instance, wasting of a group of muscles associated in function may depend on a set of central degenerations concurring in parts whose connexion, in spite of dissociation in space, we thus perceive. The undiscriminating diseases, on the other hand, we suspect not to be primarily of nervous origin, but to depend rather on the agency of other constituent tissues of this system, as of the blood-vessels or the connective elements. Thus, arguing inversely, we may learn something of the respective natures of these influences and of the way in which the nervous system is affected secondarily.
Yet even the distribution of toxic matters by the blood is not necessarily followed by general and indiscriminate injury to the nervous elements. In infantile palsy, for example, and in tabes dorsalis, there is good reason to believe of that, definitely as the traces of the disease are found in certain physiologically distinct nervous elements, they are due nevertheless to toxic agents arriving by way of the blood. Here we enter upon one of the most interesting chapters of disorders and modes of disorder of this and of other systems. It has come out more and more clearly of late years that poisons do not betray even an approximately indifferent affinity for all tissues, which indeed a little reflection would tell us to be a priori improbable, but that each tends to fix itself to this cell group or to that, picking out parts for which they severally have affinities. Chemical, physiological and pathological research is exploring the secret of these more refined kinds of "anchorage" of molecules. .In 1868 Drs A. Crum Brown and T. R. Fraser proved that by substitution of molecules in certain compounds a stimulant could be converted into a sedative action; thus by the addition of the methyl group CH 2 to the molecule of strychnine, thebaine or brucine, the tetanizing action of these drugs is converted into a paralysing action.^ Intracellularly converted into L-cysteine, the rate-limiting precursor of glutathione and thus can be used to increase glutathione levels.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

The number of these instances, and the variety of them, are now known to be very large; and it is supposed that what is true of these simpler agents is true also of far more elaborate phases of vital metabolism. Now, what is remarkable in these and many other reactions is not only that effects apparently very opposite may result from minute differences of molecular construction, but also that, whatever the construction, agents, not wholly indifferent to the body or part, tend to anchor themselves to organic molecules in some way akin to them. Highly complex as are all animal tissues, or nearly all, yet in this category of high complexity are degrees higher and higher again of which we can form little conception, so elaborate they are, so peculiar in their respective properties, and probably so fugitive. It is this wide range of dynamic peculiarities above the common range of known physical and chemical molecules which excites our wonder; and a reflection of these peculiar properties is seen in their affinities for this or that toxic or constructive agent, whereby the peculiarity, for example, of a particular kind of nerve cell may be altered, antagonized, reinforced or converted. .On the other hand, the reagents by which such modifications are apt to be produced are not necessarily simple; many of them likewise are known to be of very high degrees of complexity, approaching perhaps in complexity the molecules to which they are akin.^ This process is often used in labeling saccharides with fluorescent molecules or other tags such as biotin.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Of such probably are the toxins and antitoxins of certain infections, which, anchoring themselves not by any means indiscriminately, but to particular and concerted molecules, by such anchorage antagonize them or turn them to favourable or unfavourable issues. .Toxins may thus become so closely keyed into their corresponding atom groups, as for instance in tetanus, that they are no longer free to combine with the antitoxin; or, again, an antitoxin injected before a toxin may anticipate it and, preventing its mischievous adhesion, dismiss it for excretion.^ May act as a bacterial toxin receptor (tetanus, botulinus).
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the mutual behaviour of such cells, toxins, and antitoxins, and again of microbes themselves, we may demonstrate even on the field of the microscope some of the modes of such actions, which seem to partake in great measure at any rate of a chemical quality (agglutinins, coagulins, chemotaxis).^ It is a glomerular epithelial cell toxin which may be used to induce nephropathy in laboratory animals.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

It is convenient here to add that such reactions and modifications, if more conspicuous in the nervous system, are of course not confined to it, but are concerned in their degree in all the processes of metabolism, being most readily traced by us in the blood.
Many other diseases formerly regarded as primarily diseases of the nervous system are not such; but, by means of agents either introduced into the body or modified there, establish themselves after the affinities of these in contiguous associated parts of the structure, as in vascular, membranous or connective elements, or again in distant and peripheral parts; the perturbations of nervous function being secondary and consequential. Of such are tetanus and diphtheria, now known to be due to the establishment from without of a local microbic infection, from which focus a toxin is diffused to the nervous matter. The terrible nervous sequels of some forms of inflammation of the membranes of the brain, again, are due primarily to microbic invasion rather of the membranes than of their nervous contents; and many other diseases may be added to this list. The grave palsies in such diseases as influenza, diphtheria, beriberi, or ensuing on the absorption of lead, are in the main not central, but due to a symmetrical peripheral neuritis.
.Among diseases not primarily nervous, but exhibited in certain phenomena of nervous disorder, are diseases of the blood-vessels. Much light has been thrown upon the variations of arterial and venous blood pressures by Karl Ludwig (1816-1895) and his many followers: by them not only the diseases of the circulatory system itself are elucidated, but also those of other systems - the nervous, for instance - which depend intimately on the mechanical integrity of the circulation of the blood as well as on the chemical integrity of the blood itself.^ Kamata K, Marumo F, Onoyama K. Hemodynamic mechanism of the elevation in blood pressure following the improvement of anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Bosutinib can overcome not only Bcr-Abl-dependent mechanisms of resistance, but also those that are Bcr-Abl-independent.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.With changes of the pressures of the blood in arteries, veins or capillaries, and in the heart itself and its respective chambers, static changes are apt to follow in these parts; such as degeneration of the coats of the arteries, due either to the silent tooth of time, to persistent high blood pressures, or to the action of poisons such as lead or syphilis.^ Ono K, Hisasue Y. The rate of increase in hematocrit, humoral vasoactive substances and blood pressure changes in hemodialysis patients treated with recombinant human erythropoietin or blood transfusion.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Ofsthun NJ, Jensen JC, Kray M. Effect of high hematocrit and high blood flow rates on transmembrane pressure and ultrafiltration rate in hemodialysis.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Kamata K, Marumo F, Onoyama K. Hemodynamic mechanism of the elevation in blood pressure following the improvement of anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Syphilitic lesion of the arteries, and likewise of other fibrous tissues, often involves grave consequential damage to nervous structures fed or supported by such parts.^ This process is often used in labeling saccharides with fluorescent molecules or other tags such as biotin.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some of the most successful of the advances of medicine as a healing art have followed the detection of syphilitic disease of the vessels, or of the supporting tissues of nervous centres and of the peripheral nerves; so that, by specific medication, the treatment of paralytic, convulsive, and other terrible manifestations of nervous disease thus secondarily induced is now undertaken in early stages with definite prospect of cure.^ McClellan WM, Anson C, Birkeli K, Tuttle E. Functional status and quality of life: predictors of early mortality among patients entering treatment for end stage renal disease.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Not of. less importance in this respect, and in other disorders many of them of grave incidence, is the knowledge of the phenomena of embolism and of thrombosis, also gained during the latter half of the 19th century - W. S. Kirkes (1823-1864), R. Virchow. By embolism is meant the more or less sudden stoppage of a vessel by a plug of solid matter carried thither by the current of the blood; be it a little clot from the heart or, what is far more pernicious, an infective fragment from some focus of infection in the body, by which messengers new foci of infection may be scattered about the body. Thrombosis is an accident of not dissimilar character, whereby a vessel is blocked not by a travelling particle, but by a clotting of the blood in situ, probably on the occasion of some harm to the epithelial lining of the vessel. Such injuries are apt to occur in syphilitic endarteritis, or senile arterial decay, whereby an artery may be blocked permanently, as if with an embolus, and the area supplied by it, in so far as it was dependent upon this vessel, deprived of nutrition. These events, although far more mischievous in the brain, the functions of which are far-reaching, and the collateral circulation of which is ill-provided, are seen very commonly in other parts.
It is in the structure of the brain itself that modern research has attained the most remarkable success. In 1861 an alleged "centre" of speech was detected, by a combination of clinical and pathological researches, by Paul Broca (1824-1880). By these means also, in the hands of Hughlings-Jackson, and more conclusively by experimental research initiated by G. T. Fritsch (b. 1838) and T. E. Hitzig (b. 1838), but pursued independently and far more systematically and thoroughly by David Ferrier (b. 1843) and his disciples, it was proved that the cerebrum is occupied by many such centres or exchanges, which preside over the formulation of sensations into purposive groups of motions - kinaesthesis of H. Charlton Bastian (b. 1837). The results of these experimental researches by many inquirers into the constitution of the brain have transformed our conceptions of cerebral physiology, and thrown a flood of light on the diseases of the brain. Not only so, but this mapping of the brain in areas of function now often enables the clinical physician to determine the position of disease; in a certain few cases of tumour or abscess, so precisely that he may be enabled to open the skull above the part affected and to extirpate it - operations which are surely a triumph of science and technical skill (Lister, W. MacEwen, V. Horsley).
The remarkable discovery of the dual nature of the nervous system, of its duplex development as a lower and upper system of "neurons," has shed much light upon the problems of practical medicine, but this construction is described under Brain; Neuropathology; Muscle And Nerve, &C.
In mental diseases little of first-rate importance has been done. .The chief work has been the detection of chronic changes in the cortex of the brain, by staining and other histological methods, in degenerative affections of this organ - Theodor Meynert (1833-1892), W. Griesinger (1817-1868), Bevan Lewis - and in the separation from insanity due to primary disease or defect of nerve elements of such diseases as general paralysis of the insane, which probably arise, as we have said, by the action of poisons on contiguous structures - such as blood-vessels and connective elements - and invade the nervous matter secondarily.^ Reduces cell death induced by glutamate in primary cultures derived from forebrain, hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum of embryonic rat brain.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Some infections, however, seem to attack the mental fabric directly; intrinsic toxic processes which may be suspected on the detection of neurin and cholin in the fluids of the brain (F. W. Mott). Truer conceptions of normal psychology have transformed for us those of the morbid - P. Pinel (1745-1826), Griesinger, Henry Maudsley (b. 1835), Mercier, Krapelin, Rivers - and indicated more truly the relations of sanity to insanity. In the treatment of insanity little has been done but to complete the non-restraint system which in principle belongs to the earlier part of the 19th century (Pinel, Tuke, R. G. Hill, J. Conolly). An enormous accumulation of lunatics of all sorts and degrees seems to have paralysed public authorities, who, at vast expense in buildings, mass them more or less indiscriminately in barracks, and expect that their sundry and difficult disorders can be properly studied and treated by a medical superintendent charged with the whole domestic establishment, with a few young assistants under him. .The life of these insane patients is as bright, and the treatment as humane, as a barrack life can be; but of science, whether in pathology or medicine, there can be little.^ Ruedin P, Pechere Bertschi A, Chapuis B, Benedet P, Leski M. Safety and efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin treatment of anaemia associated with multiple myeloma in haemodialysed patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Evans RW. Recombinant human erythropoietin and the quality of life of end-stage renal disease patients: a comparative analysis.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ McMahon LP, Dawborn JK. Subjective quality of life assessment in hemodialysis patients at different levels of hemoglobin following use of recombinant human erythropoietin.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

A considerable step in advance is the establishment by the London County Council of a central laboratory for its asylums, with an eminent pathologist at its head: from this laboratory valuable reports are in course of issue. Provision for the reception and treatment of insanity in its earliest and more curable stages can scarcely be said to exist. Sufferers from mental disease are still regarded too much as troublesome persons to be hidden away in humane keeping, rather than as cases of manifold and obscure disease, to be studied and treated by the undivided attention of physicians of the highest skill. The care and education of idiots, initiated by Guggenbuhl and others, is making way in England, and if as yet insufficient, is good of its kind.
By the genius of Rene Theophile Laennec (1781-1826), diseases of the lungs and heart were laid on a foundation so broad that his successors have been occupied in detail and refinement rather than in reconstruction. .In heart disease the chief work of the latter half of the 19th century was, in the first quarter, such clinical work as that of William Stokes and Peter Mere Latham (1789-1875); and in the second quarter the fuller comprehension of the vascular system, central and peripheral, with its cycles and variations of blood pressure, venous and arterial.^ Yamada K, Nakayama M, Miura Y, Nakano H, Mimura N, Yoshida S. Role of AVP in the regulation of vascular tonus and blood pressure in patients with chronic renal failure.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cloarec-Blanchard L, Girard A, Houhou S, Grunfeld JP, Elghozi JL. Spectral analysis of short-term blood pressure and heart rate variability in uremic patients.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A competitive antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic synapses in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Moreover, the intricacies of structure and function within the heart itself have been more fully discriminated (W. H. Gaskell, Aschoff, A. Keith, Wenkebach, J. Mackenzie). By the greater thoroughness of our knowledge of the physics of the circulation - Etienne Marey (b. 1830), Karl Ludwig (1816-1895), Leonard Hill - we have attained to a better conception of such events as arterial disease, apoplexy, "shock," and so forth; and pharmacologists have defined more precisely the virtues of curative drugs. To the discovery of the parts played in disease by thrombosis and embolism we have referred above. With this broader and more accurate knowledge of the conditions of the health of the circulation a corresponding efficiency has been gained in the manipulation of certain remedies and new methods of treatment of heart diseases, especially by baths and exercises.
.As regards pulmonary disease, pneumonia has passed more and more definitely into the category of the infections: the modes of invasion of the lungs and pleura by tuberculosis has been more and more accurately followed; and the treatment of these diseases, in the spheres both of prevention and of cure, has undergone a radical change.^ Rosansky SJ, Jackson K. Rate of change of end-stage renal disease treatment incidence 1978-1987--has there been selection?
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ O'Doherty MJ, Breen D, Page C, Barton I, Nunan TO. Lung 99mTc DTPA transfer in renal disease and pulmonary infection.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Instead of the close protection from the outer air, the respirators, and the fancy diets of our fathers, the modern poitrinaire camps out in the open air in all weathers, is fed with solid food, and in his exercise and otherwise is ruled with minute particularity according to the indications of the clinical thermometer and other symptoms. .The almost reckless reliance on climate, which, at Davos for instance, marked the transition from the older to the modern methods, has of late been sobered, and supplemented by more systematic attention to all that concerns the mode of life of the invalid.^ The purpose of the Conference was to examine all of the relevant data concerning the delivery of maintenance dialysis and the management of associated life-threatening complications.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The result is that, both in physicians and in the public, a more hopeful attitude in respect of the cure of phthisis has led to a more earnest grappling with the infection in its earliest stages and in every phase, with a correspondingly large improvement in prevention and treatment.^ Bambauer R, Mestres P, Pirrung KJ. Frequency, therapy, and prevention of infections associated with large bore catheters.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Indeed, in such early stages, and in patients who are enabled to command the means of an expensive method of cure, phthisis is no longer regarded as desperate; while steps are being taken to provide for those who of their own means are unable to obtain these advantages, by the erection of special sanatoriums on a more or less charitable basis.^ Tsai TJ, Tsai HF, Chen YM, Hsieh BS, Chen WY, Yen TS. CAPD in patients unable to do their own bag change.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The two diastereomers may be separated by silica gel chromatography providing 8(R) (more polar) and 8(S) (less polar) hepoxilins.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Perhaps no advance in medicine has done so much as the study of tuberculosis to educate the public in the methods and value of research in medical subjects, for the results, and even the methods, of such labours have been brought home not only to patients and their friends, but also to the farmer, the dairyman, the butcher, the public carrier, and, indeed, to every home in the land.
It was in the management of pleurisies that the aid of surgical means first became eminent in inward disease. In the treatment of effusions into the pleura and, though with less advantage, of pericardial effusions, direct mechanical interference was practised by one physician and another, till these means of attaining rapid and complete cure took their places as indispensable, and were extended from thoracic diseases to those of the abdominal and other inner parts formerly beyond the reach of direct therapeutics. Lord Lister's discoveries brought these new methods to bear with a certainty and a celerity previously undreamed of; and many visceral maladies, such as visceral ulcers, disease of the pancreas, stone of the kidney or gall-bladder, perityphlitis, ovarian dropsy, which in the earlier part of the 19th century were either fatal or crippling, are now taken promptly and safely in hand, and dealt with successfully. Even for internal cancer cure or substantial relief is not infrequently obtained. We have said that this advance is often quoted, not very wisely, to signify that in modern progress "medicine" has fallen behind surgery - as if the art of the physician were not one and indivisible. That certain Fellows of the College of Physicians (especially in gynaecology) have personally taken operative procedures in hand is some good omen that in time the unreal and mischievous schism between medicine and surgery may be bridged over.
In the department of abdominal disease progress has been made, not only in this enormous extension of means of cure by operative methods, but also in the verification of diagnosis. The first recognition of a disease may be at a necropsy, but then usually by irresponsible pathologists; it is another matter when the physician himself comes under rebuke for failing to seize a way to cure, while the chance remained to him, by section of the abdomen during life. The abdomen is still "full of surprises"; and he who has most experience of this deceptive region will have least confidence in expressing positive opinions in particular cases of disease without operative investigation. Besides the attainments mentioned above, in respect of operative progress, many important revisions of older rule-of-thumb knowledge have come about, and not a few other substantial discoveries. Among the revisions may be adduced some addition to our knowledge of dyspepsia, attained by analytic investigations into the contents of the stomach at various stages of digestion, and by examining the passage of opaque substances through the primae vine by the Röntgen rays. Thus the defects, whether of this secretion or of that, and again of motor activity, the state of the valvular junctions, the volume of the cavities, and their position in the abdomen, may be ascertained, and dealt with as far as may be; so that, although the fluctuations of chemical digestion are still very obscure, the application of remedies after a mere traditional routine is no longer excusable. In our conceptions of the later stages of assimilation and of excretion, with the generation of poisons (auto-intoxication) in the intestinal tract, there is still much obscurity and much guess-work; yet in some directions positive knowledge has been gained, partly by the physiologist, partly by the physician himself. Of such are the better understanding of the functions of the liver in normal catabolism, in the neutralization of poisons absorbed from the intestines or elsewhere, in the causation of jaundice, and in diabetes [Bernhardt Naunyn (b. 1839) and F. W. Pavy]. Nor must we forget the unfolding of a new chapter of disease, in the nosology of the pancreas. In diabetes this organ seems to play a part which is not yet precisely determined; and one fell disease at least has been traced to a violent access of inflammation of this organ, caused perhaps by entry of foreign matters into its duct. The part of the pancreas in digestion also is better understood. The part of the spleen in the motley group of dyspepsias and anaemias, conspicuous as it often is, still remains very enigmatic.
The peritoneum is no longer regarded with awe as inviolable; by modern methods, if not as manageable as other lymphatic sacs, it is at any rate accessible enough without considerable risk to life. Not only in its bacteriological relations are the conditions of peritonitis recognized in its various kinds, but also the state known as "shock" turns out to be quasi-mechanical, and avoidable by measures belonging in considerable part to this category. .Thus, by the avoidance both of toxaemia and of shock, peritonitis and other dangers of the abdomen, such as strangulations or intussusceptions of the bowels, formerly desperate, can in many cases be dealt with safely and effectively.^ Olivas E, Jimenez C, Lopez A, Andres E, Sanchez Tarraga L. Reduction of the incidence of peritonitis in CAPD: effectiveness of heat sterilization of Safe.Lock connectors.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Our knowledge of diseases of the kidneys has made no great advance since the time of Richard Bright. In the sphere of physiology and in the interpretation of associated arterial diseases much obscurity still remains; as, for instance, concerning the nature of the toxic substances which produce those bilateral changes in the kidneys which we call Bright's disease, and bring about the "uraemia" which is characteristic of it. Lardaceous disease, however, here and in other regions, now appears to be due to the specific toxins of pyogenetic micro-organisms. In stone of the kidney a great advance has been made in treatment by operative means, and the formation of these stones seems to recent observers to depend less upon constitutional bent (gout) than upon unhealthy local conditions of the passages, which in their turn again may be due to the action of microorganisms.
To Thomas Addison's descriptions of certain anaemias, and of the disease of the suprarenal capsules which bears his name, something has been added; and W. Hunter's researches on the severer anaemias are doing much to elucidate these subtle maladies. And on the influence of these inconspicuous bodies and of the pituitary body in sustaining arterial blood pressures physiologists have thrown some important light.
The secret of the terrible puerperal septicaemia was read by J. P. Semmelweiss (q.v.), wherein he proved himself to be the greatest of Lister's forerunners (see Lister).
The diseases peculiar to women (see Gynaecology) have received attention from early times, but little progress had been made in their interpretation till the 19th century. In the middle part of the century, by a natural exaggeration of the importance of newly-discovered local changes in the pelvic organs, much harm was done to women by too narrow an attention to the site, characters and treatment of these; the meddlesomeness of the physician becoming in the temperament of woman. a morbid obsession. To James Matthews Duncan (1826-1890) we chiefly owe a saner and broader comprehension of the relative importance of the local and the general conditions which enter into the causation of uterine and ovarian disorders. In operations for diseases of the pelvis, ovarian dropsy, cancer of the uterus, and other grave diseases of the region, success has been stupendous.
.In the subject of diseases of the skin much has been done, in the minuter observation of their forms, in the description of forms previously unrecognized, and in respect of bacterial and other causation and of treatment.^ Marumo F, Shichiri M, Emori T, Ando K. Circulating and excreted forms of atrial natriuretic peptide in healthy subjects and patients with renal diseases.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The comparison of observations in various climates and peoples has had some weight; while in the better knowledge of their causes their treatment has found permanent advantage. Not only is the influence of bacteria in the causation of many of them newly revealed, but it is now recognized also that, even in skin diseases not initiated by microbic action, microbes play a considerable and often a determining part in their perpetuation; and that the rules of modern aseptic surgery are applicable with no little success to skin therapeutics. We have learned that "constitutional" causes play a smaller part in them than was supposed, that a large number of diseases of the skin, even if initiated by general disorder, are or soon become local diseases, being, if not initiated by local infection yet perpetuated thereby, so that, generally speaking, they are to be cured by local means.
The diseases of children have not lacked the renewed attention, the successful investigation, and the valuable new lights which have been given to other departments of medicine. That infantile paralysis is an infection, and that its unhappy sequels are now treated with more hope of restoration, has been indicated already. Infantile diarrhoea has also been recognized as a common infection (Ballard), and the means of its avoidance and cure ascertained. The conditions of diet and digestion in children are now far better understood, and many of their maladies, formerly regarded as organic or incomprehensible, are cured or prevented by dietetic rules. Rickets, scurvy and "marasmus" may be instanced as diet diseases in children. Acute inflammation of the ear, with its alarming extensions to the cerebral. cavity, is now dealt with successfully by surgical means, and infected sinuses or even encephalic abscesses are reached and cleansed. The origins, kinds and processes of meningitis are more clearly distinguished, and referred each to its proper cause - for the most part bacterial.
.As by the discovery of stethoscopy by Laennec a new field of medical science and art was opened up, so, more recently, inventions of other new methods of investigation in medicine have opened to us other fields of little less interest and importance.^ Knabe C, Grosse-Siestrup C, Becker H, Pustelnik A, Gahl G. A new method to evaluate the CAPD-catheter-exit and other percutaneous devices.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Of such is the ophthalmoscope, invented by H.
von .Helmholtz in 1851. By the revelations of this instrument not only have the diseases of the eye been illuminated, but much light has been thrown also upon the part of the eye in more general maladies; as, for instance, in syphilis, in diabetes, in kidney diseases, and in diseases of the brain - F. C. Donders (1818-1889), Alfred von Grafe (1830-1899) and others.^ Willis R. Foster, M.D., Benjamin T. Burton, Ph.D., and M. James Scherbenske, Ph.D., National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases .
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

A remarkable help to the cure of headaches and wider nervous disorders has come out of the better appreciation and correction of errors of refraction in the eye. Radiography has done great things for surgery; for medicine its services are already appreciable, and may prove more and more valuable hereafter. In 1879 the use of the spectroscope in medicine was pointed out by Dr Charles A. MacMunn (b. 1852). By E. du Bois-Reymond, Robert Remak (1815-1865), Carlo Matteucci (1811-1868), Guillaume Duchenne (1806-1875), the value of electricity in medicine, greater in diagnosis perhaps than in therapeutics, was demonstrated. By the sphygmograph (E. J. Marey, 1863) attention was drawn to the physical features of the circulation, to the signs of degeneration of the arterial tree, and less definitely to the fluctuations of blood pressure; but as we have said under the consideration of diseases of the heart, the kymographs of Ludwig and his pupils brought out these fluctuations far more accurately and completely. By these, and other instruments of precision, such as the thermometer, of which we have already spok en, the eminently scientific discipline of the measurement of functional movements, so difficult in the complex science of biology, has been cultivated. By the laryngoscope, invented about 1850 by Manuel Garcia the celebrated singingmaster, and perfected by Johann Czermak (1828-1873) and others, the diseases of the larynx also have been brought into the general light which has been shed on all fields of disease; and many of them, previously known more or less empirically, submitted to precise definition and cure. Of such we may cite tuberculosis of the larynx, formerly as incurable as distressing; and "adenoids" - a disease revealed by intrascopic methods - which used grievously to thwart and stifle the growth both of mind and body in children, are now promptly removed, to the infinite advantage of the rising generation. To the value of stains in clinical diagnosis, especially in investigation of perversions of the blood in many maladies, we have already made some reference. The discovery of the Röntgen rays has also extended the physician's power of vision, as in cases of aortic aneurysm, and other thoracic diseases.
By photography and diagrammatic records the clinical work of hospital wards has been brought into some better definition, and teaching made more accurate and more impressive. The separation of the alkaloids belongs rather to the earlier part of the 19th century, but the administration of these more accurate medications by means of hypodermic injection (see Therapeutics) belongs to the latter. The ancient practice of transfusion has been placed on a more intelligible footing, and by the method of saline injections made more manageable as a means of relief or even of cure. .Finally, calculation by statistics (William Farr, Karl Pearson, and others) has been brought into line with other scientific methods: the method is a difficult one, and one full of pitfalls for the unwary, yet when by co-operation of physician and mathematician its applications have been perfected its services will appear more and more indispensable.^ A citation may appear in more than one category.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Among the achievements of the medicine of the 19th century the growth of the medical press must not be forgotten. In England, by the boldness of the Lancet (founded in 182 3), the tyranny of prescription, inveterate custom, and privilege abused was defied and broken down; freedom of learning was regained, and promotion thrown open to the competent, independently of family, gild and professional status. For the record and diffusion of rapidly growing knowledge, learned societies, universities and laboratories, greatly increased in number and activity, issue their transactions in various fields; and by means of yearbooks and central news-sheets the accumulation of knowledge is organized and made accessible.
.It is interesting to find that, with all this activity in the present reformed methods of research and verification are not confined to the work of the passing day; in the brilliant achievements of modern research and reconstruction the maxim that "Truth is the daughter of Time" has not been forgotten.^ NCI studies show lack of activity against tumors and AIDS. An interesting metabolite which has received little attention in modern times.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

In the field of the History of Medicine the work of scholars such as Francis Adams of Banchory (1796-1861), William A. Greenhill (1814-1894) and C. Creighton in England, Maximilien P. Littre (1801-1881) and Charles V. Daremberg (1817-1872) in France, and Heinrich Haser (1811-1888) and August Hirsch, Diels, Weltmann and Julius Pagel in Germany, will prove to our children that tradition was as safe in our hands as progress itself.
(T. C. A.) Bibliography. - Osler and McCrae, Modern Medicine; F. T. Roberts, The Practice of Medicine (1909); Hermann Nothnagel, Internationale Beitrcige zur inneren Medicin (1902); Ed. Brovardel, Traite de medecine (1895-1902); T. D. Savill, Clinical Medicine (1909); W. Osler, The Principles and Practice of Medicine (1909); Allbutt and Rolleston, A System of Medicine (1906-1910); Sir Patrick Manson, Tropical Medicine (1907); Frederick Taylor, A Manual of the Practice of Medicine (1908).


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Wikibooks:Health science bookshelf article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Bookshelves
.Biology | Computer Science | Computer Software | Education | Health science | History | Humanities | Language and Literature | Languages | Law | Mathematics | Natural Sciences | Physics | Programming Languages | Social Sciences | Study Guides | Misc.^ A computer program that uses statistics to predict a person’s risk for developing breast cancer based on family history.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

| Wikibooks Help
Health Science
(edit template)
All Health science books...
Wikibook Development Stages
Sparse text 00%.svg Developing text 25%.svg Maturing text 50%.svg Developed text 75%.svg Comprehensive text: 100%.svg
The health science Wikibooks are still being developed. .Some books are being expanded almost daily by expert authors, others are not yet being written.^ A drug being studied in the treatment of acute leukemias and some other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Pages where nothing has been written yet contain external links to relevant (and preferably non-commercial) websites.
.The books on Radiation Oncology and Emergency Medicine are in a more advanced stage of development.^ This is the sort of argument that was more persuasive up until about 10 years ago, before the FDA developed guidelines for the investigation of botanical medicines.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Pages marked as [DEV] are under development and do not yet contain (sufficient) useful material. Books which are currently online or being written are marked as [ACT]. Note: Please change [DEV] and [ACT]] to development stages.
For discussion about this page or section, please use the 'discussion' option (above).
 [>> suggest a book] [start a book]

Contents

Basic Medical Sciences

[[Image:|80x80px]] .Human Physiology is about how that body you live in actually works.^ If you would like more information about how you can help us recruit patients for this study, please contact: randolph@maps.org .
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 9 February 2010 15:18 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

An undergraduate, understandable, systemic approach to the human body's functions with a specific focus on homeostasis.
 [>> suggest a book] [start a book]

Dentistry

 [>> suggest a book] [start a book]

Medicine

 [>> suggest a book] [start a book]

Allied health professions

Surgery

 [>> suggest a book] [start a book]

Alternative Medicine

 [>> suggest a book] [start a book]

Books for Medical Students

 [>> suggest a book] [start a book]

Miscellaneous Books

 [>> suggest a book] [start a book]

Related Books

Speach.jpg Stuttering, part of the series on Speech-Language Pathology, is an excellent guide for both the stutterer and the therapist.

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Contents

—In Bible and Talmud:

The ancient Hebrew regarded health and disease as emanating from the same divine source. "I kill, and I make alive; I wound, and I heal" (Deut. xxxii. 39), said the Lord through His servant Moses; and therefore they who minister to the health of their fellows are regarded as the messengers of God, as the executors of His will. Although Yhwh is the physician of Israel (Ex. xv. 26), yet the practise of medicine is sanctioned by the Law: "If men strive together, and one smite another . . . and . . . he keepeth his bed . . . he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall cause him to be thoroughly healed" (ib. xxi. 18-19). Joseph employed house physicians (Gen. 1. 2); and Isaiah mentions especially a surgeon or wound-dresser (Isa. iii. 7). Among the Jews, unlike other primitive nations, the priests did not monopolize the art and science of healing. Moses assigned to them only the task of police supervision in cases of contagious diseases. The Bible does not mention a single instance of a priest having performed the functions of a physician. The Prophets, however, practised occasionally the art of healing. Elijah brought to life a child apparently dead (I Kings xvii. 17-22); and his disciple Elisha performed a similar miraculous cure (II Kings iv. 18-20, 34-35). A man of God restored the paralyzed hand of King Jeroboam (I Kings xiii. 4-6). Isaiah cured King Hezekiah of an inflammation by applying a plaster made of figs (II Kings xx. 7).
At a later period physicians were held in high esteem by the people, as may be gathered from Ben Sira: "Honor a physician with the honor due unto him for the uses which ye may have of him, for the Lord hath created him. . . . The Lord has created medicines out of the earth; and he that is wise will not abhor them. . . . And He has given men skill that He might be honored in His marvelous works. . . . My son, in thy sickness be not negligent; . . . give place to the physician; . . . let him not go from thee, for thou hast need of him" (Ecclus. [Sirach] xxxviii. 1-12). Afterward the status of the medical profession became still more exalted. The court of justice ("bet din") employed in certain cases the services of a physician ("rofe"), whose expert testimony was decisive in criminal matters. In cases of assault, for instance, it was his duty to give his opinion ("umdena") as to the danger to the life of the assaulted (Sanh. 78a; Giṭ. 12b). Corporal punishment was inflicted under the supervision of a physician (Mak. 22b). No physician was permitted to practise without a license from the local judicial council (B. B. 21a; Mak. 20b). Every city was required to have at least one physician; and to live in a city that had none was considered hazardous (Sanh. 17b).

Sources of Medical Knowledge.

The medical knowledge of the Talmudists was based upon tradition, the dissection of human bodies, observation of diseases, and experiments upon animals ("'issuḳ be-debarim"; Ḥul. 57b). When making their rounds physicians used to take their apprentices with them (Deut. R. x.). In the majority of cases the art of healing was transmitted from father to son (Yer. R. H. i. 3, 57b). The numerous medical aphorisms preserved in the Talmudim and Midrashim, and the fact that physicians took part in the discussion of many important religious questions by the Rabbis, indicate that the latter were not unacquainted with the science of medicine (Naz. 52a; Nid. 22b). That the demand upon the skill of physicians was considerable may be adduced from the statute law prohibiting the part owner of a house from renting his part toa physician on account of the noise and disturbance caused by the visiting patients (B. B. 21a). Physicians received for their services comparatively large fees. A current saying was: "A physician who takes nothing is worth nothing" (B. Ḳ. 85a).
What was the sum total of medical knowledge possessed by the ancient Hebrews can not be stated definitely, for the reason that neither the Bible nor the Talmud contains medical treatises as such. The Mishnah mentions a medical book, "Sefer Refu'ot," which was attributed to King Solomon and expurgated by King Hezekiah (Pes. iv. 9), and the Talmud cites a treatise on pharmacology, "Megillat Sammanin" (Yoma 38a); but neither of these has been preserved. Medicine was an integral part of the religion of the Jews; and medical subjects are treated of or alluded to only in so far as they concern or elucidate some point of law.

Anatomy.

There are in the Bible but few direct references to the internal organs. Biblical poetry, however, abounds with expressions in which the names of such organs are used metaphorically, e.g.: "His archers compass me round about, he cleaveth my reins asunder, and doth not spare; he poureth out my gall upon the ground" (Job xvi. 13); "His vessels are full of healthy fluid, and the marrow of his bones is well moistened" (ib. xxi. 24, Hebr.); "I am weary; . . . my throat is dried" (Ps. lxix.). See Anatomy.

Osteology.

The laws concerning clean ("ṭohorah") and unclean ("ṭum'ah") afford means for ascertaining in part the familiarity of the ancient Hebrews with certain branches of anatomy. According to the Mosaic law (Num. xix. 14), any one who comes in contact with a dead body or any part thereof, or who remains in a tent wherein a corpse is found, is considered infected ("unclean") for seven days. The Mishnah teaches that this tent-infection ("ṭum'at ohel") takes place in the presence either of a complete corpse, or of an anatomical unit or member ("eber"), i.e., a bone covered with its soft parts. A bone stripped of its soft parts does not infect. .Should, however, a collection of such bones, by either their bulk or number, represent more than half of the skeleton ("sheled"), their infecting power is equal to that of a complete corpse (Oh.^ A five times more potent inhibitor of endothelial cell NOS than other arginine analogs such as L-NAME and L-NMMA. Inhibits NO production in endothelial cytosol.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

^ More potent than either GABA or muscimol as an agonist at low affinity GABA A receptors.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

i. et seq.). This law made it imperative that the number of bones in the human body should be ascertained. Oh. i.-viii. gives the number as 248; and the following bones are recognized and named: hand ("pissat ha-yad") 30; forearm ("ḳaneh") 2; elbowjoint ("marpeḳ") 2; arm 1; shoulder-joint ("kataf"), including shoulder-blade ("kanaf"), 4; foot ("pissat ha-regel") 30; ankle-joint ("ḳarsol") 10; leg 2; knee-joint ("'arḳub"), including knee-cap ("piḳah") 5; thigh 1; hip-joint ("ḳoṭlit"), including head of femur ("buḳa de-iṭma") and innominate bone ("ḳeliboset"), 3; spinal column ("shedrah") made up of vertebræ ("ḥulyot") 18; ribs 11; breast-bone ("mafteaḥ shelleb") 6; sacrum and coccyx ("'uḳaẓ") 6; and head 9, in which were recognized the vertex ("ḳederah"), two condyloid processes, the foramen magnum, the fontanels, maxillary bone, maxillary arch ("gabbot ha-zaḳan"), and the nasal bone ("'eẓem ha-ḥoṭam"). This enumeration gave rise to numerous disputes as to the number of bones constituting a normal skeleton. The disciples of R. Ishmael, in order to settle this question, obtained the body of a young harlot who had been put to death, and, having subjected it to prolonged boiling ("shelikah"), counted the bones and found the number of them to be 252 (Bek. 45a). Neither of the numbers given agrees with modern anatomical knowledge. The explanation of the discrepancy is to be found in the youthful age of the subject used, many of the bones not having become completely ossified; also the prolonged boiling caused them to be separated into their original component parts, so that the Talmudists counted the epiphysis and diaphysis as separate bones. As an expert osteologist is mentioned Theodos, a well-known physician (Naz. 52a).

Myology.

The Bible speaks of muscles under the general term "flesh" ("basar"). The abdominal muscles are mentioned in Job xl. 16. The psoas muscle is mentioned in the Talmud (Ḥul. 93a); and Rab Ḥisdai made the remarkable observation that the psoas in all clean animals, i.e., those that chew the cud and whose hoofs are cleft, has two accessory muscles whose respective fibers run longitudinally and transversely (ib. 59a). Tendons are frequently mentioned under the term "giddim."
The salivary glands or "fountains" (Niddah 55b) are situated in the cavity of the mouth (Ab. R. N. xxxi.) and under the tongue (Lev. R. xvi.). The capacity of the pharynx ("bet ha-beli'ah") was found by experiment to be larger than it seems. A hen's egg can easily be swallowed whole (Yoma 80a). The esophagus ("wesheṭ") and larynx ("ḳaneh") have their respective origins in the pharynx. The structure of the esophagus is composed of two layers ("orot")—an outer, muscular one and an inner, serous one (Ḥul. 43a). The inner layer has longitudinal folds throughout its length, except at the upper part, which is called "tarbeẓ ha-wesheṭ" (ib. 43b). The lower portion of the inner layer is supplied with hair-like projections (ib. 44a).
The larynx ("ḳaneh," "gargeret") is composed of a large ring of cricoid cartilage ("ṭabba'at gedolah"), thyroid cartilage ("koba'," "piḳah shel-gargeret"), and the epiglottis ("shippuy koba'"; Ḥul. 18b). The trachea is composed of incomplete cartilaginous rings ("ḥulyot"), and membranous ones ("bene ḥulyah").
The alimentary canal of ruminating animals is thus described:
"The food passes from the mouth into the pharynx, thence into the esophagus ["isṭomka"], thence into the reticulum ["bet ha-kosot"], thence into the psalterium ["ha-masas" or "hemses"], thence into the abomasum ["karsa"], thence into the duodenum ["resh mayah"], thence into the small intestines ["kerukah ḳaṭṭinah"], thence into the blind gut ["sanya debe"], thence into the large intestines ["kerukit 'ubya"], thence into the rectum ["peṭaroka"], whence it makes its exit through the sphincter ani ["iskutha"]" (Lev. R. iii.).
According to R. Samuel, there are no hair-like projections ("milot") below the pylorus ("meẓar"). The gastro-intestinal tract throughout its lengthis covered externally with the peritoneum ("ḳerum niḳlaf") except the posterior surface of the lower portion of the rectum ("ḥilḥolet"; Ḥul. 49b). The peritoneum forms the greater omentum ("peder"), which is attached to the greater curvature or "bow" ("Ḳashta") of the stomach (ib. 50a) and the beginning of the small intestines (ib. 93a).
The liver is attached to the diaphragm ("ṭarpesha") by a fold of the peritoneum (ib. 46a). It is united also with the gall-bladder ("marah") by means of a narrow tube ("simpona"; ib. 48b). The pancreas is considered an accessory organ of the liver, and is called the "finger of the liver" ("eẓba' ha-kabed"). Its relations to the abdominal organs are described correctly (Tamid 31a). .The anterior abdominal wall is divided into an inner, peritoneal layer ("keres penimit") and an outer, muscular one ("keres ḥiẓonah").^ Litherland J, Gibson M, Sambrook P, Lupton E, Beaman M, Ackrill P. Investigation and treatment of poor drains of dialysate fluid associated with anterior abdominal wall leaks in patients on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The spleen and kidneys are frequently mentioned in Talmud and Midrash, but no description is given (see below).

The Lungs and Heart.

The lungs are composed of two "rows" ("'arugot"), right and left, divided vertically, by a septum ("ṭarpesh ha-leb") which rises from the pericardium ("kis ha-leb") and is attached to the spinal column. The large bronchi ("bet ha-simponot") enter respectively the inner side of each row (ib. 50a). Alongside of the bronchi enter also the large blood-vessels ("mizraḳim"; ib. 93b). The number of lobes in each lung is given correctly (ib. 47a). The pleura is composed of two layers, an outer, rough one ("ḳerama 'illaya") and an inner, rose-colored one ("ḳerama tatta'a," "kittuna de-warda"; ib. 46a). The heart is composed of two ventricles ("ḥalal"), the right being larger than the left (ib. 45b). It is situated to the left of the median line (Men. 37b). Rab expressed a radical view for his time, namely, that the aorta ("ḳaneh shel-leb") contains blood, not air (Ḥul. 45b). The large veins are called "weridim"; the small ones, "ḥuṭe dam."
The brain is not mentioned in the Bible. According to the Talmudists, it has two coats, an outer (the dura mater) and an inner coat (the pia mater), the one being hard ("ḳashshish"), the other thin ("daḳḳiḳ"). The spinal cord begins outside of the condyloid processes (Ḥul. 45a). The Zohar gives a somewhat more detailed description: "The skull contains three cavities in which the brain is lodged. From the brain issue thirty-two paths. These paths spread over the body connecting it with the brain" (Zohar on Lev. xxvi.).

The Generative Organs.

From the laws relating to circumcision, flux, menstruation, etc., which are discussed at length in the Bible and especially in the Talmud, may be gathered some idea of the knowledge which the ancient Jews possessed concerning the anatomy of the generative organs. Of the male genitals the anatomical parts are mentioned as follows: The scrotum ("kis")is divided by a septum into two sacculi (Bek. 40a); the testes ("beẓim," "ashakim") have two coats (Ḥul. 45a); each testicle has an appendix, the epididymis ("ḥuṭe beẓah"; Yeb. 75a); it is supplied with blood-vessels ("gide paḥad"; Ḥul. 93a) and nerves (ib. 45b), and it contains a viscid fluid (Yeb. 75a). It was held that the spermatic fluid and the urine had each a separate canal for their exit (Bek. 44b).
Besides the uterus only the visible parts of the female generative organs ("reḥem"), there being many synonyms, are mentioned in the Bible. The Talmud mentions the following: Mons veneris (Hebr. "kaf tappuaḥ"; Yer. Yeb. 1-2); vulva ("'erwah"); rima pudendorum ("bet ha-setarim"; Niddah 66b); vestibulum vaginœ ("bet ḥiẓon"; ib. 41b); orificium urethrœ ("lul"; ib. 17b); hymen ("betulim"); ostium vaginœ ("bet shinnayim"; ib. 46b); vagina ("bet toref," "bet ha-reḥem"; Shab. 64a); septum vesico-vaginalis ("gag prosdor"; Niddah 18a); septum vagina-rectalis ("karka prosdor"; ib.); uterus ("reḥem"; ib.); canalis cervicis uteri ("maḳor; ib. 41a); cavum uteri ("ḥeder" [ib. 17b]; "bet herayon" ['Ar. 7a]).

Embryology.

According to the Mosaic law (Lev. xii. 2-5), a woman after giving birth to a male child remained unclean for seven days thereafter; in the case of a female child, fourteen days. Then followed a period of purification—for a male thirty days, and for a female sixty-six days. According to the Mishnah, miscarriages fell under the same law, provided, however, the fetus ("shefir") was completely formed ("meruḳḳam") and its features were well differentiated ("mi-ẓorat adam"). Monstrosities and all fetuses not viable were exempt from the above-named law (Niddah iii.). This interpretation of the Biblical law served as an impetus to the Talmudists for the diligent study of embryology.
The esteem in which were held those who occupied themselves with this study is shown in the legend that King David devoted a great deal of his time to these investigations (Ber. 4a). R. Samuel, it is said, was able to tell the exact age of a fetus (Niddah 25b). The fetus, it was held, is completely formed at the end of the sixth week. Aba Saul, a grave-digger by occupation, but also an embryologist, describes an embryo at the end of the sixth week as follows: "Size, that of the locust; eyes are like two specks at some distance from each other, so are the nostrils; feet like two silken cords; mouth like a hair. . . . The soles are not well defined." He adds that the embryo should not be examined in water, but in oil, and only by sunlight (Niddah 25b). R. Samuel (l.c.) contended that it was impossible to differentiate the sex before the end of the fourth month, which, by the way, is the opinion of modern embryologists. At certain autopsies it was found that the male embryos were completely formed at the end of the forty-first day, and the female embryos at the end of the eighty-first day. The Rabbis contended that the autopsies had not been free from error (Niddah 30b). The soft parts are formed first, then the bones (Gen. R. xiv.). Monstrosities like cyclopia, monopsia, double back with double spinal column, and artresia œsophagi ("wesheṭ aṭum"), etc., are mentioned (Niddah 23b, 24a, b).

Physiology.

The Bible identifies the blood with the soul (Gen. ix. 4). The Talmudists regard blood as the essential principle of life (Ḥul. 125a). The relation between strength and the development of muscles is mentioned in the Bible (Job xl. 16). The Talmudists noted the fact that the muscles change their formwhen in motion (Ḥul. 93a). Respiration is compared to burning. Expired air can not sustain life (Sanh. 77a). The life of all the organs of the body depends upon the heart (Yer. Ter. viii. 4). Each gland secretes a fluid peculiar to itself, although all the glands derive their material from the same source (Num. R. xv.). The difference in the structure of the teeth in herbivorous and carnivorous animals is noted (Ḥul. 59). Saliva, besides moistening the tongue, adds to the palatability of food (Num. R. xv.). The stomach performs a purely mechanical function, that of churning the food; it is compared to a mill. Digestion proper ("ikkul") is carried on in the intestines. The time occupied in digestion is not the same in all individuals. The end of the digestive period is made manifest by the return of a desire for food (Bek. 52b). Eating when the bowels are full is likened to the making of a fire in a stove from which the ashes have not been removed (ib. 55a). Normal defecation hastens digestion. Birds digest their food rapidly (Shab. 82a); dogs, slowly (Oh. xi. 7). The reasoning faculties are lodged in the brain (Yeb. 9a). The movements of the body depend upon the integrity of the spinal cord (Ḥul. 58). Rabbi Isaac holds that the liver elaborates blood (Shab. 82a).
There are numerous references to the influence of climate, customs, trade, etc., upon the development of the organism as a whole, and upon certain groups of muscles (Ab. R. N. xxxi.; Yeb. 103a; M. Ḳ. 25b).
The phenomena preceding the period of menstruation are described in detail (Niddah xi. 8). .The menstrual fluid is considered by Rabbi Meïr as an extra nutritive material which is discharged periodically when of no use, but which is converted into milk during the period of lactation (ib.).^ Intracellularly converted into L-cysteine, the rate-limiting precursor of glutathione and thus can be used to increase glutathione levels.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Absence of menstruation indicates sterility. Fear and cold may arrest the flow (ib. 66).

Pathology.

.That medicine was an integral part of the religion of Israel is made more evident from the pathological studies of the Rabbis than from any other branch of medical science.^ Chazot C, Chazot I, Charra B, Terrat JC, Vanel T, Calemard E, Ruffet M, Laurent G. Functional study of hands among patients dialysed for more than 10 years.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

It is indeed remarkable that the Rabbis seem to have been the first to recognize practically what is at present the prevailing theory, namely, that the symptoms of all diseases are merely outward manifestations of internal changes in the tissues—a theory never advanced by their contemporaries, e.g., Hippocrates and his disciples, and only vaguely hinted at by Galen ("De Locis Affectis," i., ch. ii.). Their pathological studies were a direct outgrowth of the law concerning the "flesh that is torn of beasts in the field," which becomes unfit ("ṭerefah") for food (Ex. xxii. 30 [A. V. 31]). Certain rules concerning this infection are enjoined upon those who come in contact with the flesh of an animal that "dieth of itself or is torn with beasts" (Lev. xxii. 8). The Talmudists went a step further, and declared that the word "unfit" included the flesh of animals afflicted with any disease which would have sooner or later caused the death of the animal (Ḥul. iii. 1).
In order, therefore, to determine the condition of the internal organs, each slaughtered animal was subjected to an autopsy; this is the practise even to-day. The pathological changes of the lungs have been most diligently studied as to color, consistency, cavities, and vegetable growths. Redness of the lungs indicates hyperemia (Ḥul. 47b), a condition which is not fatal (ib. 46b); blue and light-green discoloration is not considered dangerous (ib. 47b); black indicates that the object has begun to disintegrate ("laḳah"); and the part of the lungs thus affected can not return to its normal state. Bright yellow ("yaroḳ") is considered the color indicative of the most fatal condition. If, on inflating the lungs, it is found that air does not enter into a certain part of them ("oṭem bere'ah"), it is then important to find out whether the obstruction is caused by pus or mucus ("mugla") in the bronchi, which might have been expelled by coughing, or is due to thickening of the tissues. In the latter case the animal is unfit for food. Caseous degeneration ("re'ah she-yabeshah"), "in which there is no blood and it crumbles under the nail," makes the flesh of the animal unfit for food. Softening of the lung ("re'ah she-nitmasmesah") is fatal. .In the case of an animal with collapsed lungs ("re'ah she-ẓameḳah") the following rule is given by the Talmud: if after they have been immersed in water they can be inflated with air, the flesh of the animal is fit for food; if they can not be so inflated it is unfit.^ SLex reduces injury following ischemia and reperfusion and immune complex-induced acute lung injury in animal models.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

A pitcher-shaped cavity in the lung ("re'ah she-nishpekah ke-ḳiton"), filled with fluid, renders the animal unfit for food. An empty cavity ("re'ah shenimmoḳah") is not dangerous to life (ib.). The Rabbis speak of vegetable growths ("ẓemaḥim") on the lungs in connection with adhesions of the lung to the thorax ("dofen"); and they describe several forms, all of which are not considered dangerous.
Perforation of the outer coat of the brain is not fatal; but the slightest perforation of the inner coat is. .Rabbi Jacob held that an injury of the spinal cord is fatal; the editor of the Mishnah said that it is fatal only when the injury extends to more than one-half of its transverse diameter (Ḥul.^ A citation may appear in more than one category.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

iii. 1). A sheep that dragged its hind legs was diagnosed by Rabbi Yemar as suffering from ischiagra, ("shigrona"); but Rabina contended that it was a paralysis due to the solution of continuity of the spinal cord. The sheep was killed, and the diagnosis of Rabina was corroborated (Ḥul. 51a). This is the only case on record in ancient literature where a diagnosis was made during life and was verified at a post-mortem examination. .Rabbi Levi saw one who suffered from tremor of the head, and he remarked that the man was suffering from softening of the spinal cord.^ As one of a few rare rubber molding companies who can do molding of friction corded materials, we are also capable of rubber injection molding, compression molding, and transfer molding.
  • Rubber Molding Information and Resources 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.rubbermolding.org [Source type: Reference]

Abaya said that such cases were not fatal, but the patients lost their reproductive functions (ib.).
Perforation of the heart is considered fatal. No other pathological changes of the heart are mentioned. .A transverse division of the trachea is not considered fatal, provided it is less than one-half of its circumference.^ Xanthone structurally related to the aflatoxins and while available data has led it to be considered mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic, it is less widespread and potent than the aflatoxins.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Longitudinal wounds in the trachea heal quickly (ib. 45a, 54a, and 57b). Loss of substance is not considered fatal (ib. 18b). Perforation of the esophagus is fatal, since the food may escape into the mediastinum (ib. 45b). Volvulus is considered fatal (ib. 56b). Perforation of the stomach or of the intestines is fatal. Extirpation of the spleen in animals and in man is not consideredfatal (Ḥul. 2). Rupture or wounding of the spleen is considered fatal. Ablation of the uterus is mentioned and is not considered fatal (Bek. vi. 4). Atrophy and abscess of the kidney are fatal (Ḥul. 55a, b). Accumulation of transparent fluid in the kidney is not fatal (ib. 53b).
The pathological changes in the liver mentioned in the Talmud are: that in which the organ becomes dry and bloodless and "crumbles under the nails"; abscess; and stone-like hardening. Extirpation of the liver is not considered fatal if there is left intact the part which surrounds the biliary duct and "that place from which the liver receives its vitality." Absence of one testicle is mentioned, and the subject is considered sterile (Bek. vi. 6). Hypertrophy and atrophy of the testicles (ib. 40b), scrotal hernia ("ruaḥ ba-ashakim"), and elephantiasis scroti (the sufferer being called "me'ushkan"; ib.) are also mentioned. Various forms of hypospadias and epispadias are described (Niddah 13a; Yeb. 76a). The Mishnah enumerates 140 pathological conditions which in the eyes of the Law make a man a "cripple" ("mum") and therefore unfit to perform any religious service in the Temple. Fifteen of these describe various osteologic deformities of the head, spine, and extremities (Bek. vii.). The rare cases of individuals having a tendency to hemorrhage are related, and the fact that this affection is hereditary is noted (Yeb. 64b).

Surgery.

Wounds in different parts of the body, caused by different weapons—sword, arrow, hammer, etc.—are mentioned in the Bible (II Sam. ii. 23, iii. 27, iv. 6, xviii. 14, xx. 10; Num. xxv. 8; Judges iii. 21, v. 24; I Kings xxii. 34; II Chron. xxxv. 23; and often elsewhere). Inflammation and abscesses (Deut. xxviii. 27, 35), gangrene and putrid discharges (Ps. xxxviii. 6; Prov. xii. 4, xiv. 30; II Macc. ix. 9) are also referred to. Wounds were treated by the application of wine or oil, bandages or sutures (Isa. i. 5; Jer. viii. 22, xlvi. 11, li. 8; Deut. xxviii. 27). The surgical operations mentioned in the Bible are those of Circumcision and castration, the latter being prohibited (Deut. xxiii. 1).

Operations.

During the Talmudical period surgery attained a high degree of development. Many physicians devoted themselves exclusively to it. Surgeons ("ummanim"; Sanh. 91b), when operating, used to wear a tunic over their dress (Kelim xxvi. 5). They used various surgical instruments (ib. xiii. 2). In major operations the patients were given an anesthetic or a sleeping-potion ("samme de-shinta"; B. M. 83b). Venesection was extensively used upon the healthy and the sick alike. Mar Samuel Yarḥinai went so far as to recommend its use once in thirty days (Shab. 129b). After the age of fifty venesection should be employed less frequently (Giṭ. 70a). It is not to be performed during inclement weather; and a careful dietetic régime should be followed for some time after the operation (Shab. 129a). Bleeding by means of leeches ("'aluḳah," "nime shel mayim"; 'Ab. Zarah 12b) and by means of cupping (the cup being called "ḳarna de-ummana"; Shab. cliv. 2) is frequently mentioned. Dislocation of various joints ('Ab. Zarah 29), fractures, amputations (Ker. 66a; Sem. 28; Shab. 66a), and trephining (Ket. 77b) are discussed in the Talmud. Artificial teeth, made of hard wood, gold, or silver, were used (Shab. 65a; Ned. 66b). Extirpation of the spleen was successfully performed upon man ('Ab. Zarah 44a). The following forms of castration are mentioned: Amputatio membri; extirpatio testiculorum (Deut. xxiii. 2 [A. V. 1]); subcutaneous stretching or cutting of the cord (Lev. xxii. 24; Bek. 39b); and obliteration of the testicle by means of gradual pressure. Intubation of the larynx was practised upon animals (the tube was called "ḳerumit shel ḳaneh"); and a plate ("ḥidduḳ shel ḳarweyah") was used in a case of loss of substance of the cranium. A uterine speculum was used (Niddah 66).
The practise was adopted of freshening up the borders of old wounds in order that union might be effected (Ḥul. 77). The operation for imperforate anus in the new-born is described (Shab. 134b). Wounds exposed to air do not heal as readily as protected ones (Ḥul. 46). In an accident in which the abdominal viscera were protruding through a wound the reposition of the organs was effected automatically by frightening the patient, which caused the abdominal muscles to relax; after this the external wound was closed by sutures (Shab. 82a). Nasal polyps are said to cause fetor ex ore (Ket. 77). Crutches and various other orthopedic appliances are mentioned (Shab. 65a). Intestinal parasites and hydatids are frequently mentioned (Ḥul. 48a). Extraction of the fetus through an incision made in the abdomen was an operation known to the Talmudists (Niddah 40b). See Baths, Bathing; Circumcision; Midwife; Miracles; Health Laws.
Bibliography: J. Bergel, Die Medizin der Talmudisten, Leipsic and Berlin, 1885; W. C. Bitting, Biblical Medicine, in Tr. New York Medical Society, 1891, viii. 367; F. Boerner and S. A. Wagner, De Statu Medicinæ apud Veteros Ebrœos, Wittenberg, 1775; Brecher, Der Aderlass im Talmud, in Prager Medizinische Wochenschrift, 1896, pp. .228, 257; D. Carcassonne, Essai Historique sur la Médecine des Hébreux Anciens et Modernes, Montpellier, 1811; C. L. Craft, Decas Theorematum ad Diœtologam Biblicam Spectatitium, Copenhagen, 1736; S. Csernowsky, De Medicinœ apud Ebrœos et Ægyptos Conditione, Halle and Magdeburg, 1742; D. de Pomis, De Medico Hebreo, Venice, 1588; W. Ebstein, Die Medizin im Alten Testament, Stuttgart, 1901; C. E. Eschenbach, Scripta Medico-Biblica, Rostock, 1779; M. Fensdorf, Ueber die Medizin der Alten Hebräer, Bamberg, 1837; J. B. Friedrich, Zur Bibel: Naturhistorische, Anthropologische, und Medicinische Fragmente, Nuremberg, 1848; J. Jeoffroy, Les Sciences Médicales chez Hébreux, xxx.^ Maiorca R, Vonesh EF, Cavalli P, De Vecchi A, Giangrande A, La Greca G, Scarpioni LL, Bragantini L, Cancarini GC, Cantaluppi A, et al.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

697, 757, 769, Paris, 1880; Grünbaum, Medycyna w Talmudzie. Pan. Towarz. Lek. lxxx. 192, Warsaw, 1884; B. W. Gintzburger, Disputatio Inauguralis qua Medicinam ex Talmudicis Illustratam, Göttingen, 1743; Joachim Halpern (of Wilna), Beiträge zur Gesch. der Talmudischen Chirurgie, Breslau, 1869; J. M. B. Harden, Notes on the Medicine of Moses, in Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, iii. 257, Augusta, 1847; F. Hoffmann, De Diœtetica Sacrœ Scripturœ Medicina, in his Opuscula Theol. Phys.-Med. Halle, 1740; J. Hyrtl, Das Arabische und Hebräische in der Anatomie, Vienna, 1879; A. H. Israels, Beiträge zur Talmudischen Medizin, in Janus, ii. 330, 352, Breslau, 1847; idem, De Keizersnede by Levenden, Volgens den Babylonischen Talmud, Amsterdam, 1882; L. Kazenelson, Anatomiya, Normalnaya i Patologicheskaya v Drevneyevreiskoi Pismennosti, St. Petersburg, 1889; S. W. H. Kemper, Biblical Medicine, in Indiana Journal of Medicine, 1872-73, iii. 1, 47, 335; M. Levin, Analecta Historica ad Medicinam Ebrœorum, Halle, 1798; S. Lizelius, De Poetis Medicis, Sacrœ Scripturœ Interpretidus, Commentatis, Speyer, 1743; P. J. Müller, Biblical Medicine, Strasburg, 1785; J. H. Nebel, Physiologiœ-Biblicœ, Selecta Quadem Capita Breviter ac Strictim Illustrata, Giessen, 1711; O. N. Nicolaus, Meletema de Servis Josephi Medicis ad Gen. l. 1, 2, Magdeburg, 1752; Oppler, Einiges aus der Altjüdischen Medicin, in Deutsche Archiv für Medicinische Gesch. iv. 62, Leipsic, 1881; G. L. Pasnoligo,Della Condizione della Medica Scienza Presso il Popolo Ebreo, n.d.; M. Pholis, De Questione an Esau Fuerit Monstrum, Wittenberg, 1669; I. M. Rabbinowicz, La Médecine du Talmud, Paris, 1880; Rittman, Die Talmudische Medizin im Mittelalter, in Allg. Wiener Medicinische Zeitung, 1868, xiii. 123; P. Schagen, Specimen Anatomiœ Biblicœ, Utrecht, 1750; J. D. Schleunitz, Philologemata Medica, sive ad Medicinam et Res Medicas Pertinentia ex Ebrea et Huic Adfinibus Orientalibus Linguis Decerpta, Halle and Magdeburg, 1758; J. J. Schmidt, Biblischer Medicus, Züllichau, 1743; J. H. Slevogtius, Biblical Medicine, Jena, 1699; C. D. Spivak, Menstruation: A Summary of the Theories of the Aucients with Special Reference to the View Held by the Talmudists, in Medical Times, Feb. 14, 1891; M. Steinschneider, Schriften über Medicin in Bibel und Talmud und über Jüdische Aerzte, in Wiener Klinische Rundschau, 1896; J. H. Walker, On the State of Medical Art Among the Jews as Recorded in the Bible, in Midland Medical and Surgical Reporter, ii. 163, 243, Worcester, 1830-1831; R. J. Wunderbar, Biblisch-Talmudische Medizin, 1857; Bumm, Spuren der Griechischen Psychiatrie im Talmud, 1901; Bennett, Diseases of the Bible, 1887; Burrell, The Insane Kings of the Bible, in Am. Jour. of Insanity, 1893, iv. 493; Bombaugh, The Plagues and Pestilences of the Old Testament, in Johns Hopkins Medical Bulletin, 1893, iv. 64; Carnault, La Tuberculose Bovine et le Talmud, in Revue Scientifique, 4th series, vol. xvii., Nos. 3, 75; Kotelman, Die Geburtshilfe bei den Alten Hebräern, Marburg, 1876; Ebstein, Die Medizin im Neuen Testament und im Talmud, Stuttgart, 1903; Ellis, Biblical Obstetrics, in The Lancet, i. 874, London, 1875; Preuss, Der Arzt in Bibel und Talmud, in Virchow's Archiv, vol. cxxxviii. 261; idem, Materialien zur Geschichte der Alten Medizin: die Organe der Bauchhöhle nach Bibel und Talmud, in Allgemeine Medizinische Central-Zeitschrift, 1898, pp. 489, 502, 514, 526; idem, Die Erkrankungen der Haut, ib. 1903, pp. 431, 455, 474; idem, Der Tote und Seine Bestattung, ib. 1901, Nos. 25, 26, 27; idem, Die Männliche Genitalien und Ihre Krankheiten nach Bibel und Talmud, in Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 1898, pp. 570, 618, 662, 709, 1194, 1239; idem, Biblisch-Talmudische Pathologie und Therapie, in Zeit. für. Medizin, xlv. 457; idem, Chirurgisches in Bibel und Talmud, in Deutsche Zeit. für Chirurgie, lix. 507; Ravitzki, Ueber die Lehre der Superfœtatio und der Entstehungs-Ursache die Fœtus Compressus im Talmud, in Janus, vi. 410, 461, 512; Rosenbaum, Une Conference Contradictoire, Religieuse et Scientifique sur l'Anatomie et Physiologie des Organes Genitaux de la Femme à l'Ecole de Rami Fils de Samuel et de Rabbi Yitshac Fils de Rabbi Yehoudou, à la Fin du Deuxième Siècle, Paris, 1901; Schapiro, Obstetrique des Anciens Hébreux d'Après la Bible et le Talmud, Comparée avec la Tocologie Gréco-Romain, in La France Médicale, 1904; idem, Connaissance Medical de Mar Samuel, in R. E. J. Paris, lxii., No. 83, p. 14; Pyasetski, Medizina po Biblii i Talmudu, St. Petersburg, 1903.

—In Post-Talmudic Times:

During the fifth and sixth centuries of the common era the sciences languished in the Orient owing in part to disturbed political conditions, to superstitions, and to the attention which was being paid to pseudo-sciences. The persecutions of the Jews under Honorius (in 404 and 419), Theodosius the Great (493), and Kobad in Persia (520) resulted in the promulgation of laws forbidding Jews to hold any office, to follow any handicraft or liberal art, or to practise medicine.
With the spread of Mohammedanism in the seventh century a great revival of the sciences took place in Asia Minor. The califs opened colleges which included medical schools at Bagdad, Kufah, and Bassora, and these were well equipped and were furnished with the best of teachers. Among both the teachers and the students were to be found many who bore Jewish names. Science then was free to all; but in 853 a law was promulgated in Bagdad which prohibited the Jews from teaching or studying medicine in any language other than Hebrew or Syriac. The Mohammedans, being able to fill all positions themselves, were no longer in need of the help of the Jews. The earliest Jewish physicians mentioned during the golden age under the Arabs were: Abu Ḥafṣah Yazid (c. 643), physician to the calif Omar, Mohammed's successor; Masarjawaih (Messer Jawait) in Bassora about 883, physician to the calif Mu'awiyyah I., whom he induced to procure translations of works written in foreign languages, and who himself translated from the Syriac into Arabic the pandects of Aaron the Archdeacon, upon medicinal plants and foods; Isḥaḳ ben Amram (d. 799; not to be confounded with the Kairwan physician of the same name), who wrote a treatise on poison; Sahl, called "Rabban al-Ṭabari," who lived about 800 at Taberistan on the Caspian Sea, was an eminent physician and mathematician, and translated into Arabic the "Almagest" of the Greek astronomer Ptolemy; his son Ali ibn Sahl ibn Rabban al-Tabari (Abu al-Ḥasan), who lived at Irak about 850, became a convert to Mohammedanism, and was court physician to the califs Al-Mu'taṣim and Al-Mutawakkil.

Bagdad.

Harun al-Rashid (786-809) was the founder of the university at Bagdad, the most flourishing institution of its time, possessing hospitals, a medical school, and holding medical examinations. The professors included Joshua ben Nun (c. 800), a physician of high repute and translator, one of whose pupils was Yusuf Ya'ḳub ibn Isḥaḳ (c. 850); much later Hibat Allah Abu al-Barakat b. 'Ali b. Malka, who lived about 1150 and who pursued his studies under the greatest difficulties on account of the laws prohibiting Jews from studying medicine (later he became a convert to Mohammedanism); Ibn Zakariyya (died at Aleppo 1190); Sa'ad al-Daulah, court physician to the Mongolian khan Arghun (1284-91) when in Bagdad (killed in 1291 for not curing his lord). The calif Ma'mun, Harun al-Rashid's son (813-833), established the universities of Bassora and Samarcand.

Egypt and Northern Africa.

After the beginning of the fourteenth century the center of Mohammedan learning moved westward, and no more Jewish physicians are met with in 'Iraḳ after that date. The sciences followed the conquering armies of the Arabs from Asia Minor through Egypt and the Mediterranean countries of Africa to Spain and southern France, to Sicily, and thence to Italy. Alexandria, Cairo, and Kairwan became the seats of colleges with medical schools. At Kairwan about 793 lived the Jewish physician Shammakh, who poisoned the imam Idris by order of Harun al-Rashid; at Algiers, about 900, Isḥaḳ ibn 'Imran, court physician to the emir Ziyadat Allah II., and Isḥaḳ ibn 'Imran the Younger, court physician to the last Aghlabite emir, Ziyadat Allah III. 'Imran the Younger's successor was Isaac ben Solomon Israeli (c. 832-932), who later became oculist and physician to the Fatimite calif 'Ubaid Allah al-Mahdi at Kairwan. Israeli's works written in Arabic were translated into Latin in 1087 by the monk Constantine of Carthage, who claimed them as his own. In 1515 they were reprinted in Latin in Leyden under the title "Opera Omnia Isaci Judæi," the subjects treated including fever, dietetics, urine, drugs, dropsy, therapeutics, and aliments; the last part appeared in Hebrew under the title "Sefer ha-Mis'adim." The Leyden edition contains not only Israeli's works, but also those of other physicians falsely attributed to Israeli (Steinschneider doubtsif Israeli really existed). Israeli's pupil was Dunash ibn Tamim (Abu Sahl), also court physician (c. 950), who is said to have been a convert to Islam. Jewish physicians in Egypt were: Ephraim ibn al-Za'faran (d. 1068), celebrated through his library; Abu Sa'id ibn Ḥusain (Al-Ṭabib), about 1050; Abu Manṣur (c. 1125), one of the physicians of the calif Al-Ḥafiẓ; Nathanael Israeli (the Egyptian), at Cairo (c. 1150), court physician to the last Fatimite calif of Egypt and to the great Saladin; Abu al-Barakat (c. 1150); Abu al-Faḍa'il ibn al-Naḳid (d. 1189), a celebrated oculist; Abu al-Bayyan al-Mudawwar (d. 1184), also physician to Saladin, and David ben Solomon (1161-1241), connected with the hospital Al-Naṣiri in Cairo, both Karaite physicians; the Karaite Sadid b. Abi al-Bayyan (c. 1160); Abu Ja'far Joseph Nathanael Israel (c. 1175); and Abu al-Ma'ali, brother-in-law of Maimonides, also in the service of Saladin.

Maimonides.

In 1166 Maimonides himself (1135-1205) went to Egypt and settled in Fusṭaṭ. Born at Cordova, Spain, he left his native land on account of the disfranchisement of the Jews by the Mohammedan rulers. He became court physician to the sultan Saladin. Of the descendants of Maimonides the following were physicians: his son Abraham (1185-1254), his grandson David (1212-1300), also the two sons of the latter, Abraham Maimonides II. (1246-1310) and Solomon, all of whom held the office of nagid also. In Aleppo lived a pupil of Maimonides, Yusuf al-Sabti (d. 1226); while in Fez practised another pupil of his, Abu al-Ḥayyuj Yusuf. In Cairo lived 'Imran al-Isra'ili (1165-1239); Samuel Abu Naṣr ibn 'Abbas (c. 1165); Abu al-Ḥasan (d. 1251); Jacob b. Isaac (c. 1250); the Karaite Solomon Cohen and Al-Asad al-Maḥalli (about the end of the twelfth century); Ibn Abi al-Ḥasan al-Barkamani and the pharmacologist Abu al-Muna al-Kuhin al-'Aṭṭar (c. 1325); in Egypt, the encyclopedist Abu Manṣur al-Haruni (c. 1375); at Algiers, Simon ben Ẓemaḥ Duran (1360-1444); Samuel and his son Jacob (c. 1425); the Samaritan Abu Sa'id al-'Afif (c. 1450); Solomon ben Joseph (c. 1481), nagid of Egypt, and physician to the sultan Al-Malik al-Ashraf.

Spain.

When the Arabs crossed the Straits of Gibraltar the influx of culture from Arabia into Spain was important. Here again the califs supported the universities, as those of Cordova, Seville, and Toledo, and again Jewish physicians are found, e.g.: Ḥasdai Abu Yusuf ibn Shaprut (915-970), who lived in Cordova, was appointed physician to 'Abd al-Raḥman III., and became prime minister to that calif, for whom he translated the works of Dioscorides into Arabic; Harun at Cordova (c. 975); Amram ben Isaac (d. 997) at Toledo; Jonah (Abu al-Walid Merwan ibn Janaḥ; at Cordova 995-1045). The physician Abu Bekr Mohammed ben Merwan ibn Zuhr (d. 1031 at Talabira) and his grandson, the celebrated Abu Merwan ibn Zuhr, who lived in Bagdad, Cairo, and Spain, are considered by many to have been Jews, but this has been frequently denied, and no positive proof of their Jewish descent has been presented. Abu Merwan was the most important physician of his time, opposing the Arabic physician Avicenna (980-1037), who in his "Canon" gave the "rules of medicine," superseding the works of Hippocrates and Galen, although he himself adopted the fundamental ideas of these two great physicians. Other Jewish physicians of note were: Judah ha-Levi (b. 1085); Sulaiman ibn al-Mu'allim, court physician to the calif Ali at Seville (1106-45); Abraham ibn Ezra (1092-1167) at Toledo; Maimonides, mentioned above; at Randa, Elias ibn al-Mudawwar (c. 1150); in Toledo, Jacob; in Aragon, Joseph Constantin; in Barcelona, Judah ben Isaac, Judah ben Joseph ibn al-Fakhkhar, court physician to Ferdinand III.; in Saragossa, Baḥiel ben Moses and his brother Solomon Baḥiel (c. 1225); in Madrid, Solomon ben David; in Gerona, Moses b. Naḥman (1194-1267) and Shem-Ṭob ben Isaac of Tortosa (1206-66). About 1250 lived Judah Moria; Ibrahim ben Sahl; Nathanael ben Joseph al-Maliḥ; Samuel Benveniste; Jacob ben Shoshan; Joseph ibn Sason (d. at Toledo 1336); Abner of Burgos (1270-1348), a convert to Christianity; Samuel Ibn Waḳar (d. c. 1333), physician to King Alfonso XI.; Todros Abulafia; Abraham ben David Caslari (d. 1349); Vidal Crescas de Caslar (c. 1327); Eliezer Cohen ibn Ardot; Nissim ben Reuben Gerundi (at Barcelona 1340-80); Abraham ibn Machir; Abraham ibn Zarzal (d. at Toledo 1362). Shem-Ṭob ben Jacob; Meïr Alguadez (d. about 1415); Joseph ibn Vives (Joseph al-Lorqui); Solomon ben Abraham ibn Daud; Jacob of Toledo; Todros ibn Davor; Isaac b. Solomon; Abraham of Lerida, oculist to John II. of Aragon (c. 1470); in Catalonia, Gallab (Galled).
The Arabs had lost Spain forever, and the intolerance of the Christian rulers forced many Jewish physicians to leave that country. In 1335 the synod of Salamanca had declared that the Jewish physicians offered their services only to kill as many Christians as possible (Döllinger, "Die Juden in Europa," in "Akademische Vorträge"). In 1412 John II. prohibited Jews from practising in Spain. Some immigrated into France, e.g., Judah ibn Tibbon, Joseph ben Isaac ben Ḳimḥi, Isaac ben Shem-Ṭob, Solomon ben Joseph ben Ayyub; some into Algiers, as Simon bar Ẓemaḥ Duran; and others into Italy, as Joshua ben Joseph Ibn Vives al-Lorqui (Hieronymus de Santa Fé) about 1400.

Portugal.

In Portugal lived Gedaliah ibn Yaḥya the Elder (c. 1300), physician to King Diniz; Solomon ben Moses Solomon; Moses, the physician to Ferdinand I. and John I.; Profiat Duran (c. 1400; he emigrated to Palestine); at Lisbon, Gedaliah ibn Yaḥya the Younger, physician to Alfonso V. (c. 1476; emigrated to Turkey); Joseph and Rodriquez, physicians to John II. of Portugal (1481-90), who were members of the commission appointed to examine Columbus' plans.

Italy.

At the time the Jewish Arabic physicians were practising in Egypt, they are found in Sicily also. Shabbethai ben Abraham ben Joel (Donnolo) (913-982), who wrote a small work on pharmacology, which has been republished by Steinschneider, lived in Oria. From Sicily they came to southern Italy and settled in Salerno. The ancient University of Salerno is said to have been founded by the Benedictine monks of Monte Cassino in the sixth century, the monks being priests and physicians, as therabbis of old. But it was not until the ninth century that it rose to prominence and became for the Occident what Bagdad had been for the Orient, the leading medical school. In 848 Joseph taught there, and in 855 Joshua, both Jewish physicians. In the eleventh century lectures are said to have been delivered in Greek, Arabic, Hebrew (with Elinus as teacher), and Latin. The medical school of Salerno became celebrated under the name of "Civitas Hippocratica." Elinus' successor as teacher of Hebrew was Copho, the editor of the "Compendium Salernitanum," the first medical encyclopedia. It is not known positively that both were Jews—Steinschneider thinks they were not—but tradition ascribes to them a Jewish origin, as it does to Coplio II. (who wrote a book on the "Anatomica Porci"—which certainly makes the ascription dubious, dedicating it to Robert, eldest son of William the Conqueror). He was followed by Hillel ben Samuel of Verona (1220-95), who translated into Hebrew Brunó's work on surgery, known only under the title "Chirurgia Bruni ex Latina in Hebræam Translata."
From Salerno the Jewish physicians can be traced through Italy. From this school proceeded: Hananeel of Amalfi; Abu al-Hakim of Turin; and Faraj ben Salim (Faragut), who lived in Salerno about 1250. The last-named was physician to Charles of Anjou, King of Sicily, and was one of the first physicians who translated—not into Hebrew, but into Latin. Other physicians of note were: in Rome, Nathan ha-Me'ati, a noted translator, who rendered the "Canon" of Avicenna into Hebrew in 1279; Isaac, the court physician of Pope Boniface VIII.; Zerahiah ben Isaac ben Shealtiel of Barcelona (c. 1275); several members of the Anaw family (Benjamin, Abraham, Judah, Zedekiah, Jekuthiel, Menahem Rofe [about the fourteenth century]); Manuele and Angelus Manuele, physicians to Boniface IX.; Judah ben Solomon Nathan (En Bongodos); and Moses ben Isaac (Gajo) of Rieti (1388-1460); at Naples, Samuel ben Jacob of Capua, court physician to Charles II., and Isaac, court physician to King Robert of Anjou; at Palermo, David; at Verona, Michael ben Abraham; at Padua, Gentili da Foligno (died of the plague 1348); at Venice, Leo (c. 1330), and the following members of the Astruc family: Judah Solomon, Isaac Solomon, Abraham Solomon, Jacob Rofe, and many others.
As the school of Salerno grew in importance it was able to rely on its own pupils for teachers, and could, as Bagdad had done before it, discard Jewish assistance. The connection of the Jews with its further development diminished; in later years they did not exercise a great influence on the history of medicine in Italy, and their rôle became insignificant.

France.

While the University of Salerno was flourishing, certain Jewish schools, where medicine also was taught, are said to have existed in the south of France.

Montpellier.

About the year 1000 Rabbi Abon was principal of the Jewsh school at Narbonne; and one of his pupils founded the Jewish medical school at Montpellier (c. 1025). Independent of these unimportant schools, however, were the beginnings of the great universities of France—Paris, Narbonne, and Montpellier—which soon were to compete with Salerno. In Paris, always a seat of Orthodox Christian theology, a few Jewish physicians are met with at the end of the thirteenth century: Copin and Moses, Rabbi Isaac and his son Vital. In 1301 this school was closed to the Jews. In Montpellier, where the earliest professors are said to have taught at first in Arabic and Hebrew, the use of Latin was introduced in the twelfth century only, when the fame of that university was at its zenith. .Among the teachers and pupils were: Isaac ben Abraham; his pupil Judah, whose pupil was Moses ben Naḥman; Jacob ha-Ḳaṭon, who was dean of the medical faculty; Meshullam the physician (1043-1108), a contemporary of Rashi; Samuel ibn Tibbon, the well-known translator; Jacob ben Abba Mari of Marseilles, later court physician to the German emperor Frederick II. at Naples; Judah ben Samuel ibn Tibbon (1120-1190).^ Selective activator of cGK (also known as PKG) Iα, Iβ, and type II as well as of cGMP-gated ion channels.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Moses ibn Tibbon (1230-85), and Jacob ben Machir ibn Tibbon, called Profatius Judæus, dean of the medical faculty about 1306 (this family produced three generations of eminent physicians; see Ibn Tibbon); and Abraham Abigdor (b. 1350).
.As at Bagdad and Salerno, so at Montpellier laws were promulgated against the Jews as teachers and practitioners of medicine, e.g., in the edict of Count William in 1180; of the Council of Béziers in 1246, and of Alby in 1254. In 1293 a law was enacted punishing with three months' imprisonment Christian patients who accepted treatment from Jewish physicians.^ Allegra V, Mengozzi G, Vasile A. Iron deficiency in maintenance hemodialysis patients: assessment of diagnosis criteria and of three different iron treatments.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Philip of Arlois expelled Jewish physicians altogether from Montpellier in 1306. At the school of Marseilles were Shem-Ṭob ben Isaac of Tortosa (1206-66) and his son Abraham b. Shem-Ṭob. In southern France practised also Isḥanan Yarḥuni, Nathan ben Samuel, and the oculist Abraham of Aragon at Toulouse; in Narbonne, David Caslari (c. 1275); at Avignon, Israel Caslari (c. 1325). The councils of Avignon (1326 and 1337) and that of Rouergue also declared against Jewish physicians.

Recall of the Jews to France.

In 1350 the Jews were permitted to return to France; but a law was passed whereby only graduated and licensed physicians could practise. Again some names of Jewish doctors, especially as court physicians, are to be found, e.g.: Samuel and Meshullam ben Abigdor again at Montpellier; Elias of Arles (c. 1407) at Valence; Jacob Lunel and the surgeon Dolan Bellan at Carcassonne; Nathan Tauros (c. 1446) at Tarascon; Jekuthiel. Judah ben Solomon and Moses ben Joshua (Maestre Vidal Blasom; died after 1362) at Narbonne; Crescas Salannas, Ḥayyim Bendig, Abraham Abigdor (c. 1402), Bendig of Caneto, Bellanti (c. 1415), Solomon Mordecai (c. 1431), Moses Carcassonne (c. 1468), all at Arles; Abraham ben Solomon and Abraham Astruc (c. 1446) of St. Maxim; Cohen (c. 1446) at Marseilles ("Revue des Etudes Juives," April and June, 1904, pp. 265 et seq.).
From France the Jewish physicians passed into Belgium, where in the fourteenth century are found Abraham le Mirre, Magister Sause, Lyon, Ely, Isaac of Amessi, and Jacob of Chambery.
In England at this time only three Jewish physicians call for mention: the young physician who was the last victim of the massacre at Lynn in 1190; Isaac Medicus of London (Jacobs, "The Jews of Angevin England," pp. 114, 340, London, 1893); and Abraham Motun of London (1260-90).

Germany.

In Germany the influence of Jewish physicians at this time was small. Harun al-Rashid's great contemporary was Charlemagne, in whose dominion are said to have practised the physicians Meshullam ben Kalonymus, Joseph ben Gorion, Moses ben Judah, Todros of Narbonne, and Joseph ha-Levi. Under Louis the Bald a certain Zedekiah was court physician. They were probably from the Orient. Many Jews were living in Germany, a number of whom had migrated from Spain and France; but the universities were founded comparatively late, and they were not open to Jews. The Jews therefore studied Talmud and Cabala, and took no part in the renaissance of science. Horowitz says that there are no records of the Frankfort community before 1241; and this is the most important German community. That there must have isted Jewish physicians is shown by the decree of the Council of Vienna of 1267 forbidding Jews to treat Christian patients. During the ravages of the plague in 1348 and 1349 Jewish physicians were accused of having poisoned the wells; and at Strasburg a Jewish surgeon named Balavignus was executed in 1348 for an alleged crime of this nature. The Jewish physicians of this period included the following: Jacob of Strasburg at Frankfort (c. 1378); Baruch (c. 1390); the city physician Solomon Pletsch of Ratisbon (1394), who received as stipend 36 florins and six yards of cloth and was required to treat the servants of the city council and the sick Jews; his successor, Isaac Friedrich, who received only 20 florins; in Speyer, Lembelin; in Schweidnitz, Abraham; in Bohemia, Simon; in the Palatinate, Godliep; at Basel, Jossel, who held the office of city physician at an annual stipend of 25 silver pounds; Gutleben, his successor, who received only 18 pounds; at Würzburg, Seligmann (c. 1407), physician to Bishop John I.; his successor, John II., permitted a woman named Sarah to practise medicine in the bishopric of Würzburg, who, with the Jewess Zerlin (c. 1475), oculist at Frankfort-on-the-Main, was the earliest Jewish woman physician in Germany of whom there is record.
In addition to those above mentioned there were: in Tirol, Rubein (c. 1432); in Graz, Niklas Unger (c. 1439); in Würzburg, Heylmann (c. 1450); Jacob ben Jehiel Loans, physician to the emperor Frederick III. (c. 1450), who, with Obadiah Sforno, was Hebrew teacher of Reuchlin; Michael, surgeon to Frederick III.; at Frankfort, Solomon of Zynonge (c. 1450); his son Joseph (c. 1500); and Moses of Aschaffenburg.
In the opening years of the sixteenth century persecutions of the Jewish physicians began. In 1509 appeared Victor of Carben's "Opus Aureum ac Novum," the third part of which treats of Jewish physicians. In 1505 Lorenz of Bibra prohibited Jews from practising in Würzburg (the edict was reenacted in 1549). Up to 1517 the physicians who wished to practise in Vienna had to acknowledge under oath their belief in the "immaculate conception."
In 1422 Pope Martin V. in a bull exhorted all Christians to treat the Jews with kindness, and permitted the latter to practise medicine. But at the end of the fourteenth and at the beginning of the fifteenth century Jewish physicians found the greatest difficulty in practising medicine. Papal decrees and Church councils (as at Basel, 1434) decided against them. The Arabian influence in southern Europe had disappeared.

Retrospect from 622 to 1492.

Hippocrates and Galen ruled supreme in the medical world up to the thirteenth century. The Arab physician Avicenna (980-1037) wrote his celebrated "Canon," which work took rank next to the writings of Hippocrates and Galen. But their works were translated into Arabic, a language which, in Europe, was known only to the Jews, who retranslated them into Hebrew and Latin, and thus held the key to medical science. Learning from these great scholars, the Jewish teachers and physicians wrote works of their own. They excelled in surgery and medicine (including ophthalmology), in therapeutics, pharmacology, and toxicology. The connection of the Jews with the drug-trade of the East helped them to contribute also to a practical knowledge of pharmacology at a time when every apothecary posed as a doctor; but with these branches of the true science of medicine there was during the first millennium of the common era combined also a knowledge of pseudo-science, astrology, and Cabala. Superstition was still an important factor. Against these pseudo-sciences Maimonides wrote. Astrology was to him not based on science, but on superstition; and in his works he warns against its use.

—In Modern Times:

.Human anatomy, the basis of all medicine, had not been studied scientifically by the physicians of the Talmud (they seem only to have boiled human bodies as the physicians of other countries had done, and, counting the bones, to have come to erroneous conclusions), by Hippocrates, by Galen (who used monkeys for his subjects), by Avicenna, or by their respective followers.^ McMahon LP, Dawborn JK. Subjective quality of life assessment in hemodialysis patients at different levels of hemoglobin following use of recombinant human erythropoietin.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The Jewish and Mohammedan religions and the Christian Church were all opposed to a desecration of the human body such as proper anatomical investigations would have required. The German emperor Frederick II. (1212-56) permitted dissection; but Pope Boniface VIII. prohibited it.
Luigi Mondino de' Luzzi, professor at Bologna (d. there 1326), dissected three female bodies. .From that time anatomy received, with little interruption, the attention it deserved, and medicine, from being a more or less pseudo-science, commenced to be a real science, although half a millennium had still to pass before it was entirely liberated from superstition.^ NCI studies show lack of activity against tumors and AIDS. An interesting metabolite which has received little attention in modern times.
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

.While the popes, such as Eugenius IV., Nicholas V., Calixtus III., and the temporal sovereigns promulgated decrees against the Jews, they still employed Jewish physicians themselves.^ Slow-binding and active site-targeting inhibitor of DPP IV with little activity against DPP II, DPP III, DPP VIII, DPP IX, FAP, or APP. .
  • Chemicals 15 September 2009 5:17 UTC www.scbt.com [Source type: Academic]

Many of these Jews became converts to Christianity, among them Josiah Lorki of Spain, physician to Benedict XIII.Josiah took the name of "Hieronymus de Santa Fé," and became a great enemy of his former coreligionists, who gave him the name "the Calumniator." He persecuted especially Jewish physicians and apothecaries.

Italy.

There were, however, some important Jewish physicians in Italy, namely: Elijah Delmedigo (1460-97), professor at Padua and Florence; Obadiah Elias ben Judah at Tivoli; Isaac d'Albadi (1450) at Barletta; Joseph ha-Levi of Naples; Messer Leon of Mantua; his son Messer David of Naples; Judah (Laudadeus) de Blanis at Perugia (c. 1520); Abraham de Balmes (d. 1523) at Padua; Solomon Vidal of Venice at Corfu; Vidal Balso at Reggio; Vitale (c. 1550) and Bonajuto (c. 1610) Alatino at Spoleto; and Teodoro de Sacerdoti at the court of Julius III. Popes Paul II. and Alexander VI. favored Jewish physicians through privileges, e.g., Samuel Ẓarfati and Isaac Ẓarfati (c. 1530), physicians to Pope Clement VII., whom Isaac saved from burial alive; Joseph ha-Kohen, physician to the doge Andrea Dorea of Venice (c. 1540); Obadiah Sforno (d. 1550 at Bologna), the Hebrew teacher of Reuchlin; Judah ibn Yaḥya at Bologna; Benjamin, also at Bologna; Raphael at Sarzena. Several important physicians were included in the Portaleone family, e.g., Benjamin at Naples, his grandson David of Pavia, his great-grandson Abraham (1542-1612) at Mantua, and Isaac Cohen at Sienna. From these names it may be seen that while Jewish physicians were more or less prohibited by the popes from practising in the east of Europe, in Italy they flourished.
Bonet de Lates of Provence, when the Jews were expelled from that district in 1498, went to Rome as physician to Pope Leo X. He is well known also through the part he took during the Pfefferkorn persecutions. From Spain emigrated Judah Abravanel and Jacob Mantino. Judah Abravanel (Leo Hebræus) was minister at the court of Ferdinand and Isabella; expelled from Spain in 1492, he went to Italy. His brother lived as physician in Ferrara about 1549. Jacob Mantino settled in Rome as court physician to Pope Paul III. He acted also as ambassador of Charles V. at Venice. Paul IV. (1558) was a great persecutor of the Jews, enacting laws against them, some of which were repealed only in the nineteenth century, and on account of which many Jews emigrated to Turkey. During this period lived Juan Rodrigo de Castel-Branco, surnamed "Amatus Lusitanus" (1511-68), at Ancona and Salonica; David d'Ascoli, who defended the Jewish physicians in an essay published at Strasburg in 1559; David de Pomis (b. 1525 at Spoleto; d. at Venice 1588), also a great defender of his colleagues ("De Medico Hebræo Enarratio Apologica," Vienna, 1588). These were succeeded by the following: Moses ben Samuel Cases (c. 1600); Kalonymus ben Judah (c. 1575), Joseph Ḥameẓ, and Jacob Lombroso at Venice; Samuel Meldola at Mantua; David Ḥayyim Luria and three Cantarinis at Padua (Kalonymus, 1593-1631; Isaac Ḥayyim, 1644-1723; Judah, 1650-94); Ezekiel de Castro at Verona; Moses ben Jacob Cordovero at Leghorn; Jacob ben Isaac Zahalun at Ferrara, celebrated through his "Oẓar Ḥayyim" ("Thesaurus Vitæ") at Venice (1683); Hananiah ben Menahem Cases at Florence (c. 1700); Isaac Cardoso, emigrated to Italy from Spain, where he had lived as a Marano; Manuele di Cesena, physician to Pope Sixtus V.
To the eighteenth century belong: Shabbethai Vita Marini of Padua; Isaac Lampronti (d. 1756); Isaac Borgo. Mordecai Zahalun; Jacob Heilprin; Aaron Cases (d. 1767); Israel Gedaliah Cases (d. 1793), all of Ferrara; Solomon Levi and Isaac Levi Vali, of Verona; at Mantua, the Konia family: Joseph, Solomon, Moses Benjamin, Wolf, and Israel; at Leghorn, Isaac Foa, known also as a printer; Elias Concile; Adam and his sons Jacob and Azariah Ḥayyim Bondi; at Friaul, Isaac Luzzatto, 1730-1803; his brother Ephraim (b. 1729), who practised for more than thirty years in London, and died (1799) while traveling in Lausanne; Graziado Nepi (1759-1836), rabbi and physician at Cento, who belonged to the great French Sanhedrin of 1806.

France.

In France are to be found very few Jewish physicians during this period, as unbaptized Jews were allowed only in papal Avignon: Pierre de Notre Dame (a baptized Jew) at Arles (1500); Joseph Colon at Perries; Mordecai Nathan and Joseph de Noves at Avignon; Elias Montalto (d. at Paris 1615), court physician to Maria de Medici, by whose order his body was embalmed and sent to Holland for burial in a Jewish cemetery; his son Isaac, at Paris; at Bordeaux, John Baptist de Silva (1686-1742), who had the best consulting practise in Europe, and was physician to Louis XIV., by whom he was knighted; at Nancy, Isaac Assur and Jacob Beer (c. 1775).
Though Jewish physicians were not allowed to practise in France, their skill was so well known that Francis I. (1515-47) during a severe sickness asked the Emperor of Germany for a Jewish physician. When one arrived the king, thinking he was a Christian, sent him back. The king then asked the Sultan of Turkey for another Jewish physician, who cured him (Cabanis, "Révolution de la Médecine," p. 128, Brussels, 1844).

In the Turkish Dominions.

While the Mohammedans lost Spain, they captured Constantinople (1453), and Jewish physicians were allowed to practise in Turkey, as in the other Mohammedan possessions. From Spain, Portugal, Italy, and France Jews emigrated to Turkey. Among them were the following: in Constantinople, Solomon Almoli (c. 1517); Joseph Hamon; his son Moses (1490-1567), physician to Sulaiman the Magnificent; and his grandson Joseph (d. 1578); Ibn Yaḥya; Abraham ha-Levi ibn Migas; Abraham Nahmias; Leo Siaa (c. 1636); Israel Conegliano (c. 1680); Ephraim Penseri; Abraham ben Yaish; Abraham Samuel Solomon; and Isaac Jabez (c. 1700); at Salonica, Samuel Uzziel (c. 1550); Abraham Cohen (c. 1700); at Jerusalem, Elijah of Ferrara (c. 1460); David ibn Shoshan, head of the Sephardic yeshibah in 1552; Jacob ibn Amram; Jacob Aboab; and Samuel ha-Levi (c. 1625); the physician Jacob Ḥayyim Ẓemaḥ was chief rabbi in 1645. In Corfu lived Samuel Valerio (c. 1550); in Zante, Jacob ben Uzziel (c. 1600); Abraham Cohen (1670-1722).

In the Netherlands and England.

In the Netherlands, which during this period was mostly under Spanish rule, Jewish physicians were few: Abraham Zacuto (Zacutus Lusitanus), an emigrant from Portugal about 1600; at Amsterdam the Bueno family (Abraham, Ephraim Hezekiah, Jacob, Joseph, and Solomon); Balthazar de Castro (1620-87); somewhat later Joseph Israel Mendes; Samuel de Silva; Samuel Jeshurun; and Samuel de Mercado (c. 1650); Samuel de Misa (c. 1725); Johanan van Embden and Naphtali Herz (c. 1750).
In England during this period there were very few Jewish physicians, e.g., Sabot Elias (c. 1410); Rodrigo Lopez (b. 1525 in Portugal), court physician to Queen Elizabth 1580, for attempting to poison whom he was executed in 1594. When Cromwell permitted the Jews to settle openly in England there immigrated thither Abraham de Mercado about 1655; Joseph Mendes Bravo about 1675; Ephraim Isaac Abendana, in Cambridge and Oxford (d. 1710), and his brother Jacob (1630-95); David Nieto, in London (c. 1710); Jacob de Castro Sarmento, in London (1692-1762); Fernando Mendez (d. 1724); Isaac de Sequera Samuda (b. 1721); Israel Lyons (1739-75); Samuel Nunez (c. 1750); Joseph Hart Myers (1758-1823); Abraham Nonski (c. 1785; writer on vaccination); the three Schombergs (Isaac, d. 1781; Meïr Löw, d. 1761; and Ralph, d. 1792); Isaac Henriques Sequera (1738-1816); Abraham van Oven (d. 1778); Joshua van Oven (1766-1838); Solomon de Leon (c. 1775); George Gompertz Levisohn (d. 1797); Elias Friedberg; and a Doctor Jeremias (c. 1775).

Germany.

While before 1500 there had been very few Jewish physicians in the German-speaking countries, in the later centuries many were to be found, among whom were especially the under-mentioned—in Frankfort-on-the-Main: Joseph bar Ephraim Levi (d. 1532); Abraham ben Joseph Levi (d. 1581); Jacob ben Samuel and Aaron (c. 1600); Shelomoh (d. about 1631); his son Löw Leo Shelomoh; Isaac Heln (d. 1654); Joseph Solomon Delmedigo (b. 1591 at Candia; practised in Candia, Cairo, Lithuania, Hamburg, Amsterdam, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Worms, and Prague, where he died 1655); his son-in-law Solomon Bing (b. about 1615); Jonas ben Moses Bonn; Abraham ben Isaac Wallach; Leo Simon; Abraham Heln (c. 1650); Benjamin Levi Buchsbaum (1645-1715); his sons Gutman Wolf (1678-1770) and Lipman (b. 1677); Amshel Gutman (d. 1743), son of Gutman Wolf; Issachar Bär Liebman (d. 1753); Anselm Schloss Beifuss (d. 1793); and Adolf Worms (d. 1812). In Hamburg are to be mentioned: Rodrigo de Castro (1550-1627), an eminent gynecologist; his sons Benedict de Castro (1597-1684), court physician to Queen Christina of Sweden, and Daniel (Andreas) de Castro (b. 1599), court physician to King Christian IV. of Denmark; Jacob Rosales, who practised in Hamburg from 1637 to 1645; and Benjamin ben Immanuel Musaphia (1606-75). At Schaffhausen lived the physician David (c. 1550); at Mühlheim, Solomon ben Boaz; at Colmar and Rappoltsweiler, Judah Carmoly (1700-85); at Colmar, Anshel Meyer (c. 1750); at Coblenz, Emanuel Wallich (c. 1750); at Bingen, Abraham Bing (c. 1550), father of Solomon Bing of Hamburg; at Mayence, Selkeles Grotwahl (c. 1675) and his son Meier; Lippmann Levi and Phoebus Cohen (c. 1775); at Bonn (also at Neuwied), Benjamin Croneburg (c. 1750); Wolf and his two sons Heinrich and Solomon (also at Düren); at Düsseldorf, Gottschalk Lazarus van Geldern (1726-95) and his son Joseph (1765-96), Heine's grandfather; at Cologne, Naphtali ben Joseph Levi (c. 1625); at Metz, Isaac (c. 1650); Naphtali Herz; Solomon ben Baruch; Mayer and Isaac Wallich (c. 1700); Jacob Wallich; Marcus Cosman Gompertz Wolf; and Enoch Levin (c. 1750); the two brothers Willstadt (c. 1775); Elkan Isaac Wolf; and Jacob Aronsohn (c. 1790); at Hanover, Meier Cohen and Jacob Marx (c. 1775); at Bamberg, Adalbert Friedrich Markus (1753-1816). In the principalities of the Hapsburg family were only a few Jewish physicians; at Innsbruck, Lazarus (c. 1560); at Vienna, Isaac (Günzburg?) and his son Judah Löb Winckler (c. 1625; both left Vienna 1670 and settled in Posen); Joseph Oesterreicher (1756-1832). At Prague were: Isaac ben Joshua (c. 1550); Abraham Kisch (1720-1803); Jonas Mischel Jeiteles (1735-1806) and his son Benedict (1762-1813); at Berlin, Lippold (c. 1535), court physician to the elector Joachim II.; Hector, executed 1573 for having poisoned his master; Löbel (c. 1693); the dentist Veit Abraham (c. 1699); Marcus Eliezer Bloch (1723-99); Aaron Solomon Gumperz (1723-69); Markus Herz (1747-1803), husband of Henriette Herz; Georg Levison (d. 1797); at Königsberg, Isaac May and Michael Abraham (c. 1550); at Breslau, Zadok (c. 1775); at Lissa, Mordecai Rofe.

Medical Education of German Jews.

Although at the beginning of the eighteenth century conditions in Germany were not favorable for Jewish physicians, at the middle and end of the same century most of the Jewish practitioners received degrees from German universities. In 1700 the universities of Rostock and Wittenberg counseled Christians against employing Jewish physicians, who, they declared, were incompetent (meaning that they had not received a university education). In 1725 King Frederick William I. of Prussia prohibited Jews not having diplomas from practising medicine, and in 1745 appeared at Frankfort a book by Johann Helfrich Pfeil exposing the ignorance of Jewish physicians.

In Poland.

When the kings of Poland permitted Jews to settle in some parts of their dominions, physicians appeared there also. At Cracow lived Ezekiel (c. 1503); Isaac Jacob (d. about 1510), physician to King Sigismund I.; Solomon ben Nathan Ashkenazi (1520-1602), physician to Sigismund II. and to the sultan Sulaiman II.; Solomon Luria in Lublin; Tobias Cohn (1652-1729), who practised in Poland, Adrianople, Constantinople, and Jerusalem, and was court physician to five Turkish sultans; Jonas Casal (c. 1675), physician to John Sobieski; Philipp Lubelski at Cracow (1788-1879); Elias Pinschow (c. 1775); at Thorn, Morgenstern (c. 1567); at Posen, the Wincklers (the father Leo [Judah Löb] emigrated from Vienna about 1670); his sons Jacob and Isaac and his grandson Wolf, all four important physicians and leaders of the community; Levi Elias Hirschel (1741-72).

Russia.

In Moscow practised Magister Anton (Ehrenstein). The first Jewish physician in that city probably came from Rome. He was court physician under Ivan III. and was executed in 1485 by the servants of Prince Karakucza, whose son he had failed to cure. He was succeeded by Leo, who was executed in 1490, also for not having cured one of Ivan's sons. In the fifteenth century lived Solomon Calvaire; Stephan von Gaden, also court physician (executed in 1682). At St. Petersburg lived the court physician Antonio Ribeiro Sanchez (1699-1783). The greater number of Jewish physicians are found in the larger communities, e.g., at Hasenpoth, Issachar Falkensohn Behr (b. 1746), Judah ha-Levi Hurwicz, Jacob Löbschutz, David Abrahamson (c. 1775), Aaron Solomon Tobias (d. 1782), Lazar Isaac Kume (c. 1800); at Wilna, Löb Gordon (c. 1725); at Mitau, Elrich (d. 1809); at Bausk and Odessa, Eliezer Elias Löwenthal (c. 1775); also at Bausk, Lachmann.

Review (1495-1800).

The foregoing lists of physicians are certainly not complete. There probably lived many a good Jewish practitioner whose name has not been recorded. With very few exceptions the Jewish physicians of the period 1495-1800 did not excel. They were usually general practitioners, very often combining the offices of rabbi and physician. A few are cited as great consulting physicians, as the above-mentioned John Baptist de Silva of Paris and the gynecologist Rodrigo de Castro of Hamburg. Only a few left important medical works. As a rule their influence upon medicine was only slight. They suffered with their brethren expulsion from many countries. They were very often prohibited from practising among Christians and were allowed to follow their profession among their brethren only. The universities were often closed to them; and popes and princes issued edicts against them.

—In Recent Times:

The French Revolution brought a great change in the status of Jewish physicians. Jews were admitted to citizenship in nearly every country of western Europe, and were permitted to study at all universities and to practise their profession. Even in Russia to-day (1904) there are many Jewish physicians to be found; but it is especially in Germany, Austria, and the United States that Jews have become prominent as general practitioners, specialists, university professors of medicine (since 1848), and medical journalists. It is only possible to enumerate some of those who have obtained prominence in medical circles during the nineteenth century, beginning with those who have died.

General Practitioners.

Physicians: Solomon Ludwig Steinheim (Altona, 1789-1866); Bernhard van Oven (London, 1797-1860); Martin Steinthal (Berlin, 1798-1892; at his death the oldest physician in Germany), reeditor of Hufeland's "Macrobiotik"; Daniel Peixotto (London, 1800-43); Hananeel de Leon (ib. c. 1825); J. L. Levinson (ib. 1800-74); Raphael Kosch (Berlin, 1803-72); Jonathan Pereira (London, 1804-53); Maximilian Heine (St. Petersburg, 1805-79), brother of Heinrich Heine; Johann Jacoby (Königsberg, 1805-77); Jonas Grätzer (Breslau, 1806-89); Moritz Rapoport (Lemberg, 1808-80); Isaac A. Franklin (London, 1812-80); David Gruby (Paris, 1810-98), known through his free public lectures; Eleazar Meldola (London, 1810-79); Ludwig Güterbock (Berlin, 1814-95); Moritz Adolph Unna (Hamburg, 1813-88); Julius Barasch (Bucharest, 1815-63); Sigismund Sutro (London, 1815-86); Jacob Eduard Polak (Vienna, 1818-91), court physician at Teheran to the Shah of Persia; Ferdinand Falkson (Königsberg, 1820-1900), known through a lawsuit which was due to his marriage to a Christian woman; Samuel Kristeller (Berlin, 1820-1900); Hermann Hirschfeldt (Colberg, 1825-85), to whose memory a monument was erected at Colberg; Henry Behrend (London, 1828-93); Wilhelm Lubelski (Warsaw, 1832-90); Ernest Abraham Hart (London, 1836-1898); and L. G. Gold (Odessa, d. 1902).

Deceased Specialists.

Anatomists: Fiiedrich Gustav Jacob Henle (Göttingen, 1809-85), one of the leading anatomists of his time; Jacob Herz (Erlangen, 1816-71), whose monument is to be seen in Erlangen—one of the three monuments erected to Jews in Germany, the other two being those of Moses Mendelssohn at Dessau, and Hermann Hirschfeldt at Colberg; Ludwik Maurycy Hirschfeld (Warsaw, 1816-1876); Siegmund Spitzer (Constantinople, 1839-1894), physician to Sultan 'Abd al-Majid.
Physiologists: Simone Fubini (Palermo, 1841-98), friend and pupil of Moleschott; Ernst Fleischl von Marxow (Vienna, 1846-91); Moritz Schiff (Geneva, 1823-96); Gabriel Gustav Valentin (Bern, 1810-83), one of the leading physiologists of his age.
Microscopists: Gottlieb Gluge (Brussels, 1812-1898), one of the pioneers of microscopy; Ludwik Mandl (Paris, 1812-81).
Embryologists: Robert Remak (Berlin, 1815-65), the first Jewish privat-docent in Prussia, admitted to the Berlin faculty in 1847, and well known through his discoveries in neurology, embryology, and electrotherapy; Leopold Schenk (Vienna, 1840-1892), well known through his theory.
Pathologists: Karl Friedrich Canstatt (Erlangen, 1807-50), founder and editor of the well-known "Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der Gesammten Medizin Aller Länder," begun in 1841 and continued after his death by Virchow; Julius Cohnheim (Leipsic, 1839-84), author of the theory of emigration of white corpuscles as the origin of pus and of inflammation, and demonstrator of "Cohnheim's areas"; Felix Victor Birch-Hirschfeld (Leipsic, 1842-99); Moritz Heinrich Romberg (Berlin, 1795-1873), the eminent neurologist; Simon Samuel (Königsberg, 1835-99); Solomon Stricker (Vienna, 1834-98), the founder of microtomy; Karl Weigert (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1845-1904).
Clinicians: Jonas Freund (London, d. 1880), founder of the German Hospital, London; Heinrich Jacobson (Berlin, 1826-90); Hermann Lebert (Lewy) (Breslau, 1813-78); Ludwig Traube (Berlin, 1818-76), the father of experimental pathology; Daniel Maduro Peixotto (New York, about 1850).
Surgeons: Michelangelo Asson (Venice, 1802-77); Leopold von Dittel (Vienna, 1815-98), who performed over 800 operations for calculus; Joseph Gruber (ib. 1827-1900); Aaron Jeiteles (Olmütz, 1799-1878); Michel Lévy (Paris, 1809-72); Germain Sée (Paris, 1818-96); Lewis Oppenheim (London, 1832-1895); Julius Wolff (Berlin, 1836-1902); Paul Güterbock (Berlin, 1844-97).
Gynecologist: David Haussmann (Berlin, 1839-1895).
Pharmacologist: Hermann Friedberg (Breslau, 1817-84).
Aurists: Joseph Gruber (Vienna, 1827-1900) and Solomon Moos (Heidelberg, 1831-95).
Ophthalmologists: Isaac Hays (Philadelphia, 1796-1879), editor of the "American Journal of Medical Science"; Ignaz Hirschler (Budapest, 1823-91); John Zechariah Laurence (London, 1828-70); Aaron Friedenwald (Baltimore, 1836-1902); Max Landesberg (New York, 1840-95); Ludwig Mauthner (Vienna, 1840-94), to whose memory a monument was erected in the arcades of Vienna University, the only monument dedicated to a Jew in Austria.
Laryngologists: Jacob Gottstein (Breslau, 1832-1895); Abraham Kuhn (Strasburg, 1838-1900); Johann Schnitzler (Vienna, 1835-93); Elias Heyman (Stockholm, 1829-89); Karl Stoerk (Vienna, 1832-1899); Louis Elsberg (New York, 1836-85); Isaac Michael (Hamburg, 1848-97); G. Ash (New York, d. 1902).
Neuropathist: Oscar Berger (Breslau, 1844-85).
Dermatologists: Moriz Kapósi (Kohn) (Vienna, 1837-1902); Oskar Simon (Breslau, 1845-82); Hermann von Zeissl (Vienna, 1817-84), defender of the dual theory of syphilis.
Psychiatrist: Ludwig Meyer (Göttingen, 1827-1900).
Hygienists: Nikolaus Heinrich Julius (Hamburg, 1783-1862); Michel Lévy (Paris, 1809-72); Levi Ali Cohen (Groningen, 1817-89).
Electrotherapist: Moritz Meyer (Berlin, 1821-93).
Balneologist: Gottfried Schmelkes (Teplitz, 1807-1870).
Biologist: Ludwig Lewin Jacobson (Copenhagen, 1783-1843).
Encyclopedists: Friedrich Jacob Behrend (Berlin, 1803-89); Samuel Guttmann (Berlin, 1839-93).
Miscellaneous: Authority on forensic medicine: Johann Ludwig Caspar (Berlin, 1796-1864). Hydrotherapist: Ludwig F. Fränkel (Berlin, 1806-1872). Dental surgeon: Ludwig Heinrich Holländer (Breslau, 1833-97), one of the German pioneers of scientific dentistry.

Medical History and Journalism.

Historians of medicine: August Hirsch (Berlin, 1817-94), still an undisputed authority; Abraham Hartog Israels (Amsterdam, 1822-1883); Franz Romeo Seligmann (Vienna, 1808-79).
Journalists: Louis Posner (Berlin, 1815-68), editor of the "Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift"; Leopold Wittelshöfer (Vienna, 1818-89), editor of the "Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift"; Paul Guttmann (Berlin, 1833-93), editor of the "Journal für Praktische Aerzte"; Julius Grosser (Prenzlau, 1835-1901), editor of the "Deutsche Medizinal-Zeitung"; Louis Waldenburg (Berlin, 1837-81), editor of the "Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift"; Johann Jacob (Joseph Isidor) Sachs (Nordhausen, 1803-46), publisher and editor of medical journals. The champion of homeopathy in Austria is Emil Altschul (Prague, 1812-65), who founded and published (1853) the first homeopathic magazine in Austria.
Of living physicians, the following list gives the names of some of the more important, especially of those who have held official positions:

Austria:

Living Physicians in Europe.

The alienist Arnold Pick; the physiologist Sigmund Mayer; the pathologists Philipp Joseph Pick and Alfred Pribram, all four of Prague; the aural surgeon Adam Politzer; the electrotherapists Moritz Benedikt and Gustav Gärtner; the pathologist Anton Weichselbaum; the pediatrists Alois Epstein and Max Kassowitz; the clinicians Moritz Heitler, Leopold Oser, Alois Pick, Wilhelm von Winternitz, Emil Zuckerkandl; the dermatologist Isidor Neumann; the ophthalmologist Isidor Schnabel; Samuel von Basch, body-physician to the emperor Maximilian of Mexico; the journalist Alexander Fränkel; Leopold von Seligmann, retired colonel-surgeon of the Austrian army, all of Vienna; the balneologists Enoch Heinrich Kisch of Marienbad and Josef Seegen of Carlsbad.

Denmark:

The pathologist Karl Julius Salomonsen of Copenhagen.

England:

The ophthalmologist Richard Liebreich; the laryngologist Sir Felix Semon; the pathologist Bertram Abrahams, all three of London; to these may be added the bacteriologist Waldemar Haffkine of Calcutta, India.

France:

The inventor of color photography Gabriel Lippmann; the bacteriologist Alexander Marmorek; the physician Anselme Weill; the surgeon Marc Sée; the clinicians Julius Goldschmidt, Georges Hayem, and Louis Mandl; the laryngologists Benjamin Benno Loewenberg, Louis Lucien Dreyfus-Brisac, all of Paris; the neurologists Hippolyte Bernheim of Nancy and Max Nordau of Paris.
The number of Jewish physicians in Germany is very great: the anatomist Gustav Schwalbe of Strasburg; the physiologists Julius Bernstein of Halle, the brothers Hermann and Immanuel Munk and Nathan Zuntz of Berlin, Isidor Rosenthal of Erlangen; the histologist Gustav Jacob Born of Breslau; the pathologists Ludwig Brieger and Oskar Israel of Berlin; the clinicians Imar Boas and Wilhelm Ebstein of Göttingen, Albert Fränkel and Julius Lazarus of Berlin, Ludwig Lichtheim of Königsberg, Martin Mendelsohn of Berlin, Oscar Minkowski of Strasburg, Carl Posner, Ottomar Rosenbach, Hermann Senator, Georg Anton Solomon, all of Berlin; the dermatologists Gustav Behrend, Heinrich Köbner, Oskar Lassar, Georg Richard Lewin, all likewise of Berlin, Albert Neisser of Breslau, Paul Gerson Unna of Hamburg; the surgeons Robert Kutner, James Israel, William Levy, all of Berlin; the pediatrists Adolf Baginsky and Livius Fürst of Berlin and Eduard Heinrich Henoch of Dresden; the gynecologist Ernst Fränkel of Breslau, Leopold and Theodor Landau of Berlin, Julius Schottländer of Heidelberg, Paul Zweifel of Leipsic; the neuropathists Hermann Oppenheim, Emanuel Mendel, Albert Moll, and Ernst Julius Remak, all of Berlin; thebacteriologist Paul Ehrlich of Frankfort-on-the-Main; the orthopedist Leopold Ewer of Berlin; the ophthalmologists Julius Hirschberg of Berlin, Hermann L. Cohn of Breslau, Ludwig L. Laqueur of Strasburg, Max Solomon of Berlin, Leopold Weiss of Heidelberg; the pharmacologists Max Jaffé of Königsberg, Oskar Matthias, Eugen Liebreich and Louis Lewin of Berlin; the otologists Ludwig Katz and Ludwig Löwe of Berlin; the laryngologists Paul Heymann and B. Fränkel of Berlin; the encyclopedist Albert Eulenburg of Berlin; the forensicist Adolf Lesser of Berlin; the hygienist Ernst Levy of Strasburg; the historian Julius Leopold Pagel of Berlin; the anthropologist Abraham Lissauer of Berlin.

Hungary:

The neuropathist Otto Schwartzer von Babarcz; the oculist Nathaniel Feuer; the clinician Friedrich Korányi, all of Budapest.

Italy:

The specialist of forensic medicine Salvatore Ottolenghi of Sienna; the clinician Beniamino Luzzatto of Padua; the great alienist Cesare Lombroso and the pathologist Pio Foà, both of Turin.

The Netherlands:

The clinician Samuel Siegmund Rosenstein of Leyden.

Rumania:

The physician Karpel Lippe.

Russia:

Isaac Dembo of St. Petersburg, author of "Ha-Sheḥiṭah weha-Bediḳah"; the ophthalmologist Max (Emanuel) Mandelstamm; the hygienist and court physician Joseph Vasilievich Bertensohn and his nephew Lev Bertensohn of St. Petersburg; the physician Joseph Chazanowicz of Byelostok, founder of the Abarbanel Library at Jerusalem; the clinician W. Manassein of Kasan; Isidorus Brennson at Mitau. Of the physicians at present practising in Courland 19.2 per cent are Jews.

Switzerland:

The pathologist Moritz Roth of Basel.

Turkey:

Elias Cohen Pasha of Constantinople.

United States:

The first Jewish physician mentioned in colonial times in the United States is Jacob Lumbrozo, who practised about 1639 in Maryland.

In the United States.

.The number of Jewish physicians in the United States to-day (1904) is very large, but only a few—mainly those who have acquired official positions—can be mentioned here: the general practitioners Mark Blumenthal, Simon Brainin, David A. D'Ancona, Julius Friedenwald, Boleslav Lapovski, Maurice T. Lewi, Samuel J. Meltzer, Alfred Meyer, William Moss, Max Rosenthal, Arthur F. Sampson, J. F. Schamberg, Lazarus Schöney, C. D. Spivak, Richard Stein, Jacob Teschner; the physiologist David Riesman; the pathologists Albert Abrams, Isaac Adler, Simon Flexner, and Bernard S. Talmey; the hydrotherapist Simon Baruch; the microscopist Isidore Berman; the surgeons G. W. Birkowitz, Nathan Jacobson, Howard Lilienthal, William Meyer, Joseph Ranschoff, and Lewis N. Steinbach; the jurisprudent N. E. Brill; the aurists William Cowen, M. D. Lederman, and Max Toeplitz; the gynecologists Joseph Brettauer, Louis Ladinsky, and S. Marx; the laryngologists Jacob da Silva Solis-Cohen, Max Freudenthal, and Emil Mayer; the clinicians Henry W. Bettmann, Solomon da Silva Solis-Cohen, Joseph and Julius Eichberg, Max Einhorn, A. A. Eshner, Joseph Oakland Hirschfelder, G. A. Knopf; the pediatrists S. Henry Dessau, Frederick Forchheimer, Henry Illoway, Abraham Jacobi, Henry Koplik, and Nathan Oppenheim; the dermatologists William Gottheil and Sigismund Lustgarten; the ophthalmologists Harry Friedenwald, Emil Gruening, Charles H. May, and H. Scharpringer; the neurologists Joseph Frankel, G. W. Jacoby, Bernhard Sachs, and William Leszynski; the biologist Jacques Loeb; the bacteriologist Milton Joseph Rosenau; and the dentists Leopold Greenbaum and John I. Hart.^ Each year, increasing numbers of people with irreversible end stage renal failure are treated under the United States Medicare ESRD (End-Stage Renal Disease) programs.
  • Morbidity and Mortality of Dialysis (CBM 93-4) 6 February 2010 12:34 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Bibliography: Carmoly, Histoire des Médecins Juifs, Brussels, 1844 (a book full of material, but often unreliable); Hyrtl, Das Arabische und Hebräische in der Anatomie, Vienna, 1879; Münz, Ueber die Jüdischen Aerzte im Mittelalter, Berlin, 1887; M. Horovitz, Jüdische Aerzte in Frankfurt-am-Main, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1886; Landau, Gesch. der Jüdischen Aerzte, Berlin, 1895; Hirsch, Biog. Lex.; Pagel, Biog. Lex.; Steinschneider, Wissenschaft und Charlatanerie Unter den Arabern im Neunten Jahrhundert, in Virchow's Archiv, xxxvi.; idem, Constantinus Africanus und Seine Arabischen Quellen, ib. xxxvii.; idem, Die Toxicologischen Schriften der Araber bis Ende des XII. Jahrhunderts, ib. iii.; idem, Ueber Medicin in Bibel und Talmud und über Jüdische Aerzte, in Wiener Klinische Rundschau, 1896; idem, Hebr. Uebers.; idem, Donnolo, Berlin, 1868; idem, Hebr. Bibl.; idem, Die Arabische Literatur der Juden, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1902; Wüstenfeld, Die Academien der Araber und Ihre Lehrer, Göttingen, 1837; idem, Die Uebersetzungen Arabischer Werke in das Lateinische, seit den XI. Jahrhundert, ib. 1877; idem, Die Geschichtsschreiber der Araber und Ihre Werke, ib. 1882; Haeser, Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Medizin und der Epidemischen Krankheiten, Jena, 1882; Aaron Friedenwald, Jewish Physicians and the Contribution of the Jews to the Science of Medicine, in Publ. of the Gratz College, 1897, Philadelphia, 1897; Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. der Juden in Rom, Berlin, 1895-96; Berliner, Gesch. der Juden in Rom, Frankfort-on-the-Main. 1893; Joseph Jacobs, The Jews of Angevin England, pp. 114, 340, London, 1893; idem, Jewish Year-Book; Kayserling, Zur Gesch. der Jüdischen Aerzte, in Monatsschrift, vii. 165; Kaufmann, Un Siècle de l'Existence d'une Famille de Juifs de Vienne et de Posen, in R. E. J. xx. 275; Döllinger, Die Juden in Europa, in Akademische Vorträge, vol. i., Nördlingen, 1890; Revue des Eludes Juives, xli. 77-97, xlvii. 221-254, xlviii. 48-81, xcvi. 265-272.
This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.
Facts about MedicineRDF feed

Simple English

Medicine is the science that deals with diseases (illnesses) in humans and animals, the best ways to prevent diseases, and the best ways to return to a healthy condition.

People who practice medicine are most often called medical doctors or physicians. Often doctors work closely with nurses and many other types of health care professionals.

The word medicine can also mean special food or a chemical that makes someone better when they are ill. A lot of medicines are liquid and can be bought in a small bottle. Other medicines may come in pills or capsules.

The doctor may tell the patient (person who is ill) how much medicine to take each day. Most medicines cannot be bought unless a doctor (or other authorized professional) has prescribed the medicine for the patient. The patient takes the prescription to the chemist (or "pharmacist") who gives them the medicine.

See also

Health

References

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found

rue:Медіціна



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Disease, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message